History of Modern Architecture Emily Haigh: 18102962 Module: History of Modern Architecture ARC40110 Submission date: Tuesday 15th January
1+2 3+4 5 -10 11+12 13+14 15+16 17+18 19+20
Chandigarh (Le Corbusier)
Hot modernism and critical regionalism
UK after Modernism
Frank Lloyd Wright
Camden Food market
The Pre-Raphaelites The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1848. The young artists were inspired by theories of John Ruskin, who encouraged people to â€˜go by natureâ€™. The principle theme of the movement was religious however they also explored social problems at the time. The Pre-Raphaelites Brotherhood created the movement to break away from the art of Raphael, a Renaissance master who was being heavily promoted by the Royal Academy. They were initially controversial, however they began to gain popularity in the second phase of the movement in 1860. This strand of the movement was heavily inspired by Rossetti, and it was during the second phase of the Pre-Raphaelites that Burne-Jones joined the movement. Members of the pre-Raphaelite movement included William Morris who often collaborated with BruneJones. The movement was inspired by the arts and craft movement. Pre-Raphaelites work is characterised by the lifelikeness of the figures, their ability to tell a story and their inspiring and dramatic qualities.
Art UK (2018)
Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones was an artist associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement in the UK. Burne-Jones was born in Birmingham in 1833. Before becoming an artist. Burne-Jones was closely involved in the rejuvenation of the tradition of stained glass art in Britain, working on projects in many churches and cathedrals. His works extended from stained-glass work and included tapestries, watercolours, furniture, theatre seats, and jewellery.
Windows St Phillips Cathedral was built in 1715 however during WW2 as Birmingham was at risk of severe bombing the stained glass windows were removed and placed into storage in a welsh mine. This was very fortunate as the cathedral and surrounding area were severely bombed. This storage preserved Burne-Jones work. Burne-Jones was inspired by the pre-Raphaelites as well as his trip to Italy where he was introduced to the work of Giotto and Michelangelo. Burne-Jones wanted to create a figure and work that was ‘divinely beautiful’. The windows are extremely detailed and because of this Burne-Jones became well know for his intricate fine crftsmanship and vibrant staiend glass work. The windows were manufactured and created by William Morris & Co, company of William Morris. The earliest window is the central window which displays a scene of christ ascending into heaven. We can see his head tilted downwards with his arm outstretched towards his followers to comfort them. The window on the left depicts the nativity and Jesus’ birth. The window on the right then depicts Jesus’s death as his is is shown dying on the cross and people watch in disbelief. The final stained glass window was installed later than the first three, this window is often considered to be one of Burne-Jones best pieces of work. The window depicts a scene of Christ in heaven, surrounded by angels and supposedly judges and watches everyone. The widow is the most striking and vibrant of the four, it casts a red reflection on the floor of the cathedral. Recently to protect the fragile windows steel grates have been installed on the outside of the cathedral to protect them, meaning their beauty cannot be appreciated until entering the church. As well as the more famous Burne-Jones stained glass windows at the front of the cathedral, a further window is at the back near the christening alter. The windows have become particularly dirty due to the pollution, climate and the effects of condensation. They have a layer of grime over them and the artwork is begining to crack. To conserve them they will need cleaning and maintained properly.
Photograph showing the stained glass windows
Drawing of the stained glass windows
B3 CHAIR A prodct of the Bauhaus
Nardo, A. (2017)
Designer/Maker The B3 chair was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1925-1926. At this time Breuer was the head of the cabinetmaking workshop in the Bauhaus school. Breuer was very interested in new industrial materials and new manufacturing techniques. He was inspired by the tubular steel of the bicycle and how they have the ability to be easily mass produced. He believed that if it could be formed into handles, it could be formed into furniture. His idea was so experimental he was afraid of criticism and therefore he experimented with his idea in private. Recent development at a German manufacturing company had meant steel tubing could be seamlessly formed without welding and be chrome finished. His concept for the shape of the chair was influenced by the traditional overstuffed club chair. When Breuer made the first prototype of the design, he welded the fixings; however he realised this did not give the chair the desired flex and comfort he had intended. He soon realised he could slot together the tubing and bolt together the chair, this gave the user more comfort when using the chair as it had some movement in it. When Breuer first designed the chair it was manufactured by Thonet, however the product was not very popular and so after WW2, Gavina (an Italian manufacturer) began to manufacture it instead. This time however with leather seats rather than canvas as initially intended. More recently Knoll have obtained the production rights and continue to manufacture the product. Knoll have also recently reintroduced the canvas version of the B3.
