Perspectives Intermediate

Page 1

Inspiring Communication

Inspiring Communication TALKS

PERSPECTIVES INTERMEDIATE

INTERMEDIATE

Perspectives teaches learners to think critically and to develop the language skills they need to find their own voice in English. The carefully guided language lessons, real-world stories and TED talks motivate learners to think creatively and communicate efficiently.

Exam-style task types and test-taking strategies prepare students for a range of national and international exams.

Exclusive TED TALKS introduce themes related to global citizenship and give students the opportunity to practise the language as they look at the world in new ways.

Pages of Presentation Skills build students’ confidence and prepare them for their academic studies.

The Literature Bank introduces the study of English Literature establishing links between the past and the present to motivate students towards the new subject.

A comprehensive digital package (FLIP BOOK) with integrated audio and video includes tools to adapt all texts for students with dyslexia.

Students can download the app ELI LINK and watch and listen to all multimedia materials on their smartphones or tablets.

DANIELE QUERCIA Computer scientist A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

Perspectives Intermediate is for students who are around level B1 and want to progress towards B2.

Student’s Book

INTERMEDIATE

In every unit students explore one idea from different perspectives. They learn the critical thinking skills and strategies they need to evaluate new information and develop their own opinions and ideas.

STUDENT’S BOOK & WORKBOOK PERSPECTIVES

PERSPECTIVES

FOR THE STUDENT 978-88-536-2953-1

Perspectives Intermediate Student’s Book & Workbook + Build Up to Intermediate + FLIP BOOK*

978-88-536-2954-8

FOR THE TEACHER Perspectives Pre-Intermediate Teacher’s Pack + USB Key

978-88-536-2956-2

Perspectives Intermediate Teacher’s Pack + USB Key

978-88-536-2967-8

D. Barber A. Smith

Perspectives Pre-Intermediate Student’s Book & Workbook + Build Up to Pre-Intermediate + FLIP BOOK*

* I FLIP BOOK sono scaricabili tramite codice dal sito www.elilaspigaedizioni.it/libridigitali

COPIA SAGGIO ES2069_02P

COPIA SAGGIO

CAMPIONE GRATUITO FUORI COMMERCIO Fuori campo IVA (D. PR. 26 ottobre 1972, n. 633, art. 2, lett. d)


PERSPECTIVES INTERMEDIATE

Daniel BARBER Lewis LANSFORD Amanda JEFFRIES Alison SMITH

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States


CONTENTS

UNIT

VOCABULARY WORD BUILDING

GRAMMAR

FUNCTIONS

Describing emotions

Subject & object questions

Asking follow-up questions

Suffixes: -ment, -ness, -ion

Talking about the present: Present simple, Present continuous, Present perfect

Travel

Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing

Compound nouns

Narrative forms: Past simple, Past continuous, Past perfect

1 In touch with your feelings Pages 8–17

Asking for directions VIDEO

Video Functions A Asking for travel information (p. 148)

2 Enjoy the ride Pages 18–27

Consolidation & Certification B1 Preliminary & INVALSI pp. 28–30 Sports

Past simple & Present perfect

Phrasal verbs

Present perfect simple & continuous

Agreeing & disagreeing VIDEO

Video Functions B Narrating an event (p. 149)

3 Active lives Pages 34–41

Describing food Compound adjectives

Future forms (1): will, may/might, be going to, Present continuous, Present simple Future forms (2): Future continuous, Future perfect

Talking about hopes & goals VIDEO

Video Functions C Making predictions (p. 150)

4 Food

Pages 44–53

Consolidation & Certification B1 Preliminary & INVALSI pp. 54–56 Describing work

Verb + -ing / verb + to

Ways of seeing

Present & past modal verbs

Talking about skills & personality

Modal verbs for deduction

5 Work

Pages 60–69

The human body

Zero & First conditional

Permission & possibility

Second conditional If only & wish

6 Superhuman Pages 70–79

Consolidation & Certification B1 Preliminary & INVALSI pp. 80–82 2

Describing photos VIDEO

Video Functions D Advice at the doctor’s (p. 151)


PRONUNCIATION VIDEO MAPS Pronunciation The sounds /ɒ/,/ʌ/, /əʊ/ VIDEO MAPS

Present simple Present continuous Present perfect

Pronunciation The sound /ɔː/ VIDEO MAPS

Past simple Past continuous Present perfect

Pronunciation The sounds /aʊ/, /əʊ/ VIDEO MAPS

Past simple & Present perfect

LANGUAGE SKILLS

STRATEGIES

PRESENTATION SKILLS TED TALKS

Reading

Listening Multiple matching Critical Thinking Rhetorical questions Reading & Writing Error correction Writing Emphasis

Presentation skills

Listening Completing tables

VIDEO

Why do people smile?

Listening Two explorers talking about their lives Two friends discussing a film Speaking Talking about films Writing

A book or film review

Reading

Urbexers: life on the edge of a city

VIDEO MAPS

be going to will

Pronunciation The sounds /n/, /ƞ/

TED Talks

Speaking Explaining how to get somewhere

Writing Telling a story

pp. 32–33

Reading Topic sentences

Presentation skills

Reading & Writing Mediating (processing a text)

Supporting your argument

Writing Giving an opinion

Using statistics in a talk

Writing

A story

Reading

Can athletics protect Africa’s lions?

Listening A podcast about a young climber Friends discussing a controversial sport issue Writing

An opinion essay

Reading

World food

Listening A podcast about food People saying what they’d like to change Writing

A travel blog

Reading

A real-life crime-fighting superpower!

Listening Two different employers A job interview Writing

A letter of application

Reading

A world of cyborgs

Zero & First conditional Second conditional

Speaking Guessing a picture from a description Writing

An article describing a person

Happy maps

p. 57

Writing Descriptive language

VIDEO

TED Talks Why I’m a weekday vegetarian

Speaking Discussing future plans and hopes

Listening A radio programme about the human body A description of a photo

VIDEO MAPS

p. 31

Critical Thinking Selecting information

Speaking Summer job interviews

Pronunciation Stressed syllables

Using slides to illustrate a talk

Listening Three journeys to school People giving directions

Speaking Discussing sports for your school

Pronunciation will, won’t

Visual aids

pp. 58–59

Reading Guessing meaning from context

Presentation skills

Writing Appropriate tone

Using repetition

Listening Completing information Citizenship Participation in local communities Writing Planning an article

Organising a talk p. 83

VIDEO

TED Talks Deep sea diving … in a wheelchair pp. 84–85

3


CONTENTS

UNIT

VOCABULARY WORD BUILDING

GRAMMAR

FUNCTIONS

Money & shopping

The passive (all tenses)

Talking to a sales assistant

Adverbs

have / get something done

VIDEO

Reflexive & reciprocal pronouns

Video Functions E Describing objects (p. 152)

Reported statements & questions

Showing understanding

7 Shopping around Pages 86–95

Ways of communicating Compounds of some, any, no, every

Verb patterns with reporting verbs

VIDEO

Video Functions F Showing sympathy (p. 153)

8 Effective communication Pages 96–105

Consolidation & Certification B1 Preliminary & INVALSI pp. 106–108 Creative arts

Questions tags

Expressions with make

Defining & non-defining relative clauses

Phrasal verbs about time

Third conditional

Asking for recommendations

9 Unexpected entertainment Pages 112–121

If only & wish Expressions with time Modal verbs: past speculation, deduction & regret

Expressing reasons VIDEO

Video Functions G Apologising (p. 154)

10 Time

Pages 122–131

Consolidation & Certification B1 Preliminary & INVALSI pp. 132–134 Literature Bank A B C D E

Are you a tourist or a traveller? (The Beach) Is it about sport or about life itself? (Fever Pitch) Who are the real monsters? (Frankenstein) Say it loud and clear! (Wuthering Heights) ‘Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow’ (Macbeth)

pp. 138–147

Video Functions A B C D E F G

4

VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO VIDEO

Asking for travel information Narrating an event Making predictions Advice at the doctor’s Describing objects Showing sympathy Apologising

pp. 148–154

Towards INVALSI Listening

pp. 155–161

Writing Bank Units 1–10

pp. 162–171

Speaking Bank Units 1–10

pp. 172–181

World Map

p. 182

Workbook Units 1–10

pp. 183–253

Grammar reference & practice Units 1–10

pp. 254–273

Irregular verb list / Phonetics

pp. 274–275

TED Talk videoscripts

pp. 276–279

Key Vocabulary / Wordlist / Talk the talk

pp. 280–286


PRONUNCIATION VIDEO MAPS Pronunciation The schwa sound /ə/ VIDEO MAPS

The passive

LANGUAGE SKILLS

STRATEGIES

PRESENTATION SKILLS TED TALKS

Reading

Critical Thinking Reading between the lines

Presentation skills

Listening Alternative ways to shop Three conversations in shops

Writing Adverts

Speaking Shopping role plays Writing

Pronunciation -ed endings on reporting verbs

Nothing for a year

Signposting & sequencing p. 109

An advert

Reading

The structure of a talk

VIDEO

An experiment in intercultural communication Listening Friends talking about an astronaut People complaining about something Speaking Complaining when something’s wrong Writing A formal email of complaint

Reading Paragraph headings Critical Thinking Using direct speech Speaking Sympathetic intonation Writing Using formal linkers

Reading Making a splash Listening Friends discussing entertainment A famous museum Speaking Discussing recommendations for places to visit Writing Describing and recommending a place

Social development Coping with fears and emotions Writing Paragraphing

Presentation skills

Pronunciation The sounds /i/, /iː/

Reading

Critical Thinking Reaching conclusions

VIDEO

TED Talks

VIDEO MAPS

Listening Older people giving advice Opinions about ‘the right age’

Writing Using discourse markers

Inside the mind of a master procrastinator

Pronunciation Silent letters

Third conditional

The clockmaker who changed the world

Speaking Discussing pros and cons of issues Writing

TED Talks Ten ways to have a better conversation pp. 110–111

Giving your talk Using humour p. 135

pp. 136–137

A ‘for and against’ essay

base cm 21,5 altezza cm 8

5


WELCOME TO PERSPECTIVES What’s Your Perspective? Perspectives gives you the opportunity to think critically and to develop the language skills you need to find your own voice in English. The carefully guided language lessons, real-world stories and TED Talks will motivate you to think creatively and communicate effectively. In Perspectives, you will develop: • A GLOBAL, OPEN MIND Every unit explores one idea from different perspectives. You will practise new language while looking at the world in new ways

2

Enjoy the ride

VOCABULARY Travel

Travel is the only thing you buy that makes you richer.

(Anonymous)

1

Look at the photo and read the caption, then discuss the questions in pairs. 1 Would you like to go to school like this? Why do you think the children don’t have a safer way of travelling? 2 How do you get to school? 3 How many ways of getting around can you think of? Make a list. go on your skateboard, take the bus, … 4 Look at your list. Which form of transport: • is the cheapest? • is the fastest? • is the most relaxing? • is the most stressful? • lets you see the most?

2

Complete the sentences with these pairs of words. cruise + excursion commute + lift expedition + voyage flight + destination ride + route trip + backpacking 1 My mum and dad to work by car, so they normally give me a to school. number. It’s flying to the same 2 RY5608 – that isn’t our but it’s a different airline. stayed on the ship, but we went on 3 Some passengers on the that they organized around the old port. the ! I’m glad we were and 4 We had an amazing didn’t stay in a hotel. We saw more of the country that way. yesterday, I took a different 5 When I went for a bike – I get bored going the same way all the time. to the Antarctic lasted a year. After a difficult month-long 6 The , the scientists started their research. sea

3

A discussion point introduces you to the topic of the unit in a motivating way

Consolidate, expand and practise your knowledge of vocabulary through a variety of activities

Delete the item in each list that does not collocate with the verb(s). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

catch/miss get get on/off get to know get to go for go on take

my bus, my train, my car home, lost, school, from A to B the bus, the car, the train, the plane the city, your way around, a trip work, home, school a trip, a bike ride, a drive a flight, a journey, a travel, a trip, an expedition, a cruise a taxi, an hour, two kilometres, public transport

Go online and find out the difference in meaning between travel, trip and journey. Then discuss with the class. • • • • •

CLASS DISCUSSION • What does the quote mean to you? • What are the benefits of travel?

Students in Colombia crossing the Rio Negro canyon using cables to get to school.

• Would you like to travel more in your life? Why and where? • Are there other things we buy that can make us richer?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

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Ø talk about getting around Ø read about an unusual hobby

4

What search terms or key words did you use? Which website did you find most useful? Was the explanation in English or in your own language? Did you find examples of the words in a context? Did your classmates use the same site? Complete the sentences so they are true for you. 1 2 3 4 5

> World Map, p. 182

My journey to school takes … The best way for visitors to get to know my city is by … If I take public transport, I prefer to travel by … because … The last long journey I went on was to … If I could take a flight anywhere, I’d choose … as my destination.

Ø learn about how to live and travel cheaply Ø write a story about a journey you have made

Unit 2 Enjoy the ride

19

Why I’m a weekday vegetarian

TALKS After every two units, watch an authentic TED Talk and expand your perspective on global life issues Activities guide you through the TED Talk leading you to the satisfaction of having understood real English in an up-to-date context

all of us ate half as much it would be like half “Ifmeat, of us were vegetarians. ” GRAHAM HILL

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

Read about the TED Talk speaker, Graham Hill. In his talk, what do you think he asks people to do? Graham Hill is an American designer who tries to convince people to care about the environment and live green lives. The name of his first website, treehugger.com, reflects his love of nature, and he calls himself ‘one of the green guys’. But what does it mean to live a greener life in the city? Graham looks for ways that we can all care about the environment and commit to helping reduce our emissions and our carbon footprint. He recently asked himself the question ‘Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian?’ and this caused him to reflect on his lifestyle and the way he ate. Graham’s idea worth spreading is that cutting meat from our diet – even just a part of the time – can have a powerful impact on the planet.

KEY WORDS 2

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Pausing

• where there is a comma or other punctuation

1.24 Listen to the beginning of the TED Talk. Mark (|) the pauses.

About a year ago, | I asked myself a question: ‘Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian?‘ 4

Mark where you think Graham pauses in the next two sentences. Then listen to check. 1.25

After all, I’m one of the green guys: I grew up with hippie parents in a log cabin. I started a site called TreeHugger – I care about this stuff. 5

Graham talks about vegetarianism in his talk. Work in pairs and make a list of reasons why somebody might be a vegetarian. It’s good for your health.

It is bad for the planet. The animals suffer in poor conditions. It is unhealthy. People are eating more and more meat.

Complete the facts about eating meat. Then watch Part 1 again and check your answers.

CRITICAL THINKING Persuading To persuade their listeners to do things, speakers can: a describe personal experiences that others can relate to. b make it sound achievable. c offer choice and flexibility. d point out the personal benefits of doing it. e ask themselves and the audience questions. f ask listeners to imagine a situation. 9

1 If you eat one every day, it can increase the possibility of dying by a third. animals for meat each year in 2 We keep factory-farm conditions. 3 Beef production uses 100 times more than most vegetables do. meat as in the 1950s. 4 We are eating

• between the subject of a sentence and its verb when the subject is long.

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings.

e ___________ = gas and pollution that we create

7

• before an important word or phrase

3

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Put the phrases about eating meat in the order that Graham mentions them. a b c d

• to separate adverbial phrases, e.g. expressions about time or place

b ___________ = good for the planet

d ___________ = promise to do something

6

• at the end of sentences

a ___________ = important or strong effect c ___________ = the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that we produce

WATCH THE TALK

When people are speaking to an audience, they often pause to break their sentences up into short sections, or chunks. This makes it easier for the listeners to follow. Speakers often pause:

8

1 Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian? ____ 2 Imagine your last hamburger. ____ 3 I’d commit to doing it later, and not surprisingly, later never came. Sound familiar? ____ 4 I’ve been doing it for the last year, and it’s great. It’s called Weekday Veg. ____ 5 On the weekend, your choice. Simple. If you want to take it to the next level … ____ 6 Best of all, I’m healthier, I know that I’m going to live longer, and I’ve even lost a little weight. ____

Watch Part 2. Choose the correct option. 1 When Graham says to the audience ‘Imagine your last hamburger’, he wants them to A see what a difficult decision he made. B prepare to become vegetarians. C feel sorry for him. 2 Which of these rules is part of Graham’s solution? A Only eat fish at the weekend. B Don’t eat meat on Saturdays and Sundays. C Be a vegetarian five days a week. 3 Which part of Graham’s solution is he happiest about? A He isn’t creating so much pollution. B He’s got more money. C He’s healthier.

How does Graham try to persuade his audience? Match the extracts below to techniques (a–f) in the Critical Thinking box. Each extract may use more than one technique.

10

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Which of Graham’s reasons for becoming a weekday vegetarian are the most convincing? 2 Would you consider becoming a weekday vegetarian? How easy or difficult do you think it would be? Why? CHALLENGE

Do a survey. Find out what other people in the class think about becoming a weekday vegetarian.

58 Units 3&4 TED Talk

All TED Talks, videos, Grammar Video Maps and audio files are available on the FLIP BOOK and downloadable with the ELI LINK App on your phone. 6

Units 3&4 TED Talk

59


• A CRITICAL EYE You will learn the critical thinking skills and strategies you need to evaluate new information and develop your opinions.

LIFE ON THE EDGE OF THE CITY

URBEXERS

2B Urban explorers

How do you get to know a city you’ve never been to before? For most people, the typical tourist options are enough. Take a bus tour to see the sights or, if you’re feeling energetic, consider a walking tour. To get a taste of city life, use public transport.

5

15

But there are people who want more than the standard tourist options. They are urbexers – urban explorers. They’re interested in discovering parts of the city we normally see as less beautiful, the places tourists are not supposed to see: ghost underground stations that have been closed for years, shopping centres and amusement parks at night, abandoned factories, building sites, tunnels and railway tracks. It’s not for everybody. You can’t be scared of heights or small spaces and you have to be willing to take risks.

20

Bradley Garrett is one of them. Urbexers don’t follow the same routes as everyone else: ‘I’ve been to Paris six times and I’ve seen more of the city underground than I have above ground,’ he says. ‘If somebody asked me for a good restaurant, I’d have no idea.’

10

25

Standing on the Forth Bridge, Scotland. > World Map, p. 182

It wasn’t until Bradley and his urbexer friends had climbed to the top of London’s tallest skyscraper, The Shard, and had managed to visit all of the city’s fourteen abandoned underground stations that the police stopped them exploring as a group. Bradley was studying urbexers for a book he was writing when they had to stop.

Bradley’s best experience as an urbexer was in Chicago with friends when they climbed the Legacy Tower, a 72-storey skyscraper. ‘We were sitting on a rooftop looking up at this building when someone suggested we try to get up it. So we walked in and just got in the lift after some residents had opened the door. When we made it up to the roof, it was the most incredible view I’ve ever seen.’

30

35

Why do urbexers do it? Many enjoy the excitement of putting themselves in danger. Some enjoy the feeling they get from being alone in abandoned places. ‘I feel I’m the only person in the world,’ says Zhao Yang, a Chinese 29-year-old who explores places where people used to work, like old industrial sites and abandoned hospitals. Like many urbexers, Zhao is a keen photographer who takes his smartphone to record what he sees and, like many, he also writes a blog about his experiences, but he prefers to explore alone.

40

45

Compound nouns consist of more than one word. They can be formed by using noun + noun, adjective + noun, or verb + noun. They can be written as one word or two words with a space or a hyphen. You should use a dictionary to check the correct spelling. 1

Match words in column A to words in column B and make compound nouns related to cities. 1 2 3 4 5 6

A sight a walking an underground a shopping a building public

a b c d e f

7 8 9 10 11 12

urban railway a sky a roof an amusement a view

g h i j k l

2

3

site station transport seeing centre tour tracks top park exploration scraper point

Which of the compound nouns in Ex. 1 are:

READING

5

CRITICAL THINKING Selecting information If they are writing about something that is unfamiliar to a lot of people, writers have to think about the kind of information that will interest their readers.

3 Bradley Garrett A knows Paris very well. B doesn’t like high places. C doesn’t like French food. D wouldn’t be a very good guide for traditional tourists.

1 things visitors might do, use or visit? 2 buildings? 3 places the public don’t normally go?

4

B

2 The places that urban explorers visit are A always underground. B not used any more. C not usually attractive to many people. D always in industrial areas.

1.06 Listen and check your answers to Ex. 1. Which word is usually stressed in compound nouns: the first or the second?

6

1.06 P Read and listen to the article again. Choose the correct option.

5 What does Zhao Yang do? A He investigates abandoned factories. B He explores with friends. C He keeps his experiences a secret. D He never takes any photographs.

1 Why does the article begin by talking about options for tourists? A They are good examples of urban exploration. B They are very different from the activities that urban explorers do. C The writer wants to recommend some ways of exploring cities. D The writer wants to criticise how tourists visit a city.

Competences Read the Critical Thinking box. Which questions does the article answer about urbexers and urban exploration? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4 What was Bradley Garrett’s trip to the top of the Legacy Tower like? A easy B lonely C well-planned D frightening

You are going to read an article about urban explorers (urbexers). Write three questions about urbexers you would like to know the answers to. Then read the article to check if your questions are answered.

Focus on Word Building items like collocations, prefixes and suffixes, compound nouns to help you improve your Use of English

Authentic texts about issues that are relevant to teenagers

Regular strategies boxes help you to become a better learner

This can be dangerous, of course, and urbexers run many risks and often break the law. So if you’re interested in exploring city spaces, choose a safe way of doing it. For example, it’s easy to look at a map, identify an area that is new to you and go there. Another way is to try to get lost in your own town. Or you could just set off for a walk without planning your route. Who knows what you might find!

50

> World Map, p. 182

WORD BUILDING Compound nouns

Does urban exploration happen all over the world? How long have people been exploring in this way? How many people do it? If I want to explore my local urban area, what can I do? Is the word ‘urbexer’ in the dictionary? What are some of the stories that urbexers have? Why is urban exploration attractive to some people? What kind of places do urbexers visit? What personal qualities do urbexers need?

SPEAKING

6 How does the article end? A By describing more activities that urban explorers do. B By recommending other ways of exploring cities. C By explaining the health benefits of urban exploration. D By telling urbexers how to avoid breaking the law.

7

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What other information would you like to see in the article? 2 Where could you find out the answers to the questions that weren’t answered?

22 Unit 2 Enjoy the ride

Unit 2 Enjoy the ride

23

• A CLEAR VOICE You will respond to the unit theme and express your own ideas confidently in English 6D Physical challenges

WRITING An article describing a person 7

You’re going to read an article about a man who achieved incredible things during his lifetime. Which of the topics below do you think will be included?

8

Read the article and check your answers to Ex. 7.

SPEAKING & LISTENING Picture description

1

Step-by-step activities with clear models lead you towards greater competence in spoken and written English

Work in pairs. Look at the photos at the bottom of this and the next page and answer the questions. 1 Where were the photos taken? 2 What are the people doing in each photo? 3 How do you think they are feeling?

Functions

Making guesses They look / seem … (+ adjective) He looks like … (+ noun) It looks as if … (+ phrase) It must / might be …

3&4 Presentation Skills

Being imprecise It’s some sort / kind of … I’m not sure, but it’s a bit like …

Using statistics in a talk

activity. Complete the text with these n about young people and physical 1.23 Read part of Emma’s presentatio 1 words. Then listen and check. recommends school outdoors negative future academic ball games cycling

Listen to a student describing one of the photos. Which photo is he talking about: A, B, C or D?

3

Use an expression from the Functions box to complete the sentences. Then listen again and check.

A

his achievements his favourite hobbies

2.05

2.05

1 2 3 4 5 6 4

Describing photos This photo shows … The photo was taken … On the right / left, there’s a … In the background / foreground / corner / middle, we can see … At the bottom / top, there are …

SUPPORTING YOUR ARGUMENT

2

difficulties in his life his appearance

his childhood his education

A MAN WITH NO LIMITS Born on the 300th anniversary of the death of another remarkable man, Galileo, who made invaluable contributions to the world of science and astronomy, Stephen Hawking was an incredible physicist and person.

he’s sitting in the air. a statue. on a busy street. there are lots of people and buses. London, actually. I can see a child.

He was diagnosed with ALS, a motor neuron disease, when he was studying for his PhD at Cambridge University. This diagnosis actually made him more determined and focused on his studies and research.

The sentences below describe photo A. Copy the table and write them in the correct place. Then add more examples of your own. Maybe she’s taking part in a competition or a show. She’s wearing a colourful costume and no shoes. She doesn’t look nervous but she’s concentrating hard on what she’s doing. She seems to be doing some kind of difficult-looking acrobatics. She’s got dark hair and looks like she might be Asian.

Easily-recognisable in his wheelchair with the speech generator technology, he carried out groundbreaking work on the origins of the cosmos and space-time theories. But he was also able to make topics such as black holes interesting and accessible to the general public. He even appeared on TV in Futurama, The Simpsons and, appropriately, The Big Bang Theory.

Competences Read the Writing Strategies box, then follow the instructions for the task below and write your article. Use your notes, and the article about Stephen Hawking to help you.

9 P

Physical appearance Actions Location/event Clothes Feelings & emotions Work in pairs. Take turns to describe photo B or D. Make sure you include each category from Ex. 4. Try to talk for about one minute.

5 P

10

Choose another photo from anywhere in this book. Tell your partner which unit it is in. Describe it and see if he/she can find it.

6 P

B

C

WRITING STRATEGIES Planning an article

We’re looking for articles about extraordinary people, present or past. Who do you particularly admire, and why? It can be a famous person or someone from your community. Write and tell us about what makes him or her so remarkable.

When you are asked to write an article: • underline key words in the task you are given. • note an idea for each point or question. • expand your ideas with an example, detail or fact. • put your points in a logical order. • think of a good title. You should do this after writing the article.

Read some of your classmates’ articles. Who would you like to know more about?

If the topic is a real person or event, check your facts using more than one source or website!

D

are not active enough and this is Four out of five children in Europe on their health at the moment, but having significant (1) ________ effects n wellbeing. The World Health Organizatio will also affect their (2) ________ activity every day of the week minutes 60 of minimum a ________ (3) and 16. This doesn’t necessarily mean 5 of ages the between children for to but it could include (4) ________ participating in an organised sport, ing or with friends in the park, skateboard school, having a game of football are many ways we can be active, especially trampolining, for example. There air also brings many other benefits. (5) ________, and of course the open to play, too: 80% of children only do (6) ________ has an important role as is much importance is given to sport sport at school so it is vital that as Schools should also vary the activities given to more (7) ________ subjects. , like the choice is limited to (8) ________ that they offer as most of the time football or volleyball, or maybe athletics.

discuss the questions with the class. Read the Competences box. Then or uses. Which do you find interesting 1 Underline the statistics that Emma surprising? statistics in her talk? Why? / Why not? 2 Do you think she uses too many visually, and in what format (a graph, 3 Which statistics could she present table, etc.)? the expressions you can use to refer 3 Use the words in the box to complete to statistics in a talk.

2

over per twice average doubled less out of junk food. 1 Six ______ ten people eat too much did 50 years ago. we as 2 We waste ______ as much of the cost. 3 Like this, we can save ______ 75% since last year. 4 The number of members has ______ school. only 2 hours of sport ______ week at 5 On ______, British teenagers do than before. 6 It uses 10 times ______ energy

COMPETENCES

78 Unit 6 Superhuman

Quoting statistics in a talk supports your argument and makes it more authoritative. • Check that the source of your statistics is reliable. • An interesting / surprising statistic will get your audience’s attention. • Prepare slides to show key statistics in a graph, pie chart or table, but don’t make them too complicated. • Don’t use too many numbers or the audience might lose interest.

PRONUNCIATION Stressed syllables

Unit 6 Superhuman

79

• Regular Presentation Skills pages guide you through the

process of preparing an oral presentation in English, helping to build your self-confidence in public speaking

YOUR TALK 4

out figures and statistics. topics and do some research to find Work in pairs. Choose one of the following to the class. Prepare a short presentation to give • how much sportspeople are paid • vegan diets • the successes of a sports team • genetically modified crops On pages 58–59 you will watch a TED statistics to support what he is saying.

Talk. When you watch the talk, pay

attention to how the speaker uses

Units 3&4 Presentation Skills

57

LOOK FOR ONLINE RESOURCES AT WWW.ELILASPIGAEDIZIONI.IT   7


1

In touch with your feelings

Wear your heart on your sleeve

(English idiom, probably of medieval origin)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What do you think the idiom at the top of the page means? • Do you have a similar saying in your language? • Do you tend to hide your feelings and emotions or do you find it easy to show them? • What are the pros and cons of these two different approaches?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

8

Ø talk about emotions Ø read about smiles

Ø discover the benefits of outdoor life Ø write a book or film review


VOCABULARY  Describing emotions 1

Look at the photo and read the caption. In pairs, discuss the questions. 1 What emotions can you see on the people’s faces in the collage? 2 What message do you think the artist was trying to communicate with this project?

2

Match the sentences (1–9) to the follow-up comments (a–i). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a b c d e f g h i

3

I sometimes get scared when I’m at home on my own. You must be delighted – that’s great news! I’m feeling more relaxed now that it’s Saturday. I got a bit confused at the start of the film. My brother isn’t normally this nervous. Travelling to school on your own can be quite lonely. My parents started to dance. I was so embarrassed! At the moment I’m feeling quite stressed. Please don’t be angry with me. But it was great to see them having fun. It’s been a very busy week, so it’s nice to have some time off. I’ve got so much work to do. I was only trying to help. If it’s the evening I put all the lights on and stay downstairs. He’s doing a presentation in class this afternoon. I understood most of it, though. But I usually use that time on the bus to finish my homework. When did they tell you you’re in the team?

Complete the questions with an adjective in bold from Ex. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Have you ever been really with your exam results? of anything, like spiders, for example? Are you if you cry in public? Do you get when you are with lots of people? Is it possible to feel before going to the dentist or speaking in class? Do you get , what do you do to relax? When you’re feeling about the meaning of any new words today? Are you ? If someone is late, do you feel ? Does reading make you feel

Remember!

Many adjectives are followed by specific (‘dependent’) prepositions. When you learn a new adjective you should also try to remember the preposition(s) that can follow it. In a monolingual dictionary you can find examples of sentences using the adjective and its prepostion(s).

MY PERSPECTIVE In 2014, hundreds of anonymous black and white photos made up a giant collage on the floor of the Panthéon, a mausoleum in Paris. The installation was created by the French artist, JR.

4

Work in pairs. Ask and answer some of the questions in Ex. 3. Expand on your answers and exchange more information. A Are you scared of anything, like spiders, for example? B Yes, I am. Actually, I don’t mind spiders, but I really hate snakes. A Why don’t you like them?

> World Map, p. 182

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  9


1A  What happened? BEFORE YOU LISTEN  1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss. 1 What do you know about tigers? 2 How would you feel if you saw a tiger in the wild?

LISTENING   2

1.01 Listen to two National Geographic explorers, Matthew Luskin (1) and William Allard (2), describing their work. Which explorer, 1 or 2, … 1 started this job fifty years ago? __ 2 spent a year in a rainforest? __ 3 felt scared while he was working? __ 4 took a photo that helped someone? __ 5 had to make some maps? __

LISTENING STRATEGIES Multiple matching When you listen and match (like in Ex. 2): • read the sentences or questions first. • listen carefully for things that express the same idea in a different way (for example, I started … 50 years ago = I’ve been a … for 50 years) • don’t choose your answers too quickly: wait until each speaker has finished before deciding.

3

Listen again and complete the notes about the explorers. 1.01 P

Matthew Luskin • worries that (1) will become extinct. • spent time photographing places where the animals . (2) • says that some men hid in a tree for (3) days. that he couldn’t sleep. • felt so (4) • helped National Park rangers to know which forests to . (5) William Albert Allard • was in Peru in (6) . . • says a driver hit and killed a boy’s (7) • says the boy was worried about what his would say. (8) of the boy. • took a (9) • says that readers of National Geographic donated to help the boy’s family. (10) $

Tigers live in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Russia and Thailand. > World Map, p. 182 10  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings


4

Read the questions in Ex. 2 again. They are in the Past simple, but they don’t use the auxiliary (did). Why not? Study the grammar box and underline three subject questions.

6

‘How many readers donated money?’ ‘A lot.’ ‘What did the readers donate?’ ‘Money.’ ‘Who worries about tigers?’ ‘Matthew Luskin.’ ‘What does Matthew Luskin worry about?’ ‘Tigers.’ ‘What killed the boy’s sheep in Peru?’ ‘A car.’ ‘What did the driver do?’ ‘He killed the boy’s sheep.’ > Grammar reference & practice p. 254 Write a subject question (A) and an object question (B) for each answer. Use the Present or Past simple. 1 A Who studied tigers in Indonesia? B What did Matthew Luskin study in Indonesia? → Matthew Luskin studied tigers in Indonesia. 2 A Who ____________________________? B Why ____________________________? → A man died because of a tiger attack. 3 A Who ____________________________? B What ____________________________? → The National Park rangers try to protect tigers. 4 A Who _____________________ the boy? B Who did ____________________________? → William Allard saw the boy on a road in Peru. 5 A What ____________________________? B How ____________________________? → Some sheep died in a car accident.

1.02 Read the dialogue and guess some of Alice’s questions. Then listen and check. Which are subject questions?

Alice I’m feeling a bit bored. (1) _______________ to do an online quiz with me? I’ve found loads here. General knowledge? History? Science? Music? Brad I’m not fussed. Alice OK. Let’s do Science. (2) _______________ the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962? Brad Who knows? Can’t we do something easier? Alice Well, what about animals? (3) _______________ tigers live? Brad That’s easy. India. Alice Hmmm, OK, that’s one of the countries. (4) _______________ the fastest on land? Brad Oh. The tiger again? No, er, I give up. Isn’t there something a bit more light-hearted? Alice There’s ‘How well (5) _______________ your best friend?’ We both have to answer and then it compares the results at the end. Brad Yeah, that sounds more fun! Alice What type of (6) _______________ the most on my playlists? What animal (7) _______________ me the most? (8) _______________ me a smart speaker for my birthday last year? Brad Hold on! You’re making me Talk the talk nervous. Give me a chance I’m not fussed. to answer!

Subject & object questions

5

WRITING & SPEAKING 7

Who knows? I give up. Hold on!

Work in pairs. Write six questions on a topic of your choice (music, animals, famous people, sport, ...). Use a mix of subject and object questions. Then do your quiz with the class. A Our quiz is on music. Who wrote the song ‘Shallow’? B I have no idea. A What album did Fedez and J-Ax release in 2017? B That one’s easy!

PRONUNCIATION  /ɒ/,/ʌ/,/əʊ/

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  11


1B  Fake it until you feel it

a

Why do people smile? ‘Say cheese!’

In English-speaking countries, this is what you say to people to make them smile before you take their photo. ‘Service with a smile’ is a common message for shop assistants and receptionists. Workers in call centres are even told to smile so they sound friendly when they speak to customers on the phone! The idea is that callers will notice if the phone operators aren’t smiling. But why should we want people to smile?

5

We’ve always known that smiling can express enjoyment, affection or friendliness, but we’re learning more and more about facial expressions, and realising that their effect on our relationships is more powerful than that. We know that smiling helps us

10

WORD BUILDING  Suffixes: -ment, -ness, -ion We can make nouns from adjectives by adding suffixes. adjective suffix noun embarrassed + ment embarrassment friendly + ness friendliness depressed + ion depression 1

Read the Word Building box and make nouns from these adjectives. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 nervous 2 sad 3 excited

2

4 disappointed 5 happy 6 exhausted

20

25

connect with other people in social situations and get out of arguments and embarrassing situations. We know from studies that smiling regularly may even increase the chances of living longer. In fact, it’s such an important part of being human that we start it very young. You probably started smiling to show your happiness when you were just a few weeks old, but you’ve known how to smile for even longer. Unborn babies get used to moving their facial muscles by smiling, in the same way they practise kicking using their leg muscles. And we aren’t the only animals that smile to communicate happiness – chimpanzees do it, too, suggesting that smiling existed before we did!

READING   3

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you think smiling really is a good way to feel better? 2 Who do you think smiles more, younger or older people, women or men? Why? 3 What kind of things make you smile?

4

Read the article quickly. Choose the best subtitle. 1 How our bodies affect our emotions 2 The secret power of smiling 3 Smiling expresses many emotions

7 confused 8 lonely

Complete the sentences with a noun or an adjective from Ex. 1. 1 Many people say that money can’t buy , but I think it helps. at summer camp. It was my 2 I felt quite first time away from home and I didn’t know anyone. 3 I had to sing on my own in the show. I felt so that I couldn’t sleep. 4 Simon worked hard at his exams. He didn’t want to be to his parents. a in the class. The 5 There was a lot of teacher said the school trip was on Wednesday but the email said Thursday.

12  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings

15

5

1.03 Now read and listen to the article more carefully. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?

1 Some workers are taught to smile when they speak to people who can’t see them. 2 People who smile a lot might live longer than others. 3 Other animals smile for the same reasons as humans. 4 You could stop a disagreement by smiling. 5 Eating chocolate has a more powerful effect on our emotions than smiling. 6 The writer of the article thinks that it’s wrong to smile if we do not feel happy.


c

b

Have you ever been in this situation: you are angry with a friend but you can’t stay angry because they’re smiling at you? This is because smiles pass from person to person, and it’s hard not to smile back. We actually lose some control of our own facial muscles when we look at someone smiling at us. When this happens, we automatically copy their expression, and smiling like them may actually help us understand their emotions better.

30

35

45

50

Being happy makes us smile, of course. But smiling also makes us happy. Scientists can take pictures of the brain to see what happens when a person is happy. They see the same effect when the person

40

6

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 L ook at the pairs of photos (a–c). Which smiles do you think are genuine? Which smiles do you think are fake? 2 In what type of situation do people pretend to smile? 3 Are you good at recognizing genuine and fake smiles?

CRITICAL THINKING  Rhetorical questions Rhetorical questions are used to make a point, but a reply is not expected. They are often used to: • • • • •

7

tell readers what information they can expect to read. emphasize a point. make a suggestion. persuade. help readers relate the text to their own experience.

Competences Work in pairs. Read the Critical Thinking box and discuss the questions. 1 Look at the title of the article and list all the reasons the writer gives for why people smile. 2 Why is it a good idea to have a question as a title? 3 There are three more questions in the article. Underline them. Match the questions to three of the functions in the Critical Thinking box. 4 Write a question to include in the article for one of the other two functions.

8

smiles, whether they’re really happy or not. So a smile isn’t just a sign to others; it is also a message to our brain telling it to feel happy. One study showed that a smile can have the same positive effect on the brain as eating 2,000 bars of chocolate! So, even if you’re feeling depressed, a fake smile can make all the difference. If you know someone who’s always smiling, perhaps they’re using it to control their emotions. Why not control your emotions the same way? If you sometimes feel sad, worried or angry, try smiling. You might feel better.

Read about the ‘Pan Am smile’. Then look at the photos again. Can you find the fake smiles more easily? What is the Pan Am smile? The ‘Pan Am smile’ is named after the flight attendants with Pan Am, an old American airline. They were famous for their friendly customer service and for always smiling at the passengers. Everyone knew that these smiles weren’t genuine, but they were an expression of friendliness and had a positive effect on the passengers. We all use Pan Am smiles because there are many situations where showing unhappiness would be rude. Smiling has the important social function of keeping people happy. But how can you tell the difference between a genuine smile and a fake smile? In the nineteenth century, French scientist Guillaume Duchenne noticed that we use two sets of facial muscles to smile: the muscles around the mouth and those around the eyes. Pan Am smiles only use the mouth, so the secret to spot the fake ones is to look at the eyes.

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  13


1C  A breath of fresh air GRAMMAR  Talking about the present 1

Study the grammar box and match each example (a–g) to a rule below.

Talking about the present

VIDEO MAP

a We’ve always known that smiling is good for you. b People are expressing their emotions more freely than in the past. c Most people believe that emotions are important. d Research shows that animals express emotions too. e Are you smiling at the moment? f Jim’s always laughing at people, but not in a nice way. g My friend Carl often tells us jokes during the break. 1 We use the Present simple: •  to describe habits and routines, often with adverbs of frequency like sometimes, usually. Example __ •  to express things that are always or generally true, like scientific facts. Example __ •  with stative verbs like enjoy, believe, know, agree. Example __ 2 We use the Present continuous: •  to talk about actions happening in this period or at the time of speaking. Example __ •  to talk about situation that are changing. Example __ •  with always, to express a frequent activity that other people may find irritating. Example __ 3 We use the Present perfect: •  to describe actions that started in the past and continue to the present. Example __ > Grammar reference & practice p. 254  2

Choose the correct option to complete the text. Beating the stress (1) Are you feeling / Have you felt stressed at the moment? Perhaps it’s because you (2) are always sitting / have always sat in front of a computer screen these days. So what should you do? You could be the sort of person who (3) is usually reading / usually reads a book, for instance, or (4) plays / has played video games for relaxation. Or perhaps you (5) are believing / believe that the answer to everyday stress is more time outside, surrounded by nature. (6) Are you enjoying / Do you enjoy getting away from cities, cars and computers and heading into the mountains? Well, it’s true that we (7) need / are needing time off work to relax, though it (8) becomes / is becoming more and more difficult to get away. But people (9) enjoy / have enjoyed forests, parks, lakes and rivers for thousands of years, so if life (10) becomes / has become too much to cope with recently, think about taking a break in the countryside or a walk in the park, even if it’s just for an hour or two.

14  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings


3

Read about the effect nature can have on our brains. Complete the text with the best form of the verbs: Present simple, Present continuous or Present perfect. (take) a break A group of 22 students (1) from their everyday lives at the University of Utah at the (sit) in front moment. Normally, they (2) of their computer screens studying psychology, but this (camp) with Professor David week they (3) Streyer in the mountains of Utah. Streyer (4) (spend) many years studying the effect of nature on our brains. (know) about the benefits of nature We (5) on the body for many years, but now we can see what (do) to the brain. Our stress levels nature (6) (drop) just by looking at photos of (7) (think) scenes from nature. Many people (8) (destroy) that little by little, technology (9) (believe) that after our lives, but Streyer (10) just two or three days away from modern life, we can start to think differently and more healthily.

4

Read about healing forests in South Korea. A verb form is wrong in each sentence. Identify and correct it. 1 Nature is being very important in Korean culture for hundreds of years. 2 But Koreans work very long hours, and stress levels among workers and students go up in recent years. 3 The government has believed that the answer can be found in ‘healing forests’: places of natural beauty where people go to relax, to reconnect with nature and to rest. 4 Currently there have been 37 healing forests in Korea, and they are becoming very popular. 5 People are often going there to walk, learn about plants, do yoga or just relax under the trees.

SPEAKING 5

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What are the advantages of doing outdoor activities? 2 What outdoor activities are popular with young people at the moment? Which do you do? 3 What other activities can you think of to beat stress?

COLLABORATION  6

Work in small groups. You are going to design a leaflet for an outdoor activity centre in your area / country. First, discuss ideas using these questions to help you. • • • • • • • •

What type of activity centre is it? Where is it located? Who is it aimed at? What kind of activities are there? What can people do / learn / see there? What facilities are there? How long has it been open? Is there an entrance fee or is it free of charge?

Now you are ready to design your leaflet. You should include: • some photos or pictures • some text to describe the centre and activities • some useful information such as the address, website, cost, opening times etc.

READING & WRITING STRATEGIES Error correction Error correction (see Ex. 4) helps you be more autonomous and have better awareness of the language. The type of error is usually indicated so it is easier to focus on what the mistake might be. For example, with tenses you can look for key words or time expressions that give you clues to the correct verb form. You can also learn from your own mistakes. When your teacher corrects your work, note the mistakes you make most often, then pay particular attention to those areas next time you write.

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  15


1D  Would you recommend it? SPEAKING & LISTENING  Talking about films 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

2

Work out the meaning of the words in bold by looking at the context in these sentences. Then match each sentence to a film genre from Ex. 1. 1 I don’t think anyone could survive in space for that long, but the special effects were amazing! ______ 2 The first film was so frightening, there’s no way I’m going to watch the sequel. ______ 3 It has a great soundtrack but some of the actors can’t sing very well. ______ 4 It’s an emotional story about a group of soldiers during the Second World War. The cast is amazing – Tom Hanks and Matt Damon are in it. ______ 5 It’s got a really exciting plot. The ending was a complete surprise! ______ 6 There were one or two scenes that were so funny that I cried with laughter. ______

3

• Which of these film types do you like best? Which don’t you like? Why? a comedy  a musical  a drama  a sci-fi film  a horror film  a thriller • Can you think of a recent example of a film for each type?

Functions

Who’s in it?

b

What else has he/she been in?

c

What’s the acting like?

d

When did it come out?

e

So what’s it about?

f

What sort of film is it?

g

Who directed it?

h

Where is it set?

i

Would you recommend it?

4

5

Match the questions you heard in Ex. 4 to these answers about a different film. Do you know the film?

> World Map, p. 182 16 18  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings

1.04 Listen again. Tick (✓) the follow-up questions in the Functions box that you hear.

1 It’s a sci-fi film. It’s the first in a series of four. ___ 2 It was released in 2012. ___ 3 She played one of the main characters in X-Men: Apocalypse. ___ 4 It tells the story of a young woman who fights for her life in a competition. ___ 5 In a country of the future called Panem. ___ 6 It stars Jennifer Lawrence. ___  6

Open-air cinema in the castle courtyard, Esslingen am Neckar, Germany.

Listen to two friends talking about a film. Choose the correct options.

Name of film: The Way We Were / The Way Way Back Starring: Steve Carell / Steve Collette Release date: 2003 / 2013 Type of film: animation / comedy Set in: a hotel / a water park Plot: An unhappy teenager / father goes on holiday with his family and makes new friends. Recommended? Yes / No

Asking follow-up questions a

1.04

Work in pairs. Student A: Tell Student B about a film you’ve seen. Student B: Ask follow-up questions to find out more.


WRITING  A book or film review 7

Look at the expressions in the Useful Language box. Are they used to talk about books (B), films (F) or both (B/F)?

8

Read the book review and find: • introductory sentences that give basic information about the book. • a short description of the plot. • the writer’s opinion and emotional response to it. • a sentence that tells the reader to watch or read it (or not).

Breathe is Sarah Crossan’s second novel, written in 2012. The main characters are three teenagers with different abilities. It is set in a terrible future, a world with very little oxygen, so most of the animals and humans are dead. The three friends have to leave the safety of their city to find a mysterious place called The Grove. What I really loved was the plot, which is full of action and mystery. It is an exciting book, and I couldn’t put it down. I also really liked the way the story is told by the three main characters, Alina, Bea and Quinn, who all have different qualities. This means you get to see the same events in different ways. One thing that lets the book down is the sudden change in Alina’s personality. Halfway through the novel she becomes kinder and more loving, but I didn’t understand why. I would certainly recommend Breathe. What makes it really worth reading is its vision of the future.

9

Read the review again. List the book’s good points and the reviewer’s criticisms.

10 Competences Do the Writing Strategies task on the right. Then complete

these sentences so that they are true for the film you talked about in Ex. 6. 1 One thing that I loved about the film was … 2 What I found disappointing was … 3 What made me really think was …

11

12

Now choose a book or film that you know. Write a review. Include all the points from Ex. 8 and some expressions from the Useful Language box. Read other students’ reviews. Which books or films would you like to read/see?

Useful Language Talking about films and books It stars … F It’s set in … B/F It tells the story of … / It’s about … It was directed by … It was released in … It came out in … It was published in … The main character is … The soundtrack was amazing. The special effects were a bit disappointing. The sequel is even better / not as good. It’s a moving / inspiring / great / exciting / funny story. I’d definitely recommend it. I couldn’t put it down. It made me feel … Unfortunately, I thought it was …

WRITING STRATEGIES Emphasis a Read the sentences. Which sentence emphasises the way the person feels about the plot more? 1 I really loved the plot. 2 What I really loved was the plot. b Find three more sentences in the review that add emphasis.

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  17


2

Enjoy the ride

Travel is the only thing you buy that makes you richer.

(Anonymous)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What does the quote mean to you? • What are the benefits of travel? • Would you like to travel more in your life? Why and where? • Are there other things we buy that can make us richer?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

18

Ø talk about getting around Ø read about an unusual hobby

Ø learn about how to live and travel cheaply Ø write a story about a journey you have made


VOCABULARY  Travel   1

Look at the photo and read the caption, then discuss the questions in pairs. 1 Would you like to go to school like this? Why do you think the children don’t have a safer way of travelling? 2 How do you get to school? 3 How many ways of getting around can you think of? Make a list. go on your skateboard, take the bus, … 4 Look at your list. Which form of transport: • is the cheapest? • is the fastest? • is the most relaxing? • is the most stressful? • lets you see the most?

2

Complete the sentences with these pairs of words. cruise + excursion  commute + lift  expedition + voyage flight + destination  ride + route  trip + backpacking 1 My mum and dad to work by car, so they normally give me a to school. number. It’s flying to the same 2 RY5608 – that isn’t our but it’s a different airline. stayed on the ship, but we went on 3 Some passengers on the that they organized around the old port. the ! I’m glad we were and 4 We had an amazing didn’t stay in a hotel. We saw more of the country that way. yesterday, I took a different 5 When I went for a bike – I get bored going the same way all the time. to the Antarctic lasted a year. After a difficult month-long 6 The , the scientists started their research. sea

3

Delete the item in each list that does not collocate with the verb(s). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

catch/miss get get on/off get to know get to go for go on take

my bus, my train, my car home, lost, school, from A to B the bus, the car, the train, the plane the city, your way around, a trip work, home, school a trip, a bike ride, a drive a flight, a journey, a travel, a trip, an expedition, a cruise a taxi, an hour, two kilometres, public transport

Go online and find out the difference in meaning between travel, trip and journey. Then discuss with the class.

Students in Colombia crossing the Rio Negro canyon using cables to get to school. > World Map, p. 182

• • • • •   4

What search terms or key words did you use? Which website did you find most useful? Was the explanation in English or in your own language? Did you find examples of the words in a context? Did your classmates use the same site? Complete the sentences so they are true for you. 1 2 3 4 5

My journey to school takes … The best way for visitors to get to know my city is by … If I take public transport, I prefer to travel by … because … The last long journey I went on was to … If I could take a flight anywhere, I’d choose … as my destination.

Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  19


2A  Getting from A to B BEFORE YOU LISTEN  1

3

Answer the questions in pairs. 1 What’s the most common way for students to travel to your school? 2 How long is the average journey? 3 Do you think it’s the same for students in the rest of the country?

Listen to descriptions of three journeys to school. Complete the table. 1.05

Name

1.05

Listen again. Who (Santiago, Chosing or Daisy):

1 travels the furthest? 2 doesn’t take long to get to school? 3 stays at school for a long time? 4 gets up early to get to school on time? 5 has a dangerous journey? 6 will have an easier journey to school soon?

GRAMMAR  Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing

LISTENING 2

Where they live

How they travel

Time / distance they travel

4

What they do on the way

Adjectives ending in -ed / -ing a  You might think your journey to school takes ages, but Santiago Muñoz has one of the most tiring school commutes in the world … He’s excited about having more time to spend with friends and getting more sleep!

1 Santiago Muñoz 2 Chosing Leh, in the Himalayas

b  They don’t talk much, but it is never boring. It takes them six days and at the end they are exhausted.

3 Daisy Mora

c  For some students living along the Rio Negro, their journey to school is absolutely terrifying ... If Daisy is frightened, she doesn’t show it!

LISTENING STRATEGIES Completing tables When you have to listen and fill in a table: • study the table first. This way you can often guess the kind of information that is needed, for example, a date, a price, or a method of transport. • don’t write full sentences: one or two words are usually enough.

Study the grammar box and underline the six adjectives. Which three adjectives describe the journeys? Which three describe how the people feel?

5

Choose the correct option to complete the rules. Some adjectives are made from verbs. 1 A djectives that describe how a person feels end in -ing / -ed. 2 Adjectives that describe the thing that makes you feel an emotion end in -ing / -ed.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 256 Santiago (Ex. 2) has to cross most of his city to get to school every day. > World Map, p. 182

20  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride


6

Match the -ed adjectives (1–10) to their meanings (a–j). Then complete the -ing adjectives. -ed adjective 1  amazed 2  exhausted 3  annoyed 4  disappointed 5  excited 6  shocked 7  worried 8  confused 9  amused 10  relaxed

meaning e

SPEAKING  7

-ing adjective amazing

a surprised if something bad that happens suddenly b irritated and a little angry about something c unhappy because something was not as good as you hoped or because something did not happen d thinking about bad things that might happen e very surprised f feeling happy and comfortable, without worries g unable to think clearly about or understand something h very tired i feeling very happy and enthusiastic j when something is funny or entertaining

Go on the website of your local transport system and find an alternative route from your house to your school. How many times do you have to change transport?

Choose the correct option. Then work in pairs and tell your partner about experiences you have had using some of the situations 1–8. 1 a destination you were looking forward to seeing but you found a bit disappointed / disappointing when you got there I was excited about a school trip to the History Museum, but it was really boring. Everyone was really disappointed. 2 a time when you were surprised / surprising by a destination or trip 3 a day when you did so much walking that you were absolutely exhausted / exhausting at the end 4 the longest and most bored / boring journey you’ve ever been on 5 a journey when you were very worried / worrying that you wouldn’t get to the destination 6 an annoyed / annoying delay on public transport that you really didn’t need 7 the most relaxed / relaxing form of transport or journey you’ve experienced 8 an expedition that you’d be very excited / exciting to go on

8

Work in groups. Share your stories from Ex. 7. Whose experiences have been the most: • exciting? • boring? • annoying? • surprising? • disappointing?

Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  21


LIFE ON THE EDGE OF THE CITY

URBEXERS

2B  Urban explorers

Standing on the Forth Bridge, Scotland. > World Map, p. 182

WORD BUILDING  Compound nouns Compound nouns consist of more than one word. They can be formed by using noun + noun, adjective + noun, or verb + noun. They can be written as one word or two words with a space or a hyphen. You should use a dictionary to check the correct spelling. 1

Match words in column A to words in column B and make compound nouns related to cities. A 1 sight 2 a walking 3 an underground 4 a shopping 5 a building 6 public

a b c d e f

7 8 9 10 11 12

g h i j k l

urban railway a sky a roof an amusement a view

22  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride

B

site station transport seeing centre tour

tracks top park exploration scraper point

2

Listen and check your answers to Ex. 1. Which word is usually stressed in compound nouns: the first or the second?

3

Which of the compound nouns in Ex. 1 are:

1.06

1 things visitors might do, use or visit? 2 buildings? 3 places the public don’t normally go?

READING 4

You are going to read an article about urban explorers (urbexers). Write three questions about urbexers you would like to know the answers to. Then read the article to check if your questions are answered.

5

Read and listen to the article again. Choose the correct option. 1.06 P

1 Why does the article begin by talking about options for tourists? A They are good examples of urban exploration. B They are very different from the activities that urban explorers do. C The writer wants to recommend some ways of exploring cities. D The writer wants to criticise how tourists visit a city.


5

How do you get to know a city you’ve never been to before? For most people, the typical tourist options are enough. Take a bus tour to see the sights or, if you’re feeling energetic, consider a walking tour. To get a taste of city life, use public transport.

15

But there are people who want more than the standard tourist options. They are urbexers – urban explorers. They’re interested in discovering parts of the city we normally see as less beautiful, the places tourists are not supposed to see: ghost underground stations that have been closed for years, shopping centres and amusement parks at night, abandoned factories, building sites, tunnels and railway tracks. It’s not for everybody. You can’t be scared of heights or small spaces and you have to be willing to take risks.

20

Bradley Garrett is one of them. Urbexers don’t follow the same routes as everyone else: ‘I’ve been to Paris six times and I’ve seen more of the city underground than I have above ground,’ he says. ‘If somebody asked me for a good restaurant, I’d have no idea.’

10

25

It wasn’t until Bradley and his urbexer friends had climbed to the top of London’s tallest skyscraper, The Shard, and had managed to visit all of the city’s fourteen abandoned underground stations that the police stopped them exploring as a group. Bradley was studying urbexers for a book he was writing when they had to stop.

Bradley’s best experience as an urbexer was in Chicago with friends when they climbed the Legacy Tower, a 72-storey skyscraper. ‘We were sitting on a rooftop looking up at this building when someone suggested we try to get up it. So we walked in and just got in the lift after some residents had opened the door. When we made it up to the roof, it was the most incredible view I’ve ever seen.’

30

35

Why do urbexers do it? Many enjoy the excitement of putting themselves in danger. Some enjoy the feeling they get from being alone in abandoned places. ‘I feel I’m the only person in the world,’ says Zhao Yang, a Chinese 29-year-old who explores places where people used to work, like old industrial sites and abandoned hospitals. Like many urbexers, Zhao is a keen photographer who takes his smartphone to record what he sees and, like many, he also writes a blog about his experiences, but he prefers to explore alone.

40

45

This can be dangerous, of course, and urbexers run many risks and often break the law. So if you’re interested in exploring city spaces, choose a safe way of doing it. For example, it’s easy to look at a map, identify an area that is new to you and go there. Another way is to try to get lost in your own town. Or you could just set off for a walk without planning your route. Who knows what you might find!

50

> World Map, p. 182

2

The places that urban explorers visit are A always underground. B not used any more. C not usually attractive to many people. D always in industrial areas.

3

Bradley Garrett A knows Paris very well. B doesn’t like high places. C doesn’t like French food. D wouldn’t be a very good guide for traditional tourists.

CRITICAL THINKING  Selecting information If they are writing about something that is unfamiliar to a lot of people, writers have to think about the kind of information that will interest their readers.  6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4 What was Bradley Garrett’s trip to the top of the Legacy Tower like? A easy B lonely C well-planned D frightening 5

What does Zhao Yang do? A He investigates abandoned factories. B He explores with friends. C He keeps his experiences a secret. D He never takes any photographs.

6

How does the article end? A By describing more activities that urban explorers do. B By recommending other ways of exploring cities. C By explaining the health benefits of urban exploration. D By telling urbexers how to avoid breaking the law.

Competences Read the Critical Thinking box. Which questions does the article answer about urbexers and urban exploration? Does urban exploration happen all over the world? How long have people been exploring in this way? How many people do it? If I want to explore my local urban area, what can I do? Is the word ‘urbexer’ in the dictionary? What are some of the stories that urbexers have? Why is urban exploration attractive to some people? What kind of places do urbexers visit? What personal qualities do urbexers need?

SPEAKING  7

Work in groups. Discuss the questions.

1 W hat other information would you like to see in the article? 2 Where could you find out the answers to the questions that weren’t answered? Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  23


2C  Sydney on $20 The city of Sydney, Australia, and its famous Opera House. > World Map, p. 182

GRAMMAR  Narrative forms 1

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences in the grammar box. Then check your answers in the text on the previous page.

Narrative forms

VIDEO MAP

a It wasn’t until Bradley and his friends had climbed / were climbing to the top of The Shard and used to manage / had managed to visit all of the city’s abandoned underground stations that the police stopped / were stopping them exploring as a group. b Bradley studied / was studying urbexers for a book he wrote / was writing when they had to stop. c ‘We had sat / were sitting on a rooftop when someone suggested / used to suggest we try to get up the Legacy Tower. So we walked / were walking in and just had got / got in the lift after some residents had opened / were opening the door. d Zhao Yang explores places where people were working / used to work, like old industrial sites and abandoned hospitals. 2

Read the sentences in the grammar box and complete these rules with Past simple, Past continuous, Past perfect or used to. When we tell stories or talk about actions or events in the past: 1 w e use the to describe an action or event that was in progress when another action happened. The two actions are often linked with when, while or as. We also use it to give background information. It is not used with stative verbs (know, love, etc.). to describe completed actions in the 2 we usually use the past. If actions happen one after another, we use this tense. to show that one action finished before 3 we use the another action happened. The actions are often connected with after, before and already. to talk about situations, habits and 4 we usually use routines that were true in the past but are not true any more.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 256 3

Becky Khalil was a freegan in Sydney, Australia. Read the text quickly and find out what a freegan is. Then read again and choose the correct option. I (1) used to think / was thinking that Australia was a really expensive place, and the first time I (2) went / had gone there, I worked to pay for my living expenses. But while I (3) had stayed / was staying in Australia last time, I (4) found / used to find another way to live. I (5) used to use / had already used my working visa on my first trip, so I couldn’t get a job this time. To make things worse, someone (6) was stealing / had stolen all my money during a train journey. So I (7) became / had become a freegan. That’s a person who tries to travel without paying for food, transport or accommodation. Before, I (8) used to buy / was buying too much food and threw a lot of it away, but this time I (9) had eaten / ate leftover food from friends and shops, like day-old bread. I (10) didn’t spend / hadn’t spent anything on accommodation, less than $100 on travel and less than $20 on food for six weeks!

24  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride

PRONUNCIATION  /ɔː/


4

Complete the rest of Becky’s story with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

7

(let) Most of the time, friends of mine (1) me sleep on their sofas, but before my trip I (contact) a company that organizes (2) ‘house-sitting’ jobs, so I sometimes looked after houses when the owners were on holiday. (get) lifts To save money on bus fares, I (3) (travel) with people I knew, and while I (4) around the country, I usually decided to camp. Once I went to sleep under the stars because I (5) (be) too tired to put my tent up. Finding cheap or free food was much easier than I (expect) it to be. Even in winter, (6) (live) with other I enjoyed it because I (7) (become) friends and freegans and we (8) helped each other. At the end of each day, shops gave (not sell). Believe it us anything they (9) (eat) extremely well! or not, we (10)   5

Liam Have you changed the screensaver on your mobile, Marta? I haven’t seen that photo before. Marta Yes, I changed it yesterday. It’s me and my brother in Edinburgh last year while we were waiting for Dad outside the castle. Liam I didn’t know that you’d been to Scotland. When did you go? Marta Last September. School hadn’t started yet so I was free, and my brother was moving to Edinburgh to study at the university. Liam Did you have a good time? Marta Well I didn’t really want to go at first to be honest, but actually it was a great trip. The university was really interesting, and we went on a fantastic walking tour to find out all about the film Trainspotting. Liam Sounds amazing! I love that film. 1 What photo does Marta have as her phone screensaver? 2 Why did she go to Scotland and who did she go with? 3 What did she like best about her trip?

Complete the sentences in your own words. Then work in pairs and compare your sentences. 1 2 3 4

Before this lesson I didn’t know … When I was younger, I used to … The last time I … was when … I didn’t spend any money when …

WRITING & SPEAKING  8

CRITICAL THINKING   6

exploit the kindness of others and take, take, take!

Freegans have a way of life that helps the environment and reduces waste. I think that’s great!

Write notes about a trip or journey you have taken that was memorable in some way. Use these questions to help you plan what you are going to say. • Where did you go and how did you travel? • When did you make the trip and who did you go with? • What memorable things happened? What were you doing when they happened? • How did you feel about the journey in general?

Competences Read the quotes about freegans then discuss the pros and cons of this lifestyle.

“I think freegans are just people who want to

Read the dialogue and underline two examples each of the Past continuous, Past simple and Past perfect. Then answer the questions below.

9

Work in pairs. Tell each other about your trip. Ask questions to find out more about your partner’s trip.

Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  25


2D  You can’t miss it SPEAKING & LISTENING  Do you know the way? 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

2

1.07

Listen to two conversations. Complete the table. Conversation 1

1 How do you find your way when you are lost? 2 Have you ever used a map, satnav or app to help you, or do you prefer to ask someone?

Conversation 2

1 Do the speakers know each other? 2 Where do they want to get to? 3 How are they travelling? 4 How far is it? 5 What will they do if they get lost? 3

Look at the map and listen again. Match a letter from the map with each of these places. 1.07

1 where the first conversation takes place ___ 2 the Science Museum ___ 4

1.07

3 the cinema ___ 4 Melanie’s house ___

Use one word to complete the expressions. Listen again to check.

1 Can you me? I’m trying to to the museum. from here. About fifteen minutes’ . 2 It’s quite a long you get to the 3 Go up Northway Street for about five minutes on the right. supermarket on your left. Then take the second it. 4 You can’t to your house? 5 Can you give me you, you’ll need to turn right. 6 So if the station’s of the street you’ll see a cinema in front of you. 7 At the on up Northway Street until you get to a supermarket on your 8 , there’s a street on the left. right. Just after

Functions Asking for directions Excuse me. Do you know the way to …? Giving directions Go all the way up there until you get to … At the traffic lights, go straight on / turn right. After 200 metres, take the first turning on the left. Go past a … on your left / right. The train station is on your left. Talking about time and distance It’s not very far from here. It’s no more than a kilometre from there.

26  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride

5

Work in pairs. Ask for and give directions between places on the map. Use the expressions in the Functions box to help you.

6

Now work in groups. Give directions to each other from school to destinations around town. Listen and say what you think the destinations are.


WRITING  A story 7

Work in pairs. Read the writing task below. Then tell your partner about a time when you got lost. Write a story that ends with the sentence: After so many hours feeling completely lost, I had ended up just where I needed to be!

8

Read the story and put the paragraphs (A-D) in the correct order. Use the Writing Strategies box to help you.

A ___ Unfortunately, no one spoke English at the bus station and the destinations were written in Thai, so I didn’t understand anything. Eventually, an old man pointed to a bus that was just about to leave. I got on the bus. B ___ He drove fast. When he stopped, I saw a boat. A sign said ‘Koh Tao ferry’. After so many hours feeling completely lost, I had ended up just where I needed to be! Three years ago I went to Thailand. I wanted to visit a beautiful island. My C ___ cousin had just returned from an island called Koh Tao, and told me I could catch a bus and a boat there. D ___ During the long journey, I looked out of the window. I was just falling asleep when the driver shouted ‘Koh Tao!’ I got out and looked around. I couldn’t see the sea, just a quiet road. A man on a motorbike came over. ‘Koh Tao?’ I asked. He just pointed to his bike. I didn’t have any choice. I got on the bike. 9

Read the story again and find examples of the narrative tenses that you revised in this unit (Past simple, Past continuous and Past perfect).

10

You are going to write a story about a journey or trip that ends with one of these three sentences. Choose your ending. • That was one of the worst trips of my life. • I hadn’t expected to have such an exciting journey. • Getting to school had never been so complicated.

11

Competences Read the Writing Strategies box and prepare to write your story. 1 Use the questions in the Writing Strategies box to help you make notes about the details of your story. 2 Think about the verb forms you will need to tell the story.

12

WRITING STRATEGIES  Telling a story When you write a story, plan your paragraphs in this way: Paragraph 1: Set the scene Where does the story start? Who is the story about? When does the story take place? Paragraphs 2 and 3: Main events What happened? How did you feel? What happened next? Paragraph 4: The end What happened in the end? How did you or other people feel? What do you remember most about the events?

Write your story. When you have finished, share it with other people in the class. Whose stories sound like the best/worst experiences?

Koh Tao is a beautiful island in Thailand. Its name means ‘Turtle Island.’ > World Map, p. 182 Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  27


1&2  Consolidation & Certification Grammar revision present & past tenses; subject & object questions; adjectives (-ed / -ing) Vocabulary revision describing emotions; travel; suffixes (-ment, -ness and -ion); compound nouns

VOCABULARY & WORD BUILDING   1

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in capitals. 1 Julian was very ______________ when his pet hamster died. SADNESS 2 Often as people get older they suffer from ______________. LONELY 3 Smiling is an expression of ______________. FRIEND 4 The athlete did his best but ______________ set in after 20km of the race and he had to give up. EXHAUSTED 5 The students were really ______________ when they found out the destination for their school trip. EXCITEMENT 6 There was a lot of ______________ about who was going to give the opening speech at the awards ceremony. CONFUSED

2 P

Choose the correct option.

DiscoverEU Are you looking for an (1) _____ opportunity to discover Europe and your EU identity? DiscoverEU is an initiative from the European Union which gives around 30,000 travel passes to young Europeans each year. Over two thousand passes were available for Italian students in 2019, allowing them free (2) _____, from a minimum of one day to a maximum of 30 days, mainly by train. The (3) _____ you can choose are limitless as you have freedom of movement within the EU member states and can get on and (4) _____ trains whenever and wherever you want. It is the ideal chance to (5) _____ to know different cultures and lifestyle, as well as to make new friend. Go (6) _____ in a capital city, go on a guided (7) _____ of a museum, admire the scenery from a panoramic (8) _____ on the top of a mountain. And after your (9) _____, you should recount your (10) _____ experiences and adventures on social media using #DiscoverEU. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A excitement B excited C excite D exciting A trip B travel C voyage D journey A transport B destinations C flights D commute A off B out C up D through A have B be C go D get A exploration B visit C sightseeing D tour A trip B tour C journey D ride A sight B viewpoint C perspective D prospect A travel B cruise C trip D voyage A amazing B amazement C amazed D amaze

28  Units 1&2  Consolidation & Certification

GRAMMAR   3

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first. 1 I found the talk on urban explorers very interesting. I was _______________ in the talk on urban explorers. 2 It was the group’s first time in the city so they got lost. The group got lost because they _______________ visited the city before. 3 Flying was once only for the rich. Flying used _______________ only for the rich. 4 It’s ages since we had a holiday abroad. We _______________ a holiday abroad for ages. 5 When I read a map I feel confused because I always rely on a satnav for directions. Reading a map is _______________ for me because I always rely on a satnav for directions.

4

Choose the correct alternative. 1 This is the first time I have flown / fly so I’m feeling a little nervous. 2 ‘Who watched / did watch the Avengers movie last night?’ ‘I did!’ 3 Mark missed the bus so when he arrived at school, lessons had / have already started. 4 There is a lot of traffic in the mornings because so many people are commuting / commute to work by car. 5 ‘Which platform does our train leave / our train leaves from?’ ‘Platform 9, over there.’ 6 We never went / had never been to the villa before and the views were amazed / amazing. 7 I am believing / believe that electric cars are not cheap enough so people don’t want to buy them. 8 It didn’t rain / wasn’t raining when I left for school this morning, but now it is pouring / pours.


LISTENING   5

REAL ENGLISH

1.08 P Listen to the presentation of a tourist destination in Derbyshire, England. Complete the notes with words or a number.

The Heights of Abraham Location

Matlock Bath, Derbyshire

Travelling by car Car parks located near the station and in the (1) ________ of the village Travelling by train Distance from train station only (2) ________ metres Price

Family ticket (3) £________

Ticket includes

• (4) ________ ride to reach the

hilltop park

• Access to all the whole park

• (5) ________ of two caverns

• Multimedia exhibition

Opening times

Daily from 10 a.m. to (6) ________

Facilities

• Restaurant and café, serving

• Two children’s adventure

meals, (7) ________ and drinks playgrounds

• (8) ________ shop

6

P

Complete each text with the correct option.

1

SCARED OF FLYING?

A The advert promises help with strong emotions.

FRIGHTENED OF SPIDERS? Trained expert uses the latest techniques to remove all your

B The expert will call you if you feel scared.

fears and phobias. Money back

C You have to pay in advance.

Call 1-800-1111

guarantee if unsuccessful. for information.

2 A Mark is lost and wants Kim to send directions.

Kim, see you at six as planned, but can you send me the directions again? I lost them and can’t use the map app on my phone. Thanks, Mark

B Mark is texting Kim to fix a time and place to meet. C Kim has already sent the directions to Mark once. 3 A The website gives information on different forms of transport in Europe. B The website can help people organise a holiday in different European countries.

X Going backpacking around Europe by train? Here you can find everything you need to know about planning your trip and what to take with you.

C On the website you can read about backpackers’ world travel experiences.   7

1.09 P You will hear some sentences. Choose the best reply to each one. 1 A I’m sorry, I’m not from here. B Go past the church and turn left. C It’s next to the bank.

2 A I like cycling. B I’m not fussed. C It’s too far. 3 A It was about two hours long. B I didn’t like it. C I don’t want to spoil it for you. 4 A He’s been to the USA too. B I can’t remember. C He’s been there for five days. 5 A It was quite shocking. B It was about a long train journey. C I hadn’t seen it before.

Units 1&2  Consolidation & Certification  29


CROSSING THE ATLANTIC IN A BARREL 5

10

15

20

25

An intrepid Frenchman, JeanJacques Savin, has completed an epic solo journey across the Atlantic Ocean. Of course, many adventurers have crossed the Atlantic alone by sailing boat, rowing boat or other forms of transport in the past: so what makes Savin’s trip so amazing? Well, he was in a barrel-shaped* capsule with no engine or other form of power, relying entirely on the ocean currents and winds to take him safely across. (1) ___ For example, one day a cargo ship didn’t respond to his radio signals and it almost collided with him. He used a flare* to warn the ship and luckily it changed direction just in time. (2) ___ The bright orange barrel, about 3 metres by 2 metres, was very simple inside, with a bed, a kitchen area for preparing food and lots of space for keeping food and necessary equipment. There was a window in the floor so Savin could watch the fish which were

30

35

40

45

> World Map, p. 182

READING

swimming below him. He had a satellite connection, powered by solar panels, so he could use a GPS device to check his position, the weather forecast and wind speeds. (3)___ This is how his team on land could keep him informed about what people were saying about him in the hundreds of messages on social media. Savin spent most of his time reading, writing about his experiences and playing his mandolin. But what about food? (4)___ He also often got new food supplies from passing ships.

50

55

60

Savin, aged 72, has always been an adventurer. He had already crossed the Atlantic alone four times before this 122-day voyage of 4,500 km from the Canary Islands to the Caribbean island of St. Eustatius. (5)___ The view of the ocean, the emotions and feelings were unique. So what about the feeling of solitude? Did he ever feel lonely? He insists that the time actually passed very quickly and that he never felt lonely. In fact, he says that moments of solitude are necessary because they help him to stay young and fit. barrel-shaped the shape of a large wooden container for beer or wine flare an instrument producing a flash of light

Read the text and choose the correct sentence (A–G) to complete each space. There are two extra sentences.

8 P INVALSI

A And he was also able to make calls and send emails. B He plans to publish a book about his experience. C Another time the waves were so fierce and big that the barrel nearly turned over in the water. D Well, he sometimes swam and caught fish so he had something fresh to eat. E When he woke up, he made a big breakfast. F During his adventure, there were several frightening moments. G However, he says that this experience was completely different from the previous ones. 30  Units 1&2  Consolidation & Certification


1&2  Presentation Skills VISUAL AIDS  Using slides to illustrate a talk   1

Discuss the questions in pairs. 1 What types of visual aids can you use during a presentation or talk? 2 Why are visual aids useful? 3 Is it important to think carefully about how many visual aids you use? What about when and how you use them?

2

1.10

is true?

Read and listen to part of a talk by Stephen about a personal achievement. Which statement (A, B, C or D)

It’s hard to find the words to explain how I felt when I got the email telling me I had passed my Mandarin exam. I had finally reached the goal I had set myself three years before. I remember the day before the exam well. My dad took me for a long walk in the mountains. He said that the fresh air and fantastic scenery would help clear my mind. He didn’t want me to study on the last day, or spend that day feeling worried and anxious. We had a great time and I woke up full of energy and confidence on the morning of the exam. My hard work and determination certainly contributed to my success, but I have to thank my dad too, for his advice on the top of the mountain that day. I think he was even more pleased with the result than I was! A B C D   3

Stephen doesn’t get on well with his dad. Stephen and his dad are both experienced mountain climbers. Stephen managed to reach a personal objective after three years’ hard work. Stephen’s dad wanted him to do the Mandarin exam.

Read the Competences box. Then look at the slides below and discuss the questions with the class: 1 Do you think any of these slides would be appropriate in Stephen’s talk? 2 Which one(s)? Give reasons for your answers.

4

When you use slides, you can introduce them with certain expressions. Complete expressions 1–4 below with the words in the box. can have illustrates show 1 2 3 4

Here we _____ an example of… The next slide _____ … As you _____ see here, … These graphs _____ …

YOUR TALK   5

Work in pairs. Prepare two or three slides for a presentation on one of the following topics. Compare your ideas with the rest of the class. • books and films teenagers would find enjoyable • the pros and cons of social media for young people • public transport in your town • unusual places to visit in your area

COMPETENCES Slides can be a valid addition to a presentation, but remember that they are an ‘extra’: what you say is the most important thing. Slides with text: • limit the amount of text and don’t read directly from the slide. • present the information step-by-step. You don’t want the audience to read the slide instead of listening to you. • use a simple design, and limit special effects which may interfere with your message. Slides with images: • Depending on the topic, you could use your own photographs. • If you use images from the Internet, look for something original, not clichés.

On pages 32–33 you will watch a TED Talk. When you watch the talk, pay attention to how the speaker uses slides and how much information is presented on them Units 1&2  Presentation Skills  31


Happy maps

If you think that adventure is dangerous, try routine. It’s deadly.

DANIELE QUERCIA

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS

Read about the TED Talk speaker, Daniele Quercia. Does he think the fastest route from A to B is always the best? Daniele Quercia is a scientist at Yahoo! Labs in Barcelona. He works on new ways to use online maps to improve our ‘offline’ lives. His work used to be all about efficiency, and getting to where you want to go as quickly as possible. But a personal experience changed all that. Now he is interested in enjoying the journey, not just the quickest route between two places. He and his team crowdsource their research: they get members of the public to play an online game. Players choose between pairs of photos of urban scenes. Daniele has used the information from the game to design a mapping app that shows the happy path to your destination. Daniele’s idea worth spreading is that the fastest route may be efficient, but there are times when taking a different route can be more interesting and memorable.

Understanding accents When you travel abroad or listen to people on TV and the internet, you will hear foreign and regional accents in English. It’s helpful to practise listening to different accents so you can enjoy listening to people from all over the world. 3

1.11 Listen to the beginning of the TED Talk, first said by a native English speaker and then by Daniele Quercia, a native Italian speaker. Compare the pronunciation of the underlined sounds. I have a confession to make. As a scientist and engineer, I’ve focused on efficiency for many years.

4

How do you say these sentences? Listen to Daniele and a native speaker to compare. 1 I lived in Boston and worked in Cambridge. 2 I teamed up with Luca and Rossano. 3 They also recalled how some paths smelled and sounded.

> World Map, p. 182

KEY WORDS  2

1.12

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings.

MY PERSPECTIVE

a ___________ = places in cities and towns

5

b ___________ = the ability to use time and energy

well to get a job done c ___________ = the way from one place to another d ___________ = get information from many people, usually using the Internet e ___________ = software that shows maps 32  Units 1&2  TED Talk

Which of these statements do you agree with? Why? 1 Learners should always try to sound like native speakers of English. 2 Sometimes it’s easier to understand other non-native speakers of English than native speakers. 3 Your foreign accent in English is an important part of your identity, so be proud of it.


WATCH THE TALK 6

What do you usually see on your journey to school? What can you hear? What can you smell?

7

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Answer the questions. 1 What journey helped Daniele see that travel isn’t just about efficiency? A Moving from Boston to Barcelona. B A bicycle race he took part in. C His commute to work.

8

2

How was the new route different from the old one? A It went along Massachusetts Avenue. B It had less traffic. C It was shorter and quicker.

3

What does Daniele say about mapping apps? A They encourage people to explore more. B They give too many choices about the route. C They are very similar to computer games. Watch Part 2. Choose the correct option.

1 Daniele studied how people experience / get around the city. 2 The red path on the map is the shortest / most enjoyable one. 3 They collected data by asking people to play a game / take a test. 4 The first map that they designed was of Boston / London. 5 Now, their research is in developing maps based on smell, sound and memories / sights. 6 Their goal is to encourage people to take the best path / many paths through the city.

9

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Daniele’s London map shows routes that are short, happy, beautiful and quiet. Which kind of route would you prefer to use to get around your city? Why? 2 Why might these people be interested in using this kind of mapping app? Give reasons for each one. • a tourist spending a week in a new city • a courier who delivers letters and parcels quickly for companies by bicycle • a student • a taxi driver 3 Would you like to have this mapping app on your smartphone? Why? / Why not? CHALLENGE

Work in pairs. Look at a map of your town, or a city that you know well. Plan two one-hour walking routes for the city. • Route 1. This must include as many beautiful sights and interesting places as possible. • Route 2. This must include the places most likely to interest teenagers who are visiting the city. Work in groups. Compare your routes and discuss the questions. • Which of the tours would you enjoy most if you were a tourist? Why? • What other types of (guided) tours could you offer in the town or city? Units 1&2  TED Talk  33


3

Active lives

Walking is the best possible exercise.

(Thomas Jefferson, 1743–1826, third President of the United States)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What are the benefits of walking as a form of exercise? • Do you agree that it is the best possible exercise? • Do you think you walk a lot or not enough?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

34

Ø talk about the reasons for doing sport Ø read about how athletics is saving Africa’s lions

Ø l earn about runners Ø write an opinion essay about sport


VOCABULARY  Sports 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and read the caption. Discuss the questions. 1 Why do people do sports like this? 2 Have you ever done an ‘extreme sport’? Would you like to try one? Why? / Why not?

2

Put these words into the correct category. Use a dictionary if necessary. Then work in pairs and add more words to each category. bounce catch climbing diving gymnastics karate opponent pitch referee sailing spectator the 100-metre sprint Sports

People

Places

coach court kick net rink rope throw track

Equipment

Actions

climbing

3

Write five sentences about sports using the words in Ex. 2. In tennis, you have to hit the ball to your opponent’s side of the court.

4

Write a verb from the box next to each set of possible collocations. achieve beat do encourage go play represent score train win

Bike base jumping in Canyonlands National Park, Utah.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

> World Map, p. 182

5

a prize / a trophy / the gold medal climbing / sailing / cycling golf / tennis / an important role gymnastics / yoga / your best people to work as a team / children to exercise more for the event / before the race / hard your goal / your personal best / your ambition your school / your country / the team a goal / ten points your opponent / the champion

Work in pairs. Read the statements (1–6). Which sport or sports could the statements be about? 1 T he pitch is where I meet all my friends. And I feel proud when I’m representing my club in matches and tournaments. 2 Being out in my boat gives me a real sense of freedom. It’s always played an important role in my life. 3 When I’m up a mountain, it’s about pushing my own limits, not winning trophies or breaking records. 4 I’m doing it to raise money for a children’s charity. I’ve been training for months, but I’ve still got a long way to go! 5 I want to encourage the younger players to have some fun on the court. 6 To be honest, I don’t enjoy it much – it’s quite boring. I only do it to keep fit.

MY PERSPECTIVE   6

PRONUNCIATION  /aʊ/,/əʊ/

Do you do any sports for the reasons in bold in Ex. 5? What other reasons can you think of for doing sport?

Unit 3  Active lives  35


3A  Pushing the limits

BEFORE YOU LISTEN   1

Look at the photos of a young climber, Ashima Shiraishi, and read the caption on page 37. What do you think the V scale measures?

GRAMMAR  Past simple & Present perfect  4

Read the sentences about Ashima in the grammar box. Which one uses the Past simple? Past simple & Present perfect

a A shima has travelled to many countries in her life. b In 2014, she went to South Africa and completed the ‘Golden Shadow’ problem. c Ashima’s loved climbing since she was six. d She’s just achieved an even more amazing record. e She has recovered from her fall and is now climbing again.

LISTENING 2

Listen to a podcast about Ashima. Answer the questions. 1.13

1 Why does she enjoy climbing? 2 What has she achieved?  3

Listen again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? How do you know?

VIDEO MAP

1.13

1 Ashima started climbing when she was a teenager. 2 She always uses ropes when she climbs. 3 She has climbed in several countries, including Japan and South Africa. 4 She is the only female athlete to successfully climb a V14 problem. 5 She is the youngest person to successfully climb a V15 problem. 6 She recently had an accident, but it hasn’t stopped her climbing.

5

Match the sentences (a–e) in the grammar box to the rules (1–5). Past simple We use the Past simple to talk about: 1 completed actions in the past. The time is often stated (last week, yesterday, in 2017). Present perfect We use the Present perfect to talk about: 2 actions which started in the past and continue to the present. We often use for and since to say how long the action has continued. 3 actions in the past which are connected to a present situation. 4 past experiences, when the exact time isn’t stated and when a time expression is connected to the present (until now, never, in my life). 5 recent actions when the exact time isn’t stated. We often use just to emphasize that it happened very recently.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 258

36  Unit 3  Active lives


Ashima Shiraishi on Slashface, a V13 bouldering problem in Texas. > World Map, p. 182

6

Choose the correct options to complete the text.

8

Speed climbing is a race against the clock. Climbing as a sport (1) was / has been around for a long time, but competition speed climbing (2) became / has become popular only a few years ago. Competitors try to climb a fifteen-metre wall as quickly as they can. When they reach the top they must hit a button to stop the clock. When the sport (3) started / has started, climbers (4) used / have used walls with different heights and holds but, since 2007, all the walls (5) were / have been exactly the same. The men’s world record holder is Danyl Boldyrev, who (6) broke / has broken the record with a time of 5.6 seconds in 2014.

2 A W hat sports (you / do) when you were younger? B Lots of different ones – football, volleyball, swimming. (always / love) sport. I A So what do you do now? (I / just / start) mountain biking. B That’s my latest interest.

Competitive climbing (7) wasn’t / hasn’t been in the 2016 Olympic Games, but the organisers of the Games (8) accepted / have accepted it as a sport for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and it (9) was / has been an Olympic sport ever since.

7

3 A (you / ever / win) a medal or trophy? (play) baseball B Y es, several times. I since 2020, and my team is quite good. A Wow! I didn’t know that. 4 A (you / ever / do) karate? (try) it B N o, but I’d love to. A friend (enjoy) it. last year, and he (ever / A It’s not something that interest) me.

Use the prompts to make sentences in the Present perfect or Past simple. 1 2 3 4 5 6

We / not have / a PE lesson / yesterday. I / never / like / watching / football /on TV. The athletes / just / finish / warming up. Simona / see / a tennis match / earlier this week. The coach / not be / at / our last training session. You / ever / be / in a school sports team?

Put the verbs in the correct form of the Past simple or Present perfect to complete the mini-dialogues.  (you / play) tennis recently? 1 A (injure) my arm in March, and I B No. I (not / play) any sport since then. (see) you in A That’s a shame. When I (be) the competition last year, you really good.

SPEAKING  9

Work in pairs. Talk about your own experiences of sport. Use the questions in Ex. 8 as a starting point for your conversations. Unit 3  Active lives  37


3B  Conservation through sport A Maasai warrior competes in the high jump event during the Maasai Olympics. > World Map, p. 182

Can athletics protect

AFRICA’S LIONS? WORD BUILDING  Phrasal verbs 1

Underline the phrasal verb and circle its synonym. 1 More and more people are taking up capoeira. People often start doing it after seeing it in the street. 2 If you don’t want to participate now, you can just watch, and join in another time. 3 Even professional athletes warm up before running. Our bodies need time to prepare for sport. 4 On Sunday, Ghana take on Ivory Coast. Can they challenge them for a place in the quarter-finals? 5 I gave up tennis in 2015. I had to stop playing because of a hand injury. 6 I don’t exercise much during the week, but I work out at the gym on Sundays.

2

Complete the questions with the correct form of a phrasal verb from Ex. 1. 1 Do you like to sports, or do you prefer to be a spectator? Why? a better team? 2 Has your team ever a sport, what would you 3 If you could try? Why? ? Why did you stop? 4 What sports have you before running? 5 What’s the best way to ? Do you 6 Do you ever go to a gym to enjoy it?

3

Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions in Ex. 2.

38  Unit 3  Active lives

READING 4

Skim the article to get an idea of the general meaning. Why were the Maasai Olympics started?

5

Now read and listen to the article. Complete paragraphs (1–6) with the topic sentences (a–f). 1.14 P

READING STRATEGIES Topic sentences A topic sentence summarizes the main idea of the paragraph. Topic sentences are usually the first sentence of the paragraph. a The African Wildlife Foundation got together with Maasai leaders to come up with a plan. b The Games are not just for the male population, however. c One of Africa’s most famous animals needs protection, now more than ever. d Maasai tribes have been hunting lions as trophies for hundreds of years. e Have the Maasai Oympic Games been a successful way to actually help conservation efforts in Kenya and Tanzania? f Preparations for the next edition of the Games have been heating up, and everyone involved is getting really excited.


4

1 5

10

15

In the 1940s there were an estimated 450,000 lions across Africa, but since then numbers have decreased dramatically, to around 20,000 today. Reasons include a loss of habitat as the human population has grown, and the trade in lion body parts. However, another threat to the lions may soon be a thing of the past.

2

In Maasai culture, killing lions has been an important tradition amongst the men because it shows their physical strength and skill. The Maasai also hunt lions when the lions kill their cows. Unfortunately, this has brought the lion population to dangerously low levels. Conservationists have believed for some time that the number of lion killings can be reduced without destroying the Maasai culture. But how?

3 20

25

The idea was to replace lion hunting with a sports event. The Maasai Olympics were born, and manyattas, or villages, from across the region were invited to join in. Since 2012 they have held three Maasai Olympics. Young men take part in six running, throwing and jumping events, which all reflect Maasai culture. For example, the javelin competition is similar to the traditional skill of throwing a spear*, and the high jump is similar to Maasai dancing.

6 P

Read again and choose the correct option (A–D).

1

Why have lion populations become smaller? A The animals have less space. B There are a number of reasons. C The Maasai hunt them too much. D The real reasons are unknown.

2

Hunting A is the biggest danger to the lions. B is done by Maasai men for sport. C is part of Maasai culture and tradition. D is only done as a form of protection.

3

All the events in the Maasai Olympics A involve throwing. B are like traditional Maasai activities. C are different in each village. D were invented by the Maasai leaders.

Including women in the events is very important because the women can influence the men’s behaviour. If the women are more aware of lion conservation, they can discourage the men from hunting. At the 2014 Games, there were two running events for women and the winners received the same prizes as the men.

30

5

The coaches in each manyatta have already chosen their athletes for the team, and they are training hard. The competitors take their preparation very seriously. Every day they warm up before exercising in groups. Although the final is over a year away, the Games have already started, as manyattas take on one another in friendly meetings before the main event.

35

40

6

A survey among Maasai men shows that attitudes have changed. Although nineteen percent of the people asked haven’t even heard of the Maasai Olympics, the majority of them say that the Games have made them less interested in killing lions. And even though trophy hunting still goes on, they see sports as an effective alternative. As one of the athletes said, ‘We used to celebrate lion hunting but this programme has shown us a better celebration’.

45

50

spear a long, pointed stick for killing animals

READING & WRITING STRATEGIES Mediating (processing a text) A summary contains key information from the original text, but doesn’t give unnecessary detail. When you write a summary, assume that you are writing it for someone who has not read the original text. First read and understand the text, then: • underline key words in each paragraph. • form new sentences using your key words. Don’t copy large chunks of the original text. • connect the sentences using linking words (and, but, so, however...). • check you have included all the important information. Don’t add any extra information.  7

4

Why are women involved in the competition? A The men wanted them to take part. B The women asked to compete. C They are equally important as men in the Maasai culture. D They can help in the goal of reducing lion hunting. 5

The Maasai Olympics A are changing the way many Maasai think. B have stopped the Maasai hunting lions. C are less interesting to the Maasai than killing lions. D are now the most important Maasai celebration.

Competences Read the Reading & Writing Strategies box and follow the steps to write a summary (about 120 words) of the article. Start your summary like this, if you wish. One of the reasons for the decline in the number of lions in Africa is the culture of hunting and killing lions by the Maasai people.

COLLABORATION  8

Work in small groups and read your summaries. Are there things you could improve in your own summary?

Unit 3  Active lives  39


3C  Marathon men and women GRAMMAR  Present perfect simple & continuous 1

Study the grammar box. Underline examples of the Present perfect simple and circle the Present perfect continuous. How do we form the Present perfect continuous? Present perfect simple & continuous a b c d

2

Maasai tribes have been hunting lions as trophies for centuries. One competitor in this year’s marathon has won over 25 races. Has Jill been running? She looks exhausted! Remember! They have already chosen the athletes for the team.

Read the examples in the grammar box again and complete the rules with the correct options.

We don’t normally use stative verbs (for example, like, know, believe, want) with continuous tenses.

We use the Present perfect to talk about things where there is a connection between the present and past. We use the simple / continuous form when the focus is on a completed action. We prefer the simple / continuous form to emphasise the duration of an action, whether it has finished or not. > Grammar reference & practice p. 258     3

Read the news article and choose the correct options. Use the Present perfect continuous where both forms are possible. More than 2,000 years have (1) passed / been passing since the first marathon. You’ve probably (2) heard / been hearing about the Greek soldier who ran 25 miles to the city of Athens to announce the defeat of the Persians in 490 BC, but the appeal of long-distance running has never (3) diminished / been diminishing. Many cities around the world have (4) held / been holding marathons for years, and the iconic city of Rome is no exception. Today, we’ve (5) come / been coming to the Eternal City to find out about next week’s marathon. Here in Rome, athletes have (6) trained / been training hard for months. We asked one, John, what he has (7) done / been doing to prepare for the event. ‘Well,’ he says, ‘I haven’t (8) been / been being in the city for long, but since I arrived I’ve (9) run / been running around the route three times to get an idea of the road conditions. I’ve (10) had / been having a bit of trouble with some of the ancient roads: they’re made of stones called “sanpietrini” and make running difficult, but it’s so beautiful that I don’t mind! This morning, I’ve (11) tried / been trying to prepare myself mentally for the big day.’ So, does John think he has a chance of winning the marathon next Sunday? ‘I’ve always (12) wanted / been wanting to try the Rome marathon, but I certainly don’t expect to win. For me the experience of running past the Colosseum in a group of 15,000 is enough!’

4

The Rome marathon > World Map, p. 182 40  Unit 3  Active lives

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first. 1 Rachel does judo. Last week she won her fifth competition. five judo competitions so far. Rachel 2 Julie is hot and out of breath. She was doing exercises in the gym. in the gym. Julie 3 I was painting my bedroom all morning and I still haven’t finished. my bedroom since first thing this morning. I 4 I met my best friend at primary school and we’re still friends now. my best friend since I was at primary school. I


5

Complete the questions about Catherine Ndereba.

6

RUNNER PROFILE

1 how long / Catherine / run? She started when she was just a girl. 2 she / always / love running? Yes, she has had a passion for it since she was at school. 3 how many marathons / she / win? A lot! She won the Boston Marathon four times between 2000 and 2005. 4 she / win / any Olympic medals? Yes. She’s never won gold, but she came second in the marathon in 2004 and 2008. 5 what / she / do / recently? Since retiring in 2014, she’s been helping to train young Kenyan runners. 6 how far / she / run / this week? Only about 50km – much less than when she was competing.

1.15 Complete the dialogue using the time expressions in the box. Then listen and check.

already ever for (x2) just never since yet

CATHERINE NDEREBA

Many people believe that Catherine Ndereba, or ‘Catherine the Great’, is the greatest female marathon runner ever.

Matt

Hi Denise, What’s up? I don’t think I’ve seen you look so worried. (1) enrolled in a Denise Oh, Matt! I’ve (2) self-defense class and now I’m panicking. I’ve done any lessons like that. (3) Matt It doesn’t matter. There’s always the first time. ages. Denise But I haven’t done any sport (4) I feel really unfit. Matt What about at school? I mean, haven’t you had PE this term? We’ve been playing volleyball... Denise No, they’ve been repairing the gym roof so I January. haven’t had any lessons (5) Matt Oh, I forgot about that. So haven’t they finished ? the repairs (6) Denise No, not yet... I’m really nervous about being the only new student in the class, too. Matt Been there, done that! I’ve changed swimming clubs loads of times. I’m used to being the newbie! Denise Well, I’m not! I really want to change my mind and cancel my subscription, but I’ve paid. (7) Matt It’ll be fine, trust me! I’m sure there’ll be other new students. Denise Fingers crossed! The teacher’s been running these over ten years so that must courses (8) be a good sign. Talk the talk

SPEAKING 7

What’s up? It doesn’t matter. Been there, done that! Fingers crossed.

Work in pairs. Interview each other about sports and hobbies that you enjoy. Use the questions below and any others you can think of. 1 What is one hobby or sport you enjoy? 2 How long have you been doing it? 3 Have you taken part in any competitions? 4 Have you been training for any competitions recently? 5 What are the secrets to doing your sport/hobby well?

WRITING 8

Choose ONE of the writing tasks below. 1 Write about your sport or hobby for a class blog. Use the questions from Ex. 7 to give you ideas. 2 Find out about a sportsperson you admire and write a short profile about them.

Unit 3  Active lives  41


3D  School sports WRITING  An opinion essay 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • How many hours a week do you do sport at school? • Is sport compulsory for secondary school students in your country? • Would you like to do more or less sport at school? Why?

Useful Language Giving your opinion Personally, I think that … I strongly believe that … I do not think that … Of course, … There is no question that … I would say that … It’s true that … In my opinion / view, …

WRITING STRATEGIES Giving an opinion When you write an opinion essay, divide it into three parts. An introduction: • introduce the topic, describing the situation and clearly stating your opinion. Arguments for & against: • give at least two points that support your opinion. • give one or two points against your opinion. A conclusion: • summarise the main points and reiterate your opinion.

42  Unit 3  Active lives

2

Read the statement below. Do you agree or disagree? Write two reasons to support your opinion, and one argument against it. ‘Sport should be a compulsory subject at school, with the same importance as other subjects like maths and English.’

3

A student has written an opinion essay about the statement in Ex. 2. Read the essay, then discuss the questions in pairs. 1 2 3 4

What reasons does the writer give to support the argument? Underline them. What arguments does the writer give with the opposite view? Circle them. What do the expressions in bold mean? Be careful: some are false friends! Which point do you agree with the most / the least?

The amount of time that students spend doing sport at school has decreased in many countries. Of course, these subjects like maths and English are important, but I do not think it is a good idea to take time away from sports. Sport has several benefits. Firstly, many of us enjoy doing sport. Some students do not enjoy academic subjects but they like sport, and this may encourage them to enjoy school more. Secondly, young people are spending too much time in front of screens and not doing enough exercise in their free time, so schools should help. Finally, sport is good for the brain as well as the body, in my view, and gives us more energy for learning. However, it’s true that spending time at school doing sport, means that students may have to do more work at home. Also, there are other important subjects such as art and music. Should we give them time, too? Overall, I would say that sport is as important as any other school subject. In fact, schools should prepare students for healthy lives as well as future jobs. I strongly believe that compulsory sport would help achieve this goal. 4

Read the statements. What do you think? Use the Useful Language box and make notes about your opinions on two or three of the statements. 1  ‘The government should stop people doing dangerous sports like boxing.‘ 2  ‘There are more disadvantages than advantages for a country when it holds international sporting events like the Olympic Games.‘ 3  ‘There are good reasons why some professional sportspeople make more money than doctors, teachers and nurses.‘ 4  ‘It is better to encourage children to practise sports that are not competitive (for example, yoga) than competitive sports.‘ 5  ‘Young people often see professional sportspeople as heroes. Some people think that they have a responsibility to be good role models.‘

5

Work in groups. Compare your opinions about the statements in Ex. 4.

6

Competences Read the Writing Strategies box. Then use your notes to write an essay about one of the statements in Ex. 4. Link your ideas using some of the expressions in bold from the model essay in Ex. 3.

7

Read another student’s essay. Is their opinion clear? Do you agree with it?


SPEAKING & LISTENING  Agreeing & disagreeing 8

1.16 Listen to a conversation between three friends. Which of the statements from Ex. 4 are they discussing?

9

1.16 Listen again. Which of the expressions in the Functions box do you hear? Tick (✓).

1  0

Work in pairs. Read about a national competition. Which three sports would you like to win equipment and facilities for at your school? Why?

ENTER OUR NATIONAL COMPETITION TO WIN MODERN EQUIPMENT AND NEW FACILITIES FOR THREE SPORTS! WINNERS CAN DEVELOP EXISTING SPORTS AT THE SCHOOL, OR CHOOSE EQUIPMENT FOR NEW SPORTS. THE SCHOOL WITH THE BEST ARGUMENT FOR THEIR CHOICE OF SPORTS WILL WIN.

Functions Agreeing I totally agree with you. That’s true. That’s a good point. He’s right about that. He’s got a good point. You’re not wrong there. Disagreeing Yes, but … I’m not sure I agree. Maybe, but … I agree up to a point, but … I see what you’re saying, but … I understand what you mean, it’s just …

EACH SCHOOL CAN ONLY SEND ONE PROPOSAL.  11

Work with another pair. Decide on the three sports you would all like to propose. Present your proposal to the class.

Unit 3  Active lives  43


4

Food

First we eat, then we do everything else.

(M.F.K. Fisher, 1908–1992, American food writer)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What do you think this quote wants to express? • Is it talking about the importance of food, or the social/pleasurable aspect of eating? • Do you think we should give more or less importance to eating?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

44

Ø talk about food and cooking Ø read about Filipino street food

Ø learn why you might start eating insects Ø write a travel blog


VOCABULARY  Describing food 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and answer the questions:  1 What are the people eating? How do you think they are feeling?  2 Do you think it is a special occasion or an everyday meal?  3 Why do you think people enjoy eating together?  4 Do you often have large get-togethers with friends or relatives?

2

Have you ever heard of ‘brunch’? Read the text and find out what it is. Then read again and complete it with the words in the box. fresh healthy ingredients junk food processed raw vitamins well-balanced Brunch – the meal that combines breakfast and lunch, both in its name and in the time when it is served – is particularly popular on Sundays when friends meal, with a good and families have more time. It is usually a (1) and dishes, like boiled eggs, (3) fruit, mixture of (2) food like biscuits, pastries, and pancakes. You can find some (4) bacon and grilled sausages, but you wouldn’t typically find (5) like burgers or fried chicken. There are options, full of many (6) , such as yoghurt and (7) fruit smoothies, or (8) Go online and find out the difference in meaning between dish, plate and vegetable sticks. A touch of luxury – course. Then discuss the questions with smoked salmon, avocado and (for the the class. adults) mimosa cocktails, are often included on the menu in restaurants, 1 Is there just one translation for each word in your language, or does it where brunch is usually served from depend on the context? around 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. 2 What common collocations (for example national dish, main course) are there for each word?

3

Match the cooking methods (1–6) to the correct definition (a–f). Then think of a dish or type of food for each one. Compare your ideas with a partner. 1 2 3 4 5 6

boiled steamed roasted fried grilled baked

a b c d e f

cooked in the oven (eg. cakes and bread) cooked quickly in a frying pan with oil immersed and cooked in boiling water cooked under or over a flame cooked above boiling water cooked in the oven with fat or oil

MY PERSPECTIVE 4

In many cultures, friends and food are the perfect pair. Is it that true for you, too?

Which of these ‘bad habits’ connected to food and eating annoy you (or your parents) the most? Which are unacceptable in your country? Are there any other bad habits related to eating that annoy you? Discuss with the class. • • • • • • •

talking with your mouth full being a noisy eater never offering to do the washing-up not finishing your main course, but eating dessert eating while you’re shopping in the supermarket using your hands instead of cutlery licking your knife

Unit 4  Food  45


4A  Learning to cook

BEFORE YOU LISTEN   1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Is cookery a compulsory school subject in your country? If not, would you like it to be? 2 What dishes can you cook? Who taught you?

LISTENING 2

3

Listen to a podcast about food. Do the two speakers agree about cooking in schools? 1.17

1.17

Listen again. Which speaker, Terry (T) or Mali (M):

1 is going to cook after the show? ____ 2 will do the washing-up today? ____ 3 says that the secret to being a good cook is to start young? ____ 4 says students are going to have cookery classes? ____ 5 believes that schools have more important things to focus on than cooking? ____ 6 says that school is a good place to teach children about healthy food? ____ 7 plans to learn to cook? ____ 8 has a brother who cooks? ____

GRAMMAR  Future forms (1) 4

Study the grammar box. Match the future uses (1–7) to an example (a–g).

will, may / might, be going to, Present continuous, VIDEO MAP Present simple a  I’ll do the washing-up if you like. (= will / won’t) b  I expect children will learn some simple dishes. (= will / won’t) c  How old will the children be when they start? (= Present simple) d  They may be able to teach them about the dangers of a poor diet. (= may / might) e  I’ve decided I’m going to learn one new recipe each week. (= be going to) f  My brother’s showing me how to make vegetable lasagne tomorrow. (= Present continuous) g  N ext week, the podcast goes out at the same time. (= Present simple) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

plans and arrangements between people, usually with a specific future time decisions that we make at the moment of speaking hopes, expectations, beliefs and predictions future intentions ideas and predictions that are possible, but not certain after these time expressions like when, before, unless, until, after, as soon as and if future events on timetables and schedules

> Grammar reference & practice p. 260 46  Unit 4  Food

PRONUNCIATION  will, won’t


A robot chef created by Moley Robotics cooks crab soup.

5

Choose the correct options to complete the comments below.

7

According to a recent survey, 60% of today’s 18-to 25-year-olds in Britain are leaving home without being able to cook five simple recipes.

People say that cooking is fun, but I (1) (do) everything I can not to cook when I (leave) home. If, like me, you can’t (2) (probably / even cook an egg, you (3) be) disappointed with anything you make at home. But, good news! Poor home cooking (4) (possibly / disappear) in the near future. Moley Robotics have designed a kitchen robot that they believe (cook) any dish in the world as (5) competently as a professional chef.

Annie  I don’t want that to be me, because I think home cooking means a healthier diet, so I (1) ’m going to / may learn. My friend’s aunt is a chef, and she’s agreed to teach me. My lessons (2) start / will start next Thursday. She says she (3) teaches / might teach me spaghetti Bolognese. I (4) ’ll / might probably ask her if we can do something vegetarian because I don’t like touching raw meat.

It looks like two human arms and it works by ‘learning’ the hand and arm movements of professional chefs as they work in the kitchen. The company (6) (record) celebrity chefs cooking fantastic meals and the arms can copy these instructions in people’s homes. You can start the machine before you (get) home by choosing what to (7) eat from a menu of thousands of recipes on your phone. That’s if you can afford it, of course – it (go) on sale soon at a cost of (8) £10,000. Despite the price, the makers think that robots (make) all home food in the future. (9) Personally, I find the idea of robot arms in my house quite (spend) my strange, so I think I (10) money on restaurants instead.

Frank  I’ve never cooked in my life, and I’m never (5) cooking / going to cook, either. I (6) ’m moving / ’ll move next week to live with friends at university, and they’re all learning to be cooks. I’m sure they (7) ’ll practise / ’re practising their skills on me when I (8) ’m / will be hungry. Michael  I’ve never thought about it, but I probably (9) don’t / won’t learn unless I (10) ’m needing / need to. Right now I live at home, but when I live on my own, I (11) might / ’m going to possibly get more interested in cooking, I suppose. It doesn’t look very hard, so I’m sure I (12) ’m picking / ’ll pick it up fast. MY PERSPECTIVE  6

Work in pairs. When you leave home, will you be more like Annie, Frank or Michael? Why? Tell your partner.

Complete the article with the best form of the verbs. Use will, be going to or the Present simple. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer.

8

Discuss the questions with the class. 1 Do you think robot chefs will happen? If they do, will you use one? Why? / Why not? 2 Do you think they will help us eat more healthily? Why? / Why not? Unit 4  Food  47


4B  Street food

WORLD

FOOD Could the best street food in the world be

FILIPINO?

A food stall on Mactan Island in the Philippines. > World Map, p. 182

WORD BUILDING  Compound adjectives

2

Compound adjectives are formed with two words, often with a hyphen (-). Many are formed from the past participles of verbs: It’s better to eat oven-baked food. (Food that has been baked in the oven.)

home-made modern-looking old-fashioned overcooked funny-sounding well-known 1 I can’t believe you’ve never heard of tiramisu! It’s a Italian dessert. really

Some are formed from present participles, especially verbs of senses (look, sound, taste, feel): You’ll keep coming back for more great-tasting lemonade. (Lemonade that tastes great.) 1

2 I’ve eaten in so many restaurants recently. It’s great to get back to some good food. restaurant 3 We had lunch in a typical in the historic centre of town. 4 The restaurant is quite traditional but it has a menu. I’d love to go surprisingly there one day. 5 Be careful not to leave the fish in the oven for too long. . It gets dry if it’s name. How do 6 This dish has a very you pronounce it?

Read about compound adjectives. Then choose the correct option to complete the sentences below. 1 I fried the chicken in deep oil. It’s deep-fried / deep-frying chicken. 2 That salad looks good. It’s a good-looked / good-looking salad. 3 What’s the ingredient that tastes sweet? What’s the sweet-tasted / sweet-tasting ingredient? 4 The tomatoes are filled with rice. They’re rice-filled / rice-filling tomatoes. 5 I don’t think they’ve cooked this chicken enough. It’s undercooked / undercooking chicken.

48  Unit 4  Food

Complete the sentences with the compound adjectives in the box.

3

Choose a dish that is popular where you live. Write sentences to describe it using compound adjectives. Supplì are mozzarella-filled balls of rice which are deep-fried. They are a well-known type of street food from Rome.


5

Walk down the street in most big cities and you’ll find a middle-eastern kiosk selling kebabs and falafel. Without a doubt, you’ll also find a restaurant selling burgers. If you look for spicy food, there’s a good chance you’ll find Indian or Thai food. You might even find Mexican tacos or Vietnamese curry if you want a takeaway. But you probably won’t find food from the Philippines. That’s strange, because Filipinos make the best street food in the world.

30

35 10

15

20

25

One reason Filipino food is so good is that there’s so much variety! You only have to look at the country’s rich history to see why. The Philippines have been influenced by Chinese, Malay, Arab and Spanish cultures, to name a few. Filipinos took these influences and mixed them in their own way. A popular street breakfast illustrates this very well: take some Chinese rice; mix in some chocolate (the Spanish introduced cocoa to the islands); then add some 100% Filipino salted fish. That’s champorado with tuyo and it’ll wake you up! So, Filipino food is a wonderful mix of many countries’ ingredients and styles. Because of this international influence, you’ll recognise many dishes. For example, lumpia are delicious spring rolls, very similar to the ones on a Chinese menu.

40

45

50

wealthy rich

READING  4

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

7

So why has the world not discovered Filipino street cuisine? Perhaps it’s because some of its tastiest dishes are very unusual, so you will only eat them if you want to try new things. But adventurous young people are exploring world food more than ever, so in a few years, we’ll all be eating Filipino food. For now, though, the best place to experience it is still on the streets of Manila.

COLLABORATION  8

Read the article again. Match each dish (1–5) to the aspect of Filipino food that it illustrates (a–e). a

1 champorado with tuyo 2 lumpia

b

3 ukoy

c

4 halu halo

d

5 adidas

e

Filipino food often puts many flavours together. Some dishes are similar to dishes from other countries. Filipino food shows that it is quite a poor country. A lot of the food uses local ingredients, like seafood. The food shows the multicultural past of the country.

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Have you ever tried Filipino food? What dishes would you like to try? Which ones would you avoid? 2 Are you an adventurous eater? What unusual things have you eaten? 3 What food from other countries have you tried or are you interested in trying?

1.18 Read and listen to the article about street food from the Philippines. Which sentence is true: A, B, C or D?

A It is always extremely spicy. B People from all over the world know and enjoy it. C It is not well-known outside the Philippines. D The ingredients aren’t unusual for Europeans.   6

You’ll find the best adidas (grilled chicken feet) in Manila at a food stall called Maong’s Grill. Filipinos don’t waste anything and make the most delicious snacks out of every part of the animal. At Maong’s, for example, you can also get grilled chicken head and chicken intestine. In many parts of the world, street food started as food for people who weren’t wealthy* enough to have a kitchen in their home, and here they do it best.

SPEAKING

1 If you’re in town and you’re hungry, what do you buy to eat? Is there much choice? 2 What are the characteristics of ‘street food’? What kind of street food is there in your town or region?  5

However, there are a few characteristics of Filipino cuisine that distinguish it. For instance, seafood is everywhere because this is a nation of 7,000 islands! Ukoy is a popular prawn dish; the prawns are mixed with vegetables in egg and flour, fried until they are golden, and served with spicy vinegar. You may discover that the food isn’t as hot as in countries like Thailand, but it has strongly-flavoured dishes with many great-tasting ingredients in each bite. The bestknown dessert of the islands is halu halo – it contains cooked banana, sweet beans, coconut, fruit, sweet milk, sugar and ice. A milkshake you’ll never forget!

Work in groups. Imagine that you are going to organise a street food festival in your town. Discuss your ideas and do any necessary research. Decide: • when and where the festival will take place • the kind of food that you want to include (regional? national? international?) • whether there will be a theme to the festival • any other events that you want to include (for example, street artists or musicians) Together, design and produce a leaflet, a poster or a PowerPoint presentation to promote your street food festival. Share it with the class.

Unit 4  Food  49


A food stall selling fried insects in Bangkok, Thailand. > World Map, p. 182

4C  Feed the world with … bugs? 1

Read the dialogue and complete it with the expressions in the box. Then listen and check. 1.19

will be eating  ‘ll be working  won’t have had  ‘ll have found Sarah Our science project about future food resources is driving me crazy: there’s so much information online that I just can’t get my head round it! Will you be doing the project this weekend? Maybe we can do it together... time to think about the project at all before Luke Well, I (1) Sunday because we’ll be preparing for my grandma’s party all day with us in Saturday. She’s 80, and all my relatives (2) the evening. Mum wants me to help, so I’ll be making food all Saturday afternoon, I reckon. There’s so much to do that there’s no way we’ll have finished by the time my cousins arrive with gran, though... Sarah Ah, fair enough. Well, I’ll try to do some research again on Saturday. some information by the time you’re Hopefully I (3) free, then we can talk. So far the only interesting site I’ve found is about how our diets will have become insect-based by 2050! Luke Yuck! Sounds gross! Anyway, my cousins are staying the night on Saturday, but they’ll have gone home by midday, so I guess I on the project on Sunday afternoon. I’ll call you! (4) Sarah OK, great. And good luck with the party! Talk the talk It’s driving me crazy. I (just) can’t get my head round it! Fair enough. Sounds gross!

GRAMMAR  Future forms (2)   2

Study the examples in the grammar boxes and expressions 1–4 in Ex. 1. Then find two more examples of the Future continuous and two of the Future perfect in the dialogue. Future continuous We’ll be preparing for my grandma’s party all day Saturday. Future perfect They’ll have gone home by midday.

3

Now choose the correct option to complete the rules. The Future continuous / perfect expresses an action what will be finished before a particular time in the future. We often use time expressions like by the time or before with this tense. Instead, we use the Future continuous / perfect to talk about an action that we know or think will be in progress at a certain point in the future.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 260

50  Unit 4  Food


Read about future food resources and complete the text with the sentences a–f.

4 P

6

a the human population will have grown to nine billion b we may be able to find our protein from somewhere else c they think we will run out of food d we will all soon be eating insects e that figure will certainly rise in the future f we won’t have enough of these resources

Researcher Marcel Dicke gives several reasons why insects (1) will / won’t provide us with a lot of the protein we need in the future. Firstly, farming insects is efficient: ‘Give cows ten kilograms of food, and you will (2) be getting / get only one kilogram of beef, but locusts can give you nine kilograms of locust meat. Secondly, you will already (3) be eating / have eaten hundreds of meals containing insects in your life, whether you like it or not! Next time you eat processed food, you (4) will / may probably be eating insects. This is because a lot of fruit gets damaged by insects, so the supermarkets don’t want it, but it is often used to make processed foods like tomato soup or marmalade.

There are more than seven billion people on the planet, . By 2050, (2) , and experts are and (1) . People in developed worried because (3) countries get most of their protein from animals like chickens and cows, but these animals need a lot of land, as the world’s water and food to live, and (4) population grows and more people want to eat this kind . There’s a chance that (6) : of meat. But (5) this may sound unappetising to some, but they are a great source of protein.  5

Thirdly, insects are already a popular form of good, healthy food. Up to two billion people in Asia, Africa and Latin America will (5) be enjoying / have enjoyed an insect right now. Even so, people from Europe will (6) find / be finding it hard to get used to the idea of eating insects. One possibility is that food manufacturers (7) may not / might start introducing processed insect protein into their products. The researcher predicts that, by 2030, we (8) are going to buy / will be buying them, not knowing that we are eating insects.

Complete the voicemail with either the Future continuous or Future perfect form of the verbs in brackets.

Just wanted to let you know what we (1) (do) this weekend. Remember the World Food Fair last year? We’re going again! If it’s like last year’s event, by the (try) all sorts of end of the weekend I (2) strange snacks. Apparently, this year, they’re promoting (not eat) any ants, insects, but I (3) even if they are covered in chocolate! (you / play) What about you? (4) football all weekend like usual? (finish) all your Do you think you (5) homework before Monday morning? (not do) mine by then! I definitely (6)

Why are insects a possible solution to the problem of future food resources? Choose the correct option.

RESEARCH & WRITING  7

Choose one of these countries where insects are eaten, then go online and research it. Australia China Colombia Mexico Thailand • • • •

What types of insects do they eat in this country? What dish, or dishes, do they prepare? What other ingredients do they use? Is the dish you chose eaten often or only on special occasions? Use your research to write a short text, including your own opinion of the dish.

Crispy, fried insects!

Unit 4  Food  51


4D  Future plans SPEAKING & LISTENING  My goals 1

Write as many sentences as you can in five minutes saying how you think your life will have changed by 2030. Think about: family home lifestyle money

2

3

1.20

1 2 3 4 5 6

I’ll certainly have left my parents’ house. I might be married!

Talking about hopes and goals I expect I will … I think I might … I’d really like to … I’m aiming to have … by next month. I’m interested in -ing. I’m looking forward to -ing. I’m thinking about / of -ing. In the long / short term, I’m going to / hoping to / planning to …

1.20 Listen to three people talking about something they would like to change in their life. Which speaker, Joseph (Speaker 1), Emily (2) or Carl (3), is not happy about:

a money?

I think I’ll be studying for a Masters.

Functions

4

b  their home life?

c  their diet?

Listen again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)?

Joseph believes eating meat is bad for the environment. He wants to give up eating meat completely. Emily thinks she won’t need much money this summer. She is interested in working at the local gym. There is too much noise and not enough space for Carl to study at home. He hopes he will have left home before starting university.

Work in pairs. Use expressions from the Functions box to discuss some of your hopes and goals for the next year and for the next five years. Ask your partner to give more details. Talk about the areas of your life below, or use your own ideas. Do you share any of the same goals? • • • • • •

health and fitness school and education home life travel money friends

A I expect I’ll go on holiday with my parents again next year, but I hope I’ll be travelling abroad with friends sometime in the next five years. B Really? So, which places do you think you’ll go to first? A Well, I hope I’ll have saved enough money to go to Spain or France for a few weeks.

52  Unit 4  Food


WRITING  A travel blog Read Olivia’s travel blog from the north of India. Which activities has she already done (D)? Which is she hoping to do (H)? Which is she going to do (G)?   5

1 2 3 4

get to Leh  D quickly visit the Red Fort ___ walk around Delhi streets ___ travel slowly from Delhi to Leh ___

5 learn to cook nice food ___ 6 go walking ___ 7 talk to people for a project ___ 8 see a festival ___

Finally reached Leh last night after three incredible days in Delhi! We rushed around the Red Fort (not much time, and it’s huge!), then wandered through the streets of the old city. What a beautiful place! It was boiling though, so we’re all happy to feel the fresher weather of the Himalayas. The train to Leh crawled along, but at least we could rest. Delhi is exhausting!

1

5

The family I’m staying with here are super friendly and welcoming. Last night they cooked a vegetable curry with delicious little dumplings called momos. Over the next week, we’ll be learning how to make a few tasty local dishes, and we’ll have to buy the ingredients ourselves from local markets. Tomorrow we’re hoping to go trekking in the hills if the weather’s good. And I’m also planning to interview some of the people in town for my culture project. I expect there will be plenty of time for that – we’re here for two weeks. Next week there’s the Ladakh Festival – I’m looking forward to catching that!

10

6

Do the activities in the Writing Strategies box. What other language does Olivia use to make her blog more interesting?

7

Imagine you have just started one of the trips below. Make notes on what you have done and are going to do / eat / see. Then write a travel blog about the trip using Olivia’s blog and the Useful Language box to help you. • a trip to a region in your country with its own special local cuisine • a visit to the house of a friend or relative in another city • a trip abroad with some friends

WRITING STRATEGIES Descriptive language a Read the travel blog again. Find words that Olivia uses instead of the words in bold in Ex. 5. Why does she use these words? b Now find the words that Olivia uses instead of these. 1 big (line 2) __________ 2 hot (line 3) __________ 3 cooler (line 4) __________ 4 tiring (line 5) __________ 5 very (line 6) __________ Useful Language Writing a travel blog We finally … after … What a beautiful place / long journey! It’s such a / an adjective + noun (noisy city, huge country). The food was so + adjective (tasty, spicy, fresh, etc.). The weather’s wonderful / boiling / freezing. I’m hoping to … I want to … while I’m here. We might … if there’s time.