Name of piece The chair by Marcel Breuer is referred to by a series of different names such as the ‘B3 chair’, ’Model B3 Chair’ or the ‘Wassily chair’. Breuer also designed many other ‘B’ chairs, such as the B32 and the B33. However the B3 is one of his most notable designs.
Why I like it This chair has been a very successful product, we can tell this as the product is still modern, popular and relevant today, almost 100 years later. Other successful and still modern looking chairs that continue to inspire design are the ‘Barcelona chair’ and the ‘DSW chair’. The simplistic design and good aesthetic fits within modernist spaces as well as other design styles. A classic design style for the chair. The chair plays by the Bauhaus principle idea of simplicity that designs should be minimal and without surface decoration, ‘no frills’. It is likely that this principal has continued to keep modernist pieces contemporary and relevant for almost a century. As well as fitting into different interior styles. I think people are drawn to the chair, myself included; by its simplicity and openness. It is a very honest design which almost lures you in to understand its workings of it. Breuer had pushed the boundaries of steel tubing at the time however I still find I’m drawn to the product by the simplicity and thinness of the legs. The steel tubing used was 2cm in diameter, a subtle nod towards the bicycle design that inspired him which was also comprised of the same 2cm tubing.
How does the B3 manifest the Bauhaus ethos The B3 chair is a product of the machine age, this was a strong element of modernism as designers wanted their pieces to be accessible and affordable for the masses. It is clear the chair has been designed for its form to follow its function, the seating ‘belts’ are situated in such places to be ergonomically suited to the body and for comfort. The design of the B3 chair could not be more honest due to its openness and skeleton like form, meaning all fixtures can be identified. Geometry was a key idea to the Bauhaus and the product applies this well taking a boxy form. ‘Good design is as little design as possible’, the B3 chair does this while also being innovative. At the time tubular steel was not a typical material to use other than for a bicycle, so much so that Breuer was embarrassed to be experimenting with the idea. The materials chosen for the B3 chair result in a quality product which enables it to be long lasting.
Contemporary product comparison - Ikea’s ‘Industriell Chair’ Pine is not a typical Bauhaus material however it is an inexpensive material that is easy to manufacture. This was important for the Bauhaus as they wanted design to be accessible for all. Although pine is affordable and would be at an accessible price point for ‘everyday people’, it is only a softwood and therefore not the most long-lasting, which was something the Bauhaus aimed for their products to be. However the seat and back rest have been steam bent, similar to the bent metal element of the B3 chair. The product is simplistic and has no added extras, fixings are visible which uses the Bauhaus principle for ‘design should be honest’. With the ‘Industriell Chair’ we can see that form follows function as the design is very simplistic and allows it to follow its function with no added frills. This piece of furniture satisfies the ideas that good design is as little design as possible.
Ikea (2018) 4
Chandigarh Personal research - History and the design brief In 1947 what was known as ‘British India’ was divided into two nations, what we now know as India and Pakistan. This partition split the Indian state of Punjab in half resulting in the states capital being in the new Pakistan, this meant Punjab now needed a new capital. This call for a new capital meant a master plan for a city needed to be devised. At the time the first Indian prime minister in power, Jawaharlal Nehru, initially commissioned American Architects Albert Mayer and Matthew Nowicki to create the master plan for the city. The master plan depicted a fan shaped city however Matthew was unfortunately killed in an accident during the planning stages and so the prime minister scrapped the idea. The project later known as the Chandigarh was later re-commissioned to Le Corbusier. For the new plan Le Corbusier and his team developed the initial plan given by Albert Meyers and devised a grid layout for the city. Corbusier designed an iconic city, fulfilling not just a utopian agenda, but reflecting concepts of ‘modernism’ movement that arose in Europe but took root here too.Chandigarh has emerged as the role model of urban development locally and globally. It has given a new theme to urban living and quality of life. Chandigarh was designed for a population of 500,000 however in 2010 approximately 1million people live in the city, 20% in slums due to overpopulation. By 2031 Chandigarh is expected to have a population of 1.5million. To accommodate the predicted growth a densification plan pre prepared by Le Corbusier will be reevaluated, however to prevent horizontal spread of the city developments would be kept within current green areas, taking away from the initial garden city like plan by Le Corbusier
CHANDIGARH le Corbusier
Five points of Architecture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The Pilotis The roof garden The free ground plan The horizontal windows The free façade
The Parliament building was designed with pilotis in the domino house formation to allow the walls to be thinner and non load baring. Many of Le Corbusiers plans for Chandigarh include open roof spaces, however not directly as gardens. These spaces were eventually use as extra sleeping spaces as the city became over population. However the idea of heating and cooling by roof vegetation may not have applied to the Indian climate. The ground floor was mainly free as demonstrated in the floor plans below, this would bean the space could be partitioned using the pillars to create different use areas Le Corbusier also used a free façade element for the building. This type of façade allows for the balcony to be in tune with the exterior space in some areas while hidden in other areas. [Les Couleurs (1927)]
Singh, K (2014)
Nature as a spiritual idea Le Corbusier based the City of Chandigarh on the human body, he thought of the capital complex as the ‘head’, the ‘heart’ or city centre as sector 17, as well as the ‘lungs’ which Le Corbusier saw as the green open spaces. The city even has a 8km long green space known as leisure valley [Fiederer,L (2018)].
Chirico, G. (1913)
Giorgio de Chirico Giorgio de Chirico seemed to be trying to portray a utopian vision of society with his cityscape paintings. ‘Piazza d’Italia’ (1913) was painted as political tensions were rising in the world however WW1 was yet to have begun. This painting is more colourful and utopian than de Chirico’s latter work. ‘Mystery and Melancholy of a Street’ was painted in 1914 as WW1 had just begun, this was a time of great uncertainty especially across Europe for artists such as Giorgio de Chirico. Although Mystery and Melancholy of a Street was painted just a year after Piazza d’Italia, it seems to have a more sombre tone. In the latter painting the sun, a sign of prosperity; is not visible and darker tones are used, the times seem to make his work less utopian. In Piazza d’Italia two men stand and talk whereas in Mystery and Melancholy of a Street a child plays as a man seems to be walking off, possibly to war. It is obvious de Chirico intended for ‘Mystery and Melancholy of a Street’ to be a darker more sombre piece of work, as by the name he called it. Melancholy suggests the feeling of sadness, nothing present at the time. This could have been especially apt for de Chirico as he valued old buildings and yet their fate was uncertain. Both paintings do however utilise an unrealistic visionary between new and old.
Chirico, G. (1914)
L’architettura della città L’architettura della città (The Architecture of the City) was written by Italian architect Aldo Rossi and published in 1966. The book explores urban design theory and a rediscovery of traditional European cities following the strong modernism movement. Rossi believed that to create a successful city you must understand the architecture of a city and how it has amassed over time. The book was based on a collection of notes and lectures that Rossi had previously given. The book was a modern piece of literature that was forward thinking and considerate of the city history, unlike other modern theorists. Rossi, A (1966) believed the city itself is an artefact that is divided into individual buildings and dwelling areas. He also believed that to determine a specific urban artefact a building should be assessed on its individuality of form, its distinction that developed over space and time, its historical richness and its memories. An example of this theory is how the city of Padua was built and developed around the palazzo della Ragione, a medieval town hall building. It was clear from Rossi’s work that he believed in the combination of old and new architectural styles coming together, something Giorgio de Chirico believed and demonstrated in his own work. 12
IDEAS AHEAD OF THEIR TIME
CONSTRUCTIVISM, DE STIJL AND EXPRESSIONISM
IDEAS AHEAD OF THEIR TIME
Hot modernism and critical regionalism Regional Modernism - Is the interpretation of modernism within a region. For example a European modernist building requires more insulation than an Asian modernist building, which could have much thinner walls due to the climate as well as a different layout due to the shading and natural ventilation. Regional modernism considers the requirements of a climate and regional differences. Ensuring the design style is technically suited to the region. Critical Regionalism - Is the acknowledgement that buildings designed to a certain design style such as
modernism, can become very similar and take away the sense of place from a region. Globalisation has meant designers are able to travel to Europe for example, and take inspiration for the likes of Le Corbusier. On their return they begin designing from this inspiration and this can take away from the identity and local vernacular of the region. In tern creating a similar global style and eliminating the places unique architectural identity.