A festival in Ladakh, India > World Map, p. 182 Unit 4  Food  53


3&4  Consolidation & Certification Grammar revision Past simple & Present perfect; Present perfect simple & continuous; revision of future forms; Future perfect; Future continuous Vocabulary revision sports; phrasal verbs; describing food; compound adjectives

VOCABULARY & WORD BUILDING   1

P Choose the correct option. 1 Traditional weddings in Italy are often really long with so much food, often seven or eight ____. A plates B courses C meals D bowls 2 The winner of the competition will get a ____ of 1000€, second place 500€ and third place 250€. A price B award C trophy D prize 3 There are some people who follow a ____ food diet, where nothing is cooked or heated. A raw B processed C junk D vitamin 4 Tomorrow’s tennis match has been cancelled because the ____ is flooded. A pitch B rink C court D field 5 I usually work ____ three or four times a week in the gym. A up B out C in D for 6 The doctor thought I was eating too many sweet things and told me to cut ____. A down B up C away D off 7 Despite training hard, she didn’t ____ her opponent in the final. A win B beat C score D reach 8 In this recipe, the vegetables are lightly ____ so they are healthy and full of vitamins. A steamed B raw C processed D fried

2

GRAMMAR   3

Choose the correct alternative. 1 This is the first time I have flown / fly so I’m feeling a little nervous. 2 How long have you known / been knowing your best friend? 3 By this time next year, I will be graduating / have graduated from university. 4 Jack isn’t sure he can come to the party: his parents won’t / might not let him. 5 Martin is / has been the editor of our school newspaper for six months. 6 What have you been / are you doing since we last saw each other? 7 You can call me any time tomorrow. I won’t be working / have worked. 8 The kids are covered in chocolate because they have decorated / been decorating cakes all morning.

4 P

Write ONE word in each space.

Complete each sentence with a compound adjective. Use one word from A and one from B. A well- freshly- home- old- modern- well-

B looking _________________ balanced _________________ made _________________ known _________________ baked _________________ fashioned _________________

1 Wilkington’s Bakery has a wide selection of _____________ pastries and breads. 2 The décor of the restaurant is a little _____________, but the service and food are excellent. 3 He’s a _____________ athlete in his home country, but most people abroad haven’t heard of him. 4 It’s important for everyone, not just sports people, to have a _____________ diet in order to be healthy. 5 The city has a lot of contemporary architecture, but the stadium, despite being _____________, was built in the 1970s. 6 My grandmother always had _____________ jam in her cupboard. 54  Units 3&4  Consolidation & Certification

Our club has (1) _______ training young athletes for nearly 20 years. When we first started, we (2) _______ 25 members, but now the numbers (3) _______ grown to over 250 kids. We have first-class coaches and assistants who are dedicated to helping our young members improve. Our under-12s category has (4) _______ won its first regional competition, while the under-18s group (5) _______ taking part in the national championships next July. Next year we’re going (6) _______ join with five other clubs to go to Poland. This (7) _______ be in September, but it hasn’t been confirmed (8) _______. We are currently building a new clubhouse next to the athletics field. As (9) _______ as it is ready, we (10) _______ have a party to celebrate this next stage in our club’s history. We hope to see you there!


LISTENING   5

1.21 P Listen to the interview with Karen, a restaurant blogger, and choose the correct option.

REAL ENGLISH   6 P

Complete each text with the correct option.

1

I’ve been waiting for ages! If you ______ arrive in the next ten minutes, I’m going home.

A won’t B don’t C aren’t 2

ASSISTANT TENNIS ______ REQUIRED FOR

A coach

FIVE-WEEK SUMMER COURSE. TALK TO

B opponent

JEREMY WHITE AT THE TENNIS CLUB OR CALL 3581122.

C spectator 3

Jackie, I ______ be late home tonight as I have a meeting at work. Can you start cooking supper? Thanks, Mum.

A going to B can’t C might

1 Karen’s article that went viral was about A the anniversary of a starred restaurant. B the opening of a Michelin restaurant. C a TV interview. 2 How long has Karen been a restaurant blogger? A Since January this year. B For over 10 years. C Since 2017. 3 When reviewing a restaurant, she never A orders dishes from the menu. B returns to the same restaurant twice. C accepts a free meal.

7

1.22 P

Listen and choose the correct option.

1 What time will they meet at the restaurant? A

B

19:30

C

20:00

20:15

2 When is the sports competition? A

B

C

4 In her opinion, why is she so successful? A She is always honest. B She always publishes photos of what she eats. C Her writing style is unique. 5 Her goal for the future is A to open her own restaurant. B to write a cookery book. C to become a political journalist. 6 She says she had her best meal ever in A Sydney. B London. C Naples.

3 What does the woman want from the shops? A

B

C

CO MILK

RN

FL

AK

ES

MILK MILK

Units 3&4  Consolidation & Certification  55


READING   8 P

1 2 3 4

A

Read what four different chefs A–D, say about their careers. Which chef ... 5 won a competition at an early age? has always worked in the same restaurant? has had difficulties finding staff? 6 has no professional training as a chef? 7 is going to invest in technology? expects to still be working when he/she’s old? might stop appearing on TV programmes? 8 has not published any cookbooks yet?

I first appeared on TV in 2014. It was a cookery show for a regional channel, but from there I became well-known and 5 soon I got an offer to appear on a national programme. For the last six months, I’ve been filming my own show and that is going on air in the autumn. 10 There’s also a cookery book to accompany the series. In the show, I talk about how I started working in my dad’s restaurant at the age of 14 and 15 how I learnt on the job, picking up new skills and ideas from every chef I worked with, until I finally became successful in my own right.

B

I adore my job and I just can’t imagine doing anything different. All the way through catering college, I was dreaming about the day when I 25 could open my own restaurant. That finally happened when I was 35 and I can still imagine myself here when I’m 70! It is my life. It hasn’t been easy 30 though, and I’ve had problems with finding the right people to work with me. Young people are not always prepared to put in the hours. In the future 35 I might write a recipe book or perhaps see about getting into TV work. But I’ll never give up my restaurant. 20

56  Units 3&4  Consolidation & Certification

Recently, I’ve decided to make 40 a few changes in my life. I’m definitely going to cut down on, or maybe completely give up, my TV work. I have enjoyed it immensely, but it’s becoming 45 repetitive now. Actually, I’ve been working on setting up an experimental restaurant, with an open kitchen where robots together with chefs produce 50 amazing dishes right in front of the customers. My staff are really enthusiastic about it so as soon as I find the right location, we’ll start.

My speciality is fusion cuisine. My parents come from Japan, but I was brought up in France, so this is where my cooking style comes from. A lot of people who read my books find it hard to believe that I have always worked in just one place. In fact I will have been in this restaurant for 15 years next December. They always imagine 60 that I travel a lot and change jobs all the time in order to have such an unusual and creative style. They are often surprised too when they find out that I was just 13 when I was awarded first place in a national cookery contest. 55

D

C


3&4  Presentation Skills SUPPORTING YOUR ARGUMENT  Using statistics in a talk   1

1.23 Read part of Emma’s presentation about young people and physical activity. Complete the text with these words. Then listen and check.

academic ball games cycling future negative outdoors recommends school

Four out of five children in Europe are not active enough and this is having significant (1) ________ effects on their health at the moment, but will also affect their (2) ________ wellbeing. The World Health Organization (3) ________ a minimum of 60 minutes activity every day of the week for children between the ages of 5 and 16. This doesn’t necessarily mean participating in an organised sport, but it could include (4) ________ to school, having a game of football with friends in the park, skateboarding or trampolining, for example. There are many ways we can be active, especially (5) ________, and of course the open air also brings many other benefits. (6) ________ has an important role to play, too: 80% of children only do sport at school so it is vital that as much importance is given to sport as is given to more (7) ________ subjects. Schools should also vary the activities that they offer as most of the time the choice is limited to (8) ________, like football or volleyball, or maybe athletics.   2

Read the Competences box. Then discuss the questions with the class. 1 Underline the statistics that Emma uses. Which do you find interesting or surprising? 2 Do you think she uses too many statistics in her talk? Why? / Why not? 3 Which statistics could she present visually, and in what format (a graph, table, etc.)?

3

Use the words in the box to complete the expressions you can use to refer to statistics in a talk. average doubled less out of over per twice 1 Six ______ ten people eat too much junk food. 2 We waste ______ as much as we did 50 years ago. 3 Like this, we can save ______ 75% of the cost. 4 The number of members has ______ since last year.

COMPETENCES Quoting statistics in a talk supports your argument and makes it more authoritative. • Check that the source of your statistics is reliable. • An interesting / surprising statistic will get your audience’s attention. • Prepare slides to show key statistics in a graph, pie chart or table, but don’t make them too complicated. • Don’t use too many numbers or the audience might lose interest.

5 On ______, British teenagers do only 2 hours of sport ______ week at school. 6 It uses 10 times ______ energy than before.

YOUR TALK   4

Work in pairs. Choose one of the following topics and do some research to find out figures and statistics. Prepare a short presentation to give to the class. • vegan diets • genetically modified crops

• how much sportspeople are paid • the successes of a sports team

On pages 58–59 you will watch a TED Talk. When you watch the talk, pay attention to how the speaker uses statistics to support what he is saying. Units 3&4  Presentation Skills  57


Why I’m a weekday vegetarian

If all of us ate half as much meat, it would be like half of us were vegetarians.

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

Read about the TED Talk speaker, Graham Hill. In his talk, what do you think he asks people to do? Graham Hill is an American designer who tries to convince people to care about the environment and live green lives. The name of his first website, treehugger.com, reflects his love of nature, and he calls himself ‘one of the green guys’. But what does it mean to live a greener life in the city? Graham looks for ways that we can all care about the environment and commit to helping reduce our emissions and our carbon footprint. He recently asked himself the question ‘Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian?’ and this caused him to reflect on his lifestyle and the way he ate. Graham’s idea worth spreading is that cutting meat from our diet – even just a part of the time – can have a powerful impact on the planet.

KEY WORDS  2

GRAHAM HILL

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Pausing When people are speaking to an audience, they often pause to break their sentences up into short sections, or chunks. This makes it easier for the listeners to follow. Speakers often pause: • at the end of sentences • where there is a comma or other punctuation • t o separate adverbial phrases, e.g. expressions about time or place • before an important word or phrase • b etween the subject of a sentence and its verb when the subject is long. 3

4

b ___________ = good for the planet

e ___________ = gas and pollution that we create

58  Units 3&4  TED Talk

1.25 Mark where you think Graham pauses in the next two sentences. Then listen to check.

After all, I’m one of the green guys: I grew up with hippie parents in a log cabin. I started a site called TreeHugger – I care about this stuff.

a ___________ = important or strong effect

d ___________ = promise to do something

Listen to the beginning of the TED Talk. Mark (|) the pauses. 1.24

About a year ago, | I asked myself a question: ‘Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian?‘

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings.

c ___________ = the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that we produce

5

Graham talks about vegetarianism in his talk. Work in pairs and make a list of reasons why somebody might be a vegetarian. It’s good for your health.


WATCH THE TALK 6

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Put the phrases about eating meat in the order that Graham mentions them. a b c d

7

It is bad for the planet. The animals suffer in poor conditions. It is unhealthy. People are eating more and more meat.

Complete the facts about eating meat. Then watch Part 1 again and check your answers. 1 If you eat one every day, it can increase the possibility of dying by a third. animals for meat each year in 2 We keep factory-farm conditions. 3 Beef production uses 100 times more than most vegetables do. meat as in the 1950s. 4 We are eating

8

Watch Part 2. Choose the correct option. 1 When Graham says to the audience ‘Imagine your last hamburger’, he wants them to A see what a difficult decision he made. B prepare to become vegetarians. C feel sorry for him. 2 Which of these rules is part of Graham’s solution? A Only eat fish at the weekend. B Don’t eat meat on Saturdays and Sundays. C Be a vegetarian five days a week. 3 Which part of Graham’s solution is he happiest about? A He isn’t creating so much pollution. B He’s got more money. C He’s healthier.

CRITICAL THINKING Persuading To persuade their listeners to do things, speakers can: a describe personal experiences that others can relate to. b make it sound achievable. c offer choice and flexibility. d point out the personal benefits of doing it. e ask themselves and the audience questions. f ask listeners to imagine a situation.   9

How does Graham try to persuade his audience? Match the extracts below to techniques (a–f) in the Critical Thinking box. Each extract may use more than one technique. 1 Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian? ____ 2 Imagine your last hamburger. ____ 3 I’d commit to doing it later, and not surprisingly, later never came. Sound familiar? ____ 4 I’ve been doing it for the last year, and it’s great. It’s called Weekday Veg. ____ 5 On the weekend, your choice. Simple. If you want to take it to the next level … ____ 6 Best of all, I’m healthier, I know that I’m going to live longer, and I’ve even lost a little weight. ____

10 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1 Which of Graham’s reasons for becoming a weekday vegetarian are the most convincing? 2 Would you consider becoming a weekday vegetarian? How easy or difficult do you think it would be? Why? CHALLENGE Do a survey. Find out what other people in the class think about becoming a weekday vegetarian. Units 3&4  TED Talk  59


5

Work

Work your fingers to the bone.

(English idiom, probably originating in the 18th century)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What do you think the idiom means? • Do you think it can be used when talking about mental work or just physical work? • In your language, are there any idiomatic expressions for ‘working hard’?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

60

Ø talk about jobs and describe working life Ø read about a real-life superpower

Ø learn about jobs that no longer exist Ø write a job application letter


VOCABULARY  Describing work 1

Look at the photo and discuss the questions in pairs. 1 What is the man doing? What skills does he need for the job? 2 What skills, abilities and personal qualities do people need to work successfully in the 21st century? 3 Are qualifications the most important thing? Why? / Why not?

2

Work in small groups. Think of a job:  1 which is popular, so the job market is competitive.  2 in which you need to be flexible – able to adapt to changing situations.  3 that’s well-paid – you get a good salary.  4 in the construction industry.  5 where employees work long hours – 50 hours a week or more.  6 that you would find quite stressful.  7 which has good career prospects.  8 in which you would be in charge of many people – responsible for them.  9 that is physically demanding, so you need to be healthy. 10 that needs creative people with new ideas and new ways of doing things.

3

Put the lines in order, 1–9. The first and last lines have been done for you. a I’ve always wanted to work in b charge of the boys’ football teams. It wasn’t a very well-paid c for organizing a football tournament. Since that job, I’ve never been out d work at the sports centre, two days a week, where I was in e job as a coach. I’m currently working f job, but it was quite satisfying – I was responsible g of work. Now I’ve got a full-time h the sports industry. I qualified as a personal trainer and got part-time i on a fitness programme for one of my clients who is a professional athlete.

4

1 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 9 __

Work in pairs. Using a dictionary or the Internet to help you, find out the difference between these terms. 1 2 3 4 5

part-time and temporary work to work in something and to work on something to have a full-time job and to work long hours employee and employer work and job Do some online research to find the most wanted jobs in your area. Do you think you would be interested in one of these jobs? Why? / Why not?

MY PERSPECTIVE  5

A painter working on a colourful underpass in Munich, Germany.

Work in small groups. Look back at the jobs you thought of in Ex. 2. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you know anyone who does one of these jobs? 2 How long has he/she been doing it? What does he/she think of it? 3 Which of these jobs would you consider doing and which couldn’t you stand? Why?

> World Map, p. 182

Unit 5  Work  61


5A  New ways of working BEFORE YOU LISTEN  1

Work in pairs. Think about the people in your family who have jobs. What do they complain about? Why? Discuss, using the ideas below or your own ideas. the money they are paid  the quantity of work  the holidays they can take  the place where they work  travelling times  the clothes they have to wear A My dad’s always complaining about his journey to work. It takes him an hour to get to his office. B Really? My mum works from home, but she sometimes says she feels a bit lonely …

LISTENING   2

1.26 Listen to a podcast about two employers who try to make their workers happier and more productive. Which person, Hamdi Ulukaya or Jenny Biggam, offers employees the working conditions below? There are two extra ideas.

a Shares in the company. b An extra day off every month. c Choice in what time to start and finish each day. d The chance to work from home or in the office. e Choice in when to take holidays.

62  Unit 5  Work

3

1.26 While you listen, complete each sentence with the verbs in the box.

enjoy forget gone on mean regret remembers stop trying 1 Ulukaya started the business a few years ago and it to become a multi-billion-dollar has company. to be nice, or is this 2 Does he just actually good management? feeling grateful to his workers for 3 He helping him start the business. 4 Do you think that one day he’ll giving so much of the company away? making all 5 Jenny Biggam decided to the rules for her workers. to make work a happier 6 They are experience. 7 The employees feel appreciated, so they working harder. 8 What kind of boss would you like? Don’t to phone in and tell us!


GRAMMAR  Verb patterns  4

6

Look at the verbs in bold in the grammar box. How are the verb forms different from the ones in Ex. 3?

1 something you meant this morning 2 the job you’ll go on the future 3 an item of clothing you’ve tried (wear) 4 a bad habit you’ve stopped 5 something you never remember which annoys your family 6 a person you’ll never forget 7 a day you remember when you were a very young child 8 a sport or game you tried but found too hard

Verb + -ing / verb + to a  Will they go on treating their workers well? b  Making work enjoyable means creating a more productive company. c  Some managers remember to show their employees how much they appreciate their work. d  I regret to inform you that we cannot offer you work. e  I stopped to buy a coffee on the way to work. f  Why not try working from home for a few days. g  He’ll never forget making his first million dollars.

5

Work in pairs. Discuss how the meaning of each main verb in Ex. 3 and the grammar box changes depending on the verb form which follows it. Invent two new examples for each verb, related to your world. go on + infinitive with to = to do something after doing something else After lower secondary school I went on to study at upper secondary school. go on + -ing = to continue We go on studying English for all five years of upper secondary school.

Complete the topics with the correct form of the verbs. Then choose three of the topics and make notes about them. Discuss your notes in pairs. (do) (do) in

(do) (do), (meet) (enjoy) (do)

SPEAKING  7

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 Does it look like a typical office environment? 2 What differences are there? What reasons could there be? 3 Do you think schools should change what they look like to help students learn and study better? 4 Should teachers give students more independence or freedom to make decisions, like the employers in Ex. 2?

> Grammar reference & practice p. 262

A worker checks her smartphone sitting on a swing in the offices of a company in Indonesia. > World Map, p. 182

PRONUNCIATION  /n/,/ŋ/

Unit 5  Work  63


5B  An unusual job

READING  3

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

WORD BUILDING  Ways of seeing In English, verbs often express the same action, but with a slightly different meaning. For example, there are many verbs that can express ‘seeing’ apart from look, watch and see which you are already familiar with. You should try to expand your vocabulary by writing new verbs with similar meanings in your notebook. 1

4

5

READING STRATEGIES  Guessing meaning from context When you don’t understand a word, looking at the words around it and the context can help you to guess the meaning. Look at the sentence below. What clues does it give you to the meaning of the verb glance? He only glanced at the woman, but he knew who she was immediately.

64  Unit 5  Work

Read and listen to the article. Choose the correct option to complete the descriptions of ‘super-recognisers’. 1.27 INVALSI

Read the article again. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1 The article mentions two problems with CCTV. 2 One answer to these problems is to install more cameras. 3 Super-recognisers don’t need to look at a face for long in order to identify it. 4 The police use super-recognisers to stop violent situations from developing. 5 If you are good at recognising faces, you will probably have a good general memory. 6 To become a super-recogniser, you need years of training.

Study the Reading Strategies box and look again at the context of each verb in Ex. 1. Then choose the correct verb for each definition below. 1 notice / observe = became aware of someone or something 2 recognise / glance = look quickly at something 3 notice / identify = see someone and be able to say who they are 4 observe / recognise = know who a person is because you have seen them before 5 notice / catch = see someone doing something wrong 6 spot / glance = locate someone or something because you are looking for them 7 recognise / observe = watch someone or something carefully in order to learn information

1 To be a super-recogniser, you must be very good at A preventing crime. B recognising faces. C operating CCTV cameras. 2 Super-recognisers work mostly A at football matches. B on the streets. C in CCTV control centres.

Read the sentences. Underline a verb related to seeing in each sentence. 1 The police spotted him leaving the car park in a van. 2 She stole from three different shops, but they caught her on security camera each time. 3 He only glanced at the woman but he knew who she was immediately. 4 I waved at her but I don’t think she noticed me because she didn’t stop to say hello. 5 The person in the photo has been identified as Adam Blackmore. 6 Officers observed people leaving and entering the building entrance throughout the night. 7 I recognised an old friend at the train station, even though I haven’t seen her for years.

2

• Do you find it easy to recognise people you have only met once? • How good are you at remembering names? • Can you recognise people from their voices?

MY PERSPECTIVE 6

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you think you’d be a good super-recogniser? Why? / Why not? 2 Do you think it is possible to develop your skills at recognising faces, or is it something that you can’t change? 3 What about ways to improve your memory of facts and information?


A real-life, crime-fighting superpower!

5

10

15

20

25

You are being watched

Next time you’re in a busy city centre, look up. The chances are there will be a CCTV * camera somewhere nearby. Many large cities have thousands of security cameras: on buildings, next to roads, even in public buses and trains. They are supposed to prevent crime, but there is a problem. No matter how many cameras are in place to catch people breaking the law, criminals can’t always be identified. For one thing, the police can only put a name to a face if they already have information about that person. Also, even if the criminal is known to the police, the CCTV image is often so poor that it is impossible to recognize them. Impossible for most people, that is, but not if you’re a super-recogniser. These are people with the amazing ability to remember thousands of faces and pick them out from a crowded street, even if they only see them for a moment. At football matches, for example, the police need to spot troublemakers immediately, before they start fighting, and this means acting fast. The 152 superrecognisers employed by the London police can do this, and they get results. The police didn’t need to worry, for example, when there was trouble in the streets a few years ago. Officers who were super-recognisers sat in CCTV control centres, observing the scenes on TV and picking out known > World Map, p. 182

30

35

40

45

criminals for their colleagues on the ground. Just one member of the team, Gary Collins, was able to identify a total of 190 troublemakers! The police later arrested many of them; others weren’t allowed to go back on the streets. You probably think that with a memory this good, superrecognisers must be good at remembering lots of things, but Collins admits he can’t even remember a shopping list. ‘I have to write that down,’ he says. Scientists believe that the ability to recognise faces is different from other kinds of memory, and uses a special part of the brain. Damage to that area of the brain can cause ‘face blindness’, where people can’t recognise faces at all. Having said that, most of us are really good at recognising faces. We are even able to identify people we know from the back of their heads and from the way they walk, something computers are unlikely to be able to do in the near future. However, we can’t all do it as well as professionals like Gary Collins, who are better at recognising faces than 99% of the population. You might also be in the top one percent and not even know it. So, if you’re looking for a job where you are allowed to watch TV all day, you should find out whether you’re a super-recogniser and join the police! CCTV closed-circuit television – a camera system used for watching activity in shops and streets.

Unit 5  Work  65


5C  Job evolution GRAMMAR  Present & past modal verbs 1

Study the sentences in the grammar box. Which sentence describes each function (1–7) below? 1 2 3

obligation or necessity 4 no ability or possibility 5 prohibition

ability or possibility 6 permission 7

no obligation advice

Present & past modal verbs a  You should apply for that summer job: it’s perfect for you! b  Employers must always respect worker’s rights. c  I was able to find a part-time job quite easily at university. d  We’re allowed to take time off work when we’re ill. e  Until the start of the 20th century, most women weren’t allowed to train as doctors. f  Children can’t get a good education in some countries because of war or poverty. g  I didn’t need to buy a uniform: the company gave me one. Look at the grammar box again. Which sentences (a–g) refer to the present and which refer to the past? Present __ __ __ __ Past __ __ __  2

3

Now match these other past forms to a function (1–7) in Ex. 1. didn’t have to __   managed to __   needed to __   weren’t able to __

> Grammar reference & practice p. 262 4

Complete the text about jobs that no longer exist with these words. can’t can couldn’t don’t have to had to need to have had to  shouldn’t They say that the world is changing faster now than at any time in history. We do things that were unimaginable just a few years ago. (1) send photos from your phone, for Twenty years ago, you (2) carry a map before GPS existed. These example, and you (3) changes affect everything. Smartphones mean people (4) survive buy cameras any more, so camera companies (5) find new jobs. today and employees often (6) Technology is changing the way we live, but also the way we work. Many professions are changing or disappearing entirely due to technology, but you think that job evolution is a recent thing. Many old jobs (7) make way for which you have probably never heard of (8) new ones because of advances in technology.

5

Play a game in small groups. Think of a job. Let the other people in the group take turns to ask ten yes/no questions to guess the job. A Do you need to travel long distances? B Yes. A Are you a pilot? B No, but I have to work in an aeroplane.

66  Unit 5  Work


9

Knocker-up Woke people up using a (1) stick. . Had to stay until the customer was (2) . Done by old people, or sometimes (3) Mule scavenger mills. Worked in the (4) . Always done by (5) . Had to clean under the (6) Icemen and Icewomen Delivered blocks of ice to businesses and (7) families. were common in every home. Before (8)

GRAMMAR  Modal verbs for deduction   6

Study the examples in the grammar box and underline the modal verbs. We can use these verbs to speculate or make a deduction. Which example describes something we think is: 1 certain? __

SPEAKING  10 Work in small groups. Discuss the questions.

1 What skills do you think people had to have to do the jobs in the photos? Are they very different from the skills we use today in the world of work? 2 Why do you think these jobs disappeared? 3 What other jobs can you think of that have now disappeared?

2 possible? __ __ __ 3 impossible? __

Modal verbs for deduction a He can’t have a well-paid job: he’s always worrying about money. b Some jobs might disappear soon because of advances in technology. c She works as an accountant so she must be good at maths. d John may be working in his room: I’m not sure. e Alice wasn’t in the office today. She could be ill. > Grammar reference & practice p. 262 7

Choose the correct option. 1 The company is making 200 people redundant. Business can’t / could be doing well. 2 ‘Why doesn’t this printer work?’ ‘No idea. There might not / mustn’t be any paper.’ 3 I can’t connect to the Internet. There can’t / could be a problem with the Wi-Fi. 4 I’ve no idea what they’re doing in this photo. They may / must be building something. 5 I admire firefighters. It might / must be a very intense job. 6 ‘Is that James?’ ‘No, it could / can’t be him. He’s in Spain this week.’ 7 Danilo’s worked in London for six months. He must / can’t speak English quite well by now. 8 Susan doesn’t know if she’s free tomorrow. She can’t / might have to work.

8

1.28 P Listen to a historian describing these jobs from the past. Complete the notes.

RESEARCH & WRITING  11

Find out about another job that has disappeared completely or has changed dramatically. Write a short text about it. Include: • • • •

the job title and a description of the role what kind of person usually did this job and where the typical working conditions why it disappeared / how it has changed over the years

Work in pairs. What jobs might the photos on these pages represent? A The man on the left might be cleaning the window. B No, I don’t think so. He can’t be a window cleaner because he hasn’t got any water. Unit 5  Work  67


5D  Going for the job SPEAKING & LISTENING Job interviews 1

Look at the photo. In some countries students have parttime jobs like this at weekends or during school holidays. Is this the same in your country?

2

Work in pairs. Look at the three summer job adverts at the bottom of the page and discuss which of these jobs you would prefer. Why? What other types of summer job could you do if you needed to make money?

3

Listen to a job interview. Which job in Ex. 2 is the interview for? Would you give Roberta the job? Why? / Why not?

4

1.29 Listen again. Complete expressions 1–7 in the Functions box with the words that Roberta says.

5

Work in pairs. Take turns to interview each other for one of the jobs advertised in Ex. 2. Use the phrases in the Functions box and these questions.

Functions Functions Talking about skills and personality I’d say I was quite a (1) … I’m willing to (2) … I’m usually quite good at (3) … I like to think I’m not afraid to (4) … I know I can sometimes (5) … I’ve had lots of experience in this field. Being positive about the job I’ve always wanted to do this kind of job. I think this job would give me (6) … Asking about the job What does the job involve? I was just wondering if I would have to (7) … ? Are we allowed to wear casual clothes?

SANTA CRUZ FRUITS summer workers needed Would you like to work outdoors as part of our friendly team? Are you hard-working? Do you want to keep fit? Join this family-run fruit farm during our busy summer season. Good rates of pay, and free fruit every day!

68  Unit 5  Work

1.29

• • • •

Can I ask you why you’re interested in this job? What experience do you have that could be useful in the job? What personal skills do you have that you think would help you? Is there anything you want to ask me?

PART-TIME CATERING STAFF AT AQUAPARKS

Popular water park looking for enthusiastic staff to serve visitors at our lunchtime restaurant. No waiter experience needed, but applicants must be polite and smartly-dressed. Must speak English. Hours 11.30 a.m.–4.00 p.m., Tuesday–Sunday. Vacancies from now until September. Free access to water park for family and friends.

NT PERSONAL CARE ASSISTA r looking 50-year-old wheelchair use ring du for a reliable care assistant regular the summer holidays while carer goes on holiday. y to The right person will be happ h as suc ks, help with household tas as ll cleaning and cooking, as we st be going to the shops, etc. Mu a sense ve ha d an y relaxed and happ work ’ urs ho of humour. About five e. tim e each day, with plenty of fre


WRITING  A letter of application    6

Read the letter of application. Which information (1–7) does Karen include? 1 2 3 4

details of when she is available to work experience she has that is relevant to the job her interests personal qualities she thinks are relevant to the job

5 6 7

her reasons for wanting the job her reason for writing the letter her school qualifications

15, Heather Street, Cranbrook, Kent TN17 4JP Re: Application for summer work

25th May 2020

Dear Sir or Madam I am writing to apply for the job of personal care assistant, which I saw advertised on summerwork.com. I believe I am a good candidate for the job. I haven’t worked as a carer before, but my father uses a wheelchair and I have quite a lot of experience helping him get in and out of the car. What is more, I am able to cook and would be happy cleaning the house. I like to think that I am a friendly person who gets on well with most people. I am a hard-working and enthusiastic student and I am sure that I would bring these qualities to the job. I complete my school exams on 22nd June and would be able to start then. I can continue until the beginning of September. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours faithfully, Karen Malone  7

Competences Read the Writing Strategies box and do the tasks. In pairs, compare your answers.

8

Write a letter of application for one of the other jobs advertised on page 68. Follow the organisation and writing conventions of Karen’s letter.

COLLABORATION  9

WRITING STRATEGIES Appropriate tone When you apply for a job, it is important not to sound arrogant or to exaggerate. This may make a potential employer lose interest in you. a Find sentences in Karen’s letter that give us the information below. How are the sentences in the letter different? 1 I am perfectly qualified for the job. 2 I have a lot of experience. 3 I am an awesome cook. 4 I get along with everyone. b Rewrite these sentences to sound less arrogant. 1 My Chinese is perfect and I have a good level of Japanese. 2 I am an amazing driver. 3 My exam results were impressive. 4 I am an extremely creative thinker.

Work in a group with other students who applied for the same job. Read the other students’ letters. Who would be the best candidate? Why?

Unit 5  Work  69


6

Superhuman

The things that make us different, those are our superpowers.

(Lena Waithe, American screenwriter and actress)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What or who do you normally associate with the word ‘superpower’? • What superpowers do you think the quote refers to? • Do you believe this? Why? / Why not? • What are your superpowers?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

70

Ø talk about the amazing human body Ø learn about first aid Ø read about technological extensions to our bodies Ø write about a special person


VOCABULARY  The human body 1

Look at the photo and discuss with the class. 1 What part of the body do you think the image shows: a heart, a brain or a lung? 2 This is a CT scan. Do you know how this is different from a normal X-ray? 3 Do you know any interesting or surprising facts about the human body?

2

How much do you know about the human body? Work in pairs. Use the numbers in the boxes to answer the questions in the quiz. 9 17 206 300–1,000 435

27 70 100 96,000 86,000,000,000

Th e bo ne s an d sk el et on

The heart and blood The heart moves blood and oxygen around the body.

1 2 3

How much blood passes through an adult heart each time it beats? (ml) How long are all the blood vessels in the body if you put them all in a line? (km) What percentage of the oxygen that we breathe in do the lungs absorb? (%)

The brain This controls all the functions of our body.

4 5

How many cells are there in the human brain? What percentage of the brain do we use? (%)

The skeleton supports the body.

6 7 8

What is the difference in your height if you measure how tall you are in the morning and again in the evening? (mm) How many bones are there in an adult body? What is the world record for the number of bones one person has broken in their lifetime?

Fo od an d dig es tio n

body. Digestion is how nutrients get into the

9 10

How far does food travel through the body? (metres) How many different types of bacteria live in our digestive system?

3

Now listen to two students discussing the quiz and check your answers. Which pair got the most answers right in your class?

4

Complete the sentences with these pairs of words.

2.01

bone + bacteria  breathe + lung  muscles + tongue  skeleton + cell beat + skin  blood + oxygen  1 I enjoyed the biology exam. We had to label the bones on the human and draw a red blood . . She may  2 She’s got a cough and she’s finding it hard to infection. have a , but she’s more worried  3 The doctor says I’ve broken the have got into the cut. that vessels under your skin look blue  4 It isn’t true that the . because they don’t contain much  5 I know there are several places where you can feel your heart under your , but I can never find them! in the . They work  6 There are eight together so we can speak and eat. MY PERSPECTIVE Did you know your inner body could be such an amazing piece of art?

5

Work in groups and discuss the questions. Give reasons for your answers. 1 Which facts in the quiz did you already know and which surprised you? 2 Are you interested in biology and learning about the human body? 3 Would you like to work in the field of medicine one day? Unit 6  Superhuman  71


6A  Amazing bodies BEFORE YOU LISTEN  1

GRAMMAR  Conditional sentences (1) 4

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you walk more or less than your friends? 2 How do you look after your body? Think about diet, your bones, heart, lungs and skin.

Zero & First conditional

b  If you listen to today’s show, you’ll find out why the human body is extraordinary.

digestion 3

c  You will have difficulty breathing if you go to high altitudes.

2.02 Listen to a radio programme about the human body. Which areas does the speakers talk about?

blood

VIDEO MAP

a  Our bodies don’t look very impressive if we compare them with other animals.

LISTENING  2

Study the sentences in the grammar box. Which two are talking about possible future situations? What is the other sentence describing?

bones

the brain

the heart

2.02 P Competences Read the Listening Strategies box. Then listen again and complete the notes with a word or number.

LISTENING STRATEGIES  Completing information With a listening task where you have to fill in missing words, it is important to read the text first. The words before or after each gap will help you understand what information you need to listen for, for example a number, an adjective or a noun. Why the human body is extraordinary • Our backbones have changed (1) over time in order to help us hold up our heavy heads. bones in each foot and more • There are (2) than 100 muscles. km in our lifetime. • We can walk (3) • Our bodies are full of bacterial cells and the type of . bacteria is probably influenced by our (4) • At 2,500 metres above sea level, there is less in the air. This can create problems for (5) . most people when they try to (6) • To cope with this, people who live at high altitudes have evolved: for example, in the Himalayas people have than others, and people in the bigger (7) ! Andes have more oxygen in their (8)

72  Unit 6  Superhuman

5

Choose the correct option to complete the rules about Zero and First conditional sentences. 1 Zero conditional sentences talk about general facts / possible future situations. 2 First conditional sentences talk about general facts / possible future situations. 3 Conditional sentences have one clause / two clauses. 4 Zero and First conditional sentences have a present / future tense in the if-clause.

Remember!

We can replace if with unless (meaning ‘if not’), when and as soon as. In Zero and First conditional sentences, the if clause always uses the Present simple, but we sometimes use an imperative or modal verb in the other clause. As soon as you fly over North India, you can see the Himalayas. Don’t go to the doctor unless you feel ill. When people climb mountains, they might have trouble breathing.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 264


6

Choose the correct options to complete the paragraph. There’s so much conflicting health advice these days, how do you know what to believe? They say that if (1) you’re / you will be worried about your heart, you (2) should / will exercise every day. But then again, you (3) might / will hurt yourself if you (4) may do / do too much sport! And they used to say that (5) if / unless you (6) avoid / might avoid eating fatty food, you (7) get / will get heart disease. But now it’s sugar we should be worried about! (8) If / Unless we (9) continue / will continue to drink sugary drinks, (10) do / will we all get diabetes? I’m so confused!

7

Complete the advice with the correct form of the verbs. 1 You 2 3 4

5 6

(get) ill if you (keep) having late nights. (mend) Broken bones themselves if patients (not move) them for several weeks. That cut looks bad. If you (not clean) it well, you (get) an infection. Have you cooked that chicken for long (not enough? You kill) the dangerous bacteria unless you (cook) it well. (spread) easily Diseases (wash) their unless people hands regularly. (have) a If you still headache tomorrow, (make) an appointment with the doctor.

RESEARCH & SPEAKING  8

Work in groups. Read the text, then research the situation on Mount Everest today. Ever since 1953 when New Zealand explorer Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay reached the summit of Everest, climbers have seen this mountain as the goal of a lifetime. However, the increasing numbers of climbers on Everest today are creating enormous problems for the local communities, the mountain environment, and for the climbers themselves. What are these negative effects and what will the consequences be if we don’t act now?

Find out about: • the number of permits issued and the question of overcrowding • the role of the Sherpas and other climbing organisations • human waste and rubbish Together, prepare a report, an infographic or a poster which shows the concerns, effects and possible solutions.

Unit 6  Superhuman  73


6B  More than human? WORD BUILDING  Permission & possibility 1

Read the sentences and underline the verb in each one that means make something easier/possible and circle the verb that means make something difficult/ impossible. 1 My parents let me stay out until 11.30 on Saturday evenings. 2 The firefighters prevented the fire from spreading to nearby houses. 3 Security tags are used to stop people from stealing in shops. 4 What will this technology enable us to do in the future? 5 The school doesn’t allow students to use their mobiles in class. 6 Assistance dogs help people live their everyday lives despite their disabilities. 7 I set three alarms this morning to save me from being late for the school bus.

READING 5

cyborg (n.) a person who has added extra tools or machines to themselves so that they can improve their own abilities  6

7

______ ______ ______ ______ 3

}

someone

do

2.03 Read and listen to the article. Choose the main idea which summarises it.

INVALSI Read the article again. Answer the questions. Then compare your answers with a partner. 1 Why doesn’t Michael Chorost like the word cyborg? 2 What unusual ability does Michael Chorost have? Why is it good? 3 Hugh Herr lost his legs. What two unexpected advantages of this are mentioned? 4 What technologies that many people already use does the writer mention? 5 How is writing a ‘cyborg technology’?

Complete the table showing the correct structure of the verbs you underlined and circled in Ex. 1. Try to remember the verb patterns! ______ someone to do something ______

let ______

1 Cyborg technology is already used to help people with disabilities. 2 In the future, everyone will have cyborg superpowers. 3 Surprising as it may seem, cyborg technology is not new, and not unusual.

2

} }

Read the definition of a cyborg. What cyborg technology can you think of, fictional and real?

something

WRITING someone

from doing something

Complete with an appropriate verb from the table in Ex. 2 and the correct form of the verb in brackets. Sometimes there is more than one possible answer. 1 Glasses

people with poor eyesight (see) better. you (put on) 2 Doing exercise weight. you (run) outside 3 Treadmills in the rain. students 4 Distance learning (learn) even if they can’t go to school. us 5 GPS systems on our phones (get) lost. (not) students 6 Some teachers (use) dictionaries in class tests. Write two things that your • parents stop you from doing. • mobile phone lets you do. • school helps you do. • teacher doesn’t allow you to do. Then compare your sentences with a partner. 4

74  Unit 6  Superhuman

8

Competences Using your answer to Ex. 7 as a starting point, write a short summary of the article. Look back at the Reading & Writing Strategies box on page 39 for advice.

MY PERSPECTIVE   9

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 In what ways are you a cyborg? 2 What jobs that your brain could do have you given to technology? 3 Are there any disadvantages of using technology as an extension of our abilities?


5

10

Without technology, Michael Chorost wouldn’t hear anything. Electronic implants in his brain allow him to hear enough to have a phone conversation. Technically, Michael is a cyborg – part man, part machine – but he doesn’t like that term: ‘It brings up images of superhuman abilities.’ In science fiction, the cyborg is stronger than normal humans; think about Robocop or Darth Vader, for instance. ‘The future is not about giving our bodies ways to do things they already do,’ Chorost says. ‘It’s about giving our bodies entirely new things.’ In Michael’s case, for example, his disability has an unusual benefit. Thanks to his implants, he’s able to turn his hearing off. This lets him concentrate better. If only the rest of us could do that!

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Hugh Herr lost both legs in a mountaineering accident, but that didn’t stop him from climbing. Artificial legs offer advantages he wouldn’t have if he had his old legs. His small artificial feet can get into smaller gaps in the rock. And in normal life, when he’s feeling small, he can make himself taller! Don’t you wish you could change your height? Now Herr is working on how brain cells can communicate directly with electronics to control muscles. This may sound like science fiction, but in a sense, we are all cyborgs, and always have been. Technology is very much part of who Michael Chorost and Hugh Herr are, but just because the rest of us don’t have implants doesn’t mean our gadgets aren’t an extension of our bodies. Would it make any difference if our smartphones were in our arms in the future, for example? The first time a human used a rock as a tool to open a nut, they created an extension of their hand. And glasses and contact lenses are technologies that many of us wear most of the time, and which enable us to see better.

Hugh Herr climbing with the use of his artificial legs.

Some experts claim that modern gadgets such as smartphones are different because they help us extend our brains, not just our bodies. For example, they prevent us from forgetting our friends’ birthdays; they do difficult calculations for us, and they stop us from getting lost. However, haven’t we been using technology to do our thinking for us for hundreds of years? Take a calculation like 312 ÷ 13. I’m sure you can do it in your head, but if you weren’t able to, you could use a calculator, or you could also use a pen and paper if you needed to. Writing is a cyborg extension of the brain that saves us from having to keep lots of information in our memory, and we’ve had it for a long time! So, next time you hear someone saying that cyborg technology is the future, tell them it’s the past and present, too. Unit 6  Superhuman  75


6C  First aiders GRAMMAR  Conditional sentences (2) 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo, and discuss the questions. 1 What is the emergency? 2 What do you think has happened? 3 Do you know any first aid skills? If so, which ones?

2

You are going to listen to a radio report on how two people reacted when faced with an emergency situation. Before listening, match each verb to a definition. 1 sprain 2 collapse 3 choke 4 bleed

3

2.04 P

a

stop breathing because something is blocking your airway b injure a joint, for example an ankle, due to a sudden movement lose blood through a cut or wound c d fall down suddenly due to feeling sick or weak

Now listen to the report and complete the table. Anmol

Natasha

What happened? She saw someone (1) ______. She was in a (6) ______. Where? She was in a (2) ______. A woman started to (7) ______. She hit the woman’s back She called an (3) ______. (8) ______ times. What did she do? She kept the man (4) ______. She put her (9) ______ around the woman and squeezed. How did she She has first aid lessons at know what to do? (5) ______ . 4

She occasionally does (10) ______ training.

Study the grammar box, then choose the correct option to complete the rules. Second conditional; if only & wish

VIDEO MAP

a   If people drove more slowly, there would be fewer accidents. b  I wouldn’t know about first aid if my parents weren’t doctors. c   If only I had more free time. d  I wish my school taught first aid skills. e  Could you help if you saw someone in trouble? f    She might get better grades in biology if she studied harder. The Second conditional describes (1) imaginary / real situations or situations which are (2) likely / unlikely in the future. To form the Second conditional, we use would in the (3) result clause / if-clause and the Past simple in the (4) result clause / if-clause. We can sometimes replace would with (5) can / could or (6) may / might. When we want a present situation to be different we can use If only or wish. These are followed by verbs in the (7) past / present form. > Grammar reference & practice p. 264

76  Unit 6  Superhuman


5

Choose the correct options to complete this first aid advice. What would you do if you (1) saw / see someone in trouble in the street? Do you wish you (2) knew / know more about first aid? Here are a few tips … First, don’t feel that, just because you’re not a doctor, you can’t help. If it (3) was / would be you in trouble, (4) didn’t / wouldn’t you want someone just to hold your hand and sit with you? Stay calm and try not to panic. If you (5) found / might find someone who was unconscious, i.e. you couldn’t wake them up, you (6) first / would first need to check that their airway (mouth and throat) was clear, that they were breathing and that they (7) have / had a heart beat. Look up ‘Airway, Breathing, Circulation – ABC first aid’ to find out more. If you had a phone with you, the second thing to do (8) was / would be to call an ambulance. Finally, do more than just read about it. (9) Can / Would you trust doctors if all their medical knowledge (10) was / would be from books? Find a centre near you where they teach first aid. If someone’s life was in your hands one day, you (11) might / would have to act fast. Don’t leave yourself thinking: (12) ‘If / If only I was a first aider!’

Volunteering helps YOU and the COMMUNITY • learn valuable new skills • meet interesting people and make new friends • increase your confidence and self-esteem • build up an impressive CV • have lots of fun

• animal shelters • first aid helpers at events • food banks and soup kitchens • libraries and community centres • conservation and clean up events

MY PERSPECTIVE   6

Use the ideas below to write sentences using I wish / If only that are true for you. Compare your sentences with a partner. • an ability/skill you’d like to be good at • a gadget you’d like to have • something you’d like to change about your school/ town/house • a bad habit you’d like to stop

CRITICAL THINKING   7

Look at the infographic on the right about volunteering and discuss the questions in small groups. 1 In your opinion, which are the most important reasons for volunteering? 2 Apart from those listed, what other places or organisations might need volunteers? 3 Would you like to be a volunteer? Have you ever been one? Where? 4 Some people think that young people don’t have enough skills or experience so they shouldn’t be volunteers. What do you think? 5 If you had to convince someone of the merits of volunteering, what would you tell them?

8

Read the Citizenship box. Do the tasks individually or in pairs.

CITIZENSHIP  Participation in local communities Social integration is an important life skill, and volunteering is a way to connect with people from different backgrounds within a community. It can also help create bonds and shared identities, and offer a way to deal with social, environmental and other problems. a Go online and find out about the ways young people volunteer in your country. b Choose one organisation and prepare a short presentation or infographic with details on the number of people involved, the activities and the benefits for the young people and the community.

Unit 6  Superhuman  77


6D  Physical challenges SPEAKING & LISTENING  Picture description 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photos at the bottom of this and the next page and answer the questions. 1 Where were the photos taken? 2 What are the people doing in each photo? 3 How do you think they are feeling?

2

2.05 Listen to a student describing one of the photos. Which photo is he talking about: A, B, C or D?

3

Use an expression from the Functions box to complete the sentences. Then listen again and check. 1 2 3 4 5 6

4

Functions Describing photos This photo shows … The photo was taken … On the right / left, there’s a … In the background / foreground / corner / middle, we can see … At the bottom / top, there are … Making guesses They look / seem … (+ adjective) He looks like … (+ noun) It looks as if … (+ phrase) It must / might be … Being imprecise It’s some sort / kind of … I’m not sure, but it’s a bit like …

A

2.05

he’s sitting in the air. a statue. on a busy street. there are lots of people and buses. London, actually. I can see a child.

The sentences below describe photo A. Copy the table and write them in the correct place. Then add more examples of your own. Maybe she’s taking part in a competition or a show. She’s wearing a colourful costume and no shoes. She doesn’t look nervous but she’s concentrating hard on what she’s doing. She seems to be doing some kind of difficult-looking acrobatics. She’s got dark hair and looks like she might be Asian. Physical appearance Actions Location/event Clothes Feelings & emotions Work in pairs. Take turns to describe photo B or D. Make sure you include each category from Ex. 4. Try to talk for about one minute.

5 P

Choose another photo from anywhere in this book. Tell your partner which unit it is in. Describe it and see if he/she can find it.

6 P

B

78  Unit 6  Superhuman

PRONUNCIATION  Stressed syllables


WRITING  An article describing a person  7

You’re going to read an article about a man who achieved incredible things during his lifetime. Which of the topics below do you think will be included? his achievements his favourite hobbies

8

difficulties in his life his appearance

his childhood his education

Read the article and check your answers to Ex. 7. A MAN WITH NO LIMITS Born on the 300th anniversary of the death of another remarkable man, Galileo, who made invaluable contributions to the world of science and astronomy, Stephen Hawking was an incredible physicist and person. He was diagnosed with ALS, a motor neuron disease, when he was studying for his PhD at Cambridge University. This diagnosis actually made him more determined and focused on his studies and research. Easily-recognisable in his wheelchair with the speech generator technology, he carried out groundbreaking work on the origins of the cosmos and space-time theories. But he was also able to make topics such as black holes interesting and accessible to the general public. He even appeared on TV in Futurama, The Simpsons and, appropriately, The Big Bang Theory.

Competences Read the Writing Strategies box, then follow the instructions for the task below and write your article. Use your notes, and the article about Stephen Hawking to help you.

9 P

We’re looking for articles about extraordinary people, present or past. Who do you particularly admire, and why? It can be a famous person or someone from your community. Write and tell us about what makes him or her so remarkable. 10 Read some of your classmates’ articles. Who would you

like to know more about?

C

WRITING STRATEGIES Planning an article When you are asked to write an article: • underline key words in the task you are given. • note an idea for each point or question. • expand your ideas with an example, detail or fact. • put your points in a logical order. • think of a good title. You should do this after writing the article. If the topic is a real person or event, check your facts using more than one source or website!

D

Unit 6  Superhuman  79


5&6  Consolidation & Certification Grammar revision verb + -ing / verb + to; present & past modal verbs; modal verbs for deduction; Zero, First & Second conditionals; If only & wish Vocabulary revision describing work, responsibilities and skills; the human body; ways of seeing; verbs describing ability

VOCABULARY & WORD BUILDING   1

P Choose the correct option.

3

St John Ambulance teaches thousands of volunteers in the UK about first (1) ______ techniques. Knowing what to do in an emergency situation can help (2) ______ lives. Our training helps you (3) ______ a problem immediately and it (4) ______ you to deal with even serious events like a (5) ______ attack until the ambulance service arrives on the scene. Our volunteers often attend events like marathons, where someone may break a (6) ______ or (7) ______ due to the heat or exhaustion. Other common injuries include cuts with severe (8) ______ or (9) ______ on a piece of food. Another important thing is to learn how to (10) ______ accidents from happening, so this is another part of our training. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10   2

A help B aid A save B prevent A glance B observe A lets B enables A blood B lung A bone B skeleton A bleed B sprain A beating B bleeding A spraining B digesting A help B allow

C support C notice C recognise C stops C brain C muscle C collapse C breathing C collapsing C spot

D rescue D identify D know D prevents D heart D blood vessel D choke D breaking D choking D prevent

Complete the text with the words in the box. adverts  application  career  competitive experience interview job qualified temporary Top tips for job hunters The (1) __________ market today is very (2) __________ so it isn’t always easy to find work. Look at job (3) __________ in newspapers, online and in places like shops and restaurants. Remember that a (4) __________ position might lead to a permanent contract. Look outside your preferred industry and consider a new sector or field where there might be better (5) __________ prospects. Check that you are (6) __________ and have the right (7) __________ for the role. Remember that your letter of (8) __________ is a way to sell yourself and get invited for an (9) __________.

80  Units 5&6  Consolidation & Certification

GRAMMAR Choose the correct option. 1 Oh no! I’ve forgotten to do / doing my homework! 2 Do you remember to go / going on your first school trip? 3 I wouldn’t / didn’t do that if I would be / were you – it looks a bit dangerous. 4 Julian tried to help / helping the injured bird. 5 Please stop to ask / asking for more time for the project. The deadline is Friday. 6 I wish / want I could sing really well. I’d love to win a talent show. 7 The answer must / can’t be correct now: I’ve checked it three times. 8 If only I have / had enough money to buy that moped!   4

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first one. 1 Gail succeeded in getting a job in a dot.com company. Gail ________________ get a job in a dot.com company. 2 It’s a pity that I can’t swim. This means I can’t go on the sailing trip. I ________________ swim! Then I could go on the sailing trip. 3 Dad drove me to the match so it wasn’t necessary for me to take the bus. I didn’t ________________ take the bus to the match because Dad drove me there. 4 The party will be a disaster unless we plan it now. The party will be a disaster if we ________________ it now. 5 During the university tour, we couldn’t visit the labs. We weren’t ________________ visit the labs during the university tour. 6 Gloria is my friend so I help her with her homework. I ________________ Gloria with her homework if she wasn’t my friend.


LISTENING   5

Listen to three conversations and choose the correct option. 2.06 INVALSI

REAL ENGLISH   6

P Choose the best work experience (A–D) for students, Richard, Marta and Helen. There is one extra job.

WORK EXPERIENCE OPPORTUNITIES: February

Conversation 1 – Two friends are discussing their plans for the summer. 1 During the summer, the boy is going to work as a A children’s entertainer. B waiter. C dishwasher.

A

2 The two friends would like to A swap places. B keep in touch. C eat good food.

B

Conversation 2 – A woman is telling her friend about an accident she had. 3 The woman has broken her A ankle. B toe. C wrist. 4 She has had a lot of accidents because she A isn’t very careful. B often goes horse riding. C rides a motorbike.

Conversation 3 – Some friends are preparing for a music competition with their band. 5 Luke is late for band practice because A he forgot to set his alarm. B he didn’t remember about it. C there is lots of traffic. 6 According to the boy, the band doesn’t A practise often enough. B have enough songs to play. C have enough money.

CENTRAL LIBRARY The library has a small team of workers. You will need to help the public with requests for books and give them basic instructions on how to use a computer for Internet searches. Keeping the shelves in order is also expected.

VETERINARY SURGERY This job requires a lot of physical work and if you don’t like animals, it isn’t the job for you. You will be mainly looking after the animals pre- and post-operation, as well as answering the phone in the reception.

C

MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY

D

LAW FIRM

This job involves helping a team to set up a new Mesopotamia exhibition. You’ll have to upload photos and texts to the museum website. This is excellent experience if you are looking for a career as an exhibitions organiser, museum curator or archaeologist. One of the largest law firms in the town has agreed to have four students on work experience placements. Candidates must have basic word processing skills and good attention to detail and spelling. There might also be some work with calculations and invoices.

Please contact Mrs Pierce for details on how to apply for these placements. 2

1

Richard’s best subjects are Computer science and Maths. He is hard-working, but quite reserved. He doesn’t know what he’d like to do in the future, so he is looking for a general, varied office experience. Job ________

Marta has already had some work experience with an online company. This time she’d prefer to be part of a team and have more contact with people. Her favourite subjects are English and Geography, but she isn’t keen on Maths. Job ________

3 Helen enjoys Art and History. She isn’t very confident with a computer, but she loves photography. Her dream would be to run her own gallery. She spent her last work placement at an animal shelter, but didn’t enjoy seeing animals suffering. Job ________ Units 5&6  Consolidation & Certification  81


READING   7 P INVALSI

Read the article and choose the correct option.

BILLY WHIZZ

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After a devastating crash in April 2017 when he was only 17, which led to the amputation of the lower part of both his legs, English racing driver Billy Monger took less than ten months to return to the driving seat of a racing car. Billy’s love for racing started at the age of 3 when, thanks to his dad, he got into go-karting. The passion continued in the Ginetta junior racing championship, one of the UK’s most prestigious and longest running junior carracing competitions. Later, in 2016, he debuted in the British Formula 4 where he finished in

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twelfth position at the end of the championship and was nicknamed Billy Whizz by many journalists. It was during his second F4 season that the high-speed crash happened at Donnington. With no time to react, Billy collided with a car that had stopped on the track in front of him. Despite the amputation, he was determined to start racing again as quickly as possible. This resolve and strength of character is reminiscent of the Italian ex-Formula 1 driver, Alex Zanardi. He too had both legs amputated after a horrific crash while racing, but competed in the world touring car championship a year and a half after the accident. Later, Zanardi also took up hand cycling and has won several Paralympic gold medals since then. Ten months after his accident, Billy was testing a specially modified Formula 3 car for the team Carlin. He had managed to convince the FIA (Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile) to allow a disabled driver to compete in a singleseater car. In his first season

1 Before the Formula 4 championship, Billy Monger A had had no previous experience of racing. B had won a prestigious junior competition. C had only raced with go karts. D had raced in one form or another since he was a child. 2 The crash happened because of A Billy’s inexperience in Formula 4 racing. B a collision which was impossible to avoid. C the fact Billy was driving too fast. D the other driver’s slow reaction. 3 Billy can be compared with Zanardi because they A are successful Formula 1 drivers. B were not at fault for the accidents that happened. C share the same kind of determination when faced with difficulties. D have both taken part in competitions for disabled athletes. 82  Units 5&6  Consolidation & Certification

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in Formula 3, he had two pole positions, was on the podium four times and finished sixth overall. However Billy’s dreams don’t end with Formula 3. In an interview in April 2019, he said ‘If I want to be a professional driver and be in F1, I need to deliver results.’ The courage, mental strength and competitive spirit shown so far in his career will, no doubt, help him achieve his goals.

4 The FIA A allowed Billy to race in a single-seater car. B didn’t allow Billy to use a specially adapted car. C believed that disabled drivers shouldn’t race in F3. D thought it was too soon after Billy’s accident to start racing. 5 Which statement about Billy’s future is true? A He is unlikely to be able to race in Formula 1 due to his disability. B He doesn’t want to continue racing after Formula 4. C He knows he has to be better to win and reach his objectives. D He believes that becoming a Formula 1 driver will be easy.


5&6  Presentation Skills ORGANISING A TALK   Using repetition   1

Read and listen to part of a talk by Susannah, a life coach. What is the purpose of her talk? A To tell young people that they must find out what they are good at now. B To show that talented people are more successful in life. C To convince young people of their worth and their abilities. 2.07

The message I want to get across to you today is that you are amazing and that you can do anything. I know you probably hear this kind of thing from many people and it isn’t always easy to believe. But trust me. Each one of you is amazing. Each one of you has a skill. Each one of you has a talent, a gift. You might not know what it is yet and it isn’t always clearly recognisable or easy to define, like ‘I’m a talented singer’ or ‘I can make incredible cakes’. It might be your empathy, your eye for detail or your sense of humour. And one day, you’ll discover it. You can be your own superhero. You can make a difference. You can go places. And, believe me, one day you will.

2

Read the Competences box. Then discuss the questions with the class. 1 How can using repetition be positive in a presentation? Can you think of any possible problems? 2 Which repetition techniques in the Competences box has Susannah used in her presentation? Give examples. 3 Do you think they are effective?

3

Form expressions that you can use if you want to repeat something in a talk. 1 Let me

a

before…

2 I’m just going

b

through the key points again.

3 Recapping on the point

c

to repeat that.

4 As I said

d

I made earlier…

5 I’ll run

e

say that again.

COMPETENCES We often think that repetition can be boring, but if you use repetition carefully as a stylistic device in a talk, it can be powerful and help to get your message across. You can • repeat important words (and their synonyms). • repeat the same words at the start or at the end of several successive sentences. • repeat your key points and ideas at different stages of your talk.

YOUR TALK   4

Work in pairs. Choose a topic below and discuss which repetition techniques would work best. Prepare a short presentation to give to the class. • Why students should(n’t) get a job during the summer holidays • Why schools should(n’t) teach practical subjects as well as academic ones • Why young people should(n’t) do some volunteer work in their free time On pages 84–85 you will watch a TED Talk. While you watch, pay attention to words and expressions that the speaker repeats. Think about why she does this and how effective it is. Units 5&6  Presentation Skills  83


Deep sea diving … in a wheelchair

We see and discover the power and joy of seeing the world from exciting new perspectives.

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

SUE AUSTIN

Read about the TED Talk speaker, Sue Austin. How does she feel about being in a wheelchair? Sue Austin is a multimedia, performance and installation artist who makes videos and other public, groundbreaking works of art. Through her work, she challenges people’s assumptions about disability and shows them in a new perspective, redefining the popular notion of disability.

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Following the argument Certain words and phrases help us follow the speaker’s argument. For example: Learning to play the game was difficult. However, I enjoyed it very much. That’s why I decided to carry on. 3

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She has created spectacles that stop people thinking of the wheelchair as a symbol of restriction, and begin to make more positive associations with it. Sue’s idea worth spreading is that a wheelchair doesn’t have to mean just ‘disability’: according to her own experience, it can be an exhilarating new way to see and experience the world. KEY WORDS  2

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings. a ___________ = events, exhibitions or shows b ___________ = beliefs c ___________ = exciting d ___________ = way of thinking about something e ___________ = feelings connected to something

84  Units 5&6  TED Talk

Read the Authentic Listening Skills box. Then read and listen to an extract from the TED Talk. Underline the words that help you follow the argument. When I started using the wheelchair, it was a tremendous new freedom … But even though I had this new-found joy and freedom, people’s reaction completely changed towards me … As a result, I knew I needed to make my own stories about this experience, new narratives to reclaim my identity. 2.08

2.09

1

Listen and complete two more extracts.

I began to dive, in 2005, I realized scuba gear extends your range of activity in just the same way as a wheelchair does … , ‘I wonder what’ll happen if I put the two together?’

2 For me, the wheelchair becomes a vehicle for transformation. , that because nobody’s seen or heard of an underwater wheelchair before, … now you have this concept in your mind.


WATCH THE TALK 5

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? 1 At first, Sue didn’t enjoy her wheelchair. 2 Other people felt that wheelchairs were a sign of a lack of freedom. 3 Sue read a story that helped her to see things differently.

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Watch Part 2. Choose the correct option. 1 With her wheelchair, Sue tried to communicate happiness / strength as well as freedom. 2 She used her wheelchair to create music / visual art. 3 The interest that other people took in Sue’s work excited / surprised her. 4 Sue wanted people to associate wheelchairs with excitement and adventure / the underwater world. 5 Sue plays the underwater video to show how the wheelchair works / amazing her journey has been.

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Watch Part 3. Which results of her underwater adventures does Sue mention? 1 Other people are inspired to challenge themselves. 2 Sue has become a good diver. 3 Wheelchair users can now buy an underwater wheelchair. 4 She has experienced physical freedom. 5 Sue’s art makes people think about wheelchairs in a more positive way.

MY PERSPECTIVE  8

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. • What ideas about wheelchairs and wheelchair users did you have before watching Sue Austin’s talk? • Did the video of Sue’s underwater wheelchair change your ideas? How? • What other activities, which are associated with freedom, could be used to challenge people’s assumptions about wheelchairs, implants and artificial body parts? Think about Sue, Michael Chorost and Hugh Herr (page 75).

CHALLENGE Sue says that when people see her art they think: ‘If you can do that, I can do anything.’ Think of a challenge or goal that you would like to achieve, or have been intending to do, for example: • try a new sport or activity • change your study method • do something to help others. If Sue can dive underwater in a wheelchair, can you do your ‘anything’?

Units 5&6  TED Talk  85


7

Shopping around

Money makes the world go round.

(Quote made famous in a song from the 1972 musical, Cabaret)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What do you think this quote means? • In what way is money important for the world? And for you? • Do people give too much importance to money and wealth nowadays?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

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Ø talk about alternatives to buying new things Ø read about people who spent no money for a year

Ø talk about services in our towns and cities Ø write an announcement


VOCABULARY  Money & shopping 1

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What’s the biggest market in your area? What can you buy there? 2 What have you spent money on recently? What do you enjoy buying? 3 When you are choosing what to buy, do you think about these things? • cost • the company you are buying it from • quality • whether it is a famous company name • where it was made • what it is made of

2

Work in pairs. Read the quotes from UK teenagers and check you understand the words in bold. Discuss which quotes you identify most with.

1

‘I’m careful what I spend my money on. I don’t waste it on stuff I don’t need.’ 2

3

‘My parents lend me money if I need to borrow some. They know I’ll pay them back.’ 4

5

‘I’ll always visit a shop if it’s having a sale. I love browsing for bargains.’

‘If something I want is on special offer, I buy it quickly in case it sells out.’ 6

7

‘I spend time shopping around online. I always try to get a good deal.’

‘I don’t mind paying more for things if they’re fashionable brands. Logos on clothes are worth a lot to me.’

‘If I get a present that I don’t like, I try to take it back and get a refund.’  3

Complete the texts with the words in the box. Whose attitude to money and shopping is better, in your opinion: Sarah’s or Dan’s? bargains brands browsing lending money pay refunds sale sells shop special offers spending

A market in Bangkok, Thailand.

Sarah: I try to get the best deal I can, by waiting for (1) on the around. things I need, and I always (2) in other shops. I hate buying things then finding them in a (3) . People who If that happens, I take them back and ask for a (4) are silly – it’s such a waste of spend more on famous (5) ! (6)

> World Map, p. 182

Dan: Money’s for (7) , not saving. Why waste half your life looking ? I love shopping, and I spend hours (9) in for (8) clothes shops, but I don’t worry if I don’t get the cheapest deal before it out. I’m pretty generous too: I’m always (11) (10) money to my friends if they need it and I don’t mind if they don’t me back. It’s only money! (12)   4

We spend, waste, borrow and lend money, but what else can we do with it? In pairs, think of a definition for each verb below. Then compare your definitions with the class. donate earn inherit invest owe save win

Unit 7  Shopping around  87


7A  Alternative shopping GRAMMAR  The passive (all tenses)

BEFORE YOU LISTEN   1

Work in pairs. Which of these places for shopping have you heard of? Do they exist where you live and have you ever used them? • second-hand market stall • car-boot sale / yard sale

3

2.10 Listen to three people talking about alternatives to traditional shopping. Which speaker(s), Susan, Freddie or Karen: 1 talk about products that aren’t new? ____________ and ____________ 2 describes a kind of shopping that is free? ____________ 3 has convinced someone else to shop in a different way? ____________ 4 has never done the kind of shopping that he / she describes? ____________ 2.10

option.

Now listen again and choose the correct

1 Because Susan buys second-hand clothes, she gets strange looks / bargains. 2 In her opinion, second-hand clothes can be quite expensive / good qualtity. 3 In some places you can borrow an item instead of buying / renting it. 4 Things in these shops are donated by local companies / customers. 5 Transporting food a long way often increases the price / damages the environment. 6 A problem with buying food directly from farms might be the lack of variety / quality.

Read the sentences (a–b) and answer the questions. a A driver delivers the food from the farm to our door. b The food is delivered from the farm to our door.

• charity shop • farmers’ market

LISTENING  2

5

1 What tense are both sentences? 2 What is the subject of sentence a? What is the object? 3 What is the subject of sentence b?  6

What tense or verb form is each passive sentence in the grammar box?

The passive

VIDEO MAP

a b c d e

These books have been sold all over the world. Well-made things can be found in this shop. These clothes weren’t thrown away. The things in the shop are donated by customers. I didn’t receive my online order because it had been sent to the wrong address. f More second-hand things are being bought online today than ever before. g Sites like eBay will be used by more people in the future. h Clothes must be washed before you donate them to charity shops. > Grammar reference & practice p. 266

MY PERSPECTIVE 4

Discuss the questions with the class. 1 What do you think of the system of borrowing items? Does it exist where you live? 2 Which of these things would you consider buying second-hand? • art for your bedroom • clothes and shoes • books or magazines • sports equipment • phones / computers • presents for other people 3 Does ‘vintage’ sound better than ‘second-hand’? Why?

88  Unit 7  Shopping around

PRONUNCIATION  The schwa sound /ə/


7

Change these sentences from passive to active. When there is no clear agent, use ‘they’ as the subject in the active sentence.

9

1 You can be asked for ID when you buy alcohol in shops. They can ask you for ID when you buy alcohol in shops. 2 The vintage clothes shop will be opened by a fashion vlogger. 3 My online order hasn’t been delivered yet. 4 This shopping app is being updated at the moment. 5 Was the money from the yard sale given to a local charity? 6 The product had been recommended by an influencer. 7 Where are these games sold? 8 Your details must be checked before you are given a credit card.  8

Use the correct active or passive form of the verbs in brackets to complete the article about online buying and selling. There are several advantages to buying and selling second-hand goods online. First of all, instead of visiting shops by car or on foot, searches (1) (can make) from the comfort of your living room. When (invent), sellers the Internet (2) suddenly had buyers from around the world. Before that, (buy) by people in the most goods (3) local area. Since online selling began over twenty years (send) to ago, millions of items (4) people thousands of miles away from the seller. Nowadays second-hand goods (5) (not sell) only by professionals with a business and an (can earn) online shop – anyone (6) money from home. One of the most successful websites, (establish) in 1995 and it eBay, (7) (use) by millions of ordinary people (8) worldwide since then to sell unwanted items.

Rewrite the text in your notebook changing all the sentences into the correct passive form.

Generally, only experts and collectors discovered specialist objects. For example, where could you find second-hand camping equipment before computer engineers had invented the Internet?

There (9) (be) different ways of selling on sites like eBay. With an auction, the person who (offer) the most money for an (10) (can item is the ‘winner’. Or items (11) advertise) for sale at a fixed price. In both cases, all items (must pay) for in advance and (12) (can track) by the usually delivery (13) buyer.

Now people use search engines to find the right thing at the right price, in the right place. But in the future will people still buy things in this way?

Of course, the Internet is forever changing and who (will sell) online knows how goods (14) in the future?

Second-hand shops have always bought and sold things people don’t want any longer. However, in the past, people found only the most common things in these shops.

SPEAKING  10

Discuss the statement below with the class.

‘Buying second-hand items in shops and online is one of the best ways to shop nowadays.’

Think about: the environment saving money choice quality security

WRITING  11

Now write an opinion essay on the topic in Ex. 10, stating the reasons for your point of view. Look back at the Writing Strategies box on page 42 if you need help.

Go online and find about the Swedish ‘ReTuna’, the world’s first recycling shopping mall where every item sold is second-hand. Make a short report about its main features, and compare them with the shopping mall you usually go to. Unit 7  Shopping around  89


7B  Waste not, want not READING 1

5

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

cheap complete fast fortunate good independent responsible surprising

1 What do you spend your money on that you consider essential? What are your luxuries? 2 What would you miss most if you didn’t buy anything for a week / month / year?  2

impossible 1 My family would find it to live like the Canadian family in the text. at trying to limit my 2 I didn’t do very spending last month; I’ve only got 10 € left. they were able to borrow the 3 equipment they needed and didn’t have to buy anything. when you 4 It’s important to behave are around young children. 5 There are lots of fast food places where you can eat in this town. successful. 6 The experiment was Nobody thought it would work. 7 Luke can’t wait to get his own flat and live . so they 8 They wanted to get home took a taxi instead of the bus.

Read the article on page 91 in pairs. Student A, read about the roommates. Student B, read about the family. Answer the questions (1–4) about your part of the article. Then tell your partner what you learned. 1 Why did they decide to spend nothing for a year? 2 Did they really spend nothing during the year? What did they pay for? 3 What skills did they learn? 4 How difficult was it for them?

3

2.11 Work with the same partner. Discuss the answers to the questions without looking at the text. Then listen and read the whole article to check your answers.

1 What do the roommates and the family have in common? 2 How were the two experiments different? 3 Both made use of the Internet. How did this help them achieve their goal?

MY PERSPECTIVE  6

Adverbs Remember that to make an adverb, we normally add -ly to an adjective, but there are irregular ones too (for example, fast, well, early). 4

Read the sentences below from the article. Which of the adverbs in green is irregular? Which adverb modifies: a verb? an adjective? another adverb? 1 2 3 4

They stopped getting their hair cut professionally. She met people who were similarly anti-consumerist. Jen had to work hard to think of ideas for the boys. The benefits of cooking, such as … eating extremely healthily.

90  Unit 7  Shopping around

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 In your opinion, what were the best ideas from each ‘buy nothing’ experiment? 2 Do you think you could do what the roommates and Jen’s family have done? Why? / Why not? 3 Do you think you would be more or less happy if you stopped spending? Why?

WORD BUILDING  Adverbs Adverbs usually modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

Make adverbs from the adjectives in the box. Then use the adverbs to complete the sentences.

CRITICAL THINKING  Reading between the lines It is often possible to understand a lot of meaning from a text, even if it is not actually stated. For example, in the sentence She asked her friend whether she liked her new dress, but her friend said nothing, we understand that the friend probably didn’t like the dress. 7

Work in pairs. Use the information in the article and your own interpretation to discuss the questions. 1 Were the decisions to live without spending for a year a choice or a necessity? 2 What have the roommates and the family achieved for themselves as a result of their experiments? 3 For what reasons, apart from the ones given, do you think they created a blog and a website? 4 What do you think has been the effect of their stories on other people?


NOTHING FOR A YEAR How hard is it to live without spending money? Read these stories of two Canadian roommates and a British family who decided not to buy anything for a whole year.

5

10

15

20

25

30

THE ROOMMATES Geoffrey invited a friend to share his apartment. His new flatmate had to throw away a lot of things to squeeze into a smaller bedroom, and he, too, made room by getting rid of some of his possessions. They realized how much they owned and how little they actually needed. They decided to do an experiment: could they live for a year without buying anything unnecessary? As well as having to create space, Geoffrey was worried about money, and they both felt uncomfortable with their consumerist* lifestyle. Would they be happier not buying so much? They started a blog to explain their plan and track their progress. Realistically, there are some things you just can’t do without, such as food. But instead of occasionally going to a restaurant and having food prepared for them, now they always cooked at home. They stopped getting their hair cut professionally. And rather than taking public transport to work, they walked or cycled. They learned how to grow vegetables so they could eat fresh food for free. It wasn’t always easy. Geoffrey says that after a long day at work, preparing dinner was sometimes the last thing he wanted to do. But by sharing the experience with his roommate and their supporters online, and reminding themselves of the benefits of cooking, such as being creative and eating extremely healthily, they learned to enjoy it.

35

40

45

50

55

60

consumerist buying and having lots of things, often things that are not necessary 65

THE FAMILY By the time her son William was three, Jen noticed how many plastic toys he had and how often he wanted new things. At the shops, he looked eagerly for colourful toys, expecting to take them home. She realized that she and her husband needed to teach their children that there are alternatives to new. So, they stopped buying anything apart from food and essential household items like toothpaste. If they needed something, they could find it second-hand or make it themselves. Jen started repairing holes in trousers, knitting winter hats and even making soap. Her husband Ben busily fixed toys and other objects. Jen also learned how to create a website, where she met people who were similarly anti-consumerist. They inspired her to keep going. They tried not spending temporarily for a month before deciding to do it for a whole year. By doing this, they discovered that it would be easier than they expected. Ben already made his own bread and jam, so reducing what they needed from shops wasn’t completely unfamiliar. They also agreed on a few exceptions to make things easier, like having the washing machine repaired if it ever broke down (it didn’t). The hardest part was finding birthday presents for the children’s friends. Jen found making bags and clothes for girls easy, but had to work hard to think of ideas for the boys. They managed to save £2,000, and Jen says they are no longer ‘drowning in plastic’. More importantly, they have changed their habits. She believes that ‘Each time we make a more thoughtful choice, about what we buy, or don’t buy, we are changing the world.’

Unit 7  Shopping around  91


7C  Get it done! GRAMMAR  have / get something done 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 What is the man doing? 2 Do you think the dogs all belong to him? 3 If they aren’t his dogs, what could his job be?

2

Study the examples in the grammar box and choose the correct option (A, B or C) to complete the rule below.

have/get something done a If people work long hours, they often get their dog walked during the day. b I can’t see the TV very clearly: I need to have my eyes tested again. c Molly hasn’t had her hair cut for years. d I had my phone screen replaced three times last year. e Shall we get pizza delivered for the party on Friday night? The expressions have something done or get something done are very similar in meaning and can be used when A someone does something by accident. B you do something for yourself. C you ask someone to do something for you. > Grammar reference & practice p. 266 3

Complete each sentence by choosing the correct form of have or get, and adding a past participle from the box. arranged booked carried chosen polished walked

You know you’re rich when... 1 you get / are getting your clothes for you every morning. professionally 2 you were having / had your birthday parties when you were a child. by someone else all your 3 you have had / had your shoes life. when you don’t feel like 4 you have / are having your dogs doing it. by a personal 5 you would get / will get your next holiday travel agent. to school for you every day. 6 you get / got your bag  4

Use the prompts to write sentences with the correct form of have or get something done. 1 2 3 4 5 6

92  Unit 7  Shopping around

e / supermarket shopping / deliver / once a week. W We get our supermarket shopping delivered once a week. Nick / his notebook /repair / last week. You / should / your teeth / check / every six months. How often / you / your hair / cut ? Maggie / her nails / do / at a salon / lots of times. I / the car / wash / at the garage / once a month.


GRAMMAR  Reflexive & reciprocal pronouns 5

8

Study the grammar box and choose the correct option to complete the rules.

Emma Have you heard about the 1%? It’s absolutely incredible how they live. Jason What are you on about? What 1%? Emma You know, the richest people in the world, those with so much money that they can pay people to do almost everything for them. Jason Like what? Emma Well, some services are pretty normal nowadays, like a personal trainer or a personal shopper. But what about having your suitcase packed for your holidays or getting your Christmas decorations put up? Jason But why? It doesn’t take long to do these things yourself. They can be fun too. Emma I know, but that’s not the point. They are rich enough to pay someone … Jason … or lazy enough. Emma Maybe, but wouldn’t you pay someone to do some of the boring or difficult jobs? I’d get my bed made every day and all my clothes sorted… Jason You’re right! My school essays! Emma In your dreams! I’m afraid you’re going to have to keep doing those yourself! Talk the talk

Reflexive pronouns a Jake never goes to the barber. He cuts his hair himself. b My friends and I enjoy ourselves just hanging around in the town centre. c Wow! Did you really repair your scooter yourself? Reciprocal pronouns d My friend and I always lend each other clothes. e My parents gave each other rings when they married. We use a reflexive / reciprocal pronoun when the subject and object of the action are the same, or to add emphasis. We use a reflexive / reciprocal pronoun when an action is the same on both sides. > Grammar reference & practice p. 266  6

Complete with a reflexive or reciprocal pronoun. 1 ‘ Did you enjoy on holiday?’ ‘Yes, we did.’ 2 I want to go the shopping centre to buy some new headphones. . 3 Craig is big-headed: he’s always talking about to the teacher one 4 The students introduced by one. when we first met. 5 Jacob and I didn’t like very seriously. She never relaxes. 6 Hilary takes in school tests. 7 We aren’t allowed to help . 8 Alice, if you want something to drink, help

7

2.12 Read and listen to the conversation. What would Emma like to have done by other people? What about Jason?

What are you on about? You know… In your dreams!

Complete the quiz with the words in the box. How would you answer the questions? Compare with a partner. delivered each other fixed get had have myself (x2)  will get  yourself

1 YDouro youparents are angry about your messy bedroom.

it tidied up by her? A pay your little sister and ? B clean it up C leave it until someone else does it for you?

2

Your parents are out and you and your brother feel hungry. What do you do? . A I make a sandwich just for some sushi or pizza B I use an app to for us both. , feeling hungry, until C We sit and look at our parents get home.

3

Last week your phone wasn’t working. What did you do? . A I tried to fix it it repaired next weekend. B Nothing yet. I it immediately, of course. C I

MY PERSPECTIVE  9

Work in pairs. Discuss what you are happy to do yourself, and the services that you couldn’t live without. What would you get done for you if you had a lot of money?

COLLABORATION  10

Work in small groups. Brainstorm some ideas of services you could offer to people (for example, for their pets, their appearance, jobs in the house or garden). Choose one idea and prepare a poster or PowerPoint presentation explaining your service and why people should use it. Unit 7  Shopping around  93


7D  Buying & selling SPEAKING & LISTENING  Shopping 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photos and discuss the questions. 1 Where are the people and what are they buying or looking at?

2

2.13 Listen to three conversations and match each one to the correct photo: A, B or C.

3

2.13 Listen again and complete the expressions from the dialogues. Then match each expression to an equivalent one in the Functions box.

2 Are these the kind of places you like to go? Why? / Why not?

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Functions Talking to the sales assistant a Where are the changing rooms? b Do you have any chocolate ones? c I’m just browsing, thanks.

4

a b c d e f

Prices and paying g How much is it? h Is contactless OK?

5

Can It’s OK. I’m I’m I

Would you like a bag? Have you got these boots in size 44? We’ve only got red ones, I’m afraid. Which one would you recommend? Do you need any help? Don’t worry. Thanks anyway. Thanks. I’m not sure of the size I need. No, I’ve got my own thanks. You’re welcome. OK. Thanks. I’ll leave it. I’m not sure. I’ll check for you. This is one of our best-selling models.

Work in pairs. Choose a shop or café and practice a conversation between a customer and sales assistant. Then swap roles, changing place and item.

C

A

B

94  Unit 7  Shopping around

a medium. ? ? any chocolate ones? contactless card? . something from the seventies. it.

Match the sentences to form six mini-dialogues between customers and sales assistants. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Saying what you want d I’m after something from the seventies. e I’m a medium. f I’ll buy it.

I How much Where can I


WRITING  An advert 6

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you ever buy or sell things online? What? 2 Do you have any possessions that you could sell second-hand?

7

Match the nine parts of the advert to the features (a–i) below.

Squier Affinity Telecaster 2 Selling price: £80

1

Payment: PayPal / cash on collection Seller rated: 96%

Looking for an inexpensive guitar with a great rock and blues sound? Classic-looking electric guitar with ‘Telecaster’-shaped body. Same yellow 4 wood finish as the original 1950s Tele. Would suit a beginner or intermediate guitarist.

6

3

5

My first guitar. Had it for five years. Used, but in good condition with only a few scratches and marks on the body. Just bought a new guitar, which is why I’m selling this one. New one is a Squier Classic Vibe 50, a similar model but even better quality. 7 Guitar currently sells for about £175 new. Personally, I think it’s worth a lot more than £175. Cost of delivery depends on where you are, or free local pick8 up in London area. 9 Shipping within three days of receipt of payment. 

a b c

a description of the item when the item will be sent the age and condition of the item d the name of the item

e f g h i

how much it costs the reason for selling the item ways you can pay where the seller lives a photo of the item

8

Competences Look at the Writing Strategies box. Read the advert again and delete sentences which do not give relevant information.

9

Now read these sentences from other online adverts. Decide which of the features (a–i) in Ex. 7 each one could introduce. 1 Bought it new and have had it for … 2 Comes in its original packaging and with instruction manual. 3 Due to the size of the item, I cannot ship. Collection Rome area, please. 4 Measures … in length. 5 Only has … small scratches / marks … 6 Seller ships within one day of receiving payment. 7 Unfortunately, I can no longer use it because … 8 Will accept offers above …

10

Write an announcement for something you could sell. Use the Writing Strategies box to help you.

11

Read your classmates’ announcements. Which item would you most like to buy?

WRITING STRATEGIES  Adverts •  Include all the relevant details the reader needs to decide if they want to buy the item. •  If any information is not relevant to the buyer, don’t include it. •  Keep sentences short, e.g. instead of This bike is a real bargain, write A real bargain! •  Use rhetorical questions to attract the reader, e.g. Looking for earphones with a perfect sound?

Unit 7  Shopping around  95


8

Effective communication

A picture is worth a thousand words.

(Fred R. Barnard, English illustrator and caricaturist, 1927)

CLASS DISCUSSION • Do you agree with the quote? • In what circumstances might visual rather than verbal communication be more effective? And the opposite? • Communication through social media is becoming dominated by photos, videos and memes. Do you think this is a good thing?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

96

Ø learn about the ways astronauts stay in touch from space Ø read about an experiment in intercultural communication

Ø find out about a new app Ø write an email of complaint


VOCABULARY  Ways of communicating 1

A group of young men chatting in the Sarawat Mountains, Saudi Arabia.

Look at the photo. Discuss the questions with the class. 1 What are the differences and similarites between this group of friends and your friends? 2 What do you talk about with your friends? And with your parents? 3 Do people use their hands much in your country when they speak?

> World Map, p. 182  2

Match column A to column B and make expressions about communication. A B 1 2 3 4 5 6

3

get post respond pay share connect

a b c d e f

to texts photos on social media distracted attention with other people

Choose the correct phrasal verb from the box for each definition. back up  bring up  get across  get back to  speak up  tell off 1 2 3 4 5 6

4

: successfully communicate an idea to other people : speak angrily to someone for doing something wrong : start to talk about a particular thing : reply to someone, often on the phone or by text : support someone and what they are saying : give your opinion without fear or hesitation

Use the expressions in the box to complete what Craig says about his parents. Do you ever have the same problem as him? bring up  get across  get back to  pay attention  post  share photos speak up  tell off

My parents don’t like me having my phone in my hand when we’re having a conversation and they often (1) ___________ me ____. It’s true that I get distracted and sometimes I don’t (2) ___________ to what they’re saying, but it isn’t easy to (3) ___________ my point of view ____ to them. Perhaps I should be more assertive and (4) ___________: say what I feel! I should explain to them that if my friends send me a text, I absolutely have to (5) ___________ them straight away or they might get offended. I suppose I could also (6) ___________ the fact that Mum and Dad are on their phones all the time, too, so they shouldn’t be so hard on me! At least my parents agree with me that social media is a great way to (7) ___________, videos and other stuff. In fact, they probably (8) ___________ more things on Facebook than I do on Instagram! MY PERSPECTIVE  5

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Who do you enjoy having a chat with? Why? 2 When did you last have a bad argument? Who with? What about? 3 Have you ever taken part in a debate? What was the topic?

Go online and find out how these types of communication differ. an argument a chat a conversation a debate a discussion Write an example sentence for each one, then compare your ideas with a partner.

Unit 8  Effective communication  97


8A  Getting your message out BEFORE YOU LISTEN 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you have any friends or relatives who live far away? How do you communicate with them? 2 How do you think astronauts communicate with mission controllers, their families and the public?

LISTENING Chris Hadfield, an astronaut who spent over 160 days in space, became very popular during his time on the International Space Station (ISS) thanks to his humorous reports about life on board. 2

Listen to two friends talking about Chris Hadfield’s time on the ISS. Complete the sentences. 2.14

1 David Saint-Jacques and Chris Hadfield are astronauts . from during his time in space. 2 Chris used lots of managed his social media accounts for 3 His him. 4 He did experiments to show what happens to in zero gravity. million followers on Twitter. 5 He has  3

2.14 Listen again and match what Chris did (1–6) to the form of communication he used (a–d).

1 shared music videos 2 showed experiments in space 3 talked to children in schools 4 posted photos of Earth 5 sent messages to his followers 6 took part in question-and-answer session a b c d

Twitter video conferencing online chat forums YouTube

Astronaut Chris Hadfield plays his guitar on the International Space Station.

98  Unit 8  Effective communication

GRAMMAR  Reported speech (1) Reported statements & questions ‘Did you take your guitar to space?’ A person asked whether he had taken his guitar to space. ‘What is it like to sleep in space?’ Someone asked Chris what it was like to sleep in space. ‘Will you get lonely?’ Someone asked him if he would get lonely. ‘A guitar has been up here since 2001.’ Chris said that a guitar had been up there since 2001. ‘How often do you hit your head each day?’ He was asked how often he hit his head each day.  4

Study the grammar box and choose the correct option to complete the rules. 1 When we report statements and questions, verbs from the original sentence usually stay the same / change to a different tense. 2 Pronouns and time expressions (you, my, now, this) often / never change. 3 When we report questions with a question word / yes/no questions, we use if or whether. 4 At the end of reported questions, there is a question mark / full stop. 5 In reported questions we change the word order and we use / don’t use auxiliaries (do, did, etc).

> Grammar reference & practice p. 268


5

Complete the reported speech with these words.

8

could felt had (x2) was (x2) 1 ‘What does it feel like to look down at Earth during a spacewalk?’ ‘It is beautiful.’ One person asked what it like to look down at the Earth. Chris replied that it beautiful. 2 ‘I have hit my head about once a day!’ hit his head Chris complained that he about once a day. 3 ‘Sleeping without gravity is wonderful – you can totally relax.’ He claimed that sleeping without gravity totally relax. wonderful. He added that you 4 ‘To be an astronaut you must be healthy and smart.’ He explained that to be an astronaut you to be healthy and smart.  6

Which of the verbs in bold in Ex. 5 means: 1 say something in answer to someone else 2 say something more 3 say something so the listener understands it clearly 4 make a question 5 say that you are not happy about something 6 declare that something is true, even if it is uncertain

7

Use the prompts in bold to report more statements and questions about the ISS mission. 1 ‘Do you do experiments every day?’ someone / ask 2 ‘I do, but I don’t do many experiments on Saturdays and Sundays.’ Chris / reply 3 ‘I can help to educate the public about space exploration with social media.’ he / explain 4 ‘How long did it take you to learn how to move around in zero gravity?’ one person / ask 5 ‘I’m still learning!’ he / claim 6 ‘Will it take long to get used to gravity again after living in space?’ someone / ask

Read the dialogue, then work in pairs. Reconstruct what Michael and Daniel originally said. Michael I’m annoyed with Daniel, my brother. Jessica Why? What’s happened? Michael He complained that our room was like a pigsty and told me that I had to tidy it up. Jessica And what did you say? Michael I told him I was sorry but I couldn’t do it then, and he freaked out. He got really angry and said that he hated me and that I was ruining his life! Jessica Wow! How did you reply? Michael I explained that I hadn’t had time because of athletics training and I promised I’d tidy up during the week, but he didn’t listen and now he’s giving me the silent treatment. Jessica Well I’m not taking sides. You are quite messy, so I can see what he means, but Daniel shouldn’t stress out about it so much... Daniel

Our room is like a pigsty! You ...

Talk the talk He freaked out the silent treatment I’m not taking sides

COLLABORATION & MEDIATION  9

Work in pairs. Take turns to report a recent conversation or argument you’ve had, for example with a parent, brother, sister, friend, sports coach etc.

10

Now work in pairs. Student A: Choose a situation below and tell Student B about it for one minute. Student B: Take notes. Then report what Student A said to the class. • an exciting or interesting experience you’ve had recently • your plans for next weekend • the role of social media in your life

Unit 8  Effective communication  99


8B  Intercultural communication READING 1

CRITICAL THINKING  Using direct speech

Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

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1 What do you think people in other countries believe about people in your country? Use these adjectives or your own ideas.

The author uses direct speech in the article. Find four quotes. Why do you think direct speech is used?

5

Match the quotes in the article to the points (1–4). It is important to: 1 be aware of your own culture and be able to explain it. 2 understand why miscommunication happens. 3 recognize how all types of communication can help understanding. 4 be curious and want to know the truth about other cultures.

direct emotional formal honest patient polite rude 2 How true do you think these views are? 2

Read the article. Then study the Reading Strategies box and match the headings (A–E) to the paragraphs (1–5). Listen and check. 2.15 P INVALSI

A Why make a film? B A two-way thing C What they learnt D Communicating without words E First impressions and stereotypes READING STRATEGIES  Paragraph headings If you are asked to match headings to paragraphs, for example in the INVALSI exam: • read the first line in each paragraph quickly. • skim the rest of the paragraph to get a general idea of the topic. • choose the heading that fits best with that topic. • when you choose your answers, start with the heading that you are sure of (don’t necessarily start with the first paragraph). 3

WORD BUILDING  compounds of some, any, no, every We can add -body/one, -thing and -where to some, any, no and every to indicate undefined people, things and places. These compounds (or indefinite pronouns) follow the same rules as some, any and no. Compounds with every can be used in affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences. They are all followed by the verb in the 3rd person singular. Not everyone was fluent in English. Did they learn anything about each other?   6

Read the box above, then find six compounds with some, any, no or every in the text on page 101.

7

Choose the correct option. 1 Everybody / Nobody needs to be able to communicate with people from different cultures these days. 2 Body language that is acceptable in one country may be considered rude nowhere / somewhere else. 3 We never stop learning: there’s always anything / something new to discover. 4 I don’t know nothing / anything about your country. 5 I sent a message to my class WhatsApp group hours ago, but no one / everyone has replied. 6 There’s nowhere / somewhere to go in this town: it’s so dull. 7 Alex isn’t very communicative: he never tells me anything / something about himself. 8 Would you like anything / something to eat or drink?

Read the article again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F), or is the information not given (NG)? 1 Messages can be communicated in only two forms: spoken language and body language. 2 Intercultural understanding is important because different nationalities communicate so often these days. 3 The aim of the experiment was to compare Moroccan and Chinese communication skills. 4 The students were not feeling relaxed about meeting new people. 5 The ideas they had about each other before they met did not match the facts. 6 Hyan Yu was annoyed because Eleni wasn’t listening to him. 7 The Chinese students were the ones who spoke the best English. 8 The most direct group was the Americans. 9 The students had to change their communication styles so the others would understand and accept them.

100  Unit 8  Effective communication

CITIZENSHIP 8

Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you often have the chance to meet or interact with people of different nationalities or cultures? 2 Apart from any language barriers, is it easy to understand them and their culture? 3 What things could you do or say to make it easier for someone to understand your culture?


AN EXPERIMENT IN

Rochd and David discuss stereotypes and communication styles.

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

1

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We think about communication as somebody sending a message and another person receiving it. However, this view suggests that communication is a simple one-way process, when in fact it is very interactive, with many messages being passed in both directions at the same time. These messages are sent and received not just in the words used, but also in more emotional non-verbal forms such as facial expressions, tone of voice and body language. In an increasingly interconnected world, the need to understand other cultures everywhere you go is becoming more and more important. So what happens when people from different cultures, who speak different languages, meet?

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4 35

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This is what documentary makers Crossing Borders Films wanted to find out. Could young people from different backgrounds develop their intercultural understanding by coming together face to face? Two of their films examine interactions between American, Moroccan and Chinese students. So did they learn anything about each other, and themselves?

3 25

Before the Moroccans and Americans met, both sides were feeling uncomfortable. What would they think of each other? Both nationalities already had some preconceived ideas about each other in their heads. One of the Moroccan students, Fatima, explained, ‘I need to find out if the images I have of other nationalities are correct.’ However, when the groups got together, they found that their stereotypes were immediately replaced by the individual personalities of the group members.

50

Not everyone was fluent in English, and in discussions people often felt frustrated that they couldn’t express themselves clearly. But misunderstandings were not only caused by language errors. One of the American students who went to China, Eleni, noticed that there was something wrong when she spoke to Hyan Yu. He always seemed annoyed. Eleni explained, ‘My sound to show I’m listening is ‘Hm’, but then I realised that for Hyan Yu, ‘Hmm’ is a sign of disrespect.’ On the other hand, some of the differences in non-verbal communication helped the students to get on better with each other. Rochd, one of the Moroccan students, demonstrated friendship in a Moroccan way by putting his arm around one of the visitors – nobody in America does this except with close friends. By spending time together, both sides became more aware of differences and learned to accept them. One of the Moroccan students said, ‘Maybe we’re not communicating a lot of information, but we’re connecting.’

5 55

60

65

One of the Chinese group was surprised by how direct the Americans were. Compared to the Moroccans, however, the Americans seemed less direct. The Moroccans were able to argue passionately one minute and laugh together the next. Rochd puts it clearly: ‘If we didn’t speak with emotion, that wouldn’t be a Moroccan discussion.’ Again, simply by understanding that certain ways of interacting seem rude to other cultures, the groups were able to get on better. The young people learned a variety of intercultural communication skills and showed how friendships can give a personal face to a stereotype. Unit 8  Effective communication  101


8C  Ask me anything 1

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 What apps do you know that can help people learn languages? 2 Do you think apps are a good way of learning vocabulary or improving your grammar? 3 Have you ever tried using a language app? What was it like? Would you recommend it to a friend?

2

2.16 Listen to an interview with Nick, who has developed a language learning app. Put the questions the interviewer asks in the order you hear them.

a b c d e f

Did the users know the app’s secret? How does the app work? What do users need to do if they want to use the app? Where does the idea come from? What does your company do? Will the app be available for English learners soon?

3

Work in pairs. Listen again, then discuss the answers to the questions in Ex. 2.

4

2.16 Work in pairs. Who says, or could say, these things? Match the speakers (1–5) to the comments (a–j). Then listen again to check.

2.16

1 the interviewer     3 the app website          5  Javier   2 Nick             4  anyone with an iPhone a b c d e f g h i j

‘Yes, of course I can tell you about it!’ ‘Can you tell me a bit about the app?’ ‘Siri, find a good restaurant near here!’ ‘We should use texting as the way people communicate with the app.’ ‘Text me and I’ll help!’ ‘If you want to use the app, add this number to your phone contacts.’ ‘Let’s look at an example.’ ‘It isn’t actually a chat bot, it’s me.’ ‘I really think you should try this app. It’s great.’ ‘Remember to come back in five years’ time, because computers will keep on learning.’

GRAMMAR  Reported speech (2) Verb patterns with reporting verbs a Nick agreed to talk about his new project. b Nick suggested using texting as the way to communicate with the app. c  The interviewer asked Nick to explain where the idea came from. d He told Siri to find a good restaurant near there.   5

Reporting verbs tell us the speaker’s intention (for example, suggesting, agreeing, etc.), but have different structures. Match the verbs in bold in the grammar box to these structures. 1 Some reporting verbs are followed by someone + to + infinitive, , . e.g. . 2 Some reporting verbs are followed by to + infinitive, e.g. . 3 Some reporting verbs are followed by the -ing form, e.g.

> Grammar reference & practice p. 268 102  Unit 8  Effective communication


6

1 2 3 4 5 6 a b c d e f  7

SPEAKING

Match the two parts of the sentences. The app promises The website invited people Nick offered Nick admitted Javier recommended Nick reminds us

8

1 Which of the four areas (love, travel, intelligence, money) do you think is the most valid reason for learning a language? And the least important? 2 Do you agree with the benefits given in each area? Why? / Why not? 3 Can you think of any other benefits of knowing a second (or third!) language? 4 What factors might make • some people better language learners? • some languages easier or harder to learn? • you more interested in a foreign language?

being the app. to help. to add the app’s number to their contacts. to show how the app works with an example. to come back in five years’ time. using Nick’s app.

Choose the correct options to complete the review of a new app. A friend (1) told / suggested me to download a new app to help me learn vocabulary. He (2) explained / admitted not using it himself, but he (3) offered / suggested trying it for a few days. It (4) promises / reminds to teach you ten new words every day. The premium version is $5, but if you (5) invite / suggest a friend to sign up for it, you get $3 off. Or you can (6) promise / ask your parents to pay for it, of course – tell them it’s for study! It’s quite good fun because it turns learning English into a game. Sometimes I (7) invite / agree to let my little sister play it. I (8) offered / told to show my English teacher how it works. She thought that some of the vocabulary it teaches isn’t very useful. She (9) reminded / promised me to do my homework as well, and not to only study with the app. I think she’s right – I’d (10) ask / recommend spending ten minutes a day on the app, but no more.

The world’s sexiest accents: . Irish . Italian . Brazilian . Spanish . French . British

Mental benefits of language learning: . Increased problem-solving skills . Better general healt . More self-confidence . Better at paying attention . Better multitasking skills

LOVE

People who speak a foreign language are more attractive and luckier in love!

Study the infographic at the bottom of the page about the benefits of knowing a foreign language. Then discuss the questions in small groups.

9

Now have a class discussion about the benefits and difficulties of learning a language. Each group should report what the various members of the group said in Ex. 8 and the most interesting opinions that they gave.

WRITING  10

Write a review of an app that you use. It doesn’t have to be for learning a language, but should be one that you find useful, and not just enjoyable. Look back at page 17 for help on how to write a review. Include: • where to find the app and how much it costs • a description of its main features/uses • positive and negative aspects of the app (for example, is it easy to use?) • your personal opinion and why you recommend it

Benefits of knowing the language when you travel: . Save money . Feel safer . Order food . Get a job Travelling is easier and

TRAVEL

WHY LEARN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE?

more enjoyable with foreign language skills; You can understand and appreciate the local colture.

$$

INTELLIGENCE

Bilingual children often have a better memory and higher overall intelligence; Bilingual people can learn a third language more easily than monolingual people can learn a second one.

PRONUNCIATION  -ed endings on reporting verbs

MONEY

Knowing more than one language opens more career doors; Many companies prefer employees with language skills and expect to pay them higher salaries.

$ $ $

Jobs where language skills are vital: . Journalist . Computer games designer . Marketing manager . Tourist guide . Doctor

Unit 8  Effective communication  103


8D  I hear what you’re saying SPEAKING & LISTENING  Something’s wrong 1

If you feel something isn’t right, do you usually tell someone or keep quiet? Discuss in pairs, giving examples. Think about: • things friends have said that you disagree with. • marks teachers have given you. • rules your parents have made. • things you’ve bought that weren’t right.

2

Showing understanding I’m really sorry to hear that. Yes, that is frustrating. That’s such a shame. What a pity! I see what you mean …

3

Dialogue Dialogue Dialogue

Listen again and make notes about each dialogue, answering the questions below. Then compare your answers with a partner. 2.17

1 What is the situation (what is the person unhappy about and why)? 2 What does the other person say they will do or suggest doing? Competences Read the Speaking Strategies box and do tasks a and b below.

SPEAKING STRATEGIES  Sympathetic intonation Being sympathetic means listening to understand how someone feels, and being kind if they have a problem. We show sympathy in the words we use (often stressing key adverbs, verbs or nouns) and the way we sound. In general, sympathetic intonation goes up and down more than unsympathetic intonation.

Disagreeing politely I hear / see what you’re saying, but … I understand, but … Preparing the listener for bad news You see, the thing is … It’s just that … Unfortunately, … I’m afraid that … I’m sorry to say …

Listen to three dialogues in which one person says something isn’t right. Match each dialogue (1-3) to the speaker who wants: 2.17

a a second chance to do something. b to get some money back for something they bought. c to replace something they bought.

4

Functions

a

2.18 Listen to the same sentence said twice. Notice how the voice goes up and down in the second, more sympathetic-sounding sentence.

I’m really sorry to hear that. I’m really sorry to hear that. b Now practice saying the expressions in the first part of the Functions box, letting your voice go up to put stress on the words in bold. 5

Work in pairs. Choose two of the situations (1–4). Roleplay them with your partner, using expressions from the Functions box. Take turns to be the sympathetic listener. 1 Two friends: A friend lost a PowerPoint presentation he spent a long time writing. He turned the computer off before he saved it. 2 Team captain and player: A teammate can’t play in the basketball final because he isn’t good enough. 3 Teacher and student: A teacher failed a student in class test because he was using his mobile phone. The student insists he was only turning the sound off. 4 Parent and son/daughter: A parent forgot to lock the garage door last night. The son/daughter’s motorbike was stolen.

104  Unit 8  Effective communication


WRITING  A formal email of complaint   6

WRITING STRATEGIES  Using formal linkers

Read the email and answer the questions. 1 What did Mark want to buy? 2 What problem did he have while he was paying for it? What problem did he have later? 3 Was his phone call to the company successful? Why? / Why not? 4 What three things does he want the company to do?

•  reply Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing to complain about the poor service I received from your company. I was given a £10 voucher, so on 23rd April I visited your website and bought an album (order number YH6398X). The website did not accept the code, and consequently I had to pay by credit card. When I listened to the album, I discovered that the wrong file had been downloaded. Although the artist was correct, it was an old album which I already have. I phoned your helpline, but despite your company’s good reputation for customer service, the man I spoke to was not at all helpful. What is more, he suggested I was just trying to get a free album! Therefore, I would like a refund for the money I spent as well as a new voucher code. Also, after my experience with your helpline, I expect an apology for the trouble you have caused me. I am attaching a copy of the voucher with the code that did not work. I look forward to receiving your reply. Yours faithfully, Mark Simmonds   7

Put the features of an email or letter of complaint in the order that they appear in Mark’s email. d a formal opening a a clear demand for a solution b a description of what happened e details of any attachments c a formal closing f the reason for writing

8

Competences Do the Writing Strategies tasks. Then check your answers with the class.

9

Choose one of the dialogues you heard in Ex. 2 and write a formal email or letter of complaint. Include: • • • • •

10

the reasons for your complaint what you think the company should do any appropriate expressions from Mark’s email all the features in Ex. 7 linkers from the Useful Language box to help you organize your writing

a Underline these linking expressions in the email. Then add them to the correct part of the Useful Language box. although consequently despite therefore what is more b Complete these sentences in a way that makes sense. 1 I had to wait to be served for twenty minutes. As a result, … 2 In my experience, customer service in your shop is usually good. However, … 3 The phone was not the right colour. As well as this, … 4 In spite of the fact that I called your company five times, … Useful Language Expressing contrast in spite of even though while however even so / nevertheless Expressing result as a result because of this Expressing addition in addition as well as this moreover furthermore

Swap your letter with a classmate. Do you think the complaint is valid? Say what your response would be if you were the person that it was addressed to. Unit 8  Effective communication  105


7&8  Consolidation & Certification Grammar revision the passive (all tenses); adverbs; have/get something done; reflexive & reciprocal pronouns; reported speech (statements, questions, verb patterns with reporting verbs) Vocabulary revision money & shopping; effective communication (expressions & phrasal verbs); compounds of some, any, no, every; linking expressions

VOCABULARY & WORD BUILDING   1

P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2

Choose the correct option. Everyone applauded ____ the poor performance. A in spite of B even so C nevertheless D furthermore Millie loves looking round the local market for a ____. A sale B browse C bargain D refund ____ guessed who the killer was until the end of the film. A Anyone B Someone C Everyone D No one Jake and I fell out after a huge ____ about a computer game. A connection B argument C chat D debate I turn my phone off when I’m studying otherwise I get ____. A distracted B across C bored D focused Carol ____ some money when her grandma died. A inherited B won C earned D invested ____ contactless is used a lot today, I still prefer cash. A However B Despite C Moreover D Although You should ____ up and make yourself heard: don’t be shy! A back B speak C bring D think

Complete the text with the expressions in the box. Put the verbs in the correct form. back her up  borrow money  have a chat  pay me back  pay attention  sell out  shop around  tell her off The other day, I (1) _____________ with my friend Jess about money and shopping. We’re quite different. I prefer to (2) _____________ so I can be sure I get a bargain, but she doesn’t (3) _____________ to prices and just buys the first thing she likes. However, last week I spent so long checking prices that when I finally went back to the first shop, they (4) _____________. What a waste of time! Another thing is that Jess is usually happy to (5) _____________ from friends when she’s a bit short of cash. Last month she asked me for £50 and when her parents found out, they (6) _____________ and said she shouldn’t ask for money. But I (7) _____________ and said that it wasn’t a problem as long as she (8) _____________ eventually. That’s what friends are for.

106  Units 7&8  Consolidation & Certification

GRAMMAR   3

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first one. 1 The hairdresser is dying Lucy’s hair green! Lucy’s having ______________ green! 2 Debbie wrote the essay without anyone’s help. Debbie wrote the essay by ______________. 3 Andy assumed somebody had stolen his phone. Andy assumed his ______________. 4 The sales assistant said ‘You should buy this tablet.’ The sales assistant ______________ buying the tablet. 5 ‘OK. I’ll help you with your project,’ said Joe. Joe agreed ______________ my project.

4 P

Write ONE word in each space.

TikTok is a social media video app which (1) _____ launched in 2017 across the world, with the exception of China. For the Chinese market, a similar app (2) _____ already been launched (3) _____ the same company in 2016. Together, the two apps have (4) _____ downloaded more than one billion times. The app allows users to create a video of themselves of up to 60 seconds, usually with background music, which (5) _____ be speeded up or slowed down. Users are also encouraged to engage with each (6) _____ through response videos or duets. As it is extremely popular with children, many parents often ask (7) _____ it is a safe platform. An Internet safety expert Graham Hunt explains that when you sign up, you (8) _____ asked to put in your age and if the company suspects that you are under 13, your account (9) _____ be cancelled. He also reminds everyone (10) _____ follow standard digital safety rules, like not identifying yourself and setting your account to ‘private’.


LISTENING   5

2.19 P Listen to a journalist talking about teenagers and money. Complete the notes with the missing information.

TEENAGE SPENDING SURVEY Survey carried out among young people aged . 13-19 in (1) The amount spent depends on their , but the average teenager (2) per week. spends (3)

REAL ENGLISH   6

Complete each text with the correct option.

1

Auditions for the jazz band ______ be held

A are

on 17th instead of 15th March as previously announced.

B going to

Watch this space for further details on how to participate.

C will 2

ATTENTION!

A informed

Several instances of theft from the library have been ______ recently. Do not leave personal items unattended at any time.

B reported C said 3

Billy, you can have your eyes tested on Thurs. at 5 p.m. or Fri. at 4 p.m. I said you ______ call to confirm which is best. Don’t forget! Dad

A had B would C are

Money is mostly spent on clothes, food, gaming, . (4) Boys spend more on (5) and accessories. items as Over 20% buy (6) they are cheaper and more sustainable. One in four teens keeps a budget every . (7) 81% of teenagers save some of their money, basis, for things but on a (8) like holidays or expensive tech items.

7 P

Choose the correct meaning for each text.

1 A Martin needs a lift to the garage in the morning. B Martin wants Zoe to organise getting the car repaired. C Martin needs Zoe to leave the car with the mechanic before work. 2 A The special offer isn’t valid unless you book another treatment. B During June, all manicures are free here. C Clients can’t get their nails done here during June.

Zoe, I had the car checked this morning for that funny noise. The mechanic said he could fix it tomorrow morning. Could you drop it off at the garage on your way to work? Thanks, Martin

SPECIAL OFFER, JUNE ONLY! Get your nails done for free when booking a massage or body treatment. Includes polish in one of this season’s great colours.

3 A Harry wants to meet Simon this week. B Simon recommended contacting someone for help. C Harry can help Simon’s friend with the exchange programme.

Hi, Simon told me to ask you for some help with the exchange programme. He said you’d done it in the past and had some contacts. Would it be possible to meet sometime this week? Thanks, Harry.

Units 7&8  Consolidation & Certification  107


READING   8 INVALSI

Read the article and answer the questions. You don’t need to write full sentences.

1 In the past, how could you identify youth tribes? 2 In what ways did Mods and Rockers differ? 3 What did the punks of the 1970s represent?

4 What clothes were popular with punks? 5 How has the Internet affected tribe culture? 6 How is tribe culture still important for teenagers?

Youth tribes, then and now Belonging to a ‘tribe’ or youth subculture is an integral part of growing up for many teenagers. In the past, these tribes were defined by a particular genre of music and the associated clothing. As a result, it was easy to spot which group young people belonged to just by looking at them.

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For example, in the UK in the 1950s and 60s, there were the Mods and Rockers. The Mods wore Italian suits, rode scooters and listened to Ska, Soul and R&B music. This tribe clashed in terms of music, clothes (and often also physically) with the Rockers, who were into motorbikes, leather jackets, jeans and Rock ‘n’ Roll music. The 1970s saw both the peace-loving hippies and the anarchic, counter culture of punks. The latter was all about shock and rebellion: ripped T-shirts and clothes often painted with graffiti to make them look original, and hair that was cut and dyed into colourful mohawks. Walking around a UK city today, you can still see elements of the punk subculture, and other tribes such as goths, with their black clothes, hair and makeup, or emos with their skinny jeans and straight hair cut into a long fringe. However, it isn’t as easy to spot today’s new tribes. Does this mean that music and fashion have become dull and indistinctive? Are there no youth subcultures today, or are they given visibility in a completely different way? Some sociologists believe that the change is due to the fast-moving pace of music and fashion today. These days, trends come and go far more quickly than before, and the Internet has given everyone access to global music, fashion and other trends that young people in the past would have had no idea about. For example, a trend like K-pop would have been unlikely to spread outside South Korea a few years ago, but nowadays anyone can access it just by doing a quick Google search.

30

Another possible reason why the tribes of today seem less visible in the real world is that they are often happening online, in a virtual world. Teenagers can construct an identity – or more than one – for themselves online and don’t need to make an outward show. They feel protected by their anonimity.

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What is important is that teenagers still have a place to belong, similar people to connect with, and shared interests. Being passionate about something while you are a teenager helps make you into who you are as an adult. And it also gives you some great photos to look back at (and smile with embarrassment) when you’re older!

40

Mods

Emos

Punks

> World Map, p. 182

WRITING   9

Now write a summary of the article. Look back at the Reading & Writing Strategies box on page 39 for advice.

108  Units 7&8  Consolidation & Certification


7&8  Presentation Skills THE STRUCTURE OF A TALK   Signposting & sequencing   1

2.20 Read and listen to part of a talk by a student, Dylan, and answer the questions below.

Today I’m going to talk about three different apps that I think can help teenagers save money. I’ve been using them a lot over the last few months, so I can guarantee that they work. Firstly, there’s a price comparison app for online shopping, then there’s a kind of Freecycle app, and last of all, there’s a food delivery app. I heard about this third one from my older brother. He told me that he and his friends had used it when they were on a school trip. Apparently, the hotel food was awful, so they got sushi, salads, curries and stuff like that delivered. I know it sounds less like a way of saving money and more like a way of spending it. However, I’ll show you that it is a good way to eat well and spend less, if you use it carefully. But for now, let’s get back to the first app on my list: the price comparison one. Here, I’d like to give you a demonstration.

1 What is the topic of Dylan’s talk? 2 Is this the introduction, main part or conclusion of his talk? How do you know? 3 How do you think the rest of his talk will be divided? How many parts could there be?   2

Read the Competences box. Then underline similar words and expressions in Dylan’s talk.

3

Complete the expressions for signposting with the words in the box. brings look next part start spend 1 I’ll

by giving you an overview of its history.

2 That

me to the end of my first point.

3 The

thing I’d like to consider is the design.

4 Now let’s

at the disadvantages.

5 In this last

, I’m going to talk about the legal aspect.

6 I’d like to

the next five minutes explaining my vision.

COMPETENCES We can use sequencers and signposts to help the audience understand the different stages of a talk, (what we have just said and what we are going to say next). Indicators can be used to provide a pause for the speaker. Sequencers First of all, / Secondly, / My third point, / Finally, / Lastly, … Signposts This brings us to our next point. / Let’s move on. / That’s all I wanted to say about … Indicators Okay, / Right, / Now, / Well, …

YOUR TALK   4

Choose one of the following topics and prepare a short talk to give to the class. Remember to use signposting to make your presentation clear and easy to follow. • A website for private sellers and buyers • Ways teenagers can make some money • The importance of communication within a family On pages 110–111 you will watch a TED Talk. While you watch, pay attention to how the speaker structures what she is saying and whether this makes it easy to follow. Units 7&8  Presentation Skills  109


Ten ways to have a better conversation

Go out, talk to people, listen to people, and, most importantly, be prepared to be amazed.

CELESTE HEADLEE

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

Read about the TED Talk speaker, Celeste Headlee. What does she think is the most important competence in a conversation? Celeste Headlee is the host of a daily talk show in the USA, so her job has taught her a lot about how to have (and how not to have) conversations. Celeste says that conversational competence is about speaking, but it is also about listening and finding a compromise when we don’t share the same point of view. She knows what makes a great conversation: being honest, brief, clear, not being offensive and most of all, being a good listener, which means paying attention to what the other person says: ‘Be present. Be in that moment.’ Celeste’s idea worth spreading is that we need to enter any conversation assuming we have something to learn: when we talk and listen with genuine interest in the other person, we will learn amazing things.

KEY WORDS  2

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings. a ___________ = an agreement b ___________ = a TV or radio presenter c ___________ = short and quick d ___________ = an opinion, way of seeing things

110  Units 7&8  TED Talks

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Understanding fast speech Some people speak very fast – often because they are enthusiastic about what they are saying. Some groups of words can sound like one long word. To deal with this, you can: •  listen for words you do understand. •  try to get the main idea. 3

Read the Authentic Listening Skills box. Listen to the first sentence of the talk. Write down the words you hear.

4

Listen again. What does Celeste want the audience to do? Choose the correct option.

2.21

2.21

a Unfriend someone on Facebook. b Put their hands up.   5

Listen to another short extract from the talk. What is the main idea of what Celeste says?

6

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

2.22

1 When you talk to people you don’t know very well, what are ‘safe’ topics to talk about? 2 Which topics should you definitely avoid? 3 Who do you have good conversations with? What do you talk about? 4 What does a good listener do?


WATCH THE TALK 7

Watch Part 1 of the talk. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1 Celeste says that even the weather and health aren’t safe topics of conversation any more. 2 She thinks that smartphones are helping kids improve their interpersonal skills. 3 She agrees with the advice everyone has heard about how to show that you are paying attention.

8

Watch Part 2. Complete Celeste’s ten tips for having a better conversation with the words in the box. brief details experience flow know learn listen multitask open-ended repeat  1 Don’t .  2 Enter every conversation assuming that you have . something to questions. Start questions  3 Use with who, what, when, where, why or how. . Thoughts will come  4 Go with the into your mind and you need to let them go out of your mind. , say that you  5 If you don’t don’t know. with theirs.  6 Don’t equate your All experiences are individual. yourself. It’s really boring.  7 Try not to . People don’t care  8 Leave out the about them. . It’s the number one most  9 important skill that you can develop. . 10 Be

CHALLENGE Watch Part 3 of the talk. Celeste says that ‘everyone has some hidden, amazing thing about them’. What is your hidden, amazing thing? Tell a partner.

CRITICAL THINKING  Investigating opinions   9

Work in pairs. Read the comments and discuss how Celeste would respond to them. What is your own opinion of the comments?

Celeste says that people are spending so much time on their phones that they don’t develop their interpersonal skills. But if you are messaging people, you are still talking to people, even if it isn’t face to face.

Celeste says that we shouldn’t compare other people’s experiences with our own, but I’ve always thought that this shows good listening skills – it shows that you really understand how the other person is feeling.

Celeste says that listening is the most important skill in a conversation, but doesn’t it depend on what kind of conversation you are having? Normally both people should be allowed to give their opinions rather than one of the people just listening.

Units 7&8  TED Talks  111


9

Unexpected entertainment

How complicated and unpredictable the machinery of life really is.

(Kurt Vonnegut Jr., American writer)

CLASS DISCUSSION • Do you agree with the quote at the top of the page? • Do you think that life becomes more complicated as you get older? Why? / Why not? • Do you like the fact that life is unpredictable, or would you prefer to know your future?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

112

Ø talk about forms of entertainment Ø read about young artists

Ø learn about FOMO Ø write a text describing a place and its culture


VOCABULARY  Creative arts  1

Look at the photo and read the caption. Discuss the questions in pairs. 1 Is there anything surprising about the photo? Is this something you would enjoy watching? Have you seen similar performances? 2 What forms of entertainment from the list below do you particularly enjoy? Are there any that don’t interest you at all? • art websites, exhibitions • films at the cinema • live music • poems and short stories • short online films or animations • other people’s social media sites

• classical music • funny videos • plays at the theatre • pop music and videos • TED Talks • TV or radio shows and podcasts

3 Where can you see art and live entertainment in your area?  2

Which word doesn’t fit the group? Why? Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 broadcast / edit / produce / TV programme 2 audience / characters / listeners / viewers 3 a theatre / a musical / a performance / a play / a production 4 a drawing / a mural / a portrait / a sculpture 5 stadium / exhibition / gallery / studio / venue 6 concert / lyrics / tune / verse

3

In pairs, look carefully at the context in these sentences and choose the most logical option. Explain your choice. 1 I love the lyrics / verses of this song because they say what I’m feeling. 2 She’s planning a large mural / sculpture to decorate the side of the new children’s hospital. 3 The president made a ten-minute broadcast / production to explain the economic situation. 4 More than five million listeners / viewers watched last night’s programme. 5 She works in a small gallery / studio in her garden.

4

Complete the sentences with these pairs of words. broadcast + viewers  mural + portrait  play + theatre  stadium + concerts tune + lyrics  venues + audience

A Chinese theatre group which performed a Shakespeare play at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, Scotland, in 2015. > World Map, p. 182

PRONUNCIATION  Silent letters

1 For me, a good song is something you can dance to, with a catchy and memorable . to a 2 If I had some art in my bedroom, I’d prefer a bright of someone. on at our local 3 At the moment, there’s a about a murder on a train. like clubs and halls, 4 I prefer going to shows in small is close to the stage. That’s a magic feeling. where the near where I live where they 5 There’s a football . sometimes put on classical music to 6 Ranczo is a popular TV show in my country. It is around the country. millions of 5

Use five of the expressions in bold in Ex. 4 to write sentences that are true for you. Then compare with a partner.

Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  113


9A  Entertain me! BEFORE YOU LISTEN  1

Look carefully at the photo. What does it show? How do you think the image was created?

Conversation 3 5 The podcast is about A architecture. B music.

LISTENING  2

3

2.23 Listen to three conversations. Which form(s) of entertainment do they discuss? 2.23 P INVALSI

option.

Listen again and choose the correct

Conversation 1 1 Clara sent the link to Alex because A he’s also Italian. B she saw the artist’s work at an exhibition. C it could be of interest to him. 2 They both think that being a model for Stötter must be A very cold. B difficult. C quite boring. Conversation 2 3 Naomi’s collection of short stories is A modern. B very boring. C fairly old. 4 Lucas wants A Naomi to stop talking about the stories. B to read the book when Naomi’s finished. C to lend Naomi a Stephen King novel.