Barcelona Pavilion The Barcelona Pavilion was designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1929 Barcelona, Spain; as the German national pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exhibition. The Pavilion was then taken down in 1930, before being reconstructed and reopened in 1986 where it still stands today. It was reconstructed due to its significance and popularity. Pieces of furniture including the Barcelona chair were specifically deigned to be showcased in this building.
Pomeroy, A (2010)
Koffler, L (2017)
Fuente de los Amantes Fuente de los Amantes was designed by architect Luis Barragan in 1968 as part of a larger project called The Los Cubles project, to create a community for a group of horsemen. The clients were the Folke Egerstrom family and the project was constructed in Mexico City, Mexico. Other elements of this project included a house and stables.
Burri, R (1976)
Cleuren, P (2008)
Influences between the two It is clear that Luis Barragan had taken inspireation from European modernism, and more specifically Mies van der Rohes Barcelona Pavillion. It was said that Barragan travelled to France in 1932 and was greatly inspired by Le Corbusier. Modernist design typically uses nutural or primary colours which is what has been used in the Barcelona Pavillion. The Fuente de los Amantes uses these primary colour to distnguish ‘human areas’ or buildings wheras the briht colours represnet the area for the horses. This use of bright pink is not a typical feature of European modernism however it is obvious that Barragan was also inspired by the colourful cultural background of Mexico when designing this, meaning he has considered Critical regionalism. Mies van der Rohe had done this also, marble was not a typical modernist material, it is much more expensive and grand. However it was mined fom North Africa, Italy and Greece; again portraying Critical Regionalism. Both demonstrate the use of clean lines and geometrically pure forms. Both designs have water features however have different purposes. The Barcelona Pavillion uses the water as an aesthetic feature whereas Fuente de los Amantes is a drinking ground for horses.
Differences between the two and how they relate to one another The Barcelona Paillion seems much grander than Fuente de los Amantes, the Barcelona Pavillion was intended to showcase work whereas Fuente de los Amantes was intednded for shared use between human and horse. Fuente de los Amantes seems more modernist in terms of accessability to the people and how only simple material and colours have been used. Although The Barcelona Pavillion follows modernist principals, it seems almost too grand and rich. The use of marble is decorative which was against the modernist idea of ‘no frills’, also the use of the statue was not typically modernist however this could be due to its purpose of showcasing design pieces. This could also explain the grandness of the building, as it was a show piece. I think that both projects have considered Critical Regionalism either subconciously or deliberatly. Both follow modernist principals however they are both reflective of the place they are located in.
UK after modernism
Birmingham Central Library, designed by architect John Madin. The former library was opened in 1974 and was one of the cities most notable pieces of modernist architecture, however many people were opposed to it. Despite English Heritages, Architects and like professionals attempts to list the building, they were unsuccessful and by summer of 2016 Birmingham Central Library had been completely demolished. The central library was commissioned following WW2. The first library of Birmingham was built in 1865 however in 1879 it was badly damaged by a fire, through donations the library could be rebuilt however by the 1960s the building as massively over capacity with over 750,00 books for a space intended for just 30,000. In 1938 the council acknowledged the need for a new library however due to set backs from WW2 and economic struggles John Madin was not commissioned until the late 1960â€™s. The central library was closed in August 2013. [BBC (2015)]
Three reasons why people wanted to keep the library The library was one of the most notable piece of brutalist architecture if not architecture in general within the city. The building was inspired by the likes of Le Corbusier and other designers on the principal that design should be minimal and that ornamental design should not be used. The library was characteristic of modernism with is boxy from. It was one of the main pieces of modern architecture in Birmingham alongside the rotunda. The demolition would remove an already lacking design style from the city, few examples were left of brutalism due to their brash harsh appearance which generally people did not like. The modernist Rotunda had already undergone redevelopment by urban splash. It was proposed that the Library could be redeveloped into an art gallery, hotel or museum to preserve the significant architecture. Especially much of the original modernists in Birmingham such as the â€˜Bull ring centreâ€™ had already been demolished to make way for its redevelopment. 17
Three reasons against keeping the library The library was characterised by small windows which didn’t have the best natural light source and therefore the building heavily relied on artificial lighting. Especially as reading and desk work requires a much stronger lux reading than the required lux for a standard room. Because of this the library was not the most appealing to visit. In the early 2000’s the council identified problems with the 1970’s design meaning it wasn’t a sudden decision to demolish the library, faults were already known and acknowledged. The demolition of the library would enable the whole of paradise circus to be redeveloped, at the time of decision for the central library, the council had devised the ‘Big City Plan’ demolishing the library would enable the area to be redeveloped with a stronger pedestrian path through to the REP. The route from paradise circus to the REP was through the library however as this was through the building many people didn’t realise this was the case and therefore the REP was loosing out. It was proposed that if the library was removed that an open route could be achieved. And more economic success would be achievable for the REP and other businesses behind the library. When the central Library was built it was intended to be part of a wider scale plan of which the majority was never realised, meaning the building was never given a chance to perform exactly as it was intended within a wider development. The building was occupied by fast food chair restaurants, further making the place less attractive to viewers.
Kirkup, A (2016)
Through my research I have found that although the library was a significant pieces of Modernist and Brutalist architecture in the UK, the reasons for its demolition were understandable. The city needed an economic boost and the city wide redevelopment would help to make the city more prosperous and have a better economy. Therefore helping the city in the long run. Paradise circus is curremntly under redevelopment for multiuse spaces, with the masterplan designed by Glenn Howells Architects.
Frank Lloyd Wight Why is Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture so strongly associated with the landscape? Frank Lloyd Wright is strongly associated with landscapes as he believes architecture should come from a root of landscape and would be influenced by natural forms. Building Wright designed including Falling water and the Guggenheim we’re strongly influenced by the natural world. Wrights interest in nature came from his childhood where he lived by the Wisconsin River. He would spend summers on his uncles farm helping with animals as well as being in ore of the natural world. To him nature was the most important element and became his most inspirational force, he would say to his students “Study nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It will never fail you” The Wright Style (1992). He did not want to copy nature but instead wanted to be inspired by it and create organic forms. When creating the design for Falling Water, Lloyd Wright was inspired by the flat plane of rock at the top of the waterfall, rather than the land opposite the waterfall. The materiality he used mimic the landscape with the stone walls, similar to the rock the building sits on. Making the building blend in with the surroundings. He also follows nature with the colour pallet, avoiding black but instead using browns, beige, red and greys; the same applies for the inside. The red framing for the windows was specially chosen to mimic the bark of the trees on site.
P Ruschak, R (1993)
The cantilevered planes also mimic the rock of which the waterfall flows, the frontage of the building similarly matches the rock underneath. It almost looks like the waterfall could be falling from the alternating planes of the house, clearly showing his inspiration for this was at the root of the site. The building is so much so in tune with nature that in the living room a plane juts out into the room. The use of so much glass alongside petite frames makes the outside and indoors spaces feel more together.
The Guggenheim trust (2015)
The Guggenheim New York is quite contradictory to Lloyd Wrights beliefs. He is known to have hated New York, he believed it was ugly and just a dumping ground for building. His heart lay in designing buildings integrated with the landscape and being able to reflect this within the project such as Falling water. Lloyd Wright agreed to design the New York Guggenheim as that meant he was able to put his stamp onto the city. It is said Frank Lloyd Wright took inspiration from a nautilus shell for the spiralling ramp like design, as well as a spiders web for the atrium like roof. This is different to the influences of falling water as this piece of architecture does not blend in, it was designed to stand out. The natural influences are not site influences such as at falling water, more so potentially inspired from some of Lloyd wrights earlier work that were never realised. Of Frank Lloyd Wrights work only about 50% of is desings were ever realised. Meaning he could create a great, well thought out piece of architecture to showcase himself with the Guggenheim. Therefore Frank Lloyd Wright is significantly associated with the landscape because his designs have taken such influence from this. He had a very different idea and style to that of other architects of the same time. He believed buildings should have their main influence taken from landscape and without this the building would not be fitting for their surroundings.