Angelfish by Johannes Stötter.

114  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

C Canada.

6 Lucy is a bit ... by Matthew’s behaviour. A surprised B irritated C worried

GRAMMAR  Question tags  4

Study the examples in the grammar box from the conversations you heard in Ex. 2. Then match each sentence (1–6) to the correct question tag (a–f).

Question tags It wasn’t that bad, was it? You don’t like horror stories, do you? It must take him ages to do, mustn’t it? They’re incredible, aren’t they? 1 2 3 4 5 6

You and I won the match easily, a Pete doesn’t know your surname, b I haven’t made any mistakes, c Jenny wouldn’t lie to me, d You’ll lend me your bike, e They’d already met, f

would she? won’t you? hadn’t they? didn’t we? have I? does he?


5

Work in pairs. Look at all the sentences in Ex. 4 again and answer the questions.

7

1 Which Italian word normally corresponds to question tags? 2 How are question tags formed? 3 If the main sentence is negative, what form is the question tag? And if the main sentence is affirmative?

A there’ll be another trip, won’t there? B you’re meant to be in france, aren’t you? C it’s unbelievable, isn’t it? D I can’t go, can I? E you didn’t miss the coach, did you?

> Grammar reference & practice p. 270  6

Rob Hi Sal. What on earth are you doing here? (1) ___ I thought the school trip started yesterday. Sally You’re right. It did. Rob (2) ___ I know they’re really strict about not waiting for anyone, but that seems a bit mean. Sally No, it wasn’t that. Basically, my puppy chewed up my passport so I couldn’t leave. Rob No! Talk the talk Sally Yes. I know. (3) ___ Rob So what did your parents say? What on earth…? Basically, … I bet they were angry. Sally Furious. With both me and the dog. Rob Well, next year (4) ___ Sally Yeah, but (5) ___ I’ve been grounded for life!

Complete each mini-dialogue with the correct question tag. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

A Sorry. You had to wait for me again, ? B Don’t worry. I’ve only just arrived. A Let’s see what’s on at the cinema. B Good idea. We haven’t been there for ages, ? A You were in last year’s concert, too, B Yes, that’s right, but I played the sax last time. ? A You can get the tickets for us, B Yes, I’ll get them online tomorrow. A Mum and Dad wouldn’t enjoy this show, B No, they’d absolutely hate it! ? A Pete doesn’t like me much, B Don’t be silly. Of course, he likes you! A Before this show, that actor hadn’t been on ? TV, B No, I think he’d only worked in the theatre. 8 A Jo and I are invited to your exhibition opening, ? B Of course you are! I’d hate you both to miss it!

2.24 P Complete the dialogue with sentences A–E. Then listen and check. Note the intonation on tags.

?

?

8

Work in pairs. Discuss things you think you know about your partner: their feelings about different forms of entertainment, or their hobbies, family, friends, holidays. Use question tags to ask confirmation. A You’ve seen Bruno Mars in concert, haven’t you? B Yes, you’re right. But he wasn’t as good as I expected.

Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  115


9B  Fast art, big art Reading Makes You Grow mural in Argentina by Artez. > World Map, p. 182

WORD BUILDING  Expressions with make Some common verbs in English, like make, have different meanings depending on the expressions they are used in. I never make my bed after I get up. If you don’t make a decision soon, I’m leaving. Have you made friends with anyone new this year? 1

Match the expressions with make (1–8) to their meanings (a–h). 1 Nobody goes into art to make a good living. 2 We wanted to make the most of our trip to Moscow by visiting as many museums and galleries as possible. 3 Older artists should make way for the younger generation. 4 A lot of abstract art doesn’t make sense to me. 5 Her exhibition is going to make quite a splash. 6 I can’t make up my mind whether I like this painting. I didn’t think I liked it, but I keep coming back to it. 7 Can art make a difference in people’s lives? 8 There’s something powerful about her paintings. They make a big impression on me every time I see them.

116  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

a b c d e f g h

be memorable and have an effect on someone give an opportunity to decide be noticed by a lot of people and be popular be difficult to understand earn enough money to live comfortably change things in an important way take advantage of something while it lasts

MY PERSPECTIVE 2

Work in pairs. Tell your partner about three or four of the following: • a time in your life when you found it hard to make up your mind about something • someone who has made a big impression on you • someone you admire who makes a good living • an opportunity you have had that you didn’t make the most of • an artist, writer or poet whose work doesn’t make sense to you • a possession that has made a big difference to you


THE ART WORLD is an exciting place for

5

10

15

20

25

young artists these days. Old ways of making it professionally as an artist, such as art college and gallery exhibitions, are making way for new paths to success. Art is changing fast, with new ways to create, find success and promote your work. Here are two young artists who are making a splash, each in their own way. Artez is a Serbian street artist living in Belgrade, (1) ____ . When he was a child he practised making his own tags, or names written in graffiti, in his notebooks at school. Since then his graffiti has developed into public art on a large scale. Artez’s style, which he describes as mixing photorealism with illustration, is influenced by other artists such as the Maclaim crew, (2) ____ . Now, even though he is only in his early thirties, Artez is gaining popularity abroad. Among other places, he has worked in India, Brazil and Greece. Sophie-chan has made a name as one of YouTube’s leading manga artists. Born in Iraq in 1990, in the middle of a war, Sophie had to change schools several times as her family moved around. It was difficult for her to make friends but she enjoyed drawing, (3) ____ . Influenced

30

35

40

45

50

by Japanese anime cartoons on TV, she taught herself to draw her first manga drawings when she was thirteen. After seeing Marc Crilley, (4) ____, Sophie was inspired to upload her first painting video in 2008. Since then, she has produced many more, showing her art as well as offering tutorials and advice on how to draw. Both artists make the most of social media to promote their work. Sophie’s popularity on YouTube means that she makes money from it. Her channel is monetized, (5) ____ . However, she doesn’t earn a lot of money that way. After graduating, she worked as an engineer to save the money she needed to self-publish The Ocean of Secrets, her first book, (6) ____ . Her online popularity meant that she already had lots of followers who bought the book. Artez has active Facebook, Instagram and Pinterest profiles, of course, but he is also part of a group of artists who support each other. He says that ‘healthy competition and an exchange of ideas can really motivate people to produce more, better and faster. I was lucky to start my painting career on the streets of Belgrade and to become a part of such a lively community of artists!’

> World Map, p. 182

READING   3

6

Discuss the questions with the class. 1 What do you think of the art in the photo? Why? 2 How does reading ‘make you grow’? Give examples. 3 Is there any good street art in your area?

4

5

start practising at a young age study other artists’ work work with other artists show videos of you doing your work upload examples of your work to social media study art at college choose a popular style of art that is easy to understand prepare for a different job in case you don’t succeed as an artist

Read about two young artists, Artez and Sophie-chan. What do we learn about:

2.25 P INVALSI Complete the spaces in the article with the expressions (A–F) below. Then listen and check your answers.

A who were some of the first people to create murals which almost look like photos B which came out in 2015 C which kept her busy D which means that she is paid a very small amount each time a viewer clicks on an advert shown on her videos E who is one of the original YouTube manga artists F where some of his murals can be seen

Work in pairs. Which of these ways of becoming a professional artist are the most and least effective, in your opinion? • • • • • • • •

WRITING   7

Find out about a young artist from your country. Write a profile about them. Include information about: • • • • •

the type of work they do how they use social media how successful they are how they became an artist your personal opinion of their work

1 their childhood, and how it influenced what they do? 2 the kind of art they do? 3 how they use social media to get their art seen? Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  117


The Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt, is one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World. > World Map, p. 182

9C  Fear Of Missing Out GRAMMAR  Defining & non-defining relative clauses 1

Look at the photos and discuss the questions with the class. 1 What do the two photos have in common? 2 What do you think the message of these photos might be? 3 Do you think it is fair to judge the people in the photos?

2

Study the rule and the grammar box. Then answer the questions. Defining relative clauses, like examples d and f in the grammar box, provide essential information and complete the meaning of the sentence. Non-defining relative clauses, like examples a, b, c and e in the grammar box, provide extra, non-essential, information.

Defining & non-defining relative clauses a  She isn’t looking at the pyramid, which is one of the seven wonders of the world. b  The girl, who finds the pyramid fascinating, is actually researching it online. c  The film premier, which lots of people attended, was a huge success. d  This premiere is an event which is held every year. e  The old lady at the front, who is the only person without a phone, looks more relaxed than the others. f  The person who they’re waiting for is probably a famous actor. 1 Which relative pronoun can be replaced by that? Why? 2 Can any of the relative pronouns be omitted? Why? 3 What do you notice about the punctuation in these sentences? > Grammar reference & practice p. 270   3

2.26 Read what FOMO means. Then listen to part of a radio show about it. Which things that the speaker mentions do you recognise in yourself?

FOMO, which means Fear Of Missing Out, is the worry that you are missing something that everyone else is doing. Today FOMO is more evident than ever as we are continually being told what is going on around us through social media networks. 4

2.26 Match the sentence beginnings (1–5) to the relative clauses (a–e). Then listen again to check. Which are defining and which are non-defining?  1 Perhaps you stay up late just to play the video game 2 It’s the last night they’re showing The Last Jedi, 3 It’s the final episode of the show 4 Tomorrow you’re going to find out what happens from your friends, 5 And this creates a worry

a b c d e

118  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

that everyone’s watching. that everyone is talking about. that won’t go away. who will be watching it right now. which you’ve been meaning to see for ages.


5

Combine the sentences to make one sentence containing a non-defining relative clause. 1 FOMO is the secret disease that we all suffer from. It can affect anyone with easy access to the Internet.

MY PERSPECTIVE 7

1 Look at the types of FOMO below and give examples of occasions when you have experienced them. • having to stay at home when you want to be out • being too young to do something • missing out on shared experiences

FOMO, which can affect anyone with easy access to the Internet, is the secret disease we all suffer from. 2 When people start conversations with Did you see …?, do you get an uncomfortable feeling? This is a common phrase these days. 3 The people it affects run to their phone when they hear it ‘ping’. They are worried that they might be missing something important. 4 Most notifications are really not worth looking at. They might only be about funny cat videos or profile photo updates. 5 Many young people use three or four devices simultaneously. They check Facebook while answering texts and watching TV. 6 Studies have shown that we sleep less because of our devices. These include smartphones and tablets. 6

Work in pairs. Add at least three relative clauses to this paragraph to make it more informative. Then share your ideas with the class. There are many ways of fighting FOMO in your life. Sophie Kleeman, who is a journalist, has some advice for us about spending less time on our devices. First of all, phone settings can be changed to stop them interrupting you. Phones can be a problem at night. Don’t keep your phone in your bedroom even if it is on vibrate. Buy an alarm clock instead. Consider your social media and decide honestly whether you need 24-hour access to it. Could you just have it on your laptop? Another idea is to play Shame with friends. The first person to use their phone has to buy the coffees!

Work in groups and discuss the questions.

2 Which types of FOMO are common among your friends or teenagers in general? 3 Apart from the ideas in Ex. 6, what can people do to fight FOMO?

WRITING  8

Using your ideas from Ex. 7, write a short article to give advice to teenagers about FOMO and some strategies on how to fight it. Remember to use relative clauses to make it informative. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  Coping with fears & emotions Recognising, understanding and coping with your own fears and emotions, as well as understanding those of other people, is an important life skill. Sharing your experiences and listening to others can help you deal with negative emotions in a positive manner. In small groups, talk about fears and emotions which are common in teenagers and what strategies you could use to help.

People experiencing a live moment at a film premiere with their phones. But studies show that the woman without the phone will have a better memory of it.

Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  119


9D  Well worth seeing SPEAKING & LISTENING  What do you recommend? 1

Where do you usually get recommendations for things like books, restaurants and tourist attractions? Discuss in pairs, using the ideas below.

2

2.27 Listen to a TV presentation and a conversation between two friends about the same tourist attraction. What is it? Do they both recommend visiting the place?

3

Now listen again. Who mentions the things below: the TV Presenter (P), the friend (F) or both (P/F)?

• reviews in newspapers and magazines • comments on online forums • friends and family • the tourist information office • famous people • other … Functions

1 2 3 4 5 6 4

Asking for recommendations Is it worth watching / visiting? What did you think (about …)? Is it any good? Positive recommendations You must go! I’ll send you the link. You won’t want to miss this. It’s worth watching / seeing. I highly recommend it. (formal) It’s a must-see. Neutral / negative views It was OK / alright, I suppose. I wouldn’t bother if I were you. I didn’t think it was great. You might like it if you’ve got nothing else to do.

Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, from Teotihuacan, in the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. > World Map, p. 182 120  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

2.27

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

For each category below, write the names of one example that you would recommend and one that you wouldn’t recommend. • • • • • • •

5

The museum is well-designed. There is a lot to see at the museum. Visitors shouldn’t miss the Stone of the Sun. It’s a good idea to go to the museum early. It’s worth paying for a tour guide. The garden spaces are worth seeing.

a work of art: __________________ __________________ a tourist attraction: __________________ __________________ a book: __________________ __________________ a film: __________________ __________________ a TV show: __________________ __________________ a monument: __________________ __________________ an online video clip: __________________ __________________

Work in pairs. Look at your partner’s list. Discuss each other’s recommendations. Give reasons why you would or wouldn’t recommend seeing / reading / visiting some of the examples in your lists.


WRITING  Describing & recommending a place  6

Work in pairs. What are some of the cultural attractions in your area, town or city? Which would you recommend to a visitor? Why?

7

Read Sofia’s description of Valparaíso, Chile. Which things does she recommend about her city?

Valparaíso is a city on the coast of Chile in South America. It’s the place where I go to school, and is very pretty but quite unusual, too. What I love about the city is its setting: it’s mountainous, but also next to the sea, so I’d recommend spending time just exploring. I love taking the ascensores, (1) ___ on steep hills. The city is well-known for the paintings that decorate the streets and buildings. There’s colour everywhere, (2) ___! However, what the city is most famous for is the museum dedicated to Pablo Neruda, who was a famous Chilean poet. The museum is OK, but unless you’re a poetry fan, (3) ___, I wouldn’t bother paying to go in. The views over the city are fantastic though (and free!). Finally, you can’t come to Valparaíso without spending a day at the beach, (4) ___. Our fishing harbour, La Caleta Portales, is a wonderful place to relax but also to watch the fishermen and market traders.  8

Relative clauses are a good way of adding extra information. Read the text again and insert the clauses (a–d) in the spaces (1–4).

WRITING STRATEGIES Paragraphing

a which is why I think artists love the place so much b which is where I’m going later with some friends c which are like small trains d which I’m not

•  Dividing your text into paragraphs will help the reader follow it. Start a new paragraph when you change topic. •  Before you start writing, make notes, then organize your notes into paragraphs. •  Finally, decide on the best order for the paragraphs.

9

The text contains four paragraphs. Read the Writing Strategies box. What is the topic of each paragraph?

10

Plan a description of a place in your area. Include recommendations about popular sites as well as alternative cultural attractions. Use your ideas from Ex. 6 to make notes and plan the paragraphs. Then write your text.

Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  121


10

Time

Things without all remedy should be without regard: what’s done is done.

(From William Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth)

CLASS DISCUSSION • What does the quote at the top of the page mean? • Is it healthy for people to regret things, or is it always better to forget about the past? • We can’t change the past, but can we (both as individuals and as a society) learn from it?

IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL

122

Ø talk about how you spend your time Ø read about the clockmaker who changed the world

Ø learn some tips for doing tests Ø write a ‘for and against’ essay


VOCABULARY  Phrasal verbs about time MY PERSPECTIVE   1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo and discuss the questions. 1 Do you think of yourself as a busy person? Do you relate more to the people in the photo who are rushing around or the people sitting down? Why? 2 How much time do you spend doing nothing much? Is this wasted time in your opinion? Why? / Why not? 3 When in your day are you normally busiest?

2

Churchgate Railway Station, Mumbai, India.

Write 0–3 for each of the common problems below (0 if you never experience the problem, and 3 if you experience it often). Work in pairs and compare your answers. 1 ‘I’m always having to wait around for people while they get ready to go out. They’re so slow!’ ___ 2 ‘I have lots of things I want to do, but I never get round to doing any of them. I can’t fit them in with all this school work.’ ___ 3 ‘I hang out with my friends most weekends but we never do anything interesting together.’ ___ 4 ‘I was once ill for a few days and I fell behind at school. It took ages to catch up with the class.’ ___ 5 ‘I usually put off revising until the night before an exam, and sometimes I run out of time.’ ___ 6 ‘Teachers at my school sometimes bring tests forward without warning us.’ ___ 7 ‘We haven’t had a holiday for ages because my dad can’t take time off work.’ ___ 8 ‘I’m really looking forward to being on holiday – I’m desperate! I just need to hold on for a few more weeks.’ ___

> World Map, p. 182

3

Complete with the correct form of a phrasal verb in bold from Ex. 2. 1 If they can’t come to the party in May, let’s it to April. 2 Haven’t you done the washing-up yet? When are you going to doing it? time. 3 We couldn’t finish the game because we my maths homework 4 I think I can just about between basketball practice and dinner tonight. for him all day while he decides. 5 I don’t feel like 6 There’s nothing on at the cinema, so we could just at the café.

SPEAKING 4

Do you know how to look up phrasal verbs in an online dictionary? Work in pairs, and exchange ideas.

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. Give reasons for your answers. Which member of the group do you have most in common with? 1 2 3 4 5

What are you looking forward to doing when you’re older? What do you always put off for as long as possible? What’s something you keep meaning to get round to doing? Do people ever have to wait around for you? Which subject would be the hardest to catch up with if you fell behind?

Unit 10  Time  123


10A  Spend your time wisely MY PERSPECTIVE

BEFORE YOU LISTEN 1

Work in groups. Make a list of what your older relatives might say about these things if they were asked the question ‘What advice would you give young people?’

4

Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you agree with the advice given by the seven speakers? Why? / Why not? 2 Is any of the advice more relevant to teenagers? What about as you get older? 3 If you had to choose, which advice would you try to follow?

attitude to life  dreams and ambitions  health money and possessions  relationships work and free time Life is short, so don’t keep putting off your dreams.

GRAMMAR  Third conditional; if only & wish

LISTENING    2

3

5

Listen to the advice of seven older people. Which of the topic(s) in Ex. 1 does each speaker talk about? 2.28

Third conditional; if only & wish

Work in pairs. Can you remember the advice? Complete the sentences with no more than six words. Then listen again and check your answers. 2.28

Speaker 1 There’s no point worrying about Speaker 2 You’re going to say: ‘I wish I had

VIDEO MAP

a  If I hadn’t smoked, I would have saved lots of money. b  If someone had told me earlier not to prioritise work, I wouldn’t have wasted so much time. c  I wish I had taken better care of myself in my youth. d  If only I hadn’t worked so hard.

yet.

myself’. Speaker 3 Don’t wake up and realise you haven’t doing. , Speaker 4 Don’t hold on to material instead. hold on to Speaker 5 If only someone had told me earlier not to friends. prioritise . Speaker 6 Brush . Speaker 7 Basically, my advice is:

124  Unit 10  Time

Study the sentences in the grammar box. Answer the questions (1–6).

1 Sentence a Did she smoke? Did she save a lot of money? 2 Sentences a and b Can the speakers change these situations? 3 What form of the verb is used in the if-clause? What form of the verb is used in the result clause? 4 Sentences c and d What emotion is being expressed in these sentences? 5 What tense is used with I wish and If only here? > Grammar reference & practice p. 272

PRONUNCIATION  /i/, /iː/


6

Complete with the correct form of the verbs. Most hundred-year-olds have few regrets. If they didn’t have such a positive view of life, they probably wouldn’t have survived so long. Here are some of their secrets:

READING & WRITING  8

• Jiroemon Kimura (Japan) lived all the way to 116. He (not live) so long if he said he (1) (eat) big meals. He always had small (2) portions. • Jeanne Louise Calment (France) is the only person to have lived to 122. She thought that if she (worry) about her health, she (3) (die) sooner. (4) • Fred Hale (United States) believes he (5) (not be able) to surf for the first time at 95 years old if (not eat) honey all his life. he (6) • Emma Morano (Italy) was the last person alive to be (not live) born in the 1800s. If she (7) as a single woman for most of her life, she (be) a lot less healthy, she thought. (8) • In a survey, a third of the hundred-year-olds questioned said they wished they (9) (spend) more time with loved ones. • A quarter of them said: ‘If only I (10) (save) more money when I was younger.’  7

Complete the sentences with the correct form of a suitable verb. so much ice cream! 1 I wish I his passport, he would have 2 If Martin been able to go on the school trip. to the show if we’d had more 3 We time. at home if it hadn’t been wet 4 They outside. more 5 I’ve broken my mobile. If only I careful!

Work in pairs. Read about a famous Mexican painter, then write sentences about her using the Third conditional. Sometimes sad events can lead to rewarding lives. Frida Kahlo, a Mexican artist, got polio when she was six. She spent a long time in bed and during this time her father taught her about art. The polio affected her right leg and foot and she was bullied at school for this. She wanted to be a doctor, but she nearly died in an accident when she was eighteen. She spent months in bed painting. Her family placed a mirror above her so she was able to paint herself. Frida never fully recovered from her injuries, but she became famous because of her self-portraits. If Frida hadn’t got polio, she wouldn’t have had to spend a long time in bed.

SPEAKING  9

Work in small groups. Choose one of the situations below (or invent your own) and create a story, with each person adding an If-clause. See how long you can keep the story going! James had his wallet stolen while he was asleep on the bus. If he hadn’t fallen asleep, … Sally didn’t go to her friend’s party. If she had been there, …

Unit 10  Time  125


10B  T he man who mastered time WORD BUILDING  Expressions with time

Are the statements true (T) or false (F)? Write the first four words of the sentence from the text which supports your decision.

5 INVALSI

The most frequent words in English English has thousands of words, but some are much more frequent than others. In fact, the 700 most frequent words make up about 70% of all the English you hear and read, and you already know many more words than that! However, common words often combine with others to create expressions with new meanings. Here are some expressions with the word time, the 55th most common word in the English language. 3/4/5 times a long time on time

a full-time job all the time once upon a time

a great time in my spare time    find the time

1

Read about frequent words in English. Which of the expressions with time in the box do you already use?

2

Work in pairs. Find expressions with time in these sentences and check you know their meaning. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 His designs were years ahead of their time. Even now, some of them seem advanced. 2 I get strange messages from my brother from time to time. Does he send them to you sometimes, too? 3 It’s a waste of time asking Jim: he won’t help you. 4 If we don’t leave now, we won’t get there in time for the start of the show. 5 In the past, life at sea was extremely dangerous. At one time, sailors would be lucky to survive to more than forty years old. 6 While we waited for the train, we passed the time playing cards. 7 It’s my birthday in two days’ time! 8 It’s time to find out the results! Let’s see who this year’s winner is.

3

Work in pairs. Use expressions from Ex. 2 to write five sentences that you think are true about your partner. Read your sentences to your partner. Were your sentences true? A  You don’t like competitive sports, but you go running from time to time. B  That's not true! I play tennis – that's competitive.

READING 4

2.29 Look at the photo. Then listen and read the text. What was the ‘Longitude Problem’ and how did John Harrison solve it?

126  Unit 10  Time

1 In the eigtheenth century, it was harder to tell the time at sea than on land. 2 It was not unusual for ships to be lost at sea in that period. 3 The judges on the Board of Longitude were all members of the government. 4 Harrison was already making clocks while he was a teenager. 5 He finally received the £20,000 prize money in 1773. 6 Harrison’s inventions meant that fewer people died at sea. CRITICAL THINKING  Reaching conclusions We can use the information we read in texts to reach conclusions of our own. For example, from this sentence, what could you conclude about the boy? The boy kicked the dog. You’d probably conclude that the boy is cruel or violent, even though the text says nothing about his personality. Do you change your mind if you read: ‘The boy kicked the dog by accident.’ or ‘The boy kicked the dog to protect his brother.’?  6

Work in pairs. Read the Critical Thinking box. Then decide if these statements are most likely to be true or false. Discuss and give reasons. 1 The disaster in 1707 encouraged the longitude prize to be set up. 2 Harrison became angry with the board.

7

Now discuss these questions with your partner. 1 What conclusions can you reach from the article about the Board of Longitude? 2 What information do you have that helped you reach these conclusions?

COLLABORATION  8

Work in groups. Choose an inventor from the past. Prepare a presentation to give to the class to explain why he/she was so important. Include: • a short biography of the person and/or historical period • what he/she invented and why it was significant • any other interesting details (collaboration with other people, difficulties, the time it took, …)


John Harrison:

A copy of John Harrison’s Marine Timekeeper in the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, London.

THE CLOCKMAKER WHO CHANGED THE WORLD

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THE ‘LONGITUDE PROBLEM’ GPS technology allows you to know exactly where you are on Earth, to within a few metres. It is available to anyone with a smartphone or GPS watch. But at one time it wasn’t this easy. Before the eighteenth century, sailors could calculate how far north or south they were (their latitude) by measuring the height of the sun in the sky, but they couldn’t know their position east or west (their longitude) accurately. Because the Earth rotates once every 24 hours, you had to know the exact time in order to navigate well. Good timekeeping on land was difficult, and almost impossible at sea. Time and again, ships got lost or crashed against the rocks, and thousands of sailors died each year. In 1707, four ships were lost and 1,500 sailors died when ships from the British navy ran against rocks after getting lost in fog. Although this was a terrible tragedy, it was a common story in the eighteenth century because there was no way for ships to navigate accurately. In 1714, a prize of £20,000 (about £2.8 million today) was promised to anyone who could solve the ‘Longitude Problem’. A group of experts, the Board of Longitude, was set up to judge proposals, which had to be accurate to within about 50 kilometres. It included important politicians and scientists, who all believed the answer would be found in the stars.

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Meanwhile, in the north of England, miles from the centre of politics and science, the son of a carpenter was learning how to build clocks. By the time he was twenty, John Harrison had built his first pendulum clock, and it wasn’t long before he was building some of the most accurate clocks in the world. But Harrison knew that pendulums didn’t work on a moving ship, and he wanted to win the Longitude Prize. Over the next 30 years, he invented mechanisms that allowed clocks to keep the correct time, no matter how the sea was moving or how the temperature changed. He presented a series of clocks and watches to the Board between 1735 and 1765. On three sea voyages they proved successful, but each time the Board ruled that the results could just have been good luck and refused to give him the prize. Harrison, now an old man, decided to speak to the king about the matter. Finally, in 1773, he was given a reward that he should have received a long time before. It wasn’t the full prize, but it did mean he was rich for the last three years of his life. In their day, Harrison’s sea watches were way ahead of their time in terms of engineering and accuracy; it must have been like seeing a driverless car today. They were incredibly expensive to begin with, but very quickly it would have been unthinkable to go to sea without one. Explorers were able to map the world more accurately, and thousands of lives were saved. These days, Harrison is remembered as one of history’s greatest inventors.

> World Map, p. 182 Unit 10  Time  127


10C  Time’s up! GRAMMAR  Modal verbs: past speculation, deduction & regret 1

Work in pairs. Look at the photo on the left and read the beginning of an article giving advice about tests and exams. Discuss the questions below. This is the time of year when young people around the world are preparing for school or university exams. If you think people where you live take it extremely seriously, consider South Korea, where university entrance is so important that aeroplanes aren’t allowed to take off during the country’s main language listening test! Or Brazil, where as many as 8.6 million students take the ‘Enem’ exam each year, competing for a place at university. Or China, where questions from the Gaokao university entrance exams are discussed in great detail on popular radio shows. It doesn’t matter if it’s an important university exam or just a class test at school: it’s still stressful. However, there’s a lot you can do to make the experience as stress-free as possible. Let’s hear from the best people to offer advice – students who’ve been through it all before. 1 What examples of people taking exams seriously are mentioned? 2 How serious are class tests and end-of-school exams in your country?

2

2.30

Listen to six people talking about exams. Which speakers focus on:

a the time before an exam? b during the exam? c the time after the exam?  3

2.30 INVALSI

1 2 3 4 5 6   4

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Now listen again and decide which person mentions:

organising revision time correctly. the importance of finding time to relax. management and timing of exam questions. worrying about your performance. the importance of where you revise. a positive experience from a negative one.

Speaker ___ Speaker ___ Speaker ___ Speaker ___ Speaker ___ Speaker ___

Study the grammar box. Which group of sentences (1 or 2) describes: a situations that the speaker thinks were possibly or probably true? b situations where the speaker imagines a different outcome?

___ ___

Modal verbs: past speculation, deduction & regret Group 1 – speculation and regret a I f I had passed that exam, who knows? I may not have chosen this path. b If I’d studied at the library, I could have avoided eating all those snacks! c I shouldn’t have listened to my friends. Group 2 – deduction d M y friends must have been very stressed. e M y hair started to fall out, which might have been the stress. f She can’t have prioritised the questions correctly: she ran out of time. > Grammar reference & practice p. 272

128  Unit 10  Time


5

Mike and Ellie are at a motocross track. Choose the correct option to complete the dialogue.

SPEAKING 8

Work in small groups. Look at the infographic below which gives revision tips. Then answer the questions. 1 Which is the most or least important revision tip in your opinion? 2 Which of the things in the infographic do you do? Which don’t you do? Why? 3 Are there any other things you find helpful when you have to revise? 4 What are the benefits of revising alone compared with revising with a friend? What about the disadvantages? 5 What was the last test or exam you revised for? How did you revise? 6 Is there anything you should or could have done differently?

Mike Are you OK, Ellie? You (1) can’t / could have seriously hurt yourself! Ellie Yes, I’m fine. I was wearing the right clothes and a helmet and everything. Mike How did you fall off? Ellie It was Dan’s fault. He (2) can’t / must have been paying attention so he crashed into me. But I (3) may / should have accelerated too much as well! Mike I can’t help thinking about what (4) should / could have happened... Ellie No, honestly, it’s fine. I (5) should /may have tried this ages ago. Think of all the fun I (6) could / must have had! Mike Well, I (7) must / can’t have been crazy to have come here with you today. I’m not trying motocross now. No way! I (8) may / should have stayed at home revising. Ellie Oh come on, Mike, there’s still loads of time before our exams! 6

Work in pairs. Look at the situations and say what must, might (not), or can’t have happened. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7

You’ve used up your data allowance on your mobile. I must have finished my data allowance. I shouldn’t have uploaded so many videos. When you arrive home, the front door is wide open. Someone might have ... / I must have ... / I can’t have ... Your teacher wants to see your parents urgently. You’ve sent your friend several WhatsApp messages, but she still hasn’t replied. You’ve been waiting at the bus stop for ages. Your dog is frantically barking. Your friend is looking at her mobile and crying. The date of your class test has just been changed.

Write a situation similar to those in Ex. 6. Read your situation to your classmates, who must think of as many explanations as possible.

HOW TO ACE* YOUR TESTS! JU N N N JU NEEEEE JU JU JUN

1 9 1 9 19

Plan a revision schedule Divide your time into blocks for each subject and be realistic about your aims

Have regular snacks / drinks Your brain needs lots of energy to keep it going 12 12 12 12 1111 12 12 1111 1111 11 11 11 10 2 22 10 10 10 2 22 10 10 9 99 3 33 9 99 3 33 4 44 8 88 4 44 8 88 7 77 5 55 7 77 6 66 5 55 6 66

Start your revision on time Don’t put it off until the last minute or you’ll panic Test yourself Find past papers and ask your family or friends to test you orally Find the right place You need to be comfortable and have no distractions

Take regular breaks You’ll concentrate better if you get away from your books from time to time Vary your revision methods Make diagrams and lists; use post-its and different colours; read aloud and silently Go to bed early Your brain needs to be rested for the day of the exam ace something do exceptionally well in something

Unit 10  Time  129


10D  Milestones SPEAKING & LISTENING  The right age 1

Work in pairs. Discuss how old you have to be in Italy to do these things. What other legal age restrictions do you know about? • • • • •

drive get married have a tattoo leave school vote in elections

Functions Expressing reasons That’s why … That’s the reason … The purpose of -ing is to … The point of -ing something is to … One of the main reasons is that / to … Consequently, … Therefore, … … in order to … … because of … … so that … … is caused by …

2

2.31 Listen to Yusuf from Turkey and Luisa from Colombia. Which three things from Ex. 1 do they discuss? How old do they have to be in their countries to do these things?

3

2.31 Listen again. Make notes about the reasons the speakers give for these opinions (1–3).

1 Why does Yusuf think the driving age should be higher? 2 Why does Luisa think a lower driving age is OK? 3 Why do they both believe the voting age should be lower? 4

Match the beginnings (1–6) to the endings (a–f). Use the Functions box to help you if necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 a b c d e f

They should lower the legal age for voting in elections so that Young teenagers mostly want tattoos in order to Austrians can vote at sixteen. Consequently, The point of raising the school leaving age is to One of the reasons for not letting young people drive is to Education is really important. That’s why give young people more qualifications. impress their friends. younger people can make their voices heard. they show more interest in politics. there’s a minimum leaving age. make the roads safer.

5

Work in groups, A and B. Imagine that the government in your country wants to either raise or lower the legal age for one of the things in Ex. 1. Group A, make a list of reasons in favour of this proposal. Group B, make a list of reasons why it might not be a good idea.

6

Work in pairs, one from group A and one from group B. Explain your side of the argument from Ex. 5. Try to persuade your partner to agree with you.

Leaving home is an important milestone for young people, along with leaving school, learning to drive and being allowed to vote.

130  Unit 10  Time


WRITING  A ‘for and against’ essay 7

Read the essay title below. Then work in pairs. Write three pros (reasons for) for leaving home when you finish school and three cons (reasons against). ‘Young people should leave home as soon as they finish school.’ Discuss.

8

Read the Luke’s essay at the bottom of this page and answer the questions. 1 What is the purpose of each of the four paragraphs? 2 Which of the pros and cons you wrote in Ex. 7 are mentioned? 3 What is Luke’s overall opinion – is he for or against the statement?

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Study the Writing Strategies box. Then underline the discourse markers that Luke uses in his essay.

10

Write a ‘for and against’ essay. Choose one of these statements to write about. Use expressions from the Writing Strategies box to make your arguments clear. • A university education doesn’t help prepare people for most jobs. Work experience is much more valuable. • People shouldn’t be allowed to get married before they leave school, however old they are. • Young people do better by staying in their home town rather than moving to a new city.

11

WRITING STRATEGIES  Using discourse markers Discourse markers are words that introduce a sentence or paragraph. You already learnt some in Unit 8, page 105. They help the reader to follow an argument and can be used for: • sequencing Firstly, / Secondly, ... Finally, / Lastly, ... • adding arguments for Furthermore, / What’s more, ... Not only that, but ... • introducing arguments against On the other hand, ... However, / Even so, ... • concluding In conclusion ... Personally, I think / believe ...

Work in a group with other members of the class who chose the same statement as you in Ex. 10. Did you give similar pros and cons and reach the same conclusions?

‘Young people should leave home as soon as they finish school.’ Discuss. The age that young people leave home depends on many things, such as the age you finish school or university, get married or get a job. But for young people, is it better to stay at home with your family as long as possible or should you leave home as soon as you finish school? There are a number of reasons why leaving home when you finish school might be a good idea. Firstly, it’s important to learn life skills, such as how to make money and look after it, when you are young. It’s also important to start being responsible for yourself as soon as possible. Of course, if you go to university in a different city, you will need to move. However, living away from your family means paying for your own accommodation and food, which could be expensive. What’s more, there are many boring things that you have to start doing, like cooking and cleaning. Not only that, but it might be lonely living away from family. Personally, I believe that young people should leave home soon after they finish school, although this may be expensive. Moving away from your parents is usually the best way to grow up and to become independent and autonomous adults. Consequently, in my opinion, even if you can’t afford to move out immediately, you should start thinking about doing it soon. Unit 10  Time  131


9&10  Consolidation & Certification Grammar revision question tags; defining & non-defining relative clauses; Third conditional; if only & wish; modal verbs (past speculation, deduction & regret) Vocabulary revision creative arts & forms of entertainment; expressions with make and time; phrasal verbs about time; discourse markers

VOCABULARY & WORD BUILDING Choose the correct option. The singer jumped off the ____ and into the crowd. A venue B stage C audience D concert Frida Khalo is famous for her self- ____. A sculptures B artwork C drawings D portraits There aren’t any good ____ for gigs in my town. A venues B studios C exhibitions D galleries The TV series was watched by 1.2 million ____. A audience B listeners C observers D viewers I can’t make ____ my mind about what film to watch. A out B to C up D in I’m really looking forward ____ the next episode. A seeing B to seeing C see D to see

1

P 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Clara and Mark are on holiday in Italy. Complete the dialogue with the expressions in the box. catch up  days’ time  fit in  make sense make the most  run out  time to  wait around Clara It’s (1) __________ go to the museum, Mark. Mark Can’t we stay here a bit longer? It doesn’t (2) __________ to hurry: we’re on holiday! Clara I know, but I want to (3) __________ of our time here. We’re going back home in two (4) __________. Mark But we’ve already managed to (5) __________ so much and I’m exhausted. Look, there’s a park near here according to this map. Clara I don’t want to have to (6) __________ for you for hours in a park doing nothing. Mark Well, I’m going to (7) __________ of energy soon. I need to relax. Clara Tell you what, I’ll go to the museum now and I’ll (8) __________ with you in the park later. Mark OK, sounds good to me!

132  Units 9&10  Consolidation & Certification

GRAMMAR   3

Choose the correct option. 1 You would / should have come with us to the festival. We had a great time. 2 There’s not much we can do about it now, is / isn’t there? I wish you have / had told me earlier. 3 That isn’t the right website. You must / can’t have copied down the address incorrectly. 4 They could / must have waited for us: we’re only 15 minutes late! Now, we’ll have to go on our own. 5 We wouldn’t be / have been able to get tickets if my aunt hadn’t / didn’t have known the singer. 6 You’ve been to one of their concerts before, have / haven’t you? What was it like?

4

Complete the text with a suitable word or words.

The price of fame

We’ve all had someone post an unflattering photo of us on social media, (1) _____________ we? Well, what about celebrities (2) _____________, because of their fame, have paparazzi following their every move? You might think that if they hadn’t wanted all the attention, they shouldn’t (3) _____________ chosen a career (4) _____________ puts them in the public eye. And it’s true that many of them enjoy being recognised. On the (5) _____________ hand, people should be allowed a certain amount of privacy whatever their career or status. This is particularly true for the children of famous people (6) _____________ have no choice over what happens. If they (7) _____________ been born to famous parents, they’d probably have normal lives away from cameras. I remember a photo of a royal child a few years ago. The photographer must have (8) _____________ a lot of money as it appeared in all the gossip magazines, but in my opinion that photo (9) _____________ never have been published. However, if people continue to want to see this kind of stuff, we (10) _____________ do much about it, can we?


LISTENING   5

REAL ENGLISH

2.32 Helen is asking Carl about his holiday in California. Listen and choose the correct alternative.

Hollywood Boulevard

A student self-help group gives advice to other students each week. Read and match a title to each paragraph. There are two extra titles.

7 INVALSI

By students, for students This week:

HOW TO MANAGE YOUR TIME

1 __________

1 Helen had heard that there was not much / a lot to see in Los Angeles. 2 Carl went to Los Angeles at the beginning / end of the holiday. 3 He had a photo taken with Mickey Mouse’s / Sylvester Stallone’s star on Hollywood Boulevard. 4 Helen wants to know if Carl saw any famous film sets / celebrities. 5 Carl says that Venice Beach is /isn’t like it looks in the films.  6

Listen again and match the beginnings and the endings of the sentences. There are two extra endings. 1 Walking along Hollywood Boulevard 2 Inside the Dolby Theatre, they saw 3 Carl thought the bus tour of famous houses 4 During their holiday they didn’t visit 5 At Venice Beach, they spent time 6 Before going to LA, they spent time in 2.32 INVALSI

a b c d e f g h

Universal Studios. a couple of famous actors. Yosemite National Park. was a fun experience. shopping in the famous boutiques. was a waste of time. people-watching. an Oscar statuette.

As a student you have loads of stuff that you have to do, what with school, homework, sports, friends, family, and just as much, if not more, stuff that you want to do. That’s why it’s mega-important to get your head round your time and know how to use it wisely so you don’t miss out on anything important. 2 __________ No week is the same, so when you find you have a lot to do you should make a list, starting with the most important thing for the week (like studying for your history test in two days’ time), and ending with the least important. Then you can work down the list in order. 3 __________ It goes without saying you can’t be busy all the time and you need to have some time just to chill out, without thinking about anything in particular. This helps your brain and body to recharge, ready for the next task. 4 __________ It’s easy to get distracted from a task. If this happens you should remind yourself how the activity will help you meet your goals. For example, when studying, allow yourself regular breaks, and perhaps little rewards like pieces of chocolate. That will help to prevent you from giving up!

A Getting your priorities right D Slow down and relax B Staying motivated E Too many commitments C Your study environment F Making things enjoyable  8

YOSEMITE > World Map, p. 182

NATIONAL PARK

Now look at the colloquial expressions in bold in the text and choose a meaning (1–5) for each one. 1 obviously _________________________ 2 a lot of things _________________________ 3 vital _________________________ 4 relax _________________________ 5 analyse _________________________ Units 9&10  Consolidation & Certification  133


READING Read the article and choose the correct sentence (A–J) to complete each space. There are two extra sentences.

9 P INVALSI

A which he patented in 1955 B when he noticed that the chocolate in his pocket was melting C during choir practice D while he was developing the product E how modern life could have been very different

F which are small seed heads with little hooks G if a nursery school teacher hadn’t found an unusual use for a cleaning product H while he was attempting to make a super-strong one I which was a very expensive mistake indeed J if he hadn’t left the dish open by mistake

Accidental discoveries and inventions

5

Everyone knows that Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin by accident. A laboratory petri dish wouldn’t have become contaminated by a mould* (1) ____. Fleming observed how the mould had inhibited the growth of the bacteria in the dish, and eventually concluded that mould had antibiotic qualities. But what other accidental discoveries and inventions have changed our world? Let’s look at a few examples to see (2) ____.

Careful observation during scientific experiments also led to the invention of the microwave oven. After World War II, an American engineer was working on building magnetrons for radar sets (3) ____. Curious about what had happened to his snack, he tested popcorn kernels of corn and found that they popped. However, the first microwave oven he developed was not the small kitchen appliance we know today: it was about 1.8 metres tall and weighed over 300 kilograms!

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Nature is often a source or inspiration for discoveries and inventions. After a walk in the woods, a Swiss engineer found his clothes and dog’s fur covered in burrs, (4) ____, from a plant. He decided to investigate what made the burrs stick so securely to things and this led to the creation of Velcro, two strips of material with different rough surfaces which stick together. The idea, (5)____, was soon adopted by NASA as a way to hold things in place during space missions in the 1960s, and by shoe manufacturers who began to use Velcro instead of laces in trainers.

One modern example of unintentional invention is the Post-it note: the sticky, coloured pieces of paper we all use to mark pages in books, to leave ourselves reminders and to make shopping lists. In the late sixties, a scientist working for the American company 3M created a weak, pressure-sensitive adhesive (6) ____. Nobody really knew what to do with this non-sticky glue until, a few years later, another 3M employee used it to stick page markers in his song book (7) ____ because he was fed up with his pieces of paper falling out all the time! And that's how Post-its came to exist!

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Finally, your childhood may have been very different (8) ____. Play-Doh, the reusable, colourful modeling clay, was a chance discovery when this teacher decided to make things with her class using a cleaning substance. Its original purpose was to clean wallpaper, but the ingredients were changed to make it safe for children and it was successfully marketed as a craft toy. mould a kind of fungus

134  Units 9&10  Consolidation & Certification


9&10  Presentation Skills GIVING YOUR TALK  Using humour   1

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 Do you know any jokes or funny stories? 2 Do you find it easy or difficult to tell jokes? Why? 3 Why do you think people tell jokes and funny stories? Is it only to make people laugh?

2

2.33 Read part of a talk by a vet who is describing her job to some high school biology students. Complete the text with these words. Then listen and check.

lovely odd poisonous serious straight strange surprised worried

It’s also really important to think about how you’ll be able to deal with the pets’ owners, not just the animals themselves. You’d be (1) _______ at the lack of knowledge or common sense from some owners. At times this could potentially have (2) _______ consequences, like not knowing that chocolate can be (3) _______ for dogs. But at other times, you’ll just need to be able to keep a (4) _______ face and resist laughing. I remember one incident very well. It was a few years ago, when I was at the start of my career. A woman came to the surgery with a cat that she’d got two weeks earlier from an animal rescue centre. She explained that the cat was making a (5) _______ noise. I knew that the rescue centre would have checked the cat carefully and done all the necessary vaccinations, so I was quite (6) _______ about the animal. I started checking the cat, feeling his stomach and intestine, but I couldn’t detect anything unusual or (7) _______. While I was asking further questions, I was stroking the cat and he started to purr, you know, that (8) _______ sound that contented cats make. Can you imagine my surprise when the owner exclaimed ‘There! It’s that noise again!’

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Read the Competences box. Which technique does the vet use to add humour to her talk?

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Match the beginnings of some typical expressions used for telling anecdotes (1–6) to possible endings (a–f). Which are most likely to appear near the start, middle or end of an anecdote? 1 You should have seen a was standing next to me. 2 I’ll never forget the time b of the first VR headsets. 3 So, in the end what happened c the mess it made. 4 You’ll never guess who d was that they had to call the fire service. 5 It turned out that e I tried to surprise my brother. 6 This was around the time f he hadn’t forgotten after all.

YOUR TALK   5

Choose a topic below and prepare an amusing anecdote. You can use a mix of real experiences and invented details, but don’t make it too unbelievable! • • • •

A case of mistaken identity A time you forgot something important A misunderstanding that had amusing consequences An incident with an animal

COMPETENCES We often use humour to create a rapport with the audience and keep them engaged and listening. It can also be used to lighten the mood when discussing serious topics. We can use: • personal anecdotes and stories that relate to the situation or topic. • jokes, but make sure your delivery is perfect and that it fits well for the situation and audience. • visuals like photos, cartoons, illustrations done by yourself or found on the Internet.

On pages 136–137 you will watch a TED Talk. When you watch the talk, pay attention to how the speaker uses humour and notice the audience’s reaction. Units 9&10  Presentation Skills  135


Inside the mind of a master procrastinator

I think all of you are procrastinators.

TIM URBAN

ABOUT THE SPEAKER 1

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Read about the TED Talk speaker, Tim Urban. What is hardest for him: work that involves writing, organisational skills or understanding instructions?

Do the quiz to find out if you, too, are a procrastinator! Then compare your answers in pairs. 1 D o you often end up doing things days after you had meant to do them? YES / NO. 2 If you don’t do something straight away, do you usually forget to do it? YES / NO 3 Do you often have to hurry to finish tasks on time? YES / NO 4 Do you get distracted and do fun things instead of studying? YES / NO 5 Do you often say to yourself: ‘I’ll do it tomorrow’? YES / NO

Tim Urban is an American blogger who calls himself a ‘master procrastinator’. To demonstrate this, he talks about his time at university, when he had to write his thesis. He had a year to write it, but he didn’t start until three days before the deadline! He explains that part of him wanted to make rational decisions and get the job done, but another part just wanted instant gratification. Tim’s idea worth spreading is that we are all affected by procrastination and that it can stop us from following our dreams. KEY WORDS  2

Match the words in bold in the text to the meanings. a ___________ = a time or day by which something must be done

AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Guessing the meaning of new words When we’re listening, we often hear words and expressions that we aren’t familiar with. However, we can often guess their meaning from the other words around them (their context) or what we already know about them. For example, you may not know the adjective rewarding, but if you recognize the verb reward, it may help you work out its meaning.

b ___________ = sensible and logical c ___________ = someone who keeps delaying or putting off things that must be done d ___________ = immediate enjoyment from doing something fun and easy e ___________ = a long essay that is the final part of a university degree

136  Units 9&10  TED Talks

4

2.34 Read and listen to the first sentences of Tim’s talk. Try to work out the meaning of the words in bold. So in college, I was a government major, which means I had to write a lot of papers. Now, when a normal student writes a paper, they might spread the work out a little like this.


WATCH THE TALK   5

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Watch Part 1 of the talk. Complete what Tim says with one word in each gap.

6

7

.

Watch Part 2. What three things does Tim say he does when he gets distracted? 1 2 3 4 5 6

He draws pictures on a piece of paper. He keeps checking his emails. He looks in the fridge. He plays video games. He reads interesting Wikipedia pages. He watches videos on YouTube.

Watch Part 3. Mark these events A–C on the timeline.

7

6

5

4

3

months before Tim’s TED Talk

2

9

Work in groups. Look at the things that people do to stop procrastinating and getting distracted. Discuss which tips could help you, and say why. • Break jobs into small steps. Give yourself mini-deadlines for each step. Tick the deadlines that you meet on time. Reward yourself with ten minutes to do fun things. • Download an app on your computer that stops you from visiting your favourite websites. • Plan your next week by writing a list of things to do each day. • Talk to a friend. Help each other not to procrastinate by asking what they want to achieve each week and checking that they have done those things.

A The TED organizers invite Tim to do a talk. B Tim starts working on his TED talk. C Tim’s photo is put on the TED website.

8

Watch Part 4. Choose the correct option.

Tim decided to write about his characters (the Rational Decision Maker, the Instant Gratification Monkey and the Panic Monster) in (1) his blog / a magazine article. As a result, he was surprised to receive many emails from people who (2) found it funny / were upset. The second type of procrastination he identified involves (3) too many deadlines / a lack of deadlines. Tim says that in this case, the (4) Panic Monster / Instant Gratification Monkey isn’t activated and it can lead to long-term unhappiness which stops us from chasing our dreams.

I thought that was the end of (1) . But a . week later I get a call, and it’s the (2) And they say, ‘Is this Tim Urban?’ And I say, ‘Yeah.’ And .’ they say, ‘We need to talk about your (3) And I say, ‘OK.’ And they say, ‘It’s the (4) one we’ve ever seen.’ That did (5) happen. It was a very, very thesis. I just wanted to enjoy that (6) one moment when all of you thought, ‘This guy is !’ No, no, it was very, very (8) (7)

CHALLENGE Work in pairs. Tim believes that ‘everyone is procrastinating on something in life’. Tell your partner what you are procrastinating about and why.

1

Tim gives his TED Talk

Units 9&10  TED Talks  137


Literature Bank you a tourist or a traveller? A Are The Beach (1996) by Alex Garland Have your say   1

Work in pairs and answer the questions. 1 ‘Tourism is killing us’. This is what a Hawaiian activist said, inviting tourists not to go to Hawaii. What do you think he meant by these words? 2 Have you ever been to an uncontaminated holiday destination? Did you take any pictures of it? Do you think it may have changed after your stay? 3 Surf the Net and find a destination which is still considered uncontaminated. Where is it?

Look into the text: Tourists vs travellers   2

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3.01 Read and listen to the first extract from the novel The Beach. In this first extract, Zeph imagines a lagoon and a beach. Fill in the table with words from the text.

Alex Garland (London, 1970) is an English novelist, screenwriter and acclaimed film director. He wrote the novel The Beach when he was only 26. It was made into a thriller with Leonardo Di Caprio in the year 2000. The novel The Beach is the story told by Richard, a young backpacker, of a mysterious, uncontaminated beach which is very similar to Eden, but where things are destined to go very wrong…

‘OK,’ said Zeph. ‘I’ll paint you a picture.’ He lay back on the sand. ‘Close your eyes and think about a lagoon.’ Think about a lagoon, hidden* from the sea and passing boats by a high, curving wall of rock. Then imagine white sands and coral gardens never damaged by dynamite fishing or trawling nets*. Freshwater falls scatter the island*, surrounded by jungle – […] plants untouched for a thousand years, strangely coloured birds and monkeys in the trees. On the white sands, fishing in the coral gardens, a select hidden nascosta trawling nets reti a strascico community of travellers pass the months. They leave if scatter the island sono ovunque sull’isola they want to, they return, the beach never changes.

place

animals

people

forbidden activities

other characteristics of the lagoon and the beach

Lagoon and beach

3

Work in pairs. Read the extract again and answer the following questions. 1 What type of place is this? Would you like to go there? Why? / Why not? 2 Do you think that Zeph considers this place a beautiful destination? 3 Richard is a first-person narrator (lines 3-11): does he report Zeph’s words here or does he also report his own emotions?

138  Literature Bank


Literature Bank   4

5

Read and listen to the second extract from the novel The Beach. Richard is speaking with a girl, Sal, about the beach. Answer the questions below. 3.02

[…] I frowned*. ‘A beach resort?’ ‘A place to come for vacations.’ I frowned harder. By the look in Sal’s eyes I could see she found my expression amusing. ‘Holidays?’ I tried to say, but the word caught in my throat. It seemed so belittling*. I had ambiguous feelings about the differences between tourists and travellers – […] the more I travelled, the smaller the differences became. But the one difference I could still latch on to* was that tourists went on holidays while travellers did something else. They travelled. frowned aggrottai le sopracciglia belittling riduttivo I could still latch on to di cui ero ancora certo

1 There are almost no details of the place, but we understand that it is different from the previous one. What is the difference? 2 What is Richard’s opinion of this place? What words in the text reveal his attitude? Underline them. 3 Does Richard prefer tourists or travellers? Why?

Think critically: What type of tourist are you?   5

Work in pairs. Look at these three photographs and find differences. Explain why you would prefer to go to one beach instead of another.

6

Discuss these quotes in small groups. Which one does your group like? What message does it transmit? What do you know about responsible tourism?

“ “ “

Take nothing but photographs; leave nothing but footprints; kill nothing but time. (responsible tourist motto)

The traveller sees what he sees, the tourist sees what he has come to see. (G.K. Chesterton)

Of all noxious (nocivi) animals, the most noxious is a tourist. (Reverend Francis Kilvert, Diary)

Final thoughts

Special Interest Tourism (SIT) is a very fast-growing sector of tourism. It includes senior tourism, urban tourism, festival tourism, cruise tourism, aboriginal tourism, etc. but also dark tourism: people visit famous places of executions, battlefields, disaster sites, catacombs, prisons, cemeteries. Ghost and dark history tours in the evening or night are very popular. Three of the most famous are the Edinburgh Dark Side Tour, which is about grave robbers and witches, London’s Grim Reaper Tour, which follows the footsteps of Jack the Ripper, and the Forbidden Tour in Barcelona, where you can meet a flesh-and-blood vampire! Literature Bank  139


Literature Bank it about sport or about life itself? B Is Fever Pitch (1992) by Nick Hornby Have your say Work in pairs and discuss the following questions. 1 You are going to read an extract from a book about football. What do you think the title may mean when connected with football? 2 Read these words from the book and see if what you predicted was correct: ‘I fell in love with football […] suddenly, inexplicably, uncritically, giving no thought to the pain or disruption it would bring with it’.

1

3 Are you a football fan? Or are you not interested in football? Justify your answers to your partner. 4 Is there any other sport you feel a ‘fever pitch’ for?

Nick Hornby (1957) is an English writer who is known for his clever stories about what it means to be or to become an adult. Among his best-sellers, all adapted into successful films, are: Fever Pitch, an autobiography about his life as a supporter of Arsenal Football Club; High Fidelity, the story of an obsessive rare LP fan; About a Boy, the complicated friendship between a dissatisfied adult and a difficult boy. Fever Pitch is the story of the author’s long relationship with a team, but also of his own life, which runs in parallel. Every chapter is about an Arsenal football match that Hornby remembers. The book is a must for football lovers, but it teaches many life lessons to everyone.

Look into the text: A semi-serious autobiography   2

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3.03

Read and listen to this extract from Fever Pitch. Work in pairs and answer the questions below.

I have learned things from the game. Much of my knowledge of locations in Britain and Europe comes not from school, but from away games or the sports pages, and hooliganism has given me both a taste* for sociology and a degree of fieldwork* experience. I have learned the value of investing time and emotion in things I cannot control, and of belonging to a community whose aspirations I share completely […], and learned a little bit about, well, life itself. […] Absurdly, I haven’t yet got around to* saying that football is a wonderful sport […]. Goals have a rarity value that points and runs* and sets do not, and so there will always be that thrill*, the thrill of seeing someone do something that can only be done three or four times in a whole game if you are lucky, not at all if you are not. And I love the pace of it, its lack* of formula; and I love the way that small men can destroy big men […] in a way that they can’t in other contact sports, and the way that the best team does not necessarily win. And […] the way that strength and intelligence have to combine. […] But there’s even more to it than all that. […] there is this powerful sensation of being exactly in the right place at the right time; […] I feel as though I am at the centre of the whole world. When else does this happen in life? Maybe […] you saw the Stones at Wembley, but then even something like that is repeated for night after night nowadays, and consequently doesn’t have the same one-off* impact of a football match. It’s not news, in the same way that an Arsenal v Everton semi-final is news: when you look at your newspaper the next day, whichever one you read, there will be extensive space given over to an account of your evening, the evening taste profondo interesse to which you contributed simply by turning up and shouting*. fieldwork sul campo 1 Discuss what the writer has learned from the game of football (lines 1-4). 2 Identify what makes football a better sport than other sports, according to Hornby (lines 5-10). 3 Underline the words that describe the unique sensations that a fan feels when watching a football match (lines 11-17).

140  Literature Bank

got around to trovato il tempo di runs punti nel baseball thrill brivido lack mancanza one-off unico turning up and shouting essendo lì e facendo il tifo


Literature Bank   3

Read the extract again and answer the following questions. 1 What does Hornby semi-seriously imply about school, hooliganism, the possibility that your team does not score a goal and the Rolling Stones at Wembley? 2 Do you perceive self-irony in Hornby’s quote ‘I fell in love with football […] suddenly, inexplicably, uncritically, giving no thought to the pain or disruption it would bring with it’? Why? / Why not? 3 Is there any activity, art, hobby, etc. in your life that has marked your life up to now? Is the way you show your passion blind, uncritical, exaggerated? Do you sometimes smile at your own behaviour? 4 Hornby defines football ‘a wonderful sport’. Is it always like that? Do you always feel that ‘fair play’ is respected when watching/playing a football match?

5

In small groups. Think about your own motto or statement regarding not only sport, but something that can teach about life itself. Put your ideas together and share them with your classmates. Then vote for the best and most significant statement.

Final thoughts There are very weird sports in the world! Here are some! Bog snorkeling: a single snorkeler has to swim across a 100-metre long trench cut through muddy marshland. Competitors use flippers, but cannot use their arms. This sport is practised in Wales.

Think critically: ‘A little bit about, well, life itself’   4

In small groups. Read these motivational quotes that famous sportspeople said or wrote. What can we learn about life from them?

“ “ “ “ “ “

It’s not whether you get knocked down; it’s whether you get up. (Vince Lombardi – American football coach)

” ” ” ” ” ”

A trophy carries dust. Memories last forever. (Mary Lou Retton – American gymnast)

An athlete cannot run with money in his pockets. He must run with hope in his heart and dreams in his head. (Emil Zatopek – Czech runner)

Persistence can change failure into extraordinary achievement. (Marv Levy – American-Canadian coach)

Never say never, because limits, like fears, are often just illusions. (Michael Jordan – American basketball player)

Ask not what your teammates can do for you. Ask what you can do for your teammates. (Earvin ‘Magic’ Johnson – basketball player)

Dog surfing: Dog and dog-owner make the team, but a dog can compete alone. Dog-surfing can be seen in the Hawaii.

Toe wrestling: This eccentric sport was invented in England in 1974. Players lock their bare feet and try to pin the opponent’s foot down. One of its players was called ‘Toerminator’!

Literature Bank  141


Literature Bank are the real monsters? C Who Frankenstein (1818) by Mary Shelley Have your say   1

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 If you have ever read Frankenstein, tell the rest of the group what you remember about it. If you haven’t read it, what do you already know about it? 2 Find the word ‘monster’ in a monolingual dictionary. The Latin origin of this word is ‘divine sign’. Does it correspond to the definition you have found? Why do you think some words acquire new meanings with the passing of time?