Camden Food Market - Informal ways of design
ROLY'S FUDGE PANTRY HALF HITCH GIN HONEST BURGERS RUDY'S DIRTY VEGAN DINER YOLK BREAKER NAKED DOUGH LORDS OF POKÉ CEREAL KILLERS CHIN CHIN LABS OH MY DOG! GHETTO GRILLZ
ENRIQUE TOMAS LA CHURRERIA
CHURROS LONDON CAFE CHULA
PETARE AREPAZO BROS
GABETO KILLA DILLA
SHAKA ZULU ASADOR
Image refereneces Wiz9999 (2006) Camden Market (2019) 21
When visiting London it is obvious that the city is culturally rich and diverse, as one would expect for a capital. Camden food market is especially cultural, with a global selection of food stalls within one yard. As you look through the stalls you find an interesting intermingling of street food stalls from global outstretch.
ATATE LEGGERO TONGUE 'N CHEEK CAMDEN PIZZA CO. THE CHEESE WHEEL
KALIMERA OLI BABA’S NAZARÍ
YUMCHAA INK YAKI BOX
KIM’S VIETNAMESE HUT
CAMDEN COFFEE ZALA GRILL LULU SCHNITZEL
KOLKATI SONITA’S BABA G’S ROTI HOUSE
*The map shows where the stalls with a significant cultural heritage are from. The stall name is show with an arrow to its country of origin. These countries are then shown in purple to show the global outreach.* 22
Transcultural Space - Is a space which has witnessed a merge of cultures. This is most present in Cities
especially the Capital, such as London. This enables a place to bring together many cultures into a harmonious blend. Transcultural spaces are usually created in â€˜softâ€™ areas, areas which do not already have a strong culture of their own and are awaiting their mark. [Anne, J (2014)] This would explain the cultural variety of Camden as it is not directly situated in central London as Covent garden and Oxford street are, meaning it was free to be given the identity it has been given.
A we can see from the map diagram on the last page we can see to true global outreach the food market has. There is a community created within this inviting locals and tourists alike into a multicultural bustling market. The images above and below demonstrates how the stalls are situatred within the market, showing their close proimity to create a multicultural space. The community created by this is a result of time space compression and globalisation meaning people can experience a multitude of foreign culture right on their doorstep.
Lough, K (2014)
References Pre Raphalietes Birmingham Cathedral (2018) Windows http://www.birminghamcathedral.com/windows/ [Accessed on 18th September] Tate (2018) Pre-Raphaelite https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/pre-raphaelite [Accessed on 18th September] Art UK (2018) Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1833â€“1898) https://www.artuk.org/discover/artworks/sir-edwardburne-jones-18331898-33574 [Accessed on 18th September]
B3 chair Ikea (2018) Industriell Chair https://www.ikea.com/gb/en/products/chairs-stools-benches/chairs/industriell-chair-pine-art-00394506/ [accessed on 2nd October 2018] Nardo, A. (2017) The Time Marcel Breuer Broke the Rules (and Made an Iconic Chair) https://robbreport. com/shelter/art-collectibles/marcel-breuer-iconic-wassily-chair-eg17-2747275/ [accessed on 2nd October 2018] Watson-Smyth, K. (2013) Design: how the classic Wassily chair was inspired by a bicycle https://www.ft.com/ content/8cddc584-d910-11e2-a6cf-00144feab7de [accessed on 2nd October 2018] MoMA (2018) Club chair (model B3) https://www.moma.org/collection/works/2851 [acessed on 2nd October 2018] Phaidon (2018) http://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/design/articles/2016/june/09/how-marcel-breuer-and-hisbike-changed-the-chair/ [Accessed on 2nd October]
Chandigarh Le Corbusier (1927) https://www.lescouleurs.ch/en/journal/posts/the-five-points-of-a-new-architecture/# chandigarh [Accessed on 28th October] Singh, K (2014) plan of parliament building chandigarh https://www.slideshare.net/4kks/plan-of-parliament-building-chandigarh-lecorbusier[Accessed on 28th October] Les Couleurs (1927) Le CorbusierÂ´s five points of a new architecture https://www.lescouleurs.ch/en/journal/ posts/the-five-points-of-a-new-architecture/ [Accessed on 28th October] Fiederer,L (2018) AD Classics: Master Plan for Chandigarh / Le Corbusier https://www.archdaily. com/806115/ad-classics-master-plan-for-chandigarh-le-corbusier [Accessed on 28th October] Stein, F. (1960) Portrait Portfolio http://www.fredstein.com/portrait-portfolio/ [Accessed on 28th October] 24
Arte (2009) Le Corbusierâ€™s ideas given a new lease on life https://www.arte-international.com/en/collections/ le-corbusier [Accessed on 28th October] In Awe (2017) Strategies for Making Chandigarh a Smart City http://www.inawe.in/strategies-making-chandigarh-smart-city-architect-jit-kumar-gupta/ [Accessed on 28th October] The Secretariat, http://www.tricityevents.in/prestigious-building-secretariat-chandigarh/ [Accessed on 26th October] Palace of Justice. (2016) http://nirman.com/blog/2016/10/27/the-palace-of-justice-chandigarh/ [Accessed on 26th October] The Palace of Assembly, Chandigarh. Photo Courtesy: FLC ADAGP, Paris, 2015 [Accessed on 26th October] Vikram (2015) The Shivalik Hills and the Plan http://chandigarhurbanlab.org/the-shivalik-hills-and-theplan/ [Accessed on 28th October] Archive of affinities (2013) Le Corbusier, early plan for the governors house. http://archiveofaffinities.tumblr. com/post/42206629381/le-corbusier-early-plan-for-the-governors-house [Accessed on 28th October] Accent (2017) Housing in the City http://www.accentarchitecture.com/residential/housingincity/housingincity.html [Accessed on 28th October] Filpro (2016) Location of Chandigarh in India https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandigarh#/media/File:INCH.svg [Accessed on 29th October]
Italian modernism Chirico, G. (1913) Piazza dâ€™Italia https://www.wikiart.org/en/giorgio-de-chirico/piazza-d-italia-1913 [Accessed on 22nd October] Chirico, G. (1914) Mystery and Melancholy of a Street https://www.wikiart.org/en/giorgio-de-chirico/mystery-and-melancholy-of-a-street-1914 [Accessed on 22nd October] Rossi, A (1966) The City as a Project http://thecityasaproject.org/2011/08/type/ [Accessed 22nd October]
Hot modernism and critical regionalism Cleuren, P (2008) Luis Barragan - Fuente de los Amantes https://www.flickr.com/photos/pacle/2656963870 [Accessed on 19th December] Burri, R (1976) Stable, horse pool https://pro.magnumphotos.com/image/PAR368446.html [Accessed on 19th December] arquitecturamexicana (2016) FUENTE DE LOS AMANTES http://mexicanarq.blogspot.com/2016/05/ fuente-de-los-amantes-arq-emocional.html [Accessed on 19th December] Pomeroy, A (2010) The Barcelona Pavilion, Barcelona https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcelona_Pavilion#/ media/File:The_Barcelona_Pavilion,_Barcelona,_2010.jpg [Accessed on 19th December] 25
Koffler, L (2017) MIES VAN DER ROHEâ€™S BARCELONA PAVILION https://visualhouse.co/journalpost/ mies-van-der-rohes-barcelona-pavilion/ [Accessed on 19th December]
UK after modernism Erebus555 (2007) Chamberlain Square, Birmingham https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chamberlain_Square,_Birmingham_April_2007.jpg [Accessed on 11th January] Kirkup, A (2016) Deconstructing a landmark â€“ Birmingham Central Library https://www.ice.org.uk/newsand-insight/the-civil-engineer/august-2016/deconstructing-a-landmark-bham-central-library [Accessed on 11th January] BBC (2015) Birmingham Central Library birmingham-23081886 [Accessed on 11th January]
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