Mary Shelley (1797–1851), the author of Frankenstein (1818), had an important family: her father, William Godwin, was a famous philosopher; her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft, was a well-known feminist; and her husband, Percy B. Shelley, was a romantic poet who unfortunately died very young. The novel Frankenstein was written in unusual circumstances: Mary was in Switzerland with her husband and their friend, the poet Lord Byron, and bad weather forced them inside. To pass the time, they decided to write a ghost story each. That night, Mary had a nightmare about a dead creature who suddenly became alive, and the next day, she started a novel about an English scientist, Victor Frankenstein, who gave life to a dead body after years of frantic studies. On a dark, rainy night, by the light of a candle, the creature finally came to life …

Look into the text: Man or monster?

2

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3.04 Read and listen to an extract from Frankenstein. How does Doctor Frankenstein feel when he first sees the monster that he has created? Choose two adjectives and justify your choice with words and expressions from the extract. b shocked c angry d excited e disappointed a proud

It was on a dreary* night of November that I beheld* the accomplishment of my toils*. With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. […] by the glimmer of the half-extinguished light, I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs. How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe […]? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely* covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets* in which they were set, his shriveled* complexion and straight black lips. […] I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. […] I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure* the aspect of the being I had created, I rushed dreary tetra, cupa out of the room.

142  Literature Bank

beheld vidi toils fatiche scarcely a malapena sockets orbite shriveled rinsecchita endure sopportare


Literature Bank   3

Read the extract again and complete the table about the monster’s physical features. Body Skin Eyes Hair Other features

Work in pairs. Discuss the following questions. 1 Who is the narrator of the story? Why is his heart filled with ‘horror and disgust’ when he sees the monster? 2 Are all the monster’s characteristics negative or are there some positive ones too? 3 In 1970, robotics professor Mashiro Mori wrote that we often react with disgust when we see a robot that looks like a man ‘because it is not a man’. Do you agree? How do you feel looking at these images of ‘Sophia’?   4

Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hanson Robotics, a company in Hong Kong. Sophia was activated on 14th February 2016 and made her first public appearance at South by Southwest Festival in Austin, Texas, in mid-March. In October 2017, Sophia became the first robot to receive citizenship of any country. In November 2017, Sophia was named the United Nations Development Programme’s first ever Innovation Champion, and is the first non-human to be given any UN title. The robot, modeled after actress Audrey Hepburn, is able to display more than 50 facial expressions and imitate human gestures. She can answer certain questions and make simple conversations on predefined topics (e.g. on the weather). Hanson, Sophia’s creator and designer, has said that he hopes that the robot can ultimately interact with other humans sufficiently to gain social skills. Sophia has nine robot humanoid ‘siblings’ who were also created by Hanson Robotics.

Think critically: The fine line between good and evil   5

The story of Frankenstein raises some important ethical questions. Read the statements and discuss the questions in small groups and with the class. 1 Frankenstein carries out a potentially dangerous experiment in the name of knowledge and scientific progress. Can this ever be justified? 2 Frankenstein’s monster is seen as ugly and evil by its creator and by society, and this is what eventually Final thoughts makes him become evil. Can society create evil in Mary Shelley’s father rejected her because she eloped people who would otherwise be good? with her young husband. 3 As the ‘parent’ of his monster, Frankenstein is responsible The scientist rejects the monster. for its actions. Should parents be held responsible for Mary Shelley’s mother died soon after Mary was born. their children’s actions in all circumstances? The monster has no mother. Literature Bank  143


Literature Bank it loud and clear! D Say Wuthering Heights (1847) by Emily Brontë Have your say   1

Work in small groups. Communication is complex, and misunderstandings are frequent in any kind of relationship. Discuss what commonly causes misunderstandings today. Use the ideas below or your own ideas. • we are too busy doing other things • we never imagine being in the speaker’s shoes • we hear what we want to hear • speakers do not speak clearly • we don’t ask for clarification • speakers don’t know that we are listening • we are not at all interested in what people say • social media and digital distractions

Look into the text: Misunderstandings in love

2

3.05 Read and listen to this extract from Wuthering Heights. Heathcliff overhears only the first part of Cathy’s speech and does not hear her speak of her love for him. Underline her sentence which makes Heathcliff leave the room in despair, unseen by Catherine.

Emily Brontë (1818-1848) spent most of her short life in Yorkshire, England. She wrote only one novel, Wuthering Heights, which at the time was considered too savage and obscure, but today is seen as a masterpiece. The story is told by two main narrators: Lockwood, a tenant, and Nelly, a servant at Wuthering Heights, the gothic house where Heathcliff, the dark protagonist, lives. Heathcliff is wildly in love with Catherine, who loves him passionately, too, but she decides to marry the rich and educated Edgar Linton. Sadly, she dies in childbirth and Heathcliff is haunted by her spirit till his death. In the first part of this extract (lines 1-15), an unseen Heathcliff is overhearing a conversation between Catherine and Nelly, and a single misunderstanding ruins their lives forever. In the second part (lines 16-19), Catherine is dying, and Heathcliff is mad at her.

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‘It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now; so he shall never know how I love him: and that, not because he’s handsome, Nelly, but because he’s more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and [Edgar] Linton’s is as different as a moonbeam from lightning*, or frost* from fire.’ Ere* this speech ended I became sensible* of Heathcliff’s presence. Having noticed a slight movement, I turned my head, and saw him rise from the bench, and steal out noiselessly*. He had listened till he heard Catherine say it would degrade her to marry him, and then he stayed to hear no further. […] ‘If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger*: I should not seem a part of it. My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods: time will change it, I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath: a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I am Heathcliff! He’s always, always in my mind […]. So, don’t talk of our separation again: it is impracticable’. […] Catherine […] ran to seek for* her friend. […] Catherine would not be persuaded into tranquillity. She […] took up a permanent situation on one side of the wall, near the road […], calling at intervals, and a moonbeam from lightning un raggio di luna then listening, and then crying outright*. […] ‘Perhaps, he’s gone.’ Here she burst into da un lampo uncontrollable grief*, and the remainder of her words were inarticulate. […] frost brina [Heathcliff ], covering her [Catherine] with frantic caresses, said wildly – ‘You teach me now how cruel you’ve been – cruel and false. Why did you despise me? Why did you betray your own heart, Cathy? […] You loved me – then what right* had you to leave me? […] Nothing […] would have parted us, you, of your own will, did it.’

3

Ere Prima che sensible consapevole steal out noiselessly andarsene senza far rumore mighty stranger completo estraneo seek for cercare outright a dirotto uncontrollable grief disperazione incontrollata right diritto

Go back to Ex. 1 and decide what compromised communication between Catherine and Heathcliff in this extract. Explain your choice.

144  Literature Bank


Literature Bank The imaginative language of lovers   4

5

Read the extract again. Catherine uses imaginative language to communicate her emotions. Consider the phrase when she stresses some contrasts using images: she says ‘as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire’ (line 3). Answer the following questions. 1 Catherine is speaking of the differences between two people. Between who? 2 Can you explain the differences between a ‘moonbean’ and ‘lightning’, between ‘frost’ and ‘fire’? 3 Who is compared to a moonbean and frost and who to lightning and fire? Justify your choice. Now consider the next pair of differences: ‘like the foliage in the woods/the eternal rocks beneath’ (lines 8-10). What is Catherine referring to in this case? What does she want to stress? Catherine imagines that she and Heathcliff are one and cannot be separated (‘I am Heathcliff’, ‘don’t talk of our separation again’). Find one phrase in Heathcliff’s speech (lines 16-19) which is very similar.

Think critically: How can we communicate love?   6

Read the following quotes. Which one would you choose to communicate your love?

“ “ “ “ “ “

I’m never not thinking of you’. (Virginia Woolf, Selected Diaries)

You pierce my soul. I am half agony, half hope’. (Jane Austen, Persuasion)

My love is selfish. I cannot breathe without you’. (John Keats, A letter to Fanny Brawne)

Passion […] fuses me and you in one’. (Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre)

It has made me better loving you’. (Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady)

I don’t live at all when I’m not with you’. (Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms)

” ”

7

Read this famous poem, 40-Love, about communication between two middle-aged spouses, written by the Liverpool poet Roger McGough. Answer the questions. Forty - Love middle aged couple playing ten --nis when the game ends and they go home the net will still be between them 1 Read the title and explain it in terms of the tennis scoring system. If you don’t know, check online. 2 Look at the visual layout and identify why it reminds you of a tennis match. 3 Read the poem carefully. What is it about? 4 Each column contains monosyllables. When does a couple’s communication become monosyllabic and why?

Final thoughts Catherine’s ghost haunts Wuthering Heights. She appears to Lockwood at a window during the night and she asks him to let her in. Then, when Heathcliff tries to communicate with her, there’s only the sound of the wind… Ghosts are capricious communicators! […] my [Lockwood’s] fingers closed on the fingers of a little, ice-cold hand! The intense horror of nightmare came over me: I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clung to it, and a most melancholy voice sobbed, ‘Let me in, let me in!’ […] As it spoke, I discerned, obscurely, a child’s face looking through the window. […] ‘Come in! come in!’ he [Heathcliff] sobbed. ‘Cathy, do come. […]’ The spectre showed a spectre’s ordinary caprice: it gave no sign of being.

Literature Bank  145


Literature Bank and tomorrow, and tomorrow’ E ‘Tomorrow, Macbeth (1606) by William Shakespeare Have your say   1

Work in pairs. Read the following quotes about time and identify the main message in each of them.

“ “ “ “ “ “

To have no yesterday, and no to-morrow. To forget time, to forget life, to be at peace. (The Canterville Ghost, Oscar Wilde)

” ”

They always say time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself. (Andy Warhol) Time expands, then contracts, all in tune with the stirrings (= moti) of the heart. (Haruki Murakami)

Time is an illusion. (Douglas Adams)

Time takes it all, whether you want it to or not. (Stephen King)

The goal isn’t to live forever, the goal is to create something that will. (Chuck Palahniuk)

William Shakespeare (Stratford 1564 – London 1616) was an inspired English poet and dramatist. He wrote 154 magnificent sonnets and more than 35 famous plays*. He invented words and worlds, and he created memorable characters and scenes which will be read forever. Among the eternal lines he wrote, Macbeth is his shortest and darkest tragedy (the setting* is almost always totally black). The ambitious Macbeth, together with his homonymous wife, Lady Macbeth, kills the king of Scotland, Duncan. This extremely sacrilegious act leads to the end of everything (‘Nature seems dead’ – Act II, scene i). plays opere teatrali setting scenografia, ambientazione

Look into the text: Tick tock, time goes by   2

3.06 Work in pairs. This extract is at the conclusion of the tragedy, when the murderous Macbeth understands his time has come (Act V, scene v). Read and listen to Macbeth’s words, then follow the instructions. A Take turns and read only line 1, stopping after each comma. Insist on the alliterative sounds of the letters in capital: ‘ToMoRRow, and ToMoRRow, and ToMoRRow’. In this way, you will hear the repetitive sounds of time: imagine the moving hands of a clock or the falling sand of an hourglass (= clessidra). B Find two more repetitions (sounds/words) in line 2. Do they also suggest the inexorable passing of time? Have you found the hidden word ‘today’? C The alliterative words ‘dusty death’ (line 5) are very short. What do you think they suggest?

146  Literature Bank

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Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace* from day to day, To the last syllable of recorded time; And all our yesterdays have lighted fools* The way to dusty death. Out*, out, brief candle! Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player, That struts and frets his hour* upon the stage, And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. creeps in this petty pace striscia a piccoli passi have lighted fools hanno illuminato agli stolti Out spegniti struts an frets his hour che si pavoneggia e si agita per la sua ora


Literature Bank Look into the text: The personification of time   3

Time has been personified in many ways. Shakespeare imagined ‘Time’ as a person, too. What does this person do to us men (lines 1-5)?

Think critically: There must be more to life than

this…   4

How would you represent ‘Life’? As a blooming rose, a beautiful woman, a graph made of ups and downs? Draw your own picture of ‘Life’.

5

In pairs. Discuss the following points. 1 Highlight the four words in the text which are metaphors Shakespeare used to refer to ‘Life’. 2 Find the reasons why Macbeth compared ‘Life’ to each one of them. 3 Is this negative idea of ‘Life’ Shakespeare’s view or is it the murderous Macbeth’s view? Justify your answer. 4 The final word, ‘nothing’, is very important. What does it suggest about Macbeth’s life?

6

Now stand in a circle and read the extract, changing reader at every punctuation mark (comma, full stop, etc.). Remember to emphasise words like ‘out’ (line 5) and to pronounce very softly words like ‘heard no more’. Try and emphasise your words with gestures and other expressions of your face. Walk, if necessary. Is Shakespeare’s idea and depiction of time more real now? Why?

Final thoughts Did you know… • There were no women actors at the time of Shakespeare (watch the movie Shakespeare’s in Love if you haven’t yet). • The three witches who anticipate Macbeth’s destiny are also called ‘the weird sisters’ (Act I, scene iii), and ‘weird’ derives from the Old English ‘wyrd’, which means ‘destiny’. • The three witches have beards, and in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire the Weird Sisters is a rock band of men. • Differently from the other plays, there is no subplot (no secondary plot). • Ominous and rapacious birds are mentioned in the play (ravens, owls, eagles, falcons, crows, hawks, etc.), besides many other animals, i.e. snakes, scorpions, bats, a rhinoceros, a bear, a tiger, etc. • The word ‘Mac’ means ‘son’ and the word ‘beth’ (bheatha in Gaelic) means ‘life’, so Macbeth is ‘the son of Life’.

Literature Bank  147


Video Functions A Asking for travel information BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last time you bought a travel ticket. What mode of transport was it? Where did you buy it, and how did you pay? Where did you travel to, and how was the journey?

· · ·

WATCH   2

3.07 Read the dialogue and complete the questions with the expressions in the box. Then watch or listen and check.

buy the ticket, please  can I help you does it arrive in Leeds  have your number, please have your credit card details, please  are you going to is a return ticket to Leeds  to London Victoria tomorrow Operator National Rail Enquiries, how (1) _______________? Darsha Hello, I’m trying to buy a ticket online, but the system is not working. Can you help me? Operator Sure. Where (2) _______________? Darsha Leeds. Operator Leaving from? Darsha London King’s Cross. Operator OK, let me see. Right, the next train leaves at 17:33. Darsha Great, and what time (3) _______________? Operator It arrives at 19:47. Darsha Great. Can I (4) _______________? Operator Sure. Single or return? Darsha Return, please. Is there an early morning train from Leeds (5) _______________? Operator Yes, there’s a train at 6:40. Darsha Thank you very much. How much (6) _______________? Operator Have you got a railcard? Darsha Oh yes, it’s a 16-25 railcard. Operator Can I (7) _______________? Darsha It’s 04MK1061135755. Operator Right, then it’s £73.50. Can I (8) _______________? Darsha Sure. The name is Darsha Jennings, and the number is 518 713…

148  Video Functions

3

Complete the mind map with questions and useful expressions from the dialogue. Requesting & offering help

Location

Times TRAVEL INFORMATION

Price & payment method

4

Now work in pairs. Imagine that you need to buy a ticket for public transport. Role play a dialogue similar to the one in the video. Change the details (location, time, type of ticket, price, payment, etc.).


Video Functions Narrating an event

B 1

BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about a time when someone you know had something stolen. What was stolen? Where did it happen? Was the object ever recovered?

· ·

WATCH   2

Watch or listen to the video. Complete it with the missing verbs. Which tenses are mainly used to narrate events? 3.08

Harry You won’t (1) ______________ what’s just happened to me! Darsha Tell me! What happened? Harry It was so weird! A girl mugged me! Darsha What are you talking about? Harry I was coming out of the Tube station when I (2) ______________ this girl behind me. She was looking at me strangely, you know. Darsha What (3) ______________ next? Harry She smiled at me and came up behind me and said something nice. Darsha Like what? Harry Well, you know, she was flirting with me. She said she liked my hair… Darsha Really? And then? Harry Then suddenly she started walking all around me. She looked like she (4) ______________. She was nice, and smiling. Then she said goodbye and (5) ______________. My phone with her! Darsha What do you mean? Did she (6) ______________ your smartphone? Harry Yes! And I only noticed it when I arrived here! Darsha That’s an incredible story! Did you get a good look at her? Harry Of course I did … She was very pretty! Darsha Could you (7) ______________ her to the police? Harry I guess so. Listen, can I use your phone to track mine? I have the FindMyPhone app installed. Darsha Sure, here it is. Harry Thanks, maybe I can (8) ______________ that girl. Darsha Are you looking for that girl or for your phone, Harry? Harry Of course my phone! What do you think?

3

Answer the questions. 1 What was Harry doing when the girl mugged him? 2 How did she compliment him? 3 In what ways did she distract him while she stole his phone? 4 Did Harry realise what had happend as soon as the girl left? 5 How do you think Darsha feels about the situation?

4

Complete the mind map with useful expressions from the dialogue. Then compare your choice of expressions with a partner’s. Introducing a story You won’t believe...!

Expressing interest

Asking for more details

NARRATION

5

Now work in pairs. Take turns to recount an unusual, interesting or surprising thing that happened to you recently. Your partner should ask for more details and show interest. Video Functions  149


Video Functions C Making predictions BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last time you went away somewhere with friends. Whose idea was it and what convinced you to go? Did you all enjoy it? Did anything go wrong?

· ·

WATCH   2

3.09 Put the sections of the dialogue (A–F) in the correct order. Then watch or listen to the video and check.

A __ Darsha Two and a half hours on a train? It’ll be a nightmare! Harry It’ll be so much fun! Darsha I don’t know. Will it be cold and windy in the hills?

D __ Harry You never know with the great British weather, they say it might rain but then you may get wonderful sunshine for the whole weekend. Darsha It’s usually the other way around. You can’t convince me! Who else is going?

B __ Harry Are you coming to Dartmoor with us next weekend? Darsha Where? Harry Dartmoor, the National Park, in the south-west of England.

E __ Darsha No, thanks. I’m not really a national-park-kindof-girl. Harry Oh shut up and get your wellies ready! Darsha No way! It’ll probably rain all weekend anyway. F __ Harry Yes, it might rain, but that won’t stop us from having fun! Darsha It’ll certainly rain and you’ll end up covered in mud before the day ends. Harry Don’t be so dramatic! Come on, pack the right clothes and come with us. We’re leaving at 6 p.m. on Friday from London Paddington. We’ll be in Exeter by 8:30.

C __ Harry Laura, Jason and Peter. Darsha Peter? You know, I think I may come with you after all.

3

Complete the mind map with some of the predictions from the dialogue. When you feel sure

PREDICTIONS

150  Video Functions

When you aren’t sure

Reacting to predictions No way! Don’t be so dramatic! You can’t convince me!

4

Work in pairs. Imagine that you are planning to visit your nearest big city with a group of friends next weekend. Together, list what might go wrong. Then find a counterargument for each potential problem.

5

Now work with a different partner. Student A, suggest that Student B joins you next weekend. Student B, you aren’t keen and predict problems. Student A, respond with logical counterarguments. Use the ideas you listed in Ex. 4 to help you. Then swap roles.


Video Functions Advice at the doctor’s

D

BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last time you went the the doctor. What advice were you given? Did you think it was useful advice? Why? / Why not?

· ·

WATCH   2

3.10 Watch or listen to the video. Complete the missing questions.

Dr Smith Good morning Darsha. (1) ____________________? Darsha Hello Doctor Smith. I feel really tired all the time … and I’m getting lots of headaches, too. Dr Smith Tired? (2) ____________________? Darsha Not really. I only sleep about four hours a night. Dr Smith Well, you definitely need to get more sleep, Darsha! (3) ____________________? Darsha Yes, I’m studying for my final exams at college and I’ve got maths tomorrow… Dr Smith OK. Well, I think you should try organising your day better. (4) ____________________? Darsha In the evening from about 8 p.m. to midnight. Dr Smith Mmm, you really ought to study in the mornings … and go to bed before 11 p.m. (5) ____________________, Darsha? Do you eat plenty of fruit and vegetables and drink lots of water? Darsha Yes, I do. I basically only eat fruit and vegetables … and some rice, sometimes. Dr Smith Darsha, you aren’t eating enough. You should eat a bit of everything. Protein and carbs are very important. And don’t forget to do some exercise too. Darsha Oh yes, I’m training for the marathon. I run every day. Dr Smith So, you’re studying and training hard, but you aren’t eating or sleeping enough. Darsha Oh, that’s right. Dr Smith You really must change something, Darsha, or else you’ll make yourself ill. Darsha OK.

3

In pairs, think of some alternative ways in which the doctor could have asked each of his questions. 1 What’s the trouble, Darsha? What seems to be the matter? How are you feeling today?

4

Complete the mind map with the examples from the dialogue for giving advice. should

must

ought to GIVING ADVICE

need to

5

Now work in pairs. Take turns to be a doctor and patient. Role play short conversations. Before each role play, work together and make notes on: what problem and symptoms the patient has some ideas for questions the doctor might ask some suitable advice

· · ·

Video Functions  151


Video Functions E Describing objects BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last technological item that you bought. What was it, and what criteria did you use for choosing it? Was it as good / useful as you expected? If not, why?

· ·

WATCH   2

3.11 Read the dialogue and complete it with the words in the box. Then watch or listen to the video and check your answers.

enough expensive improves lasts light made metal sound talking work Harry Hi, Darsha! Look, my portable amp has arrived! Darsha Your what? Harry My portable headphone amplifier! Darsha I don’t know what you’re (1) ____________ about. What is it? Harry Have you got a pair of headphones? Darsha Of course. Harry Right. Headphones aren’t (2) ____________ for me. I want to listen to the best quality music on all of my devices. To do this, I need a portable amp, just like this one. Darsha It’s very small. What’s it (3) ____________ of? Harry It’s made of (4) ____________, aluminium I think, because it’s very (5) ____________. Darsha And what’s it (6) ____________ for, exactly? Harry It’s used to deliver the best audio quality. The (7) ____________ is just perfect, and it has a rechargeable battery which (8) ____________ for up to 16 hours! Darsha So … it’s a sort of microphone. Harry Yes, I guess you could say so… It basically (9) ____________ the sound of your headphones and makes it incredibly loud. Darsha Is it (10) ____________? Harry Not really. It’s only £95. Darsha Only £95?! That’s a rip-off! I only paid £12 for my headphones and they work perfectly fine! Try them! Harry No offense, Darsha, but I think I know what I’m talking about. I’m a musician. Darsha Of course… How could I forget? 152  Video Functions

3

How does Darsha ask about the amp’s 1 physical qualities? _______________________________________ 2 purpose? _______________________________________ 3 price? _______________________________________

4

Look at the information in the mind map about Harry’s amp. Then write more words in the map to describe two different objects that you own. Use a dictionary if necessary. Material metal (aluminium), plastic

DESCRIBING OBJECTS

Dimensions /Shape small, square

Characteristics light, shiny

Purpose It’s used to deliver the best audio quality

5

Now work in pairs. Take turns to choose an object that you can see in the room. Ask and answer questions to guess what it is.


Video Functions Showing sympathy

F

BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last disappointment that you had. What was it and why did you feel disappointed? If you spoke to anyone about it, how did they react?

· ·

WATCH   2

3.12 Put the sections of the dialogue (A–F) in the correct order. Then watch or listen to the video and check.

A __ Harry Poor you. I really don’t know what you can do. Darsha I feel so miserable! I want that job, but I don’t want to let granny down! Harry I have an idea! Have you bought her a present yet? Darsha No, I haven’t. Why? B __ Darsha It isn’t ‘only a birthday’ Harry, it’s her 90th birthday! It’s such an important date! Harry You’re right, that’s terrible. She’ll be really upset if you don’t show up. Darsha I know. I don’t know what to do! C __ Harry Hi, Darsha. What’s wrong? You look upset. Darsha It’s about that audition for the TV soap commercial. Harry What happened? D __ Harry That’s incredible, Darsha! But why are you so sad? Darsha Because I’ve already told my grandmother I’ll be with her for her birthday, and it’s on the same day as the job! Harry Oh, that’s a pain. But I’m sure she’ll understand. It’s only a birthday. E __ Harry You could take her with you, and spending the day with you on set will be her birthday present! Darsha Yes! That’s a wonderful idea Harry! Thank you! I’m just surprised that idea came from you… F __ Darsha I did the audition, and I’ve just received a phone call from production. Harry And…? Darsha And … I’ve got the job.

3

Complete the mind map with expressions from the dialogue. Then work in pairs. Add more expressions to each category. Noticing how someone feels

Reacting to negative news

Reacting to positive news SHOWING SYMPATHY

4

Work in pairs. Role play a short dialogue for each situation in the box. Follow the suggestions below. you left your phone on a train you forgot to finish a school project in time your parents are angry with you you’ve got a bad headache you weren’t invited to a friend’s party you’ve lost your dog

· · · · · ·

Student A: Notice how Student B feels. Ask what’s wrong. Student B: Explain the situation, giving details. Student A: Show sympathy and make a suggestion. Student B: React appropriately to the suggestion.

Video Functions  153


Video Functions G Apologising BEFORE YOU WATCH   1

Think about the last time you were late for something. What was the situation, and why were you late? Did you need to apologise? To whom? Did they accept your apology?

· ·

WATCH   2

3.13 Watch or listen to the video and complete the dialogue. Write ONE word in each space.

Darsha Harry! You’re late! (1) ________! Harry I know. I’m so sorry, Darsha! Darsha What’s your (2) ________? You couldn’t find your shoes this time? Harry No, something much worse. Darsha What is it then? Harry I’ve been in the lift for (3) ________ minutes! Darsha Why didn’t you get out? Harry Because it (4) ________ down. It didn’t work! Darsha I don’t believe you. I’ve been here and I haven’t heard (5) ________. Did you scream? Harry Of course not! I’m a man! Darsha Anyway, now we’re terribly (6) ________! Harry You could show some sympathy, I’m afraid of closed (7) ________. And I was in a panic! Darsha Poor you, I’m sorry to (8) ________ that. I didn’t know you were claustrophobic. Harry Well, I am. Thank goodness Mandy was in the lift with me. She was so sweet. Darsha Mandy? From the history course? Harry Yes. Sweet, lovely Mandy. Darsha Well, I don’t (9) ________ why you were late. We’ve got a marathon to run. Come on. Let’s go! Harry A marathon?! (10) ________ you said it was a couple of miles! I’ve only just started running! Darsha Well, there’s nothing better than a long run when you’re afraid of closed spaces. Come on. Let’s go. Run!

154  Video Functions

3

Work in pairs. Read the dialogue again and discuss possible answers to these questions. 1 What adjectives could you use to describe a how Darsha feels? b how Harry feels? 2 How was Harry’s experience both frightening and pleasant for him? 3 Why do you think Darsha reacts in the way she does in different parts of the dialgoue?

4

Complete the mind map with expressions from the dialogue. Then work in pairs. Add more expressions to each category. Apologising

Asking for a reason

APOLOGIES AND EXCUSES Reacting negatively to an apology

5

Reacting sympathetically to an excuse

Read the situations below. Then, in pairs, take turns to apologise or find an excuse. Your partner should react sympathetically or negatively. 1 Student and teacher: A student is late for a lesson. 2 Two classmates: A friend forgot the other’s birthday. 3 Brother and sister: One sibling broke the other’s phone.


Towards INVALSI Listening Introduction to the exam In your final year of school you will do an INVALSI exam in English. One part of the exam is a listening test. The activities on the following pages will help you understand and get used to the style of the listening tasks that you will meet in the exam. There are five listening tasks in the exam, at different levels of difficulty (B1 and B2) with a total of 35-40 questions. The speakers may be of different ages and will have different regional or national accents, for example English, Scottish, American or Australian. You will hear a variety of authentic recordings, for example: · interviews · long dialogues · short conversations · monologues · public announcements.

There are three possible task types: · Multiple Choice Questions In this task type, you listen and choose the correct option (A, B, C or D) to answer a question or to complete a sentence.

·

Multiple Matching This task type could be one of several possible matching exercises, for example: matching the beginning and ending of a sentence, matching each speaker to a summary of what he/she says, matching the answers that you hear to a list of questions on the page.

·

Short Answer Questions In this task type you listen and answer a series of questions. You can use a maximum of four words for each answer.

You will hear each recording twice and there is always an example to help you understand what you have to do.

GLOBAL LISTENING TIPS · · · ·

Use the time you are given before each task begins to read the questions carefully. Try to predict the key words you might hear, then focus on listening for the relevant information. During the first listening, don’t worry if you don’t understand every word. Concentrate on the general meaning. You can use the second listening to confirm any doubts you have. Use the time you are given after each task to check your answers carefully, especially when writing short answers. If you don’t know the meaning of a word you hear in the recording or read in the question, try to guess its meaning from the context.

Towards INVALSI Listening  155


Towards INVALSI Listening Multiple Choice Questions 1

LISTENING TIPS · ·

Listen to an interview with Maggie, a young travel reporter, talking about a historic town. Choose the correct ending (A, B, C, or D). 3.14

· ·

2

0 The tourist information centre is A in the centre of town. B on most good maps. C ✗ in the town’s station. D not well organised. 1 The castle is original, except for A the entrance and the walls. B the entrance and the roofs. C the walls and towers. D the roofs and the towers. 2 The castle guides are A trained teachers. B good at entertaining. C trained to take school groups. D boring for young people. 3 Bernard’s Tower is a part of A the science department. B a home for old scientists. C Oxford and Cambridge Universities. D the shopping centre. 4 In the park there are A some cafés. B horse rides for children. C beautiful flower gardens. D activities for children and grassy areas for adults. 5 The hotels in Somerford are A outside the town centre. B a cheap alternative to the campsite. C rather old and costly. D old-fashioned but luxurious.

156  Towards INVALSI Listening

Read the questions and the four possible answers carefully to get an idea of the content. The questions you have to answer follow the same order as the recording. The task includes some options which are mentioned in the recording, but are not the correct answer. These are ‘distractors’: watch out for them! Answer every question, even if you are not sure of the right answer: you have a 25% chance of getting it right!

Listen to two friends, John and Pat, talking about John’s new computer. Choose the correct ending (A, B, C, or D). 3.15

0 John had his old computer for C three years. A a few weeks. D ✗ four years. B two years. 1 Compared to Pat’s, John’s new computer is A the same speed. B more special. C slower. D better for programmers. 2 John thinks the system for logging in is A a bit annoying. B easy to hack. C difficult to remember. D more secure. 3 Compared to John’s new computer, Pat’s has A a bigger screen. B a longer battery life. C fewer features. D a heavier case. 4 John wanted his new computer to be a different size. A colour. C B weight. D speed. 5 Pat thinks that John’s computer is A out-of-date. B suitable for him. C the wrong colour. D too slow for him.


Towards INVALSI Listening   3

Listen to an interview with Erika, a fashion blogger. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D). 3.16

0 What does Erika think about the people who influence today’s fashion trends? A They are not professional figures. ✗ Their roles are often quite similar. B C There is not enough room for them all. D They have very easy jobs. 1 What does she say that all fashion bloggers do? A They post fashion photos on their websites. B They invent the information they include in their blogs. C They write about their favourite fashion trends. D They communicate their personal tastes in fashion. 2 What might make fashion bloggers less popular? A Competition from social media. B Competition from fashion influencers. C Competition from more successful bloggers. D Competition from designer labels. 3 What do teen influencers typically have? A Their own website. B An account on social media. C A fashion company. D A personal stylist. 4 What is an influencer’s success based on? A His or her followers and their ages. B The clothes he or she wears in posts. C How old he or she is. D The number of events he or she attends. 5 What is a key characteristic of fashion editors? A Their job is easier than that of a blogger or influencer. B They always work with just one magazine. C They write about a magazine’s ideas on fashion. D They promote celebrity fashion brands.

4

Listen to an interview with Katie, a TV cook. Choose the correct ending (A, B, C, or D). 3.17

0 The interviewer likes Katie’s show because A he is a skilled cook. ✗ he loves good food. B C it taught him how to boil water. D she has a lot of experience. 1 Katie thinks that A some people don’t cook because they worry about the result being bad. people who watch her programme often go B out to restaurants. good food takes a long time to prepare. C her show doesn’t have enough fans yet. D 2 The interviewer buys frozen dinners every day. A has trouble finding time to shop for food. B buys cooking ingredients once a week. C doesn’t know which ingredients to buy. D 3 Katie says that people without much time for shopping buy some amazing things to keep in their A kitchens. should buy frozen dinners and cans of beans. B have to spend a long time thinking about C what to cook. can make a variety of dishes if they know what D to buy. 4 Katie doesn’t think that good cooks use cheap knives, pots and pans. A her mother was a good cook. B expensive kitchen equipment is necessary. C teaching cooking is easy. D 5 Katie tells the interviewer to stop thinking of reasons why he can’t cook. A cook and eat natural food. B take the opportunity to make mistakes. C learn some basic recipes. D Towards INVALSI Listening  157


Towards INVALSI Listening Multiple Matching   1

LISTENING TIPS ·

3.18 Listen to a radio presenter giving information about a film festival. While listening, match the beginnings of the sentences (1–6) to the sentence endings (A–I). There are two sentence endings that you should not use.

· ·

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Beginnings The film festival lasts … This year, the festival will be … The festival has been held … This year, many films are … They will repeat a film … You can save money … This year, Films for Children is

A B C D ✗ E F G H I

Endings since July. a new category. with a festival pass. twelve days. from other countries. for people under 19. bigger than before. directed by a New Zealander. for five years.

If you have to match the beginning and ending of a sentence, there will be two extra endings that you don’t need. Study the context of each sentence carefully and don’t just choose an ending because it seems to match grammatically.

158  Towards INVALSI Listening

3.19 Listen to Lenny, a teacher of Mandarin Chinese, being interviewed about language learning. While listening, match the interviewer’s questions (A–G) to the answers that you hear (1–5). There is an extra question that you do not need to use.

D

MATCHING BEGINNINGS AND ENDINGS •

It is very important to use the time before the task to read all the options. Underline any key words that you think might help you. In the first listening, choose your answers. In the second listening, check them carefully. With Multiple Matching tasks, there will be distractors. These are words that you may hear in the recording and see in the question, but which are not relevant to the answers. Watch out for them!

A B C D E F ✗ G

Question Do you think Mandarin is a hard language to learn? How can students improve their ability? What do you teach your students when they first start? What do you enjoy most about teaching? Will you continue to work as a teacher in the future? How did you decide to take up teaching Mandarin? Are Chinese characters hard to learn? Answer

0 1 2 3 4 5

F

MATCHING QUESTIONS TO ANSWERS • •

In this type of task, you match the answers that you hear to the questions that are written on the page. There is an extra question which you don’t need to use. For each extract, listen to the complete answer before choosing the best question. There might be extra information and details that can mislead you.


Towards INVALSI Listening   3

Listen to six short dialogues (0–5) and match each one to what the speakers are complaining about (A–H). There are two complaints that you do not need to use. 3.20

A ✗ B C D E F G H

4

Listen to six short dialogues (0–5) and match each one to how the girl feels (A–H). There are two items that you do not need to use.

The speaker complains about… a recent purchase parts of a film the lack of variety offered the number of people not being able to hear something well the quality of the museums the lack of progress at a hobby having to spend time with certain people

3.21

A B C ✗ D E F G H

Dialogue 0 1 2 3 4 5

The girl… has mixed feelings about a book. would like to have some more lessons. is enthusiastic about doing new things. is unsure about her future. feels she paid too much for something. had expected something to be more tiring. is concerned about going away. found a previous experience useful. Dialogue

B

0 1 2 3 4

D

5

MATCHING WHAT YOU HEAR TO MAIN IDEAS OR TITLES • • •

In this type of task you have to match a series of short dialogues or monologues to the main idea expressed in each one. Sometimes you may be asked to match each dialogue to a title, a place, or a situation. Remember that the options are not in the same order as the information in the listening task. You need to understand not only what the dialogue or monologue is about, but also things like: who the speakers are, their relationship, their opinions and attitudes, the speaker’s aim.

Towards INVALSI Listening  159


Towards INVALSI Listening Short Answer Questions   1

LISTENING TIPS ·

3.22 Listen to a teacher giving his class information about a school trip. While listening, answer the questions (1–8) using a maximum of FOUR words. Write your answers in the spaces provided.

· · ·

2

0 1

Read the questions carefully, paying attention to the question words and other key words. This will help you focus and listen for the relevant information. Remember to write no more than four words in your answers. Sometimes you may have to write two answers: this is clearly stated in the question. At the end of the task, check your spelling and grammar for any mistakes. However, if your answer is comprehensible, you will not lose marks for minor spelling and grammar mistakes.

Listen to a radio presenter talking about a competition. While listening, answer the questions (1–8) using a maximum of FOUR words. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 3.23

Where are they going on the trip? To Stratford What time does their train leave?

2

How long will they spend at Anne Hathaway’s cottage?

3

How will they get to the Butterfly Farm?

0

4

What won’t they be able to see there?

1

What kind of competition is it? For young artists What is the maximum age to enter the competition?

5

Who will give them a tour of the town?

2

What should you indicate on the application form?

6

What will they visit in the afternoon?

3

Who should sign the application form for children?

7

What can they do after this?

4

What kind of material can you use for the experimental category?

8

What should they take with them?

5

What will happen on 15th July?

6

What should you do by 30th June?

7

What prizes are there for the top ten in each category?

8

What will the overall winner get?

160  Towards INVALSI Listening


Towards INVALSI Listening   3

Listen to an interview with a scientist who studies climate change. While listening, answer the questions (1–6) using a maximum of FOUR words. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 3.24

0 1

What is global warming? Increases in global temperature What does climate change refer to? (Give two answers)

4

Listen to an interview with a 15-year-old computer programmer, Amrita Bakshi. While listening, answer the questions (1–8) using a maximum of FOUR words. Write your answers in the spaces provided. 3.25

0 1

What is Amrita’s father’s job? Software developer What does she remember doing when she was in pre-school?

2

At what age did she start working on her first app?

3

What was the purpose of the app?

4

What is the technology behind driverless cars called?

5

What else can this technology be used for?

6

In what way is she a typical 15 year old?

What can the amount of carbon emissions from American vehicles be compared to?

7

Who is her first book aimed at?

7

What energy source is China dependent on?

8

What does she want to develop in the future?

8

In which places can people do something to reduce their impact on the environment? (Give two answers)

2 3

4 5 6

When did global temperatures start to rise? What is one reason for the recent rapid increase in global temperatures? Which countries use most fossil fuels? Which country produces the most carbon?

Towards INVALSI Listening  161


Writing Bank 1 A book or film review   1

2

> SB p. 17

Are the expressions below related to books (B), films (F) or both (B/F)? 1 __ I couldn’t put it down. 6 __ The soundtrack was 11 2 __ I’d definitely recommend it. 7 __ It was published in 12 3 __ It was directed by 8 __ It tells the story of 13 4 __ The special effects were 9 __ The sequel is 14 5 __ The main character is 10 __ It was released in 15

__ It came out in __ It’s a… story. __ It’s about __ It’s set in __ It stars

Read the two reviews. Which is for a book and which is for a film?

★★ ★ ★

A Official Secrets was directed by Gavin Hood and released in 2019. It is a docudrama and stars Keira Knightly as the main character. It is based on the true story of Katherine Gun, a translator working for the British Secret Service. It’s about her trial in 2004 for revealing official secrets in the lead-up to the Iraq War. Historically and politically it’s an interesting story, giving lots of facts and insights into how the Secret Service operated at the time. Unfortunately, I didn’t think it really worked as a drama, and it wasn’t exciting or inspiring – it made me feel like I was at school. So watch it on TV, but I wouldn’t recommend it at the cinema.

3

Read the reviews again. In your notebook, make notes about each review using headings below. • Title and genre • Basic information (author/director) • The plot (the setting, topic, characters, main action) • Positive things • Negative things • Recommendation

4

Think of a book you read or a film you saw recently and use the headings from Ex. 3 to make some notes about it.

5

Now write a review of the book or film (110–130 words). Use your notes and the reviews in Ex. 2 to help you.

162  Writing Bank

★★ ★ ★

B The Testaments was published in 2019, 30 years after Margret Atwood’s first masterpiece, The Handmaid’s Tale. The sequel is set in the same imagined world, the Republic of Gilead, 15 years later. It tells the story from the point of view of the three main female characters with very different ideas. It is a dark story, but it is also exciting and fun at times, and it really made me think. So I was not surprise that it won the Booker Prize in 2019. In contrast to the first novel, some people find the plot of The Testaments a little predictable, but I couldn’t put it down. I’d definitely recommend it!

WRITING TIPS • • • • •

Include an introduction giving basic information. Provide a short description of the plot. Say what’s good and bad about the film or book. Give your opinion and emotional response. Include a sentence that tells the reader to read / watch it (or not).


Writing Bank A story   1

> SB p. 27

2

Complete the stages of writing a story with the expressions in the box. Bring the story to a close  Develop the main events  Introduce the main events  Set the scene Paragraph 1 __________________ – Let the reader know what the story is about and where it takes place. Paragraph 2 __________________ – Say what happened. Paragraph 3 __________________ – Say how you felt and what happened next. Paragraph 4 __________________ – Say what happened in the end and what you remember most.

2

Put the paragraphs (A–D) in the correct order to make a story. A __ An elderly couple were sitting next to me on the ferry. I left my seat to buy some coffee, and I was just about to pay, when suddenly I couldn’t find my wallet. It had all my bank cards and cash, and now it was gone. Nightmare! Just then I saw the old man who was sitting beside me … he gave me my wallet! I burst into tears. Without realising, I’d dropped it under my seat earlier. B __ I had just wanted two things from that trip: a little adventure and a lot of sunshine. Instead, I got a lot of adventure and only a little sunshine! Maybe next time... C __ I was staying on a small island that had no tourists, just local people. Greece is normally hot and dry, so I just packed T-shirts and shorts. Unfortunately, I didn’t know that Greek winters are cold and rainy. I was freezing! One day, I decided to travel to another island. D __ I went backpacking in Greece for a week last winter. None of my friends were free, so I travelled alone.

3

4

Read the story again and answer the questions.   5 P Now write your story (130–150 words). Use different past narrative 1 Find examples of past narrative tenses. tenses, linking expressions and Past simple: ____________________________________________ descriptive words where possible. Past continuous: _________________________________________ Past perfect: ____________________________________________ 2 Find examples of the linking words and expressions. _____________________________________________________ WRITING TIPS _____________________________________________________ • The story doesn’t have to be true. You can make it up. 3 Find examples of the descriptive words, like adjectives. • Make your story interesting, with _____________________________________________________ lots of description, so people enjoy _____________________________________________________ Prepare to write a story which starts with the sentence below. Write notes for your story following the structure in Ex. 1

reading it. • Check your grammar and spelling.

‘At first, we all thought the journey was fun…’

Writing Bank  163


Writing Bank 3 An opinion essay

> SB p. 42

1

Match the two parts of each sentence. Pay special attention to the words in bold. 1 In my opinion, cyclists who ride in traffic should have a and this sends the wrong message to young to pass a test people. 2 I don’t think that sports should be taken so seriously b to make sure they understand the rules of 3 I strongly believe that some professional sportspeople the road. are paid too much money because some players risk serious injury. c 4 There is no question that we should have better d as their true purpose is just for enjoyment, protective clothing in contact sports in my opinion.

2

Read the essay title. Then label each paragraph with the words in the box below that explain its purpose.

Now complete the essay with the missing sentences (a–f). a Of course, individual sports have advantages, too. b Secondly, team sports help us to develop healthy relationships. c Overall, however, I believe that team sports bring more value to our lives. d Firstly, I would say that we learn to communicate better when we play team sports. e Personally, I think that team sports are much better than individual sports. f Finally, people who play team sports are better at working together.

3 P INVALSI

'Team sports are always better for your body and mind than individual sports.' argument for  argument against  conclusion introduction Paragraph 1: ______________________ Anyone interested in taking up a new sport has a lot of choice these days. Of course, people prefer to do sports they know they’ll enjoy, and that’s a very important factor. (1) It’s true that all sports are good for us but, in my view, team sports offer additional benefits.

4

Prepare to write an opinion essay on the statement below. Make notes following the structure of the essay in Ex. 2. ‘Some people feel the Olympic Games should not be continued because too many athletes cheat.’

5

Now write your essay (130–150 words). Use your notes and include some of the expressions in bold from Ex. 1.

Paragraph 2: ______________________ (2) In order to be successful, team members have to communicate with each other quickly and clearly. (3) I strongly believe that they improve our ability to understand expectations and to respect others. (4) In fact, there is no question that they are better at collaborating and working towards a common goal. Paragraph 3: ______________________ (5) It’s true that there’s the convenience of training in your own time. In addition, some people are more suited to working alone. Paragraph 4: ______________________ (6) In my opinion, sharing responsibility for success or failure helps us to become better human beings. 164  Writing Bank

WRITING TIPS • • • • •

Carefully plan your essay. Provide examples to support your answer. Use linking words and expressions. Remember to give both sides of the argument. Sum up your main ideas in the conclusion, restating your opinion. • Check your spelling, grammar and punctuation.


Writing Bank A travel blog   1

> SB p. 53

4

Complete the travel blog post with the words and expressions in the box. after boiling I’m hoping might so such an what a long while I’m here South Africa is (1) _________ amazing country! We left Cape Town yesterday (2) _________ three days there and drove to our camp at Storms River. Oh, (3) _________ journey! But we stopped to see the wildlife at a national park on the way. The elephants were (4) _________ beautiful, I mean, really awesome! I want to see lots of wildlife (5) _________. The weather’s (6) _________, as expected for South Africa, and the scenery around here is astonishing. We’re staying in comfortable but very basic huts and eating freshly prepared food while we’re on safari. (7) _________ to find crocodile, zebra and ostrich on the dinner menu … Just joking! For the rest of this week, we’ll be hiking along the river and through the forest, which will be exciting. But I can’t wait to see the waterfall. We (8) _________ have a swim if there’s time. I’ll post some photos, I promise!

2

Read the blog post again. Tick (✓) the topics that the writer mentions. accommodation journey monuments activities language souvenirs food people weather guides scenery wildlife

3

Read the blog post again and underline adjectives or descriptive language for each of the items you ticked in Ex. 2.

4

Think of an interesting trip you have taken recently. Write notes based on relevant items in Ex. 2.

5

Now write a travel blog post (130–150 words). Use your notes and the model in Ex. 1 to help you.

WRITING TIPS • Use descriptive language to bring the location to life and make it sound interesting. • Give as much useful information as possible about the trip. • Check your spelling, grammar and punctuation.

Writing Bank  165


Writing Bank 5 A letter of application   1

2

Choose the correct aim (A or B) of each sentence from a letter of application to a veterinary clinic. 1 I am writing to apply for the job of part-time assistant. A giving the reason for wanting the job B clearly stating the reason for writing 2 Last summer, I volunteered at the local animal shelter. A giving details of relevant experience B providing information on availability 3 I am a reliable person, dedicated to animal welfare. A giving information on education B describing relevant personal qualities 4 I study biology, chemistry and physics at school. A details of current education B expressing personal qualities 5 I would value this experience as I plan to study Veterinary Medicine at university. A describing formal qualifications B giving the reason for wanting the job Read the letter and match each part (1–10) to a function in the box. __ asking about the job __ full postal address __ personal qualities __ reason for writing __ requesting a reply

__ formal greeting __ availability __ polite ending __ relevant experience __ the date

> SB p. 69 3

Read the job advert below. Then write a letter of application (130–150 words). Use the letter in Ex. 2 as a model and include: • where you saw the advert • your reason for wanting the job • why you think you could do it • a question asking for more detail Temporary positions for Christmas Post Person at Bristol Delivery Office Pay per hour £9.50 (days) to £11.21 (nights); Part time shifts available Your role You will help to deliver Christmas to everybody in the UK! Your duties Help unload mail and parcels from our vans, divide them into categories, sort them so they arrive at their destination safely. Qualities You enjoy working to tight deadlines in a fast-paced environment; you are proactive, flexible and adaptable; You can push heavy trolleys (up to 250kgs). Experience No previous experience required, but good organisational skills are essential.

(1) 818 Doris Avenue, 2059, North Sydney. (2) 4th June, 2020 (3) Dear Sir or Madam (4) I am writing to apply for the role of waiter at ‘Squash Juice Bar’, which I saw advertised on your website. I feel I would be a very good candidate for this job. (5) I do not have direct experience of working in a juice bar, but I was a waiter for two months last summer at ‘The Bay Leaf’ in the city centre. (6) I think I am a bright person who enjoys working in a team, and I received very positive feedback from my former manager at ‘The Bay Leaf’. (7) I would like to know if I would have to work every weekend or just some weekends? (8) I would be free to begin after 25th June and am available until mid-September. I hope that you will consider me for the job. (9) I look forward to hearing from you soon. (10) Yours faithfully, Richard Campo 166  Writing Bank

WRITING TIPS • Give examples of relevant qualities, skills and experience for the job advertised. • Use the appropriate tone and level of formality. • Pay particular attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation.


Writing Bank An article describing a person   1

> SB p. 79

6

Read the article about comedian Lee Ridley. What information do we find out about his: 1 childhood? ________________________________________________________ 2 hobbies? ________________________________________________________ 3 difficulties? ________________________________________________________ 4 education? ________________________________________________________ 5 achievements? ________________________________________________________ 6 character? ________________________________________________________

Lost Voice Guy At six months old, Lee Ridley was diagnosed with cerebral palsy, which put him in a coma, affected his movement and left him unable to speak. This might stop many people from getting on in life, but not Lee! He has a degree in journalism and a Master’s in online journalism. He has worked for the BBC and local newspapers as a journalist. Then, in 2012, he turned his hobby into a job and became Britain’s first stand-up comedian to use a communication aid to help him talk. After making his debut at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 2013, he went on to win the BBC Radio New Comedy Awards in 2014 and the 12th series of Britain’s Got Talent in 2018. He has recently published his first book: I’m Only In It for the Parking: Life and laughter from the priority seats. Known as ‘Lost Voice Guy’, he is one of Britain’s most successful comedians today. He warns his audiences not to expect a ‘sweet and innocent comedian’. Instead he challenges them to consider their preconceptions about disabled people: that they are either superheroes or parasites. The truth, he explains, is somewhere in the middle. He is smart, provocative and funny, and he uses speech technology to capture people’s undivided attention about what he says.

2

3

Think of an inspirational person who has overcome difficulties to achieve things in their life. It could be a famous person or someone you know or have read about. Use the list in Ex. 1 to make notes about them. Write an article (130–150 words) about the person you chose. Use your notes and the text in Ex. 1 to help you.

WRITING TIPS • Think of a good title. • Put your points in a logical order. • Give examples, details and facts, and check they are correct.

Writing Bank  167


Writing Bank 7 An advert   1

2

> SB p. 95

Choose four things you should NOT do when writing an online advert. 1 Use a clear heading with the name of the item. 2 Include fun facts even if they aren’t relevant. 3 Post a photo of the item. 4 Provide the price and types of payment accepted. 5 Write lots of very detailed information. 6 Supply a description of the item, including age and condition. 7 Say what you dislike about the item. 8 Mention who the item would be suitable for. 9 Talk about the seller’s background and hobbies. 10 Provide details about postage. Complete the online advert with the words and expressions in the box. bargain  Brand new  Central Madrid  for general travel  lots of smaller  quality  Selling because  Selling price  students  Suitable for Black rucksack (1) _________: 35€ Payment: cash only Seller’s location: (2) _________

CONTACT SELLER

Need a comfortable rucksack (3) _________? This rucksack has a large central section and (4) _________ pockets for convenience. (5) _________ hiking, walking or camping weekends, and ideal for (6) _________! (7) _________, with the original price tag still on. Material is of excellent (8) _________. (9) _________ I received a similar rucksack for my birthday. These rucksacks cost 50€ in the shops so it’s a (10) _________ at this price! No shipping, sorry. Collection in Madrid area.

3

Think of a personal possession you could sell online and make some notes. NAME OF ITEM: PRICE: PAYMENT METHOD: DESCRIPTION: AGE AND CONDITION: REASON FOR SALE: ADDRESS OF SELLER: DELIVERY TIME:

168  Writing Bank

4

Now write an advert (about 100 words). Use your notes and the model in Ex. 2 to help you.

WRITING TIPS • Write a clear, concise advert. • Only include relevant details. • Make your item sound as appealing as possible.


Writing Bank A formal email of complaint

> SB p. 105

1

Read the sentences. Do the words in bold express a contrast (C), a result (R) or an additional point (A)? 1 The dress was poor quality and, as well as this, the collar was damaged. __ 2 The laptop was faulty. Therefore, I lost a lot of important work. __ 3 The waitress was inefficient and, furthermore, she was rude. __ 4 The book was delivered on time. However, it was in the wrong language. __ 5 No one has replied to me, even though I’ve emailed three times! __ 6 The taxi arrived far too late and, because of this, I missed my flight. __ 7 In spite of explaining the problem twice, I was asked to explain it again. __ 8 You sent the wrong colour and, moreover, it was the wrong size. __

2

Label the parts of Michael’s email to a complaints department of a mobile phone company.

8

a background to the problem  b details of items attached  c details of the problem  d formal ending e formal greeting  f how writer feels  g reason for writing  h request for a reply  i what writer wants 1 __ 2 __ 3 __ 4__ 5 __ 6__ 7__ 8 __ 9 __ New message

(1) Dear Sir / Madam (2) I am writing to complain about customer service issues that I have had with your company. (3) Three weeks ago, I was invited to upgrade my phone. I was assured there would be no charge for the phone and that my contract would continue for two years at the same rate of monthly payments. I was also told that the phone would be delivered to my home the following day. (4) First of all, the phone was not delivered that day: it arrived more than two weeks later. Furthermore, when my bank statement arrived, I discovered I had been charged the full cost of the phone in spite of being promised that I would have nothing to pay. Your customer service agents now tell me that a refund cannot be processed. (5) I have been a loyal customer for four years, but my confidence in your company has now declined dramatically. (6) I would like you to send a full refund immediately, in addition to an apology, otherwise I will be forced to cancel my contract. (7) I am attaching copies of my bank statement, as well as a list showing details of every call I’ve made to customer service about this matter. (8) I look forward to hearing from you very soon. (9) Yours faithfully, Michael Jones   3

Choose one of the following situations. Make notes and prepare to write an email of complaint (130–150 words). Follow the points in Ex. 2. A local online newspaper has printed a story about you including personal details and a photograph. They didn’t ask your permission. They have also included information that is incorrect. You should contact the newspaper editor. You booked the pool at your local leisure centre for a private party last Sunday. When you arrived, there were lots of other people using the pool and all your decorations had been taken down. You should contact the bookings manger. Your class’s mobile phones were confiscated by a teacher at school because a student’s phone rang during his lesson. Your phone was turned off and in your bag at the time, and you needed it to make an important phone call to the doctor during your lunch break. You should contact the Head of Year, Mrs Gould.

4

Now write your email of complaint. Use the language in Ex. 1 and the model in Ex. 2 to help you.

WRITING TIPS • Write in a formal style using linkers (although, consequently, despite, therefore, what is more …). • Structure your email carefully and logically. • Be polite, not threatening!

Writing Bank  169


Writing Bank 9 Describing & recommending a place   1

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. 1 It’s an area of Colombia who / that has amazing rainforests. 2 Athens is a city which / who has a lot of ancient history. 3 There’s a sense of history who / that you feel as soon as you arrive. 4 Florence is the city in which / who Michelangelo is buried. 5 They have excellent guides who / which can show you around the city. 6 There’s an area called Chinatown that /who has delicious food.

2

Put paragraphs in the correct order (1–4) to make a text describing Yonago, in Japan.

> SB p. 121

A __ Finally, if you love art, you have to visit the Yonago Museum of Art. Some of the paintings are amazing, but it also has an incredible collection of photographs, which are equally appealing. B __ Yonago is a city on the west coast of Japan. It isn’t very big – only about 150,000 people live there, but it’s worth a visit. The easiest way to get there is by high-speed train. It takes just three hours from Kyoto and you will start to get some sense of the amazing scenery. C __ You can’t visit Yonago without relaxing on one of its many beaches. There are some gorgeous ones and the best thing is that there are natural hot springs too, which are very good for your health! D __ In addition to this, the city has quite a famous castle which is almost 600 years old. It’s on a mountain overlooking the river and the city, and there are some great views from the top. Sadly, nowadays it’s in ruins, but you can still walk around it and imagine what life was like there in days gone by.

Read the text again and match a heading to each paragraph (A–D). Culture General facts History Natural beauty

3 INVALSI

4

5

Write notes about a place that you have visited. Use the headings in Ex. 3. Now write a description of the place you chose in Ex. 4 (130–150 words). Use your notes and the description of Yonago in Ex. 2 to help you.

170  Writing Bank

WRITING TIPS • Organise your description into paragraphs, each of which discusses one aspect of the place. • Use relative clauses and descriptive adjectives to add detail to your text. • Describe the place in a positive way, making specific recommendations about things to see and do.


Writing Bank A ‘for and against’ essay   1

> SB p. 131

10

Read and choose the correct discourse markers to complete the sentences. 1 Texting while driving is dangerous and irresponsible. _________, it is illegal. A Even so B Furthermore C Lastly 2 I don’t agree that public transport should be free. _________, I do agree that it should be much cheaper. A However B What’s more C Not only that, but 3 It’s not an ideal approach. _________, it would cost too much. Secondly, it would take too long. A Thirdly B First of all C In conclusion 4 I feel that violent video games should be banned. _________, I believe these games increase aggression. A Even so B On the other hand C Overall

2 P INVALSI

Look at the statement below. Then read the essay and complete it with sentences (A–F).

‘University education has become so expensive that many can no longer afford it. Fees* should be completely abolished.’

(1) __ They spend years working very hard just for the chance to go to university and get a degree in the subject of their choice. But is it fair that, for many, increasingly high fees are now making this dream impossible? It is clear that expensive fees are a serious problem for several reasons. (2) __ This means that they have to apply for student loans* to pay for their tuition and books, and it can take many years to repay these loans. Moreover, many students go to university in a different city and have to leave home. (3) __ It often means that, while at university, they need to find part-time jobs which take valuable time away from their studies. (4) __ Firstly, it costs money to retain excellent professors and other members of staff. (5) __ Many young people are supported by their parents or other family members. Lastly, university students have a lot of free time every year, which makes it easier to balance their studies with part-time work. (6) __ While I accept that fees are too high and should be reduced, I do not believe that they should be completely abolished. A B C D E F   3

fees tasse loans prestiti

On the other hand, fees are necessary in order to run universities. This comes with significant additional expense. Secondly, bank loans are not the only means of paying fees. First of all, young people typically do not have much money of their own. In conclusion, I do not fully agree with the statement. The ultimate goal of most secondary school students is to be offered a place at university.

Read the statement below. Write notes with ideas for an introduction, and your arguments for and against the statement. Think about your personal opinion to conclude the essay. ‘Exams are unfair because they put students under too much pressure to perform well on a single day. All testing should be abolished in favour of continuous assessment.’

4

Now write a ‘for and against’ essay based on the statement in Ex. 3 (150–180 words). Use your notes and the model essay in Ex. 2 to help you.

WRITING TIPS • Clearly introduce the subject. • Give arguments for and against, with examples to support them. • Use appropriate discourse markers throughout. • Write a strong conclusion summarising your ideas. • Check your grammar, spelling and punctuation.

Writing Bank  171


Speaking Bank 1 Talking about films

> SB p. 16   2

Functions Asking follow-up questions

3.26 Listen to two friends discussing a film and complete the dialogue.

Who’s in it? What else has he/she been in? What’s the acting like? When did it come out? What’s it about? What sort of film is it? Who directed it? Where is it set? Would you recommend it?   1

Write a question from the Functions box for each answer below. 1 _______________________________________ An action adventure. 2 _______________________________________ In 1920s New York. 3 _______________________________________ Some characters are OK, but others aren’t very convincing. 4 _______________________________________ It’s a battle to save the Earth. 5 _______________________________________ I’m not sure – it isn’t the best film I’ve seen lately. 6 _______________________________________ The guy who made Take the blame last year. I can’t remember his name. 7 _______________________________________ Only last month, I think. 8 _______________________________________ She played Carla in The Witness and lots of TV roles. 9 _______________________________________ Ally Peterson. You know, that actress with the pink hair.

172  Speaking Bank

Tom I’ve just been to see Scarlet’s Destiny. Paul Oh, I’ve not heard of that. What sort of film is it? Tom It’s (1) ______________, it’s got great special effects. Paul When did it come out? Tom It was released (2) ______________, I think. Paul Who’s in it? Any (3) ______________? Tom Well, there’s Jake Pomfroy and Sara Linnett – she’s really beautiful … Paul I’m not sure I know (4) ______________. What else has she been in? Tom She was in that film with Matt Grieve about Mars. Paul Oh, yes, (5) ______________. So what’s it about? Tom It’s about a woman who gets more intelligent every time she sleeps. Paul (6) ______________. Where is it set? Tom (7) ______________ in 2070. I really loved the plot – a bit weird, but fascinating. Paul Oh, OK. So would you recommend it? Tom Yeah, I would – there were some pretty good scenes in it and the (8) ______________. Paul Right, thanks. I’ll give it a try.

3

Think of a film you have seen recently. Make notes about it answering the questions in the Functions box and adding any other interesting information.

4

Use your notes from Ex. 3 to review the film orally. Record your review, or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  Your answers to follow-up questions should give as much detailed description as possible.


Speaking Bank Do you know the way? Functions

1

Asking for directions Excuse me. Do you know the way to … ? Giving directions Go all the way up there until you get to … At the traffic lights, go straight on / turn right. After 200 metres, take the first turning on the left. Go past a … on your left / right. The train station is on your right. Talking about time and distance It’s not very far from here. It’s about a kilometre from there.

> SB p. 26

2

Look at the map. Karen is outside the B & B asking a stranger for directions. Complete the dialogue with the missing expressions (a–i). Karen Excuse me, can you help me? I’m (1) _______________________________. Man The theatre? (2) _________________________ ____________________________________. Karen Oh, OK. That isn’t too far. (3) __________________________________? Man Yes, of course. Basically, you need to (4) __________________________________. Then, at the pier, (5) _____________________ ____________________________________. When you get to (6) _____________________ ____________________________________. Then go (7) ___________________________ ____________________________________. Karen The Clock Tower, yes, OK. Man (8) __________________________________. The theatre is on the right just after the station. (9) __________________________________. Karen OK, great, thanks for your help. a

turn right. You’ll see the History Museum on your left b straight on until you get to the Clock Tower trying to get to the theatre c d Do you know the way e Turn right there, and walk along North Street for about five minutes You can’t miss it f g the big crossroads, turn left into Main Street h It’s about a fifteen-minute walk from here carry on along the seafront until you get to the i pier on your left

2

3.27 Look at the map again. Listen to two dialogues and mark the route on the map that the speakers suggest: A from the B & B to Queens Park. B from the shopping centre to the pier.

3

Think of three important places or landmarks in your town or city. Imagine you need to direct a tourist to each place from your current location. Record your directions or tell a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself, or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  You need to be clear and concise when directing someone from one place to another. Don’t give unnecessary information: the person needs to remember the directions.

Speaking Bank  173


Speaking Bank 3 Agreeing & disagreeing Functions

2

Choose two of the statements from Ex. 1 and write your own personal response.

3

Write some notes agreeing or disagreeing with one of the following statements. Use the Functions box and dialogues in Ex. 1 to help you. 1 There aren’t as many places to do sports in cities because of all the buildings. There just isn’t the space. 2 There are so many ways that sportspeople influence young people, especially football players. 3 I think that there’s too little funding for sports now.

4

Now record your ideas or tell a friend or family member your opinion about the statement you chose in Ex. 3. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

Agreeing I totally agree with you. That’s true. That’s a good point. He’s right about that. He’s got a good point. You’re not wrong there. Disagreeing Yes, but … I’m not sure I agree. Maybe, but … I agree up to a point, but … I see what you’re saying, but … I understand what you mean, it’s just …   1

> SB p. 43

Read the four mini-dialogues below. Decide which statement (A–D) the first person in each dialogue says. Then listen and check. A Sports people are excellent role models for young people. B The government should spend more on sports education in schools. C I think big sports competitions stop people focusing on the real problems with the country. D I think we should have access to a wider variety of sports. 3.28

Frank (1) __ Susan I totally agree with you. Young people are the future of the country. Olivia I see what you’re saying, but in my opinion, schools need more money for teachers.

Anna (3) __ Kelly She’s got a good point. They often ignore the serious issues with the economy or infrastructure. Ella Yes, but they bring lots of investment which creates jobs and helps businesses.

Megan (2) __ Sam That’s a good point. Not everyone likes football or swimming. Jake I understand what you mean, it’s just other sports can be expensive, so cheap sports give more access to sport.

Fred (4) __ Jim I agree up to a point, but the best earn so much that it creates unrealistic objectives! Rita You’re not wrong there. Some of the salaries footballers get are unbelievable.

174  Speaking Bank

SPEAKING TIP  When you agree or disagree it’s important to show you understand the other person’s point of view.


Speaking Bank My goals

> SB p. 52

4

Functions Talking about hopes and goals I expect I will … I think I might … I’d really like to … I’m aiming to have … by next month. I’m interested in -ing. I’m looking forward to … -ing. I’m thinking about / of … -ing. In the long / short term, I’m going to / hoping to / planning to …   1

3

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 I’m thinking of 2 I’m interested 3 In the short term, I’m hoping to 4 I’m looking forward 5 I’d really like to 6 I’m aiming to have 7 I think I might work 8 I expect I’ll become a lawyer a b c d e f g h

Matt (10) ________________ are really important to me. We do loads of stuff together and tell each other everything – they’re like (11) ________________ to me. In the future, I’m hoping to find (12) ________________ and have three or four (13) ________________. I’d really like to live close (14) ________________, but lots of them are interested in going away to university, so they might not live near me. I expect we’ll keep in touch, though.

Listen to three people talking about their future plans. Which of the things in the box are they talking about? 3.29

friends and relationships  hobbies and interests school and study Speaker 1 ______________________ Speaker 2 ______________________ Speaker 3 ______________________

Listen again. Complete what each person says. Asia Well, I’m looking forward to (1) ________________! And I expect I’ll (2) ________________, like my brother and sister. I’m thinking of (3) ________________ production, but I’m not sure yet. I’ll have to wait and see. In the short term, I’m hoping to (4) ________________ and get good grades. That’s important for getting into a good course at (5) ________________. 3.29

Cath I’d really like to (6) ________________. It looks so cool and I (7) ________________, but we don’t usually get any snow here, so I think I might go somewhere in France next winter and learn there. I’m interested (8) ________________ too, so it would be a good idea. I’m aiming to organise a holiday by the end of the summer, so I have lots of time to prepare and (9) ________________ on a dry-slope here before I go.

volunteer for a charity. to studying theatre at university. done my project by the end of this week. on a farm next summer instead of going on holiday. like my dad and granddad. in helping people. be famous one day! becoming a vegetarian.

2 INVALSI

4

Prepare a presentation about your future plans. Use the Functions box and Ex. 3 to help you. When you are ready, record your presentation, or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  When you talk about your future plans, focus on what is really important to you. This will help you think of interesting things to say.

Speaking Bank  175


Speaking Bank 5 Job interviews

> SB p. 68

Functions

3

4

Think of a job you would like to do and prepare a short presentation. When you are ready, record your presentation or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person. Include: • why the job interests you • why you think you’d be good at it • what you might find difficult about it, and how you could resolve this

Talking about skills and personality I’d say I was quite a… I’m willing to… I’m usually quite good at … I like to think I’m not afraid to … I know I can sometimes … I’ve had lots of experience in this field. Being positive about the job I’ve always wanted to do this kind of job. I think this job would give me … Asking about the job What does the job involve? I was just wondering if I would have to … ? Are we allowed to wear casual clothes?   1

Put the words in the correct order to make questions that may be asked in a job interview. 1 you / need / feel / you / what / improve / skills / do / to / ? _______________________________________ 2 you / this / job / think / you’d / why / do / right / for / be / ? _______________________________________ 3 you’d / ask / do / have / any / like / to / questions / you / ? _______________________________________ 4 a / made / you / what / job / here / apply / for / summer / ? _______________________________________ 5 tell / me / your / can / you / what / are / strengths / main / ? _______________________________________

2

Read the job advertisement below. If you were studying in the UK for a year, would a job like this appeal to you? Why? / Why not?

The Zodiac Restaurant, Brighton Kitchen staff required for our busy summer season. The successful candidate will be well-presented, hard-working, enthusiastic and good with people. Relevant experience an advantage, but not vital. Foreign students studying in this town are welcome to apply, but excellent knowledge of English is a must.

176  Speaking Bank

3.30 Danilo, an Italian student who is spending a year studying in Brighton, has applied for the Zodiac Restaurant job. Complete the interview with the questions from Ex. 1. Then Listen and check. Woman Hi, Danilo. Thank you very much for coming in. Danilo It’s nice to meet you. Woman So (1) _______________________? Danilo Well, I love cooking, and one day I’d really like to be a chef, so working in your kitchen would give me the opportunity to learn a lot of new skills. Woman Great. And (2) ______________________? Danilo I think I’m very quick to adapt to new situations and I’m also really interested in everything about the catering industry, so I’d be very enthusiastic and hard-working. Woman Yes, well, this job is quite demanding. Danilo I know, but I’m not afraid to work hard, and I’m willing to work long hours when necessary, too. Woman OK, that all sounds very good. And (3) ______________________? Danilo Well, I think I’d be good at working as part of a team. I had a summer job as a waiter at a beach resort in Italy last summer and I got great feedback from the rest of the staff and from the clients, too. I think my English is quite good, too. Woman Yes, your English is excellent! But (4) _______________________? Danilo Well, I know I can sometimes find it a bit hard to prioritise things, so I’m working on my time management skills. Woman OK. So, Danilo, (5) ______________________? Danilo Er, I was just wondering if I would have to wear uniform. Woman Yes, we expect everyone who works here to wear our uniform, even they are only in the kitchens. Danilo That’s fine. And I also wanted to know…

SPEAKING TIP  To sound more natural, refer to notes but don’t learn and repeat things word for word.


Speaking Bank Picture descriptions Functions

2

Describing photos

> SB p. 78

6

3.31 Look at the photo on page 34. Complete the description with the words in the box. Then listen and check.

This photo shows / was taken … On the right / left / bottom / top, there are … In the background / foreground / corner / middle, we can see …

background calm canyon huge left looks middle must shows sort

Making guesses

This photo (1) ________ someone on a bike jumping off a (2) ________ cliff. He’s on the (3) ________ of the picture and behind him you can see a massive (4) ________. In the (5) ________ of the canyon, there’s a river and in the (6) ________, there’s the sun, rising or setting behind the rocks. It seems a very (7) ________ and beautiful place. The person obviously enjoys doing exciting things! There’s a (8) ________ of bag on his back which (9) ________ be a parachute. It (10) ________ as if it’s quite a dangerous sport.

They look / seem … (+ adjective) He looks like … (+ noun) It looks as if … (+ phrase) It must / might be … Being imprecise It’s some sort / kind of … I’m not sure, but it’s a bit like …   1

Look at the photo and match the two parts of each sentence to describe it.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

This is a photo of It’s obviously an The children are young so it’s probably a The children seem to It looks as if It must be Behind the table, She looks like she could be On the table, there are In the background, there are

a b c d e f g h i j

be quite happy. the teacher. they’re painting bright pictures. a messy lesson, because of the paint. art lesson. brushes and paints and paper. lots of colourful learning aids. primary-school class. some children in a classroom. I can see a woman.

3

Now choose one of the photos below and prepare to describe it. Use the language on this page to help you make some notes. Think about: • the location (place, background, atmosphere, etc.) • the type of people (age, relationship, clothes, etc.) • the activity/activities they are doing • any deductions or logical conclusions you can make

4

Record your description, or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  A good description is vivid and accurate. Use descriptive adjectives to bring the picture to life.

Speaking Bank  177


Speaking Bank 7 Shopping

> SB p. 94

Functions Talking to the sales assistant Where are the changing rooms? Do you have any (blue / bigger / chocolate) ones? I’m just browsing, thanks. Saying what you want I’m after something from (the seventies). I’m a medium. I’ll buy it. Prices and paying

2

Write a suitable response for each statement or question. 1 Are you looking for anything in particular? _______________________________________ 2 We’ve got some great new T-shirts in stock. _______________________________________ 3 What size are you looking for? _______________________________________ 4 Have you got these in a different colour? _______________________________________ 5 Is it the right size? _______________________________________ 6 Where are the changing rooms? _______________________________________ 7 What do you think? _______________________________________ 8 That’s 30 euros. _______________________________________

3

Read the situation below and practise a dialogue. First make notes on your ideas. Use the Functions box and the language in Ex. 1 and Ex. 2 to help you.

How much is it? Is contactless OK?   1

Complete the dialogue between Julia and a sales assistant with the expressions in the box. Then listen and check. 3.32

have you got these in a larger size  I need a size ‘L’ I’ll buy it  I’m after something smarter  Is it the right size  It looks really good on you  It’s OK, I’m just browsing  We’ve only got red ones Where are the changing rooms Man Hi. Can I help you with anything? Julia (1) _______________. Man No problem. Let me know if you need anything. Julia Thanks. Actually, I wonder, (2) _______________? Man The linen skirts. We might do. I’ll just check. What size are you looking for? Julia (3) _______________. Man OK. We also have these linen trousers in a large. Julia Yes, they’re nice, but (4) _______________. Man OK. I’ll be right back. … Man (5) _______________ in large. I’ve brought one and the blue in a medium – in case you might like to try it. Julia Thanks. (6) _______________? Man Just over there on the right. … Julia Excuse me. Could I ask what you think? Man Of course. Julia (7) _______________? Man Oh, yes! (8) _______________. Julia Great. (9) _______________. 178  Speaking Bank

You’re in a mobile phone shop and you want a new phone, something reliable with a large memory. First the sales assistant suggests an iPhone, but you want something at a lower price. She offers you a much cheaper silver phone with 128GB – you like the design, but want more storage. The shop only has a black or white phone with more storage, and you ask to see the black one. You decide to buy this phone.   4

When you are ready, role play the situation in Ex. 3 with a friend. Record you dialogue or act it out to someone else. Then listen to yourselves or get feedback from the other person.

SPEAKING TIP  Try and anticipate the shop assistant’s questions when preparing what you want to say.


Speaking Bank Something’s wrong

> SB p. 104

8

Functions Showing understanding I’m really sorry to hear that. Yes, that is frustrating. That’s such a shame.

What a pity! I see what you mean …

Disagreeing politely I hear / see what you’re saying, but … I understand, but … Preparing the listener for bad news You see, the thing is … It’s just that … Unfortunately, …   1

I’m afraid that … I’m sorry to say …

Cath meets her friend Tom in the local library. Choose the correct option to complete the dialogue. Then listen and check. Cath Hi, Tom! Working hard? Oh, what’s wrong? Tom My laptop’s missing. Cath Oh, I (1) see / hear! Librarian Excuse me, Tom, I’ve asked around, but I’m (2) scared / afraid that no one’s seen your laptop. Tom Then where is it? Librarian I’m sorry to (3) say / tell it looks like someone’s taken it. Tom What? Oh no, my work! Cath Oh, Tom. (4) What / When a pity! Tom Is there CCTV or something in the library? Librarian (5) Occasionally / Unfortunately, our system is being upgraded and the cameras are off… Cath That is (6) frustrating / complaining. A security system that doesn’t work! Librarian I (7) hear / listen what you’re saying, but the library isn’t responsible for personal items. Tom But it’s got all my project work on it! Librarian Do you have a backup? Tom Well, I did, it’s (8) almost / just that the wi-fi isn’t working and I’ve been here all day… Librarian Yes, you see, the (9) something / thing is, the whole network is being updated, wi-fi too! Tom I understand, (10) and / but that’s not the point. My laptop was stolen from your library! Librarian OK, let’s call the police and see what they advise. 3.33

2

Read the situations and think about how the conversation might develop. Make notes on how you could show understanding or disagree politely with the other person. Use the Functions box and the dialogue in Ex. 1 to help you. A You are a sales assistant. A customer comes into the shop wanting to return some headphones that don’t work, but he doesn’t have the receipt. The shop doesn’t give refunds without a receipt. B You’re in a café and the service is very slow. You have been waiting for half an hour and the waiter brings you the wrong order. This isn’t the first time you’ve had slow service here. C Your friend calls to say that she is flying home, but the airline has cancelled her flight and she can’t leave until tomorrow. You’re both involved in a group presentation for your course the next morning. Your friend says that the group will have to do it without her.

3

After you have planned what you would say in the situations in Ex. 2, record yourself, or role play the dialogues with a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  Remember that the right intonation and tone of voice is important when you want to show understanding or disagree politely.

Speaking Bank  179


Speaking Bank 9 What do you recommend? Functions

3

4

Make notes for each of the questions below. Then prepare to give a short presentation recommending the place you have chosen. 1 Describe a place that you like to go to relax. 2 Where is it? 3 Why do you like going there? 4 What do you do there? 5 Who would you recommend it to and why?

5

Record your presentation, or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

Asking for recommendations Is it worth watching / visiting? What did you think (about …)? Is it any good? Positive recommendations You must go! I’ll send you the link. You won’t want to miss this. It’s worth watching / seeing. I highly recommend it. (formal) It’s a must-see. Neutral / negative views It was OK / alright, I suppose. I wouldn’t bother if I were you. I didn’t think it was great. You might like it if you’ve got nothing else to do.

1

Identify and correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 The museum is a could-see. 2 It was alright, I propose. 3 The new X-Men film is worth-well watching. 4 You might like it if you’ve got nowhere else to do. 5 Is it worth to visit? 6 I didn’t consider it was great.

2

Now write (A) asking for recommendations, (P) positive recommendations, or (N) negative/neutral views before each sentence in Ex. 1.

180  Speaking Bank

> SB p. 120

3.34 Listen and complete the conversation with the missing words or phrases. Pete What are we going to do this weekend? Lucy Well, (1) ______________ going to the country? My cousin sometimes goes camping in the forest north of here. He says it’s a (2) ______________. There are small lakes and waterfalls, and places to fish. Stella (3) ______________ like camping, but that sounds alright. [checking phone] But oh, the weather forecast is for rain. Pete Really? Is (4) ______________ going? I don’t fancy camping in that. Lucy No, well, maybe another time. He (5) ______________ recommends it though. If you like the idea I’ll (6) ______________ the link. Pete Great! Thanks! But what about this weekend then? Cinema? Stella Well, there’s that new comedy they’ve been talking about. Lucy I’ve seen it actually. I would (7) ______________ to people who enjoy that kind of thing, but it’s not for everyone. Stella Oh, hang on, you won’t (8) ______________. Pete What? Stella The new Bond film comes out this weekend. We could go and see that. Pete Is (9) ______________? I saw the last one and I didn’t (10) ______________. Lucy Well, it was alright, (11) ______________. Stella Well, this review say ‘It’s (12) ______________ watching.’ (13) ______________ Pete I don’t know. Stella Come on! You (14) ______________ if you’ve got nothing else to do.

SPEAKING TIP  Try to use positive and enthusiastic language when you make recommendations to other people.


Speaking Bank Expressing reasons Functions

2

Expressing reasons

Match the facts (1–10) to the explanations (a–j). 1 I have a very logical brain. 2 I want to help people. 3 I love having debates in class. 4 I don’t get stressed by tests. 5 I have to work a lot after school. 6 I really enjoy being in the open air. 7 I want to become a doctor. 8 I’m the captain of the football team. 9 I have a bad memory. 10 Exams make me really stressed. a b c d e f g h i j

Consequently, I’m often tired in the evenings. I have to invent special rhymes so that I can remember all my notes. I need good grades in order to study medicine at university. I think the stress is caused by the fear of failure. I have to be very fit because of all the physical training. That’s the reason I volunteer ‘Save the Children’. That’s why I’m good at maths. The point of taking exams is to demonstrate your knowledge. Of course the purpose of these discussions is to develop opinions. Therefore, I’d hate to work in an office.

10

Complete the text with appropriate expressions in bold from Ex. 1. There may be more than one possible answer.

That’s why … That’s the reason … The purpose of -ing is to … The point of -ing something is to … One of the main reasons is that / to … Consequently, … Therefore, … … in order to … … because of … … so that … … is caused by …   1

> SB p. 130

Why revise? (1) _________ revising is to prepare yourself for an exam. We can’t remember most things on our first encounter, so we need to go back to the topic. (2) _________ some classes spend lots of time on revision sessions after each topic is studied. You have to plan ahead (3) _________ revise effectively. In fact, lots of people do badly in exams, (4) _________ not planning revision time carefully. (5) _________, a good study plan is important when you do your revision. It’s important that you know where you are in your revision, (6) _________ you can make time for breaks to refresh yourself and avoid falling behind.   3

3.35 Listen to two students talking about a change in their school exams. Write one word in each space. 1 The girl saw the announcement about exams in the school ___________________. 2 She says they’ve got more exams because the government has changed the assessment ___________________. 3 The reason seem to be that they want the exams to be more ___________________. 4 The boy thinks the result will be that students have more ___________________. 5 The girl is worried about it affecting her university chances and future ___________________. 6 The boy thinks that you learn more through ___________________ than by doing exams.

4

Make a list of the reasons for doing tests at school. Think which you agree with, giving reasons. Is there is a better way of assessing progress?

5

When you are ready, use your notes to give a short presentation about the purpose of exams and testing. Record your presentation, or say it to a friend or family member. Then listen to yourself or get feedback from another person.

SPEAKING TIP  Try to make your argument flow in a logical way by using the linkers carefully and accurately.

Speaking Bank  181


SOUTHERN OCEAN

SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

Rio Negro Canyon pp. 18-19

Mexico City pp. 120-121

Chicago p. 23

Argentina p. 116

St. Eustatius p. 30

New York City pp. 20-21 Rome p. 40

Barcelona p. 32

Esslingen am Neckar pp. 16-17

Brazil p. 117

SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

Canary Islands p. 30

NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

Paris pp. 8-9

London pp. 23,165,127

The UK p. 108

Edinburgh pp. 112-113

Forth Bridge p. 22

K AR NM E D

IT RA ST

GREENLAND SEA

NORTH SEA

MEDITERR

N

A

SEA

Giza p. 118

Greece p. 117

ARCTIC OCEAN

N O RW EG IA N

SE E AN

Slashface, Texas pp. 36-37

Venice Beach, California p. 133

Yosemite Park, California p. 133

anyonlands National Park, Utah pp. 34-35

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

Munich pp. 60-61

Mumbai pp. 122-123

Tanzania pp. 38-39

INDIAN OCEAN

ARABIAN SEA

India pp. 10-11

Kenya pp. 38-39

Sarawat Mountains pp. 96-97

Iraq p. 117

Belgrade p. 117

SOUTHERN OCEAN

Indonesia pp. 10-11, 62-63

Malaysia pp. 10-11

Koh Tao p. 27

Thailand pp. 10-11

Bangladesh pp. 10-11

Bhutan pp. 10-11

Nepal pp. 10-11

Ladakh p. 53

Russia pp. 10-11

Mactan Island pp. 48-49

Bangkok pp. 50, 86-87

SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN

Sydney p. 24

ARCTIC OCEAN

World Map

A


PERSPECTIVES INTERMEDIATE

Kerry MAXWELL Catrin Elen MORRIS

Workbook Contents .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 183 Unit 1 In touch with your feelings ................................................................................................................................................................. p. 184 Unit 2 Enjoy the ride ............................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 190 Summative Revision 1-2 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 196 Unit 3 Active lives ................................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 198 Unit 4 Food ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 204 Summative Revision 3-4 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 210 Unit 5 Work ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ p. 212 Unit 6 Superhuman ............................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 218 Summative Revision 5-6 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 224 Unit 7 Shopping around ..................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 226 Unit 8 Effective communication ..................................................................................................................................................................... p. 232 Summative Revision 7-8 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 238 Unit 9 Unexpected entertainment ............................................................................................................................................................... p. 240 Unit 10 Time ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. p. 246 Summative Revision 9-10 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... p. 252 Grammar reference & practice ............................................................................................................................................................................ Irregular verb list / Phonetics .............................................................................................................................................................................. TED Talk videoscripts ................................................................................................................................................................................................ Key Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Wordlist ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

p. 254 p. 274 p. 276 p. 280 p. 282


1

In touch with your feelings a b c d e f g h

WHAT YOU KNOW Basic emotions

1

3

Choose the correct option. 1 I’m worried about / for / with failing the exam. 2 She was embarrassed of / by / to Richard’s stupid comments. 3 Alfie seems very nervous about / at / on the interview. 4 There’s no need to get annoyed of / to / with Jasmine – she was only trying to help. 5 Are you feeling anxious over / of / about your driving test? 6 You shouldn’t have behaved so badly, I’m ashamed by / for / of you! 7 Don’t be scared with / to / of Andy – he’s quite nice when you get to know him. 8 I’m confused of / by / from your text. Can you call me?

4

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1 makes / feel / me / my / stressed / job _______________________________________ 2 scared / you / are / heights / of / very / ? _______________________________________ 3 lonely / be / your / on / own / living / can _______________________________________ 4 was / she / her / results / with / delighted / exam _______________________________________ 5 about / I’m / the meaning / this / of / confused / word _______________________________________ 6 came / very / we’re / that / here / pleased / today / you _______________________________________ 7 have / nothing / of / ashamed / to be / they _______________________________________ 8 worried / moving / are / a / about / to / city / new / you / ? _______________________________________

5

Complete the sentences about yourself. 1 I get really angry when ______________________. 2 I sometimes get confused about _______________. 3 __________________________ always makes me feel stressed. 4 One thing I’m pleased about is ________________. 5 I feel so embarrassed when ___________________. 6 The time I feel most relaxed is _________________.

Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the box. angry afraid bored excited pleased unhappy  upset  worried 1 Annie was really _________ when her dog died. 2 Have you always been _________ of spiders? 3 Max told me he’s _________ that he might fail the exam. 4 He hated the school and had a very _________ childhood. 5 We’re so _________ that you can come to the wedding. 6 The trip sounds amazing – are you getting _________ about it? 7 He was quite _________ with her for breaking his mobile. 8 Were you as _________ as me during that film? I fell asleep!

VOCABULARY Describing emotions   2

> SB p. 9

Read the sentences (1–8) and match the words in bold with their definitions (a–h). 1 When it’s very dark he sometimes gets scared. 2 I was very confused when he started speaking in German. 3 You must be delighted that you won! 4 I was so embarrassed when Jack started to sing. 5 Living here can be quite lonely at times. 6 I often feel stressed when I’ve got too many things to do. 7 I always feel nervous before job interviews. 8 She was relaxed and enjoying the sunshine.

184  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings

not able to understand frightened feeling happy and calm unhappy because you are not with other people feel emotionally and mentally tired worried or anxious ashamed or shy extremely pleased


Vocabulary & Word Building   6

Write all the adjectives from this lesson in the correct category. 1 Positive: _______________________________ 2 Negative: _______________________________ 3 Either: _______________________________

8

Expand your vocabulary

1

Now complete the sentences with the words from Ex. 7. 1 I got really _________ about some old family photos the other day. 2 We were _________ when the plane landed because there had been a lot of turbulence. 3 I felt really _________ about meeting my boyfriend’s family for the first time. 4 The teacher wasn’t _________ with our test results. 5 They were _________ by the terrible conditions of the puppies at the farm. 6 The audience was quite _________ by the comedian’s jokes, but they weren’t really laughing hard.

WORD BUILDING Suffixes: -ment, -ness, -ion 9

The range of human emotions Researchers from the University of California, Berkley, have decided that there are 27 main human emotions. This is as a result of analysing 27,660 responses to short video clips. Participants in the study felt amused by the funny videos, such as a dog going for a ride on the back of a tortoise; awkward about some of the more embarrassing ones, like two people trying to high-five each other and missing; and disgusted by a dish of moving insects. In addition to these emotions, participants were nostalgic about videos of TV programmes from their childhood; satisfied with the police stopping a taxi that drove straight across a queue of traffic, and relieved by a wildlife photographer escaping from a gorilla. How about you? How would you react to these scenes?   7

Read the definitions and match the correct words in bold from the text. 1 Feel uncomfortable with something. _________ 2 When something makes you laugh. _________ 3 Feel happy or content about something. _________ 4 Stop feeling anxious or stressed about a situation. _________ 5 A sentimental feeling about the past. _________ 6 Feel physically or emotionally bad about something. _________

> SB p. 12

Complete the table with the correct noun form of each adjective in the box. Be careful with your spelling. confused depressed disappointed embarrassed excited exhausted friendly happy lonely nervous  sad + -ment

+ -ness

+ -ion

10 Complete the sentences with a suitable noun from the

table in Ex. 9. 1 Your _________ is what’s most important. I want to see you smiling again. 2 Not being picked for the team was a big _________ for Joe. 3 There seems to be some _________ about the results of the match. 4 Seeing the presents round the tree only added to the children’s _________. They couldn’t wait to open them. 5 It’s with great _________ that we announce the death of Anna Jackson. 6 John’s always suffered from _________, and he sees a psychologist every week. 7 She’s quite an _________ to her parents, with all those tattoos and piercings. 8 They waited anxiously to go on stage. They were in a state of great _________.

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  185


1 Grammar Subject & object questions   1

> SB p. 11

4

Match the questions to the answers. 1 Who bought the chocolate cake? 2 How much does Gary earn? 3 Why was Jenny so angry? 4 Who earns the most? 5 Who was angry? 6 What did Anna buy? a b c d e f

I think Gary does. Because Alex was late. About £30,000, I think. She bought a cake. Jenny was. Anna bought it.

2

Complete the questions for the given answers. 1 A How much money ______________________? B They collected more than £500. 2 A Who ________________________________? B Kim gave us the flowers. 3 A How often ____________________________? B She cries every time she thinks of him. 4 A What _______________________________? B Work makes me feel stressed. 5 A Why ________________________________? B I listen to music to help me relax. 6 A How many ____________________________? B He invited twenty people.

3

Write a suitable question for each answer using the question words in the box. How many  How much  How often  What Whose  Why 1 ______________________________________? Jim looked angry because someone stole his computer. 2 ______________________________________? They ate about 10 kilos of pizza! 3 ______________________________________? Zoe’s bike was stolen. 4 ______________________________________? Pete said they had to leave. 5 ______________________________________? I go swimming three times a week. 6 ______________________________________? 300 people came to the party.

186  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings

Write answers that are true for you. 1 What is your favourite film? _______________________________________ 2 Who plays the main character? _______________________________________ 3 When and where did you see it? _______________________________________ 4 How many times have you seen it? _______________________________________ 5 Who usually goes with you to the cinema? _______________________________________ 6 How often do you usually go to the cinema? _______________________________________

Talking about the present

> SB pp. 14–15

5

Which verb tense is used in each sentence? Write PS (Present simple) PC (Present continuous) or PP (Present perfect). a People aren’t writing letters much these days, just texts and emails. __ b Karl is speaking to another customer at the moment. __ c Louise and I have known each other for over 30 years. __ d I agree with your decision. __ e Naomi is always making nasty comments about people. __ f She goes to a karate class on Tuesdays. __ g Planets closer to the Sun have shorter years than the Earth. __

6

Read the sentences in Ex. 5 again and match each one to a rule. 1 Use the Present simple to talk about facts and things that are generally true. 2 Use the Present perfect to describe actions that started in the past and continue to the present. 3 Use the Present simple to describe habits and routines. 4 Use the Present continuous with always to describe actions that happen often and annoy the speaker. 5 Use the Present continuous to talk about actions happening at or around the present time. 6 Use the Present simple with stative verbs, like enjoy, agree, think. 7 Use the Present continuous to talk about situations that are changing.


Grammar   7

8

9

Choose the correct option. 1 Chris usually reads / is reading before going to sleep. 2 I often am enjoying / enjoy a cup of hot chocolate at bedtime. 3 We ‘re shopping / ‘ve shopped online for two years now. 4 Beth is so angry all the time. She’s always shouting / always shouted. 5 The sun doesn’t set / isn’t setting in Iceland in June. 6 Some people think / are thinking this is a good idea. 7 They never go / are never going to bed before midnight. 8 I laugh / ‘m laughing because you look so funny! The verbs in bold are incorrect. Rewrite each sentence using the correct form. 1 Water is freezing at 0 degrees Celsius. _______________________________________ 2 The phone rings. Can you answer it? _______________________________________ 3 If it isn’t raining she is usually walking to work. _______________________________________ 4 I’m bored. I’m wanting to watch TV. _______________________________________ 5 A  It’s 6 o’clock already, we need to go. B  Sorry, Fred, I come. _______________________________________ 6 Koala bears have slept for more than twenty hours a day. _______________________________________ 7 I live here all my life. _______________________________________ 8 I feed the cat while John and Angie are on holiday this month. _______________________________________ Complete the mini-dialogues about annoying habits. Use the Present continuous form of the verbs in brackets with always. 1 A There’s a problem with my car again. B No way! ____________________. (break down) 2 A Amy was really angry with her parents. B I don’t blame her. ____________________. (interfere) 3 A Katy wants to borrow £20. B Typical. ____________________ for money. (ask) 4 A I can’t read the menu without my glasses. B Where are they? ____________________ to bring them. (forget) 5 A Sarah never does her homework on time. B I’m not surprised. She ____________________ distracted. (get)

1

10 Complete the text with the Present simple, Present

continuous or Present perfect form of the verb in brackets.

Andy and I (1) _________ (share) a flat since last summer. Andy (2) _________ (enjoy) exercise and every morning he (3) _________ (run) around the park. It annoys me that he (4) _________ (always ask) me to go with him, but I really (5) _________ (not like) getting up early. In the evenings, I usually just (6) _________ (watch) TV but Andy is the sort of person who (7) _________ (read) a book. He (8) _________ (also learn) German at the moment. Right now, he (9) _________ (cook) a meal for us and (10) _________ (listen) to the radio. He often (11) _________ (clean) the kitchen after dinner too. That’s great for me though: I (12) _________ (be) very lazy all my life!  11

Choose the correct answer for each question. 1 Do you know Jason? A Yes, we’re knowing him for a couple of years. B Yes, we’ve known him for a couple of years. 2 Are you ready yet? A Almost, I just come. B Almost, I’m just coming. 3 Is Mark with you? A No, he’s playing tennis with a friend. B No, he plays tennis with a friend. 4 Is your family still living in Spain? A No, we live in Portugal now. B No, we’ve lived in Portugal now.

12 Write answers that are true for you.

1 What are you studying in History this week? _______________________________________ 2 Where do you usually go on Sundays? Who with? _______________________________________ 3 How many different schools have you attended? _______________________________________ 4 What annoying thing are your parents always doing? _______________________________________ Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  187


1 Competences READING   1

Think first Choose the correct answer to the question before you read the text. Then read the first paragraph and check your answer. 1 Read the title. What is the World Happiness Report? A A description of how to make the world happier. B A comparison of levels of happiness in different countries. C A list of 156 happy places on Earth.

The World Happiness Report

1

The World Happiness Report is a survey of happiness in different countries published by the United Nations. First produced in 2012, it ranks 156 countries by their happiness levels. The report is attracting increasing interest because many governments are now using happiness data to develop policies*.

2

5

10

3

15

4 25

6 7

So, how do researchers decide on these rankings*? They are in fact based on answers to a life evaluation question called ‘the Cantril ladder’. People are asked to think of a ladder, in which the best possible life for them is ranked 10, and the worst 0, and decide where their current life is on this 0 to 10 scale. Their answers are then adjusted based on six other factors: levels of GDP* (Gross Domestic Product, the value of goods and services that a country produces in a year), life expectancy, generosity, social support, freedom, corruption. The results are compared to Dystopia, an imaginary country that has the world’s least happy people. Dystopia has the lowest possible level of happiness, so that all other countries will be higher in relation to the six factors above. One criticism of the report is that it only examines two to three thousand people per country, but researchers believe this is a large enough sample. They also think the report is helpful because, unlike many other world surveys, it doesn’t only look at economic factors.

2,0

5

In the survey, which is available to the public on the World Happiness Report website, leading experts in fields such as economics, psychology, health and statistics describe how measurements of happiness can be used to monitor the progress of a country. The report reviews the state of happiness in the world today and explains national variations. For example in 2019, Finland was the world’s happiest country for the second time consecutively. But its neighbours Denmark, Norway and Iceland weren’t far behind. The USA was 19th and the United Kingdom 15th. At the bottom of the scale were Syria, Botswana and Haiti.

Why then is Finland the world’s happiest country? The generosity of its people, little corruption and a high GDP, together with the extraordinary freedom offered by its natural resources and social structure make it a great place to live. Denmark ranks second because of its excellent life expectancy and one of the smallest differences in wealth* between rich and poor in the world. Third is Norway, consistently described as Europe’s most beautiful country, which also has very little corruption, good social support and freedom. In fourth place is the tiny island nation of Iceland, which in 2018 became the first country in the world to enforce* equal pay for women and men. It also has low taxes, free health care and very accessible education (one in ten Icelanders have published a book). Outside Europe, in eighth place is New Zealand, thanks to its beautiful nature and relaxed and welcoming approach to visitors and migrants. At number nine is Canada, which ranks highly across most categories, with good life expectancy and a small population living in the world’s second biggest country.

30

By contrast, African countries are among the least happy nations in the world, many affected by civil war, climate disasters and extreme poverty. The Central African Republic, ranked in 148th place, has a life expectancy of just 53. But the island nation of Haiti, the unhappiest country in the world is also the poorest in the Western Hemisphere. Somewhat surprisingly it is closely followed by Botswana, often considered one of Africa’s most stable countries and relatively free of corruption. And less surprisingly by Syria, where there has been a civil war since 2011.

188  Unit 1  In touch with your feelings

policies politiche GDP PIL wealth ricchezza enforce applicare rankings classifiche


Competences   2

Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or is the information not given (NG)? Correct the false ones. 1 The World Happiness Report is only read by governments. _______________________________________ 2 In the survey, people are asked to decide how happy their life is. _______________________________________ 3 Dystopia is an imaginary country where people are extremely happy. _______________________________________ 4 Children are not included in the survey. _______________________________________ 5 Some people think that the number of people surveyed is too small. _______________________________________ 6 The World Happiness Report doesn’t consider economic factors. _______________________________________ 7 There are no countries outside Europe ranked in the top ten. _______________________________________ 8 The world’s unhappiest countries are all poor. _______________________________________

3

Match the words in bold in the text to the definitions. 1 in a way that does not change _________ 2 invented, not real _________ 3 how many years a person is likely to live _________ 4 lists something according to importance, success, size, etc. _________ 5 dishonest or illegal behaviour _________ 6 extremely small _________

4

Read the sentences and match them to the countries.

LISTENING Listening Tip Read the sentences carefully and check you understand everything before you start listening.

5

6

Botswana  Canada  Central African Republic Denmark Finland Haiti Iceland New Zealand 1 It has one of the world’s most gender-equal societies. _________ 2 Its people are very honest and generous. _________ 3 It’s difficult to understand why this African country is so unhappy. _________ 4 It’s an island, and the world’s unhappiest country _________ 5 There is not a lot of difference between its richest and poorest citizens. _________ 6 It is beautiful, relaxed and welcoming. _________ 7 It has a lower than average life expectancy. _________ 8 It’s the world’s second biggest country. _________

1

Listen to a radio interview and choose the correct option. 1 In the show Tell Me Straight the presenter, Charlie, A talks to celebrities. B talks to people who know celebrities well. C talks only to members of celebrities’ families. 2 Why does the actor, Sandra Rind, always eat a carrot before she goes on stage? A Because it makes her feel relaxed. B Because she’s always hungry. C Because it’s good for her voice. 3 The drummer, Bruce Collins finds it difficult to A count from 1 to 100. B fall asleep. C know the difference between left and right. 4 Who told a secret about the actor, Gerri Pennington? A her driving instructor B her best friend C her boyfriend 5 Charlie thinks that A everyone has a few secrets. B the celebrities feel very embarrassed. C Fred is going to tell her a secret. 01

Listen again. Complete each sentence with a suitable adjective describing feelings. 1 Fred is _________ to hear that a footballer is _________ of spiders. 2 Ralph Powell was _________ that he passed his test. 3 Sandra Rind feels very _________ before a show. 4 Eating a carrot helps her to be more _________. 5 Gerri Pennington writes ‘left’ and ‘right’ on her hands so that she isn’t _________. 6 Charlie hopes the celebrities aren’t too _________. 01

Unit 1  In touch with your feelings  189


2

Enjoy the ride

WHAT YOU KNOW

4

Choose the correct option. 1 The ship made the voyage / trip from London to New York in six days. 2 The camel journey / ride through the desert was long and uncomfortable. 3 My friends are going backpacking / sightseeing on Everest this summer. 4 We really enjoyed the flight / ride. There was no turbulence at all. 5 I took a different route / destination home from the restaurant and got lost. 6 I’d like to go on a flight / cruise, but I often get seasick. 7 My Dad usually commutes / travels to work. The journey takes over an hour. 8 She went on an expedition / excursion to central Africa to study lions.

5

Complete the sentences with the correct form of get, get off, get to or get to know. 1 I _________ the bus just in time – I almost missed my stop! 2 I love _________ new cities and new people. 3 What time should we _________ the airport before our flight? 4 I _________ school late because my train was delayed. 5 I’m always worried about _________ lost, so I carry my phone everywhere. 6 _________ the road! There’s a car coming! 7 She _________ her way around by talking to the locals. 8 How do I _________ from the port to the station?

6

Complete the sentences with the words in the box. There are two extra words.

Travel

1

Choose the correct option. 1 The airport / fly was crowded, and the queue for security was enormous. 2 Some visits / tourists respect the places they visit, and some do not. 3 The train / bus station is in the city centre – 500 metres from the railway station. 4 I prefer to go on holiday / hotels to new countries I haven’t visited before. 5 She drives / runs too fast, so she sometimes gets speeding tickets. 6 He’s an experienced travel / traveller – he’s seen over twenty countries.

2

Complete the words about travel. 1 I’m afraid of flying, so I prefer to travel on this. t____ 2 You need this to travel abroad. p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 Buses arrive and depart from this place. s _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 This is a piece of paper that you pay for and use to travel. t _ _ _ _ _ 5 A mode of transport that has no adverse effect on the environment. b _ _ _ _ _ _

VOCABULARY Travel   3

> SB p. 19

Match the verbs to the nouns and phrases they collocate with. 1 get to a an hour to travel to school 2 go for b a new city from my house to school by car 3 miss c 4 get d a ride in the car 5 get to know e the restaurant at 8 p.m. the train by a minute 6 take f

190  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride

cruise destination excursion expedition flight lift ride route 1 I’m planning to take a _________ to the Caribbean this summer if I can save enough money. 2 On Saturday, we’re going on an _________ to a chocolate factory. 3 We need to take another _________ to Mexico City: ours has been cancelled. 4 Would you like to go for a bike _________ this weekend? We could go to Dalby Forest. 5 Paul says that they should reach their _________ by about 5 p.m. tomorrow. 6 We’re going on an _________ into the Amazon for six weeks – we can’t wait!


Vocabulary & Word Building   7

Write answers that are true for you. 1 What type of public transport do you use most often and where do you go? _______________________________________ 2 Which city would you like to visit and how would you get there? _______________________________________ 3 Have you ever taken a flight or a cruise? Where did you go? _______________________________________ 4 Where was the last excursion you went on with your class? _______________________________________ 5 Does anyone in your family commute to work? How long does it take? _______________________________________

8

2

Read the text and match the definitions to the words in bold. 1 Where you can buy things without tax at an international airport. _____________ 2 When the plane leaves the ground. _____________ 3 Where you check what time your flight leaves. _____________ 4 The small bag you take onto the plane with you. _____________ 5 Where you go when you first arrive at the airport. _____________ 6 Where you sit and wait for your plane to be announced. _____________ 7 Your luggage goes through this to check you are not carrying anything illegal or dangerous. _____________ 8 Where you go to board your plane. _____________

Expand your vocabulary WORD BUILDING Compound nouns   9

How to board a flight • Before you get to the airport print or download your boarding pass and make sure you have your passport. • Arrive at the airport in plenty of time and go to the check-in desk with your passport and boarding pass. • Take your hand luggage with you through security, removing any liquid, metal or electronic devices. • Pass through the X-ray machine and collect your things before heading to the departure lounge. • You can now browse the duty-free shops or have something to eat or drink in the many food outlets. • Remember to check the departure screens to see when your flight is ready to board. • Make your way to your departure gate as soon as it is announced as you may have to walk far. • Show your boarding pass to staff as you board the plane for take-off.

> SB p. 22

Match the two parts of each compound noun. 1 view a transport 2 walking b park seeing 3 sky c 4 sight d point 5 zip e line tour 6 horse f 7 public g riding 8 amusement h scraper

10 Complete the sentences with the compound nouns

from Ex. 9. 1 Do you fancy coming to the _______________ with me this summer? 2 Using _______________ is much better for the environment than driving a car. 3 The Burj Khalifa, in Dubai, is the tallest _______________ in the world. 4 We did a _______________ of Bath – it was fascinating learning about the history of the city. 5 Wouldn’t it be amazing to go _______________ on the beach? 6 Guests can relax by the pool after a full day of _______________. 7 There was a _______________ from the top of the castle – the scenery was breathtaking. 8 Anna went on this incredible _______________ above a forest in Costa Rica.

Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  191


2 Grammar Adjectives ending in -ed & -ing   1

> SB pp. 20–21

3

Complete the sentences with the correct adjective form of the verbs in brackets. 1 Which is the most _________ (excite) book you’ve ever read? 2 When do you feel most _________ (exhaust): in the morning, afternoon or evening? Why? 3 When did you last feel _________ (bore)? Why? 4 What can be _________ (confuse) for tourists who don’t speak the language in your country? 5 When have you felt really _________ (frighten)? 6 What do you find _________ (annoy) in other travellers on public transport? 7 What is the most _________ (amaze) place you’ve ever visited? 8 Were you _________ (disappoint) by anything on your last holiday? If so, why?

4

Now answer the questions in Ex. 3 about yourself. 1 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 2 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 3 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 4 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 5 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 6 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 7 _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 8 _______________________________________ _______________________________________

Complete the definitions with the words in the box. annoyed bored confusing depressing embarrassed interesting relaxed surprising 1 keeping your attention because it is unusual or exciting _________ 2 feeling unhappy because you aren’t interested in what is happening _________ 3 feeling shy or ashamed _________ 4 unexpected or unusual _________ 5 difficult to understand _________ 6 a little angry about something _________ 7 making you feel unhappy and disappointed _________ 8 not stressed or anxious _________

2

Choose the correct option to complete the text.

Surprised students, surprising day One day last week, teachers at Funston School told their (1) worried / worrying students to go to the school gym for a meeting. At first, they thought that it was nothing (2) excited / exciting when their head teacher started talking to them in his usual (3) bored / boring way. But this time they were wrong. Instead, one hundred (4) confused /confusing students received a gift – new bikes! The teachers and students were (5) shocked / shocking to learn the (6) surprised / surprising news that more than 2,000 generous football players from 80 high schools in Chicago had each donated $1 to buy the bikes for the pupils at Funston School. It was all part of National Random Acts of Kindness Day. The students thought it was (7) amazed / amazing that the players had given them such a great gift that they really weren’t (8) expected / expecting. Small acts of kindness – giving $1 – can add up to a big surprise! 192  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride

Narrative forms   5

> SB pp. 24–25

Complete the table with the correct form of the verbs.

Infinitive Past simple Past continuous Past perfect go was/were running talk had sat was/were taking fly was/were catching


Grammar   6

7

Choose the correct option to complete the minidialogues. 1 A What did you read when you were at the beach last summer? B I read / had read a book by Barbara Kingsolver. 2 A When did you listen to the latest podcast? B I listened to it while I was walking / had walked to school. 3 A How much money did he have when he went into town? B He was having / had £100. 4 A Did you use / used to see your grandparents a lot? B Yes, we saw / used to saw them every summer. 5 A Does Pete have a boat? B He used / use to have one, but after a year he had sold / sold it. 6 A Were you trying / Had you tried pineapple pizza before we went to Pizza Palace last night? B No, I hadn’t tried / wasn’t trying it before. 7 A How many times did you take / taken the exam? B I took / was taking it twice before I finally passed. 8 A Did you like living in Los Angeles? B It was great! I used / use to walk along the beach every day. Rewrite each sentence using the negative form. 1 When we went to Milan, we ate breakfast at the hotel every day. When we went to Milan, _____________________ every day. 2 My classmates were taking the exam when I got to class. My classmates ____________________________ when I got to class. 3 She made a lot of new friends when she studied in China. _______________________________________ when she studied in China. 4 I was looking for a book by Neil Gaiman. ___________________________ by Neil Gaiman. 5 I’d eaten my lunch by the time Jack arrived. _______________________________________ by the time Jack arrived. 6 They were working in the garden when their neighbour came to say hello. _______________________________________ when their neighbour came to say hello. 7 I used to work at a bank. _______________________________________ 8 Renting an apartment in the city used to be so expensive. _______________________________________

8

2

Complete the text with the most appropriate form of the verbs in brackets.

In his last year at school, Mike (1) _________ (get) an opportunity to do a course at a local university. He felt like he (2) _________ (study) all the time, taking exams at school and university! Mike (3) _________ always _________ (enjoy) biology and chemistry in school and (4) _________ (want) to learn more about biochemistry. He’ (5) _________ (talk) to some of his friends who (6) _________ (do) courses at the university while they (7) _________ (be) still at school, and they all (8) _________ (say) that they (9) _________ (learn) a lot. Mike (10) _________ (be) a bit worried that his schedule might be too full, but he (11) _________ (not mind) because he (12) _________ (love) the university classes, and especially being able to use the university library. By the end of his course, he (13) _________ (tell) so many of his friends about his great experience that they all (14) _________ (decide) to take classes at the university, too.   9

Now complete the sentences about yourself using suitable past forms. 1 My favourite subject in primary school __________ ______________________________________. 2 I had never tried __________________________ ______________________________________. 3 Before I _________________________________ ______________________________________. 4 I was watching TV the other day when __________ ______________________________________. 5 The first thing I did when I woke up today ________ ______________________________________. 6 I didn’t use to _____________________________, but now I do. Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  193


2

Competences

READING   1

1

Think first Think about possible answers to the questions below before you read the text. Then read and see if the text includes some of your ideas. 1 In what ways can tourism help local communities? 2 How can it damage local communities?

2 3

4 5

Would you like to go backpacking in Nepal? How about a cruise to Antarctica? Almost everyone loves to travel. In fact, the business of travel and tourism is 5 considered the biggest industry in the world today. In terms of employment, the tourist industry currently provides work for almost 300 million people around the world – that’s one in eleven jobs on the 10 planet! In 2015, global tourism accounted for 1.2 billion international arrivals and billions of additional domestic visits. In fact, global tourism generates about $7 trillion of global revenue* annually.

Tourism that helps

Over time, traditional tourism has had a significant impact on the planet. Successful tourism often requires the development of infrastructure (like usable roads, visitor centres and hotels). 20 Of course, this affects the natural and cultural resources of the destination visited. Fortunately, sustainable tourism, or ecotourism, is an alternative form of tourism that emphasises the protection of a place and its inhabitants. Also known as geotourism, this positive form of travel appeals to people who prefer to see the places they visit in their natural state, and aren’t really interested in changing them. 15

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An organisation called ‘The Midlands Meander’ in South Africa is a good example of sustainable tourism. The organisation began as part of a tourism route that attracted people interested in the arts and crafts of the region. Its mission has expanded to include educational programmes and farm conservation. Visitors can ride zip-lines through the Karkloof Forest, or go horse-riding in areas where there are zebras and buffalos, and know that they’re supporting programmes which help maintain the local farming culture and make the lives of the area’s schoolchildren better. Sustainable tourism has become so important that you can now study for a university degree in it! The University of Missouri, in the United States, offers an undergraduate degree in geotourism that includes courses in community planning, earth science, environmental education, geography and global studies. Students in the programme study the weather and climate, the economic aspects of tourism, or conservation issues and problems that occur in response to human use of the natural environment.

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. Why is sustainable tourism so important? The UN says that tourism breaks down barriers between visitors and hosts*. Sustainable tourism promotes cultural diversity and awareness*, in some cases actually helping to revive traditional activities and local customs. When done responsibly, ecotourism helps local residents by using the local workforce, services and products of the places being visited. Most importantly, because an estimated 1.8 billion international 40 tourists will be visiting places across the globe in 2030, responsible, sustainable tourism is critically important for the health of the planet and of the many wonderful and fascinating places people will travel to. 35

revenue fatturato, entrate hosts chi ospita awareness consapevolezza

194  Unit 2  Enjoy the ride


Competences   2

3

4

Read the article again. Match a main idea (A–E) to each paragraph (1–5). A why sustainable tourism matters B global tourism facts and statistics C a positive, alternative form of tourism D a model of sustainable tourism E higher education and geotourism Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1 Global tourism generates $7 billion of global revenue annually. 2 Ecotourists are interested in changing the places they visit. 3 ‘The Midlands Meander’ is a good example of traditional tourism. 4 A degree in sustainable tourism includes classes on earth science and global studies. 5 The United Nations believes that tourism helps break down barriers between people. 6 More than 1.8 billion people will travel to new places in 2030. Choose the correct option. 1 How many people around the world does the tourist industry provide work for? A 1.2 billion B 300 million C 1.5 trillion D 1 in 11 2 How much money does global tourism generate every year? A $7 trillion B $1.2 billion C $1.8 billion D $300 million 3 What is the focus of sustainable tourism? A developing roads, visitor centres and hotels B using natural and cultural resources C changing a place so that tourists are more likely to visit D protecting a place and its inhabitants 4 Why is ‘The Midlands Meander’ a good example of ecotourism? A It appeals to people who aren’t really interested in change. B It includes preservation and educational programmes. C Visitors can go horse-riding among cattle or ride ziplines through the forest. D It attracts people who are interested in the arts and crafts of the region.

2

LISTENING Listening Tip When you listen to a dialogue, try to understand what the relationship between the speakers is, where they are and what they are doing. 5

Listen and choose the correct option. 1 Do the man and the woman know each other? A yes B no C we don’t know 2 Where are the man and woman? A at home B in an office C in the street 3 What does the woman ask the man? A for directions B for a lift C for his phone.

6

02 Listen again and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). 1 The woman doesn’t have her phone with her. 2 The man offers to take the woman to the Stratton Building. 3 The man checks his phone for directions. 4 It’s easier to walk there than take the metro. 5 You have to walk straight on until Central Boulevard, then turn left. 6 You can’t walk through the park because it’s closed.

7

Listen to six short announcements or dialogues. Choose the correct location or situation in the box for each recording.

02

03

airport boarding gate  bus ticket office  hotel reception  on a train  underground station walking tour 1 _____________ 2 _____________ 3 _____________ 8

4 _____________ 5 _____________ 6 _____________

03 Listen again and decide in which situation customers (1-6): A are standing in a square. __ B are travelling west. __ C are going to Amsterdam. __ D book a taxi. __ E buy return tickets. __ F must stand clear of the doors. __

Unit 2  Enjoy the ride  195


Summative Revision 1-2 VOCABULARY

4

Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones. 1 A destination is the place where you begin your journey. 2 An expedition is usually a short trip. 3 If you commute, your journey to work may take a long time. 4 An excursion is usually a short trip for sightseeing or relaxing. 5 If you give someone a lift, you take them somewhere. 6 A cruise is a journey on a train.

5

Complete the sentences. Use the correct noun form or adjective form (-ing or -ed) of the words in brackets. 1 A traditional black wedding dress in Spain symbolises devotion until death and not _____________ (sad). 2 It’s _____________ (interest) that in Norway, you always eat with a knife and fork, even if you’re eating a sandwich! 3 In Egypt, don’t add salt to your food. It’s _____________ (annoy) for the host because it means you don’t like their food. 4 In Korea, it could be _____________ (terrify) for someone if you write a person’s name in red ink. It means that the person is dead. 5 In the Netherlands, your friend might be _____________ (worry) if you give scissors or knives as gifts. It’s unlucky. 6 In Venezuela, it’s _____________ (surprise) to arrive on time for a party. Guests who arrive early seem too eager. 7 In New Zealand there is no _____________ (embarrass) about greeting a person with your nose and forehead. It’s a traditional Maori greeting. 8 In Russia, _____________ (confuse) occurs if you give someone yellow flowers. It means that you want to break up with them!

Revision of describing emotions; travel; suffixes (-ment, -ness and -ion); compound nouns; adjectives (-ed / -ing). 1

2

Read the definitions and complete the adjectives. 1 not able to understand: c _ _ _ _ _ _ d 2 feeling frightened: s _ _ _ _ d 3 feeling happy and calm: r _ _ _ _ _ d 4 unhappy because you are not with other people: l _ _ _ _ y 5 angry or impatient: a _ _ _ _ _ d 6 worried and unable to relax: s _ _ _ _ _ _ d 7 ashamed or shy: e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d 8 very pleased: d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d Complete the email with the adjectives in the box. bored confused delighted embarrassed excited interested lonely nervous relaxed worried

Hi Fran, Just thought I’d send you a quick message to tell you that I got the job at the tourist office! I’m absolutely (1) _____________ – I’ve been quite (2) _____________ where I’m working at the moment because there’s not enough to do, and it also gets very (3) _____________ with no-one else to talk to all day. I did feel very (4) _____________ when I went into the interview, and I was (5) _____________ that I wouldn’t do my best, but the manager was very kind and after a few minutes I began to feel more (6) _____________. He seemed really (7) _____________ in my past experience and though I got a bit (8) _____________ about one of the questions, I generally gave good answers. The only bad thing was that I completely forgot his name when we were saying goodbye, I felt so (9) _____________! Anyway, never mind, it’s all good and I start next month, so I’m feeling quite (10) _____________ about it! Hope to see you soon, Kay 3

Match the things (1–6) to the places (a–f) where you would find them. 1 public transport a a shopping centre 2 a lot of offices b an amusement park 3 a clothing store c a rooftop 4 a roller coaster d a skyscraper 5 an urban garden e an underground station a viewpoint 6 beautiful scenery f

196  Summative Revision


Summative Revision GRAMMAR

8

There is a mistake in each sentence. Rewrite each one using the correct form of the words in bold. 1 I was fell asleep in class yesterday. It was so boring. _______________________________________ 2 Last week he have studied at the library for eight hours every day. He was really exhausted. _______________________________________ 3 Has you ever being on such an exciting trip? _______________________________________ 4 Leopold had came home at midnight yesterday. His mother was very worried. _______________________________________ 5 They was shocked when they had heard the news. _______________________________________ 6 Mr Pendleton just tells Karina that she didn’t win the award. It’s such disappointing news. _______________________________________ 7 He hadn’t telling me his secret until today. It’s amazing that he’s going to Morocco for the summer! _______________________________________ 8 Did you ever play in a band in your life? _______________________________________

9

Choose the correct option. 1 _____________ it a disappointing film? A Was C Did B Was being D Had been 2 I _____________ my neighbour to look after my house while I _____________ away on holiday. A asking, am C asked, was B was asked, was D ask, had been 3 Were they _____________ to the party when they _____________ Meg? A drive, were calling B drove, called C been driving, had called D driving, called 4 It _____________ a difficult exam but Simon _____________ most of the answers. A had been, was knowing B was, knew C was, had know D had been, known 5 Renting an apartment in the city didn’t _____________ to cost so much. A used C had been B use D being 6 I had _____________ seen Buckingham Palace _____________, so my friends and I decided to go. A never, before C for, ever B before, yet D ever, before

Revision of present & past tenses; subject & object questions. 6

Choose the correct option to complete the text.

Where (1) do you eat / are you eating lunch? I usually (2) have gone / go to the café on Oxford Road. I (3) try / ‘ve tried the university canteen, but the food (4) doesn’t taste / isn’t tasting as good. I (5) have preferred / prefer to eat sandwiches at lunchtime, and the café (6) is having / has much more choice. It also (7) sells / has sold really delicious salads. However, it’s much more expensive than making them yourself, so this term I (8) ‘ve started / start to bring my own food sometimes. I (9) ‘m saving / have saved for a trip to Australia next summer, so I (10) decide / ‘ve decided to economise.

7

Use the prompts to write questions in the Past simple. 1 What / they / decide / do / ? _______________________________________ 2 What time / you / go / gym / yesterday / ? _______________________________________ 3 Whose / daughter / play / the piano / ? _______________________________________ 4 How many / friends / she / invite / party / ? _______________________________________ 5 What / he / ask / Jenna / ? _______________________________________ 6 What / make / you / feel / embarrassed / when / you child / ? _______________________________________ 7 How many / students / pass / exam / ? _______________________________________ 8 What time / get up / this morning / ? _______________________________________

Summative Revision  197


3

Active lives

WHAT YOU KNOW

4

Write a possible sport for each place. There may be more than one possible answer. 1 rink _____________________________ 2 court _____________________________ 3 pitch _____________________________ 4 track _____________________________ 5 mountain _____________________________ 6 pool _____________________________

5

Choose the correct option to complete the sports blog post.

Sports

1

2

Read the descriptions and complete the words about sports. 1 This sport is played with a bat and a ball and each team has nine players. b_______ 2 This popular Olympic sport happens in a pool. s_______ 3 People do this sport in the snow and it is popular in cold countries. s_____ 4 This sport can be done on a track or outside over long or short distances. r______ 5 This sport is played on a pitch and is popular around the world. f_______ 6 People use a mat to do this activity, which is good for the mind and body. y___ Complete the table with the words in the box. badminton basketball boxing cricket ice hockey ice skating rugby surfing tennis volleyball Team sports

Individual sports

VOCABULARY Sports 3

> SB p. 35

Match the sports (1–6) to the equipment (a–f). 1 tennis a net 2 basketball b boat 3 diving c club 4 sailing d board 5 golf e helmet racket 6 cycling f

198  Unit 3  Active lives

Last weekend, I went to watch my first professional baseball game. I loved it! Even though our seats were far from the (1) _________, we still had a good view. The home (2) _________ was from New York, and their (3) _________ were from Boston. There were over 17,000 (4) _________ in the stadium, and it was exciting to watch with so many people. At one point in the game, the (5) _________ of the team from Boston got really angry with the (6) _________ about a call he thought was unfair. He was told to be quiet or leave the stadium! It was a very close game. The final (7) _________ was 100-96, and the team from New York (8) _________. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A court A crowd A kit A bats A goalkeeper A referee A score A played

B pitch B pair B opponents B players B doctor B diver B win B won

C rink C team C coaches C spectators C coach C player C count C beat


Vocabulary & Word Building 6

Choose the correct option. 1 Today, I’m trying to achieve / represent my personal best in the 100m race. 2 Her goal is to score / beat the current champion and become the best boxer in the country. 3 The ultimate aim of the team is to do / win as many medals as possible for their country. 4 It’s important to encourage / make everyone to participate in sports. 5 To be a professional athlete, you have to go / train almost every day. 6 He played / scored the winning goal in the match.

7

Write answers that are true for you. 1 Which sport do you like playing and why? _______________________________________ 2 What equipment do you need for this sport? _______________________________________ 3 Have you ever played in a sports team? How often do / did you train? _______________________________________ 4 What’s the best live sports event you have ever seen? Where was it? _______________________________________ 5 Which sport would you like to try and why? _______________________________________

3

The hidden cost of sports We often hear that young people spend too much time playing with electronic devices inside and not enough time outside doing physical activities. But what we don’t hear as much about is the hidden cost of sports, and more specifically sports equipment. As a minimum you need a good pair of trainers to take part in running, athletics or any field sports or gym activities. These aren’t cheap and you should get a new pair every 500 km to avoid injury. Then there is more sport-specific equipment such as a stick for ice and field hockey; poles for skiing or Nordic walking; and protective pads for knees and elbows for sports like skateboarding or BMX biking. Water sports also require a range of equipment like goggles to protect your eyes in swimming or diving; and life jackets for sailing, surfing and canoeing; all of which you need to replace. Increasingly people are setting up home gyms to avoid gym membership costs, but these require equipment like mats, weights for strength training and more expensive fitness machines. Finally, things like tennis balls or shuttlecocks for playing badminton are much cheaper, but as anyone who plays these sports knows, you often lose them and have to buy them again!

Expand your vocabulary 8

Guess the sports you need this equipment for. Then read the text and check your answers. 1 shuttlecock _____________________________ 2 goggles _____________________________ 3 life jacket _____________________________ 4 pads _____________________________ 5 weights _____________________________ 6 poles _____________________________ 7 trainers _____________________________ 8 stick _____________________________

WORD BUILDING Phrasal verbs 9

> SB p. 38

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box. give up  join in  take on  take up  warm up  work out 1 It’s important to ____________ before you start running, or you could pull a muscle. 2 I usually either swim or ____________ for about an hour after school. 3 She had to ____________ running after that problem with her ankle. 4 Which team do you think will ____________ Brazil in the semi-final? 5 When you feel more confident, you can ____________ for the rest of the game. 6 I’m thinking of ____________ karate. I need more exercise, and I like learning new things.

Unit 3  Active lives  199


3 Grammar Past simple & Present perfect 1

2

> SB pp. 36–37

Read the sentences and write PS (Past simple) or PP (Present perfect). 1 Have you ever won a basketball game? 2 He kept fit during the winter by jogging. 3 My cousin’s done gymnastics for five years. 4 My favourite football team’s already won twice. 5 No one has broken the world record since 2015. 6 Our best player injured herself when she tried to score. 7 The players encouraged the team captain to run faster. 8 They’ve cancelled the match because of rain.

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Choose the correct option to complete the text. When I was younger, I (1) enjoyed / have enjoyed building sculptures out of things I (2) found / have found around the house. Most people (3) did / have done karate or (4) rode / have ridden their bikes when they were kids, but I (5) wanted always / have always wanted to make things. Over the years I (6) built / have built some shelves to hold my comic books and I (7) designed / have designed a table for my parents. When I was young, my friends (8) never understood / have never understood that I (9) preferred / have preferred creating new things, not playing football. Then a few years ago, I (10) entered / have entered one of my sculptures in a competition and I (11) won / have won. That’s when my friends (12) started / have started to understand me!

3

Write answers that are true for you. 1 Have you ever practised an extreme sport? _______________________________________ 2 Which sport have you always wanted to try but never have? _______________________________________ 3 What sport did you do as a child that you don’t do now? _______________________________________ 4 When did you start supporting a sports team and why? _______________________________________ 5 Have you ever had a sports injury? What happened? _______________________________________ 6 How much exercise have you done this week? _______________________________________

200  Unit 3  Active lives

4

Complete the article with the Past simple or Present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Extreme sports are sports that people consider risky. They usually involve speed, height and extreme physical activity. Here are some examples from around the world. Badwater ultramarathon For several years, athletes (1) ____________ (participate) in this race each summer in the hottest place in North America: Death Valley, California. Last year, the athletes (2) ____________ (run) 135 miles, starting at 282 feet below sea level and ending in the mountains at 8,300 feet. Wingsuit flying world championship For this competition, athletes wear a jumpsuit which has extra cloth between their arms and legs so they can glide through the air. People (3) ____________ (call) it ‘horizontal skydiving’ because the athletes often travel long distances. In 2016, in China, the athletes (4) ____________ (jump) from Tienmen Mountain in Hunan Province and (5) ____________(travel) 1.4 km to the goal. The winner (6) ____________ (complete) the race in 23.41 seconds. Street luge skateboarders These extreme-sports athletes (7) ____________ (always want) to go faster and faster. In 2014, the twelfth annual competition (8) ____________ (take) place in Brazil, which has the fastest downhill skateboarding track in the world. The world record for street luge, set in 2008, is 97.81 miles per hour!


Grammar Present perfect simple & Present perfect continuous > SB pp. 40–41 5

8

Choose the correct option. 1 They’ve been going to that school ____________ 2016. A since B for C already D ever 2 My sister has lived in Edinburgh ____________ two years. A since B for C already D ever 3 Have you started making the sauce ____________? A ever B yet C just D since5 4 I’ve ____________ made a sauce with garlic and mushrooms before. A for B yet C ever D never 5 He’s ____________ listened to the new album five times. A already B ever C since D yet 6 Have you ____________ met my friend Teri? A since B yet C ever D for 7 Yes, I’ve ____________ met Teri – at that party last month. A ever B already C since D yet 8 My brother has ____________ started taking driving lessons and he thinks he knows it all! A ever B yet C just D for

9

Write a question for each answer using the simple or continuous form of the Present perfect. 1 ______________________________________? No, I’ve never been to South America. 2 ______________________________________? I’ve been going to this school for two years now. 3 ______________________________________? I’ve been studying English for five years. 4 ______________________________________? No, I haven’t eaten lunch yet. 5 ______________________________________? I’ve taken the train to school four times this week. 6 ______________________________________? No, I’ve never flown. 7 ______________________________________? I’ve known my best friend since primary school. 8 ______________________________________? Yes, I’ve seen all the Star Wars films.

Complete the table with the correct form of the verbs.

Infinitive

Present perfect simple

Present perfect continuous

take have / has been choosing have / has represented have / has been winning encourage have / has felt 6

7

Choose the correct option. 1 Teresa has written / been writing emails all morning. 2 How much luggage has she brought / been bringing with her? 3 I have disliked / been disliking eggs since I was a child. 4 Have you finished your homework still / yet? 5 Peter has been / gone to Miami. He’ll be back home next week. 6 I’ve just / ever returned from Manila. I’m still tired from the flight. 7 You’ve deserved / been deserving a promotion for ages now – congratulations! 8 We have never / ever been to that restaurant. Complete the sentences with the correct Present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. Use the continuous form where possible.8 1 ‘How long _______________ (she / play) the piano?’ ‘Since she was six.’ 2 I _______________ (not call) Tina to tell her about the party. Have you? 3 I _______________ (already / put) new batteries in the remote control, but it still doesn’t work! 4 Get off the phone! You _______________ (talk) for 45 minutes. 5 How often _______________ (go) to the library this week? 6 It _______________ (snow) since five o’clock this morning. We won’t be able to get to school. 7 He _______________ (not take) the physics exam yet. 8 Hurry up! We _______________ (wait) for you for over an hour!

3

10 Now give personal answers to the questions in Ex. 9.

1 _______________________________________ 2 _______________________________________ 3 _______________________________________ 4 _______________________________________ 5 _______________________________________ 6 _______________________________________ 7 _______________________________________ 8 _______________________________________

Unit 3  Active lives  201


3

Competences

READING 1

Think first Look at the photo. Choose two possible explanations for why people take up dangerous activities. Then read the text and check your answers. a People like the feeling of being frightened. b People who enjoy taking risks may share an adventure gene. Many people think yoga and running are boring. c d Some people enjoy the burst of dopamine that comes with extreme activities. e Some athletes don’t really care about the consequences.

Why take the risk? 1 2 3

Just before jumping off a high mountain, professional climber, BASE jumper and wingsuiter Steph Davis admits to experiencing fear and excitement. That’s not surprising, since wingsuiting is an extremely risky sport that several people have died doing, including Steph’s husband. So why does she do it? Why, in spite of the danger, would Steph want to jump at all, let alone almost every day of the year? 5

10

15

4 20

5

25

Steph isn’t alone in her search for excitement, and hers isn’t the only risky or extreme sport. Surfing, rock climbing, diving from great heights, even skiing or snowboarding, all involve risks and sometimes real danger. Recently, scientists have studied people who pursue these, and other potentially dangerous sports, to learn more about what makes certain individuals take up activities that other people prefer to avoid. Research suggests that some people attracted to extreme sports may be genetically predisposed to risky behaviours. According to Cynthia Thomson, a researcher at the University of British Columbia, it’s possible that extreme-sports athletes, and people who enjoy taking risks, share an ‘adventure gene’. This genetic variation may influence how some people process ‘dopamine’: a substance that’s partially responsible for the feeling of excitement a person experiences when doing a dangerous sport. People with the adventure gene may ‘need to seek out intense situations to bring up their dopamine levels,’ according to Thomson. That burst of dopamine might make the individual want to repeat the behaviour because it feels so good. But there’s more to extreme sports than dopamine. Researchers compared participants in low-risk sports, such as yoga and running, to fans of high-risk activities. They wanted to know whether, as some people believe, people who do extreme sports are just crazy adventurers who don’t care about the consequences of what they do. What they found is that many extreme-sports athletes are actually very skilled at what they do, train hard, and are responsible and wellprepared when practising their sport. Eric Brymer is a researcher from Queenstown University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia, who has been studying extreme-sports athletes for years. In his opinion, extreme-sports athletes are ‘actually extremely well-prepared, careful, intelligent and thoughtful athletes with high levels of self-awareness and a deep knowledge of the environment and of the activity.’ In the end, it seems that there are a number of explanations behind the appeal of extreme sports. For some, it could be the dopamine. But others are simply interested in pushing their own limits. One thing is clear, though – extremesports athletes like to play hard! As Daron Rahlves, a top downhill-ski racer who spends the summer racing in motocross competitions, puts it: ‘I’m in it for the challenge, my heart thumping as I finish, the feeling of being alive … I definitely get scared on some of the courses. It just makes me fight more.’

202  Unit 3  Active lives


Competences 2

3

Read the text again and answer the questions. 1 What does Steph Davis experience before jumping off a mountain? _______________________________________ 2 What happened to her husband? _______________________________________ 3 Which sports mentioned in the article are often considered risky or extreme? _______________________________________ 4 What substance do researchers believe some extreme-sports athletes are attracted to? _______________________________________ 5 What examples of sports that are not high-risk does the article give? _______________________________________ 6 What does Eric Brymer think of extreme-sports athletes? _______________________________________ 7 Apart from dopamine, what is an explanation behind the appeal of extreme sports? _______________________________________ 8 Why does Daron Rahlves love extreme sport? _______________________________________ Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 According to recent research, 2 Common sports, like surfing and skiing, 3 The ‘adventure gene’ 4 Many extreme-sports athletes are 5 There seem to be a b c d e

3

LISTENING Listening Tips • When listening to unfamiliar topics in English, relax and get an overall feel for the subject matter. • You can often guess words from context and identify general themes and ideas.

4

04 Listen to the two speakers. Tick the title that would fit best with both descriptions. A Biker Dogs! B Let’s catch a wave! C Skateboards rule! D Extreme dogs!

5

Listen to the first speaker again and choose the correct option. 1 What word does the woman use for dog? A hound B pooch C pup 2 What do some dogs do ‘… a thousand feet in the air’? A surf B paddle C cruise 3 What is Bandit? A a breed of dog B a type of dog  C the name of a dog 4 What does the dog learn to do first? A ride motorbikes B surf waves C steal food

6

may involve risks and even danger! some people may be genetically predisposed to taking risks. a number of reasons why people enjoy extreme sports. well-prepared, highly-skilled and aware of what they’re doing. may influence how some people process dopamine.

05

06 Listen to the second speaker again and choose the correct option. 26 1 What makes Tillman a natural skateboarder? A his attitude B his body C his owner 2 What did Tillman first learn to do on his skateboard? A fall off B push it C roll along 3 What do you think ‘mad,’ means when the owner says ‘mad skater skills’? A extremely good B very angry C pretty bad 4 What is Tillman’s owner most proud of? A Tillman’s skating skills B Tillman’s lack of fear C Tillman’s effect on people

Unit 3  Active lives  203


4

Food VOCABULARY

WHAT YOU KNOW

Describing food

Types of food

1

2

3

Look at the photo and write a list of the food you can see.

4

Each of the adjectives below can describe food. Match the opposites. healthy 1 tasty a 2 junk b fresh meaty 3 processed c 4 raw d mild disgusting 5 vegetarian e cooked 6 strong f

5

Choose the correct option. 1 Good sushi is always fresh / sweet. 2 I can’t eat nuts / wheat, so I don’t usually eat pasta. 3 Thank you for a delicious / well-balanced meal. I loved it! 4 Processed / Raw vegetables have lots of vitamins. 5 Could we go somewhere that is happy / suitable for vegetarians? 6 Fast food isn’t always fresh / junk food these days. Today many fast-food places also offer healthy options.

6

Read the definitions and choose the cooking technique in the box.

Resolve the anagrams to find the names of food. 1 e c k i h c n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 a p t a s _____ 3 p s r n a w _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 e e f c f o ______ 5 l a p e p _____ 6 l m o e n _____ 7 r c r y u _____ 8 t m o a o t _ _ _ _ _ _ What flavour are the foods in the box? Complete the table. Then add two more types of food to each column. cake chilli powder crisps curry French fries strawberry Sweet

204  Unit 4  Food

Spicy

Salty

> SB p. 45

baked boiled fried grilled roasted steamed 1 Cooked in very hot water. 2 Cooked quickly in frying pan in oil. 3 Cooked in the oven, usually without fat or oil. 4 Cooked above boiling water. 5 Cooked under or over a flame. 6 Cooked in the oven, usually with fat or oil, at a high temperature. 7

_________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Complete the sentences with the correct words from Ex. 6. 1 _________ vegetables are very healthy because they preserve their natural vitamins. 2 Eggs should be _________ for five minutes if you like them soft, or ten minutes if you like them hard. 3 _________ foods such as French fries are not very good for you. 4 My favourite way to eat fish is _________ on a barbecue with a little oil and lemon. 5 This _________ cheesecake is delicious and really easy to make in a home oven. 6 The smell of _________ turkey always reminds me of Christmas lunch in Britain.


Vocabulary & Word Building 8

Complete the text with the correct words in the box. There may be more than one correct answer. fresh healthier junk raw taste unhealthy

4

Expand your vocabulary  10 Complete the menu with the words in the box.

desserts drinks main courses side dishes specials starters

Menu

My father used to eat a lot of (1) _________ meals that weren’t good for him, and he especially loved (2) _________ food, like crisps and chocolate bars. Then his doctor told him that he needed to change his diet to keep his heart healthy. So he started eating more (3) _________ vegetables that hadn’t been cooked and had lots of vitamins. He also started eating (4) _________ fruit for breakfast, and drinking less coffee. Now the doctor says his heart is much (5) _________, and my dad says the new foods he eats (6) _________ delicious! 9

Write answers that are true for you. 1 What is your diet like? _______________________________________ 2 What should you eat more / less of? _______________________________________ 3 What’s your favourite kind of food? _______________________________________ 4 Have you got a special meal you like to prepare for friends and family? _______________________________________ 5 What foods don’t you eat? Why? _______________________________________ 6 What could / couldn’t you stop eating? _______________________________________

(1) _________ soup of the day frilled goat’s cheese pan-fried scallops

(4) _________ fresh fruit salad chocolate cake apple tart and ice cream

(2) _________ peppered steak grilled salmon vegetable pie

(5) _________ mineral water fruit juice coke or lemonade

(3) _________ steamed vegetables fried potatoes mixed salad

Ask your waiter for today’s (6) _________!

WORD BUILDING Compound adjectives

> SB p. 48

Match the two parts of each compound adjective. 1 deep- baked ________________ 2 oven- dried ________________ 3 home- fried ________________ 4 sweet- made ________________ 5 sun- tasting ________________ ---------------------------------------------------------------------6 well- cooked ________________ 7 old- finished ________________ 8 funny- fashioned ________________ 9 over known ________________ 10 half- sounding ________________

11

12 Complete each sentence with a suitable compound

adjective from Ex. 11. 1 This pizza is really _________: it’s practically burnt! 2 A Someone’s been eating this cake. It’s _________! B Sorry, Mum, I couldn’t resist it! I love your _________ cakes. 3 It’s a _________ fact that you shouldn’t eat too much _________ food like chips: it’s bad for you! 4 My uncle is a bit _________, he thinks the whole family should eat meals together. Unit 4  Food  205


4 Grammar Future forms (1) 1

2

Choose the correct option. 1 I ’ll / might probably meet some friends for coffee after work. 2 I ’m bringing / bring information about a new restaurant which opening / opens next month. 3 We may decide / are going to decide to have dinner there with our friends in a few weeks. 4 We check / ’re going to check the menu to make sure there’s something everyone can eat. 5 I’m sure we ’re finding / ’ll find something that everyone will enjoy. 6 After we’ve read the menu, we ’re / ’ll going to make a decision. 7 Later, I ‘ll email / ’m emailing the others to let them know where and when we ‘re meeting / meet. 8 I think everyone will be / is being pleased with our decision.

4

Use the prompts to write questions using a suitable future form. 1 (plans next weekend) ______________________________________? 2 (intentions after school) ______________________________________? 3 (predictions next ten years) ______________________________________? 4 (possibilities for activities this afternoon) ______________________________________?

5

Now answer the questions in Ex. 4 about yourself. 1 _______________________________________ 2 _______________________________________ 3 _______________________________________ 4 _______________________________________

Read Lucy’s message to her classmates. Identify eight mistakes in the verb forms and correct them. Party time! We’ll have a party at school and everyone preparing a dish that is popular in their own country. Charlie is going bring his favourite Chinese dish. Marisol will cooking a Mexican dish that’s very spicy. Khalid’s brother’s a chef so he’s going to ask him to prepare falafel for everyone. Katie may to make a special dessert – if she can remember where the recipe is. And if he can find the right ingredients, Mick makes fish pie. When we will have everything ready, it will smell so good. Everyone is having a great time together: Please come!

3

6 Martin and Alexa _________ (bake) a wedding cake for their friend. 7 The supermarket is closed now, but it _________ (open) at 8 a.m. tomorrow morning. 8 Dana _________ (come up) with a menu that everyone will love.

> SB pp. 46–47

Complete the sentences with a suitable future form of the verbs in brackets. Use the Present continuous, Present simple, be going to or will. There may be more than one correct answer. 1 Sophia _________ (work) part-time at a local restaurant from next week. 2 When you _________ (see) Juan tomorrow, tell him that I’ve made a cake. 3 Giorgio _________ (plan) to attend a cookery school next summer. 4 I think Sue _________ (make) us a salad for lunch. 5 Can you cut up that broccoli, please? I _________ (steam) it for the stir-fry.

206  Unit 4  Food

Future forms (2): Future continuous & Future perfect > SB pp. 50–51 6

Decide which sentences will have finished (F) or will be in progress (P) at a certain point in the future. 1 I will have done the shopping by the time you get back from work. __ 2 We will be out celebrating my Dad’s birthday this time next week. __ 3 They will have eaten lunch when we arrive. __ 4 She’ll be leaving at six o’clock on Monday if you want to see her before she goes to Paris. __ 5 Alex will have finished school next year, he’s doing his final exams soon. __ 6 You’ll be sunbathing on the beach this time tomorrow – lucky thing! __

7

Choose the correct option to complete the minidialogues. 1 Will the hockey players be wearing their red or white uniforms? A They will have worn the red ones. B They’re going to wear the red ones. 2 Will Mr Jackson be looking for more people to work at the library? A Yes, he will have found more people. B No, he won’t.


Grammar 3 Will you have listened to the jazz album before your performance? A Yes, I will. B No, I haven’t. 4 When will you be performing in the concert? A It will have been on Sunday. B On Sunday. 5 How will you know what time to pick me up? A I’ll be leaving for the airport as soon as you text me. B I’ll have left for the airport as soon as you text me. 6 Will he have got his driver’s licence by June? A Yes, he’s planning to get it at the end of April. B Yes, he’ll get it last month. 8

Choose the correct option. 1 Amy will be meeting / will have met her new college friends by now – I wonder if she liked them. 2 I hope I’ll be buying / ‘ll have bought my new laptop by Sunday as I need it next week. 3 The restaurant will be closing / will have closed by now. It closes at eleven but it’s already nearly midnight. 4 I won’t be ordering / won’t have ordered a cupcake if I have a big lunch today! 5 Next time I see you I will be asking / will have asked my girlfriend to marry me! 6 She will be studying / will have studied in Colombia next year to improve her Spanish.

9

Match the two parts of each question. 1 Will you have graduated 2 Will we all be 3 Will we have destroyed 4 Will people have implanted 5 Do you know what you will 6 When you are old what will a b c d e f

11

4

Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in the box. become change eat (x2) follow grow produce sell stop suffer The future of food What will you be (1) _________ tomorrow? With the problems of population growth, climate change and consequent food shortages, it is probable that our diets will have (2) _________ radically in the not too distant future. For example, restaurants and supermarkets will be (3) _________ jellyfish alongside the more expensive meat and fish options. They will have (4) _________ the example of countries such as China who have been consuming jellyfish for some time now. Many health food fans have already adopted algae as culinary ingredients, but in the future more of us will have (5) _________ vegans for economic and ethical reasons, so algae businesses will be (6) _________. As more of us will probably be (7) _________ from allergies in the future, many companies will be (8) _________ hypoallergenic varieties of foods such as peanuts. One thing that is certain is that many people won’t be (9) _________ as much meat as they do now because it is unsustainable for the planet, and some people will have (10) _________ eating it altogether.

driving electric cars in the future? from university in ten years’ time? digital devices in their bodies in five years’ time? be doing this time next year? be your biggest regret? the planet in fifty years?

10 Now answer the questions in Ex. 9 about yourself.

Give explanations or reasons for your answers. 1 _______________________________________ 2 _______________________________________ 3 _______________________________________ 4 _______________________________________ 5 _______________________________________ 6 _______________________________________

Unit 4  Food  207


4 Competences READING 1

Think first Answer the questions before you read the text. 1 Read the title and look at the picture. What are ‘superfoods’? 2 Can you name the foods in the picture?

1 5

10

2

15

20

3 4

25

30

5 35

6

40

Do you love avocados? Do you adore almonds? These familiar foods have, among others, recently become known as ‘superfoods’. What makes a food ‘super’, then? So-called superfoods are a special category of foods that are considered nutrient-rich, low in calories and packed with health benefits not always found in other foods. Almonds, avocados, blueberries and salmon are among the most commonly known superfoods.

The superfood dilemma

There are also a number of less familiar foods that fall into the category of superfoods. Among these is an ancient grain called quinoa. Quinoa is a flowering plant that, until very recently, was known and used only in certain parts of South America. The seeds* of the quinoa plant can be cooked like rice and other grains, and are very well-balanced – the tiny grain is rich in fibre, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients. Although quinoa has been eaten in South America for thousands of years (the ancient Incas referred to it as ‘the mother grain’), it has only recently become known to the rest of the world as a superfood. One result of the sudden and tremendous popularity of quinoa is a change in the diets of people who’ve traditionally grown and eaten it. Because their crops* are now more valuable and they have more money to spend, some quinoa growers prefer to eat less quinoa and more of the non-traditional and often less nutritious foods that were previously unavailable to them, such as rice or noodles, and even sweets and fizzy drinks. Other quinoa farmers can no longer afford to eat the newly expensive grain they grow and have to find alternative foods to eat. Another issue related to the popularity of this superfood is the availability of resources needed to grow it. As prices for quinoa continue to rise, so do prices for the land on which it’s grown. And because the quinoa plant has very specific requirements, there isn’t a lot of land where it can be successfully farmed. The same is true of avocados. Avocados are another ancient Latin American food that has become very popular since people started seeing it as a superfood. Avocados require water, and lots of it! It takes more than 800 litres of water to produce a kilo of avocados. That’s like filling a bath with water for each avocado you eat! In the state of California, half a billion kilos of avocados are grown annually, and that means billions of litres of water for their production. But California sometimes experiences extended periods of drought*, making the cost of water, like the cost of land, rise dramatically. This makes water-hungry avocados expensive to buy and sometimes too expensive to grow. Are superfoods good for your health, but bad for the planet? As is the case with almost anything we eat or use, sustainability is always an issue. It’s becoming clear that we won’t always be able to have everything we’d like to eat, at any time of year, wherever we are. Even superfoods come at a cost. seeds semi crops colture, raccolti drought siccità

208  Unit 4  Food


Competences 2

3

Read the text. Match a main idea (A–F) to each paragraph (1–6). A the real cost of avocados B superfoods and natural resources C the consequences of quinoa’s popularity D a description of superfoods E a description of quinoa F the limitations of superfoods

LISTENING Listening Tip When you have to listen and complete a text, read the text carefully first. Predict the kind of words you’ll need to write, for example, a noun, a verb, an adjective or a number. 5

Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or is the information not given (NG)? 1 Superfoods are packed with benefits that aren’t always available in other foods.

Choose the correct option. 1 Avocados, like quinoa, blueberries, almonds and salmon, are considered a _________. A fruit B superfood C vegetable 2 These types of food are thought to be rich in nutrients and low in _________. A calories B carbohydrates C vitamins 3 Quinoa is an ancient _________ that, until recently, was unknown outside South America. A grain B nut C pulse 4 The _________ of the quinoa plant can be cooked and eaten. A flowers B fruits C seeds 5 A consequence of quinoa’s popularity is a change in the _________ of people who traditionally grow it. A price B popularity C diet 6 Rice and noodles are less _________ than quinoa. A health B nutritious C unhealthy 7 The _________ of a kilo of avocados takes more than 800 litres of water! A resources B advantage C production 8 Water becomes very expensive during periods of _________. A Christmas B drought C floods

07 Listen to a woman talking about gingerbread (pan di zenzero). Complete the text with the missing words.

Have you ever tasted delicious, (1) _________ gingerbread cookies? Or have you ever seen, eaten or even made a (2) _________ house? In many countries, gingerbread is an important part of (3) _________ winter holidays. You can thank a (4) _________ witch for gingerbread houses. Gingerbread has been around since at least the eleventh (5) _________. But, in 1812, the brothers Grimm published Hansel and Gretel, featuring a witch who lives in a house made of (6) _________. The witch used her (7) _________ house to attract unsuspecting children. Luckily for Hansel and Gretel, they were clever enough to escape from the witch. After the success of the story, miniature edible (8) _________ became popular. The witch’s candy-covered home has inspired (9) _________ ever since.

2 Quinoa can be cooked like rice. 3 Quinoa has only recently become known in South America. 4 Because quinoa is so rich in nutrients, it’s a good substitute for meat. 5 Like quinoa, avocados have very specific requirements for growth. 6 Superfoods are good for us, and they’re also good for the environment. 4

4

6

Listen to a recipe for gingerbread. Put the instructions in the correct order. A Refrigerate the dough for three hours. B Add spices (for example, cinnamon and ginger) to the mixture. C Bake the cookies at 375 degrees for seven minutes. D Mix the butter, sugar, an egg and syrup. E Mix in four cups of flour to complete the dough. F Use a cookie cutter to cut your cookies into shapes. G Let the cookies cool before you decorate them. H Roll out the dough on a floured surface. 08

Unit 4  Food  209


Summative Revision 3-4 VOCABULARY

4

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 Eating well-balanced meals is part of an unhealthy diet. _______________________________________ 2 A starter is the last thing you eat when you have dinner. _______________________________________ 3 A main course is usually a small dish. _______________________________________ 4 Vegetarians mainly eat meat. _______________________________________ 5 Steaming fish is less healthy than frying it. _______________________________________ 6 A cake is a type of starter. _______________________________________

5

Complete the article with the missing words.

Revision of sports; phrasal verbs; describing food; compound adjectives. 1

2

3

Choose the correct option. 1 The girls like to go riding / yoga when we’re on holiday. 2 In the winter, tourists can go ice skating on a rink / track in Hyde Park. 3 You achieve / play squash in an indoor walled court and the last person to hit the ball represents / scores. 4 Do you want to go snowboarding / surfing in the mountains tomorrow? 5 People play badminton / hockey with a racket and a shuttlecock. 6 ‘Would you like to play a game of judo / table tennis?’ ‘No, because you always beat / win me!’ 7 A flat board with a sail is used for canoeing / windsurfing. 8 I love doing / going aerobics in my free time because my teacher always encourages / trains me. Write a word for each definition. 1 The people watching a match. _________ 2 The thing in the middle of a tennis court you have to get the ball over. _________ 3 The person in a football match who stops the other team from scoring. _________ 4 The person who decides who’s right or wrong in team sports. _________ 5 The person who helps you train. _________ 6 The opposite of ‘win’. _________ Complete the table with the words in the box. Then add two more words to each category. boiled delicious dessert ice cream junk mashed potato processed raw roasted salad side order starter Cooking techniques

Adjectives describing food

Parts of a menu

Types of food

210  Summative Revision

A healthy and happy lifestyle How do you adopt a healthy lifestyle? It isn’t always easy to know what to do. It’s (1) _________ -known that we should give (2) _________ smoking, eat nutritious home(3) _________ food and work (4) _________ at a gym as often as we can, but what else? Well it might sound a bit (5) _________ -fashioned, but it’s also important to join (6) _________ with community activities so that you have a sense of belonging. But be careful: don’t try to (7) _________ on too many things, or you will feel stressed and end up with lots of jobs which are only (8) _________ -finished. Whatever we decide to do it should make us feel happy, healthy and helpful!


Summative Revision GRAMMAR Revision of Past simple & Present perfect; Present perfect simple & Present perfect continuous; future forms; Future perfect; Future continuous. 6

Choose the correct option. 1 If you decided / have decided you want to get fit, start doing exercise gradually. 2 Our friends joined / have joined a running club last year and now they run three times a week. 3 She never missed / has never missed breakfast since the doctor advised her not to. 4 Jack recovered / has recovered from his injury now and he is exercising again. 5 He began / has begun a meditation class last week as a way to deal with stress. 6 My father only ate / has only eaten healthy food for the last two weeks.

7

Match each question to an answer. 1 How many biscuits has Meg eaten? 2 How long have you been going to the gym? 3 How many Harry Potter books have you read? 4 How many times have you been to the hospital for this problem? 5 How often have you been having guitar lessons? 6 How long has she been a hairdresser? a b c d e f

8

At least four times, I think. I think she’s already had three. I’ve already read the first five. I love them! Oh, for about two years, on and off. Since she was 21. Once or twice a month for the past year.

Your flatmate is asking what jobs you’ve done in the flat. Answer the questions using the prompts. 1 Have you changed the light bulb yet? (no / still) ________________________________ No, I still haven’t changed it. 2 Have you washed the frying pan? (no / yet) ________________________________ 3 Did you turn the washing machine on? (yes / already) ____________________________ 4 Have you locked the door yet? (yes / just) _______________________________ 5 Have you put the dinner in the oven? (yes / cooking for / 30 minutes) ________________ _______________________________________ 6 Did you put the frozen dessert freezer? (yes / since 3 o’clock) _______________________ _______________________________________

9

Complete each mini-dialogue with an appropriate future form of the verb in brackets. There may be more than one correct answer. 1 A _____________ (Henry / fly) to Chicago tonight? B Yes, he is. 2 A What’s wrong? B You’re driving too fast! You _____________ (get) a speeding ticket. 3 A Is she stopping at the clinic on the way home? B I don’t know if she _____________ (stop) there. 4 A Daria is eating so much chocolate. B I think she _____________ (have) a stomach ache tonight. 5 A What time do you want to leave for the cinema? B Well, the film _____________ (start) at nine o’clock. So let’s leave by half past eight. 6 A I’m coming over at six o’clock. _____________ (you / finish) work by then? B Yes, I should be home by 5.30. 7 A With any luck, this time next week I _____________ (drive) you in the car if I pass my test. B Fingers crossed!

10 Read the sentences and choose the option which has

a similar meaning. 1 She’s gone to the gallery to see the new show. A She’s at the gallery now. B She went to the gallery and is back home now. 2 They’ve been living in this house for three years. A They lived there for three years and then they moved. B They moved to this house three years ago and they still live here. 3 We bought tickets before we went to the train station. A We had tickets before we got to the train station. B We bought tickets at the train station. 4 Natalie’s going to be late for class because she didn’t hear her alarm. A Natalie has planned to go in to college later today. B Natalie is about to be late because she didn’t wake on time. 5 The documentary is on air tomorrow at 9 p.m. on BBC2 A The BBC has just decided to show the documentary tomorrow at 9 p.m. B The BBC has already scheduled the documentary for tomorrow at 9 p.m. 6 I will have landed by the time you get to the airport. A I’ll be at the airport before you arrive. B You’ll be at the airport before I land. 7 More people may be turning vegan in the near future. A There will definitely be more vegans soon. B There could be more vegans soon. Summative Revision  211


5

Work   4

WHAT YOU KNOW Work

Choose a word in the box which has a similar meaning. adaptable business demanding good salary responsible for  work 1 2 3 4 5 6

1

Complete the table with the jobs in the box.

2

Desk jobs

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1 being / I / of / a / like / charge / in / team / large _______________________________________ 2 big / for / me / working / projects / is / on / stressful _______________________________________ 3 writer / such / a / is / being / creative / a / job _______________________________________ 4 with / job / for / I / looking / career / am / a / prospects _______________________________________ 5 hopes / work / the / in / entertainment / she / industry / to _______________________________________ 6 aren’t / jobs, / so / many / competitive / very / it’s / there _______________________________________

6

Complete with in, for or on. 1 I work ____________ my parents at their ice-cream shop every summer. 2 The architect has been working ____________ a new building in the city centre. 3 He’s been working ___________ the publishing industry for years. He’s a great editor. 4 She doesn’t like her job as a lawyer, but she does it ___________ the money. 5 My friend was working ___________ an exciting project when she lost her job. 6 I used to work ___________ the office five days a week, but now I work from home on Tuesdays.

Retail (Sales)

Which people often work together? Match the jobs. 1 doctor a police officer 2 lawyer b paramedic waiter 3 firefighter c 4 salesperson d manager 5 office worker e nurse shop manager 6 chef f

VOCABULARY Work   3

> SB p. 61

Choose the correct option. 1 If you don’t have many qualifications, your career prospects / working hours are limited. 2 My job as a doctor is rewarding, but it’s often also demanding / well-paid. 3 Her job is competitive / flexible. She can work whatever hours she wants. 4 Julia’s got a new job, she’s in charge of / on ten people now. 5 He has been in the film factory / industry for over twenty years. 6 Being a paramedic is stressful / creative. I work long / short hours and make difficult decisions every day.

212  Unit 5  Work

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

5

accountant chief executive firefighter lawyer paramedic  police officer  sales assistant  shop manager Emergency services

stressful industry flexible job well-paid in charge of


Vocabulary & Word Building   7

Complete with the words in the box. employees employer full-time job part-time temporary work 1 ____________ work is something you do for a short period. 2 All the ____________ in my company are very happy because they are treated well. 3 I can only work ____________ in the evenings as I study during the day. 4 I ____________ in the hospitality industry: my ____________ is restaurant manager. 5 British workers do an average of 35 hours in a ____________ job. 6 My ____________ was very understanding when I had to take 6 weeks sick-leave from my job.

8

Write answers that are true for you. 1 In the future, what industry would you like to work in? _______________________________________ 2 Would you prefer to work part-time or have flexible hours? Why/why not? _______________________________________ 3 What’s the most important thing for you when considering a career? _______________________________________ 4 What jobs wouldn’t you like to do and why? _______________________________________ 5 Would you consider taking a temporary job abroad? Why/Why not? _______________________________________ 6 What are your ultimate career aims? _______________________________________

Expand your vocabulary   9

Read the article and find a synonym in bold for each expression. 1 do manual work ____________ 2 be self-employed ____________ 3 an office job with regular hours ____________ 4 divide weekly work hours with another person ____________ 5 end work before the usual age ____________ 6 work with no career prospects ____________ 7 be unhappy in an office job ____________ 8 a job you stay in throughout the period you work ____________

5

Changing work patterns In the past we left school or college and got a nine-to-five job, which we often did until taking early retirement when we stopped working altogether. But things have changed radically in recent decades. People no longer have a job for life, but change jobs, employers and even careers several times. If you feel you are in a dead-end job with little or no career prospects, there are several different option available. You can be your own boss and start your own business. You can do a job-share with somebody else, and find time to get more qualifications or turn a hobby into a job, maybe working with your hands so you are no longer stuck behind a desk. The possibilities are endless!

WORD BUILDING Ways of seeing

> SB p. 64

10 Choose the correct option.

1 I hadn’t seen Javier for years – I hardly recognised / identified him. 2 Over a two-month period, researchers observed / spotted schoolchildren in three different countries. 3 I didn’t have time to read the report in detail – I only glanced / caught at it. 4 Has the driver of the vehicle been noticed / identified yet? He was caught / recognised on CCTV. 5 Ann’s leaving work early – I just observed / spotted her getting into her car. 6 We suddenly noticed / recognised that the door had been left open. 7 It was only by chance that I observed / spotted you in the crowd. I had been looking for you in a completely different place. 8 We didn’t glance / notice the mistake until it was too late.

Unit 5  Work  213


5 Grammar Verb patterns 1

> SB p. 63

3

Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Complete the sentences about yourself. 1 I regret/don’t regret ________________________ ______________________________________. 2 I always remember _________________________ ______________________________________. 3 My friends and I don’t like ____________________ ______________________________________. 4 I stopped ____________ when I was ___________ ______________________________________. 5 This year I’m trying to _______________________ ______________________________________. 6 I often pretend to __________________________ ______________________________________.

Present & past modal verbs

Office workers often have to get used to (1) ____________ (spend) all day in front of their computers. But many of them don’t mind (2) ____________ (sit) at their desks, (3) ____________ (send) emails and (4) ____________ (talk) on the phone. Some people even manage (5)____________ (go) outside during their lunch break. In fact, they’d like (6) ____________ (spend) more time outdoors, but they can’t. People with outdoor jobs often dislike (7) ____________ (work) in the winter. Some of them even hope (8) ____________ (find) office jobs so they can be more comfortable. But then they realise that they would miss (9) ____________ (be) in the fresh air. 2

Complete with the correct form of the verbs in the box. be give miss send solve talk tell work 1 Would you mind ____________ me directions to City Hall? 2 I can’t afford ____________ another day of work. 3 We all pretended____________ really busy when the boss walked in. 4 Please stop ____________ me how to do my job! 5 How did you end up ____________ here? 6 Thankfully, we managed ____________ the problem. 7 Do you enjoy ____________ to new people? 8 Don’t forget ____________ that email to our new customer!

214  Unit 5  Work

> SB p. 66

4

Read the sentences and write A (ability), B (possibility), C (advice) or D (prohibition). 1 Can you send an application after the closing date? __ 2 Do you think she’ll be able to help with the project? __ 3 I could pay for lunch if you like. __ 4 I think you ought to ask him for help with your CV. __ 5 Ron couldn’t take a day off because he didn’t have enough holiday. __ 6 She isn’t allowed to use the phone at work. __ 7 Should I ask her for an interview? __ 8 You can cook really well! __

5

Match the sentences to form eight mini-dialogues. 1 I’m hungry. 2 Can you come with us to the festival tomorrow? 3 Does Rory know about the party? 4 Can you help me with my maths homework? 5 I need to lose a bit of weight. 6 Do you think I should apologise to my sister? 7 What are you doing tomorrow? 8 Ooh, that salad looks delicious. a b c d e f g h

I’m not sure. We may go to the festival at the park. No, and you mustn’t tell him – it’s a surprise! No, I can’t. I have to work. Sure, no problem! Yes. You ought to call her right away. You can’t eat it now – it’s for the party. You should eat less chocolate then! You should try this melon – it’s really fresh!


Grammar 6

7

Rewrite each sentence in the present form. 1 We weren’t allowed to talk in class unless the teacher asked us to. _______________________________________ 2 We couldn’t miss more than three lessons during the term. _______________________________________ 3 He didn’t have to tell his teacher if he wasn’t going to be in class. _______________________________________ 4 They could talk to their friends after the lesson. _______________________________________ 5 I needed to borrow the car to drive to work. _______________________________________ 6 Thomas had to finish the report before 5 p.m. _______________________________________ 7 I couldn’t go to Nairobi with Jemma. _______________________________________ 8 She had to work, so she wasn’t able to go to the museum with us. _______________________________________ Complete with a modal verb in the box. The words in brackets will help you. can  doesn’t have to  isn’t allowed to  might mustn’t need to should shouldn’t 1 We ____________ clean our apartment before the party. (necessity) 2 You ____________ bother watching that show – it was really boring. (advice) 3 She completed the training, so now she ____________ use the new equipment. (permission) 4 John ____________ wear a suit to work: it’s optional. (no obligation) 5 We ____________ forget our tickets when we leave for the airport. (prohibition) 6 You ____________ hear Sam play the drums – he’s really good! (advice) 7 He hasn’t passed his driving test so he ____________ drive on the motorway. (prohibition) 8 If Raul has enough holiday, he ____________ be able to travel to Sri Lanka next year. (future possibility)

Modal verbs for deduction

5

> SB p. 67

8

Rewrite the sentences using present modal verbs for deduction: can’t be, might be, could be, must be. 1 She isn’t 18: that’s impossible. She looks younger. She can’t be 18. She looks younger. _______________________________________ 2 It’s possible that he’s late because of traffic. _______________________________________ 3 I’m sure they are our new neighbours. _______________________________________ 4 It’s possible Mum is angry – look at her face! _______________________________________ 5 This isn’t the right building – it’s empty. _______________________________________ 6 I’m certain he’s a policeman – he’s wearing a uniform. _______________________________________

9

Now rewrite the sentences in Ex. 8 in the past form. 1 She can’t have been 18. She looked younger. _______________________________________ 2 _______________________________________ 3 _______________________________________ 4 _______________________________________ 5 _______________________________________ 6 _______________________________________

10 Make deductions about the photo below. Use can’t/

might/must + be and can’t/might/must + have + past participle. Think about: • what their relationship is; • where they are; • what has happened; • how they feel.

_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

Unit 5  Work  215


5 Competences READING 1

Think first Look at the photo and read the title. Answer the questions. Then read the text quickly and check your answers. 1 Which animals do you think conservationists protect in India? 2 What problems can there be between people and wild animals?

A wild job 1 5

2

Her father, one of India’s most well-known conservationists and tiger experts, started taking her into the jungle with him when she was just a year old. She spotted her first leopard in the wild at the age of two. By the time she was eight, she was going along on expeditions to track tigers. Today, conservation scientist Krithi Karanth works to help some of the world’s most familiar species, including tigers and Asian elephants, to coexist with the approximately one billion people who live on the Indian subcontinent. A lot of of India’s wildlife* lives in protected national parks, but because humans and wildlife must share space along park borders, conflicts are inevitable. As Krithi says, ‘There is less and less space for wildlife people are forced to be in closer contact with wild animals.’ Krithi, a National Geographic Explorer, is looking for ways to address conflicts between wildlife conservation efforts and local communities that are affected by wild animals, particularly tigers and elephants.

3

10

15

4 20

5

25

As part of that effort, Krithi and other researchers initially surveyed nearly 2,000 families within 10 kilometres of a nature reserve. They found that about 65% of those families had suffered damage to crops by wild pigs and elephants, while another 15% lost animals to tigers, leopards, foxes and wild dogs. Krithi also found cases of human injury or death caused by the animals that the reserves are protecting. While the Indian government compensates Indian citizens for losses caused by protected wildlife, the process can be complicated for farmers and compensation is sometimes not enough. As a result, according to one of Krithi’s colleagues: ‘the level of distrust* between conservation officers and local villagers is extremely high.’ Wild Seve, an action-based research project which Krithi helped create, is hoping to help. The Wild Seve project teaches farmers and local people to use mobile-phone technology to report and hopefully resolve conflicts with wildlife. After an attack, or damage, villagers are encouraged to call a free phone number and can leave a voice message with details about the incident. Staff from Wild Seve then visit the site, view and document the damage, report it for the farmer and make sure the farmer is compensated. A wildlife conservation scientist must be flexible enough to work long hours both outside and in a lab or office. He or she must be comfortable with sophisticated technology and with sleeping in a tent or on the ground. It’s not an extremely well-paid job and it’s very demanding, but it can be an extremely satisfying career for someone who loves wildlife and the outdoors. Krithi is passing her passion for wildlife on to her own child who spotted her first leopard at the age of four. ‘We were with my parents, and all three generations of us sat in absolute silence, taking in the moment, watching this amazing leopard. There are not enough words to describe that memory.’ wildlife fauna selvatica distrust diffidenza, sfiducia

2

Are the statements true (T), false (F) or is the information not given (NG)? 1 Krithi Karanth spotted her first leopard when she was only a year old. 2 People and wildlife are in conflict in India because the animals have less space. 3 About 65% of families lost valuable animals as a result of conflicts with wildlife. 4 The Indian government is looking for ways to move elephants involved in conflicts with villagers. 5 Elephants in India do more damage than wild pigs. 6 A wildlife conservation scientist must know how to use technology and how to survive outside in wild areas.

216  Unit 5  Work


Competences 3

Read the text again and answer the questions. Use no more than three words. 1 Who made Krithi Karanth first become interested in wildlife conservation? _______________________ 2 According to paragraph 2, what is limited for people and wildlife? ______________________________ 3 According to paragraph 3, what percentage of the families surveyed had had their animals killed by wild animals? _________________________________ 4 How do villagers report conflicts with wild animals? _______________________________________ 5 Where must you work if you are a wildlife conservation scientist? _______________________ 6 What is Kirthi passing on to her own children? _______________________________________

4

Choose the correct option. 1 Krithi Karanth first ___________ a leopard in the wild at the age of two. A caught C photographed B observed D rescued 2 Krithi and other researchers are ___________ for ways to help humans and animals avoid conflict. A listening  B looking  C noticing  D recognising 3 Researchers ___________ to identify families that had suffered losses after conflicts with wildlife. A didn’t need C were able B don’t have D were allowed 4 The Wild Seve project teaches people to ___________ situations of conflict with wildlife. A report C compensate B encourage D call 5 Wildlife conservation in India is not a ___________ job. A demanding C part-time B full-time D well-paid

LISTENING Listening Tips • Think of useful words and expressions related to key vocabulary before you listen. • Imagine you are talking about your job and think about how you would describe it. 5

09 Listen and write the correct job next to each speaker.

accountant architect chef lawyer nurse teacher Speaker 1 ___________ Speaker 2 ___________ Speaker 3 ___________

6

7

5

Listen again and complete the missing information. 1 I ________________________. I take blood, give medicines and assist the doctors. 2 I love maths and ________________________ so that other people can understand. 3 ________________________ to do my job. I give legal advice to people who need it. 4 I work in a restaurant, where ________________________. I make sure all the food we serve is excellent. 5 ________________________. My job is to help people manage their finances. 6 I help people build their perfect home. ________________________ and I design a house that is good for their family. 09

You will hear a man talking about service animals, and about a specific dog called Gavin. Listen and choose the correct option. 1 Which animals are mentioned as ‘service animals’? A dogs and sheep C dogs and monkeys B dogs and cats D dogs and horses 2 What jobs does the speaker say that service animals do? Choose THREE options. A control other farm animals B assist blind and deaf people C help children D provide transportation 3 What was Gavin’s previous job? A working for the military B working for the police C controlling other animals D guiding blind people 4 What was Gavin’s biggest problem? A He was afraid of other dogs. B He was afraid of loud noise. C He was aggressive. D He needed a new job. 5 What did Millan do for Gavin? A He taught him to stay calm. B He gave him a new purpose in life. C He taught him to be with other dogs. D He protected the dog from people. 10

GAVIN

Speaker 4 ___________ Speaker 5 ___________ Speaker 6 ___________ Unit 5  Work  217


6

Superhuman   4

WHAT YOU KNOW The human body

Are the things in the box inside the body (internal) or outside (external)? Complete the table. Then write three more words in each column. back backbone eyebrow fingernail intestines liver ribs skin vein wrist Internal

Vitruvian man by L. Da Vinci

1

5

Choose the word that is NOT related to each of the five senses. 1 taste tongue / flavour / vein 2 touch cell / skin / nerves 3 smell nose / ribs / food 4 hearing ear / blood / sound 5 sight skeleton / eyes / brain

6

Choose the correct option. 1 Everyone has red and white blood cells / vessels in their body. 2 The lungs help bring bacteria / oxygen into the body. 3 The tongue is important for a person’s sense of touch / taste. 4 Babies’ bones don’t beat / break quite as easily as adults’. 5 There are over 200 bones in a human skeleton / digestive system. 6 Muscles / Cells are tissues in the body that help you move. 7 If you find it difficult to digestion / breathe, you should see a doctor immediately. 8 We sweat through our skin / lungs to help control the temperature of our bodies.

7

Write answers that are true for you. 1 Have you ever broken a bone? Which one? _______________________________________ 2 Which is your strongest sense? _______________________________________ 3 Which other sense would you like to strengthen? Why? _______________________________________ 4 What do you eat to look after your skin and hair? _______________________________________ 5 What do you do to keep your brain active? _______________________________________ 6 What do you do to protect your eyes and skin in the summer? _______________________________________

Put the words in the box in order from the highest part of the body (1) to the lowest part (8). ankle chest foot head knee neck shoulder stomach 1 2 3 4

2

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

5 6 7 8

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Complete the words about health. 1 Feeling ill in a moving boat. s______ 2 A cold is an example of this, which can’t be cured with medicine. v____ 3 This mustn’t be too high or too low: 36 degrees is perfect. t__________ 4 A feeling that you have in a part of your body when you are ill or hurt. p___ 5 A person who comes to a doctor for help. p______

VOCABULARY The human body   3

> SB p. 71

Match each part of the body to its function. 1 heart 4 brain 2 skeleton 5 skin 3 blood vessel 6 lungs a b c d e f

supports the body pumps blood to your organs carries blood to different parts of the body protects the body from the environment allow air into and out of the body controls the body

218  Unit 6  Superhuman

External


Vocabulary & Word Building Expand your vocabulary

8

What your body language says about you

6

Read the text and match the gestures in bold to the emotions below. 1 agreement / approval: ________________ 2 anger / irritation: ________________ 3 confusion / embarrassment: ________________ 4 congratulations / sympathy: ________________ 5 disagreement / disapproval: ________________ 6 getting somebody’s attention: ________________ 7 indifference: ________________ 8 stress / anxiety: ________________ 9 surprise / shock: ________________

WORD BUILDING Permission & possibility   9

> SB p. 74

Complete the sentences with the verbs in the box. allows enable help lets save stop

Humans communicate with each other through words and language, but they also say many more things through their body language. For example, in the UK you nod your head up and down when you agree or approve of something, and shake your head from side to side when you disagree or disapprove. Thumbs up and thumbs down also fall into these two categories. If you are surprised or shocked you tend to raise your eyebrows, while if you are embarrassed or confused you look down, turn away or blink your eyes. Biting your lip can also express stress or anxiety. You clear your throat with a kind of false cough to get another’s attention and also to warn them about difficult or potentially embarrassing situations. And if you give someone a pat on the back that can mean you are congratulating them, but also that you are sympathising with them. You can express anger or irritation by crossing your arms or rolling your eyes, but if our feelings become stronger you might put your hands on our hips or clench your fists. Shrugging your shoulders, on the other hand, can indicate you either don’t know something or you don’t care about something. The only problem with these gestures is that they vary from country to country and from culture to culture!

1 I can lend you a map if you like – that will _________ you from buying one. 2 This piece of equipment _________ you to make several recordings at the same time. 3 I wrote down the names of all the characters to _________ myself getting confused. 4 It makes things easier and _________ me concentrate on what’s important. 5 If that box is too heavy for you then I’ll _________ you carry it upstairs. 6 Extremely sensitive fingertips _________ the robotic hand to pick up tiny objects.  10 Write the verbs from Ex. 9 in the correct categories.

1 _________ / _________ someone to do something 2 _________ / _________ someone do something 3 _________ / _________ someone from doing something  11

Write answers that are true for you. 1 What does your smartphone or tablet enable you to do? _______________________________________ 2 What don’t your teachers allow you to do? _______________________________________ 3 If you have a lot of homework, what does it stop you from doing? _______________________________________ 4 What was the last thing your parents didn’t let you do? Why didn’t they let you do it? _______________________________________ 5 What things could you do that might help you get better marks at school? _______________________________________ Unit 6  Superhuman  219


6 Grammar Zero & First conditional   1

> SB pp. 72–73

3

Complete the First conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If you _________ (not stay) away from me, you _________ (catch) my cold. 2 You _________ (feel) much healthier if you _________ (drink) plenty of water every day. 3 Germs _________ (enter) your body if you _________ (touch) your nose and eyes. 4 If she _________ (bite) her nails, she _________ (introduce) germs into her mouth. 5 Your immune system _________(improve) significantly if you _________ (eat) more vegetables. 6 If elderly people _________ (not get) a ‘flu vaccination, they _________(not be) protected against the virus. 7 You _________ (break) a leg if you _________ (not be) careful when you ski. 8 _________ (you / look) after the dog if the vet _________ (send) it back home this afternoon, please?

4

Write answers that are true for you. 1 What do you do if you have a headache? _______________________________________ 2 When do you stay home from school? _______________________________________ 3 How do you deal with toothache? _______________________________________ 4 What will you do if you get sunburnt? _______________________________________ 5 What will you do if you can’t sleep tonight? _______________________________________

Complete the Zero conditional sentences with the verbs in the box. feel recover see take treat wash

1 _________ a doctor if your temperature is very high. 2 You should _________ the infection right away if you recognise the symptoms. 3 If you get the correct treatment, you _________ very quickly. 4 Go to bed if you _________ so unwell! 5 A headache usually goes away if you _________ an aspirin. 6 If you _________ your hands frequently, you reduce the chance of infection.   2

Zero or First conditional sentences? Choose the correct option. 1 You will get better quickly if your doctor treats / should treat your illness. 2 If that virus gets into your body, it will destroy / destroys your blood cells. 3 You injure / ’ll injure yourself if you aren’t careful! 4 If you want to reduce his temperature, give / gives him an aspirin. 5 If we avoid areas with lots of mosquitoes, we probably don’t / won’t catch malaria. 6 You’ll damage your lungs if you breathe / will breathe in poisonous chemicals. 7 Will wear / Wear insect repellent if you want to prevent mosquito bites. 8 Scientists will find a cure for cancer if they will continue / continue doing research.

220  Unit 6  Superhuman

Second conditional; if only & wish > SB pp. 76–77   5

Add a comma (,) where necessary. 1 I would be really disappointed if I didn’t pass. 2 If we won the match we would be the champions. 3 If I improved my English I could get a job in London. 4 I could answer questions in the lesson if I did the homework. 5 I’d know what to do if I listened to his advice. 6 If Marcy took a holiday she might feel more relaxed.


Grammar   6

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. 1 slim / I / be / chocolate / if / I / would / less / ate _______________________________________ 2 you / if only / I / talk / could / to / right now _______________________________________ 3 could / if / the chemist’s / were / she / her medicine / collect / open, _______________________________________ 4 Oslo / I / lived / in / wish / I _______________________________________ 5 if / they’d / every day / didn’t / be worried / she / call _______________________________________ 6 I’d / if / I / teeth / had / clean / a toothbrush, / my _______________________________________

7

Complete with the correct Second conditional form of the words in brackets. 1 What _____________________ (we /do) if someone _____________________ (steal) our new car? 2 I _____________________ (not help) John with his homework even if he _____________________ (pay) me! 3 We _____________________ (have to) work a lot harder if we _____________________ (have) Mr Jones as our French teacher. 4 Why _____________________ (Silvia / not answer) when the teacher _____________________ (ask) her the question? 5 If only we _____________________ (speak) better English. Then we _____________________ (not have to) work so hard!

8

9

6

There is a mistake in each sentence. Rewrite them correcting the words in bold. 1 He’d be exhausted if he would ran the London Marathon. _______________________________________ 2 If only I didn’t had to tell you this. _______________________________________ 3 You could win the competition if you would practise every day. _______________________________________ 4 She call an ambulance if it was an emergency. _______________________________________ 5 If only could I write fantastic novels like J. K. Rowling. _______________________________________ 6 If you ate more vegetables, you will have more energy. _______________________________________

10 Complete the sentences with your own ideas. Use the

Second conditional. 1 If I had all the money in the world, ______________ ______________________________________. 2 If the day had thirty hours, ____________________ ______________________________________. 3 I wish I had _______________________________ ______________________________________. 4 If my teachers were ________________________ ______________________________________. 5 If only I could _____________________________ ______________________________________. 6 If I lived in a bigger city, ______________________ ______________________________________.

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the word in brackets. 1 I’d leave now and visit you if I didn’t have a lesson. _________________ were free I could come and visit you now. (ONLY) 2 If I owned a sports car, I could get to school in three minutes. I had a sports car, I _________________ to get to school in three minutes. (ABLE) 3 If only I had long, blonde hair. _________________ long, blonde hair. (WISH) 4 We would live in the palace if my mother were queen. I wish _________________ queen and we lived in the palace. (WERE) 5 I’m not going to graduate tomorrow, but I want to. I wish _________________ tomorrow. (COULD) 6 She hasn’t got enough time, so she doesn’t write to him every week. If _________________ time, she’d write to him every week. (MORE) Unit 6  Superhuman  221


6 Competences READING   1

Think first Look at the photo and answer the questions before you read. Then read the article quickly and check your answers. 1 Have you heard of inventor Easton LaChappelle? 2 What do you think he invented?

An inventor

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Since he was a small child, Easton LaChappelle has been taking things apart and putting them back together again. At the age of fourteen, Easton made his first robotic hand from plastic Lego™ bricks, fishing line and electrical tubing. But that wasn’t good enough for Easton. In order to continue improving his invention, he taught himself to code. He learnt how to use a 3-D printer and work with complicated electronics and wireless communication technology. By the time he was sixteen, Easton had created a more sophisticated and much stronger robotic arm. It could throw balls, shake hands and do many of the things that humans do. Easton entered his robotic arm into a local science fair in Colorado. There, he met a seven-year old girl with a prosthetic arm and hand. He discovered that the prosthetic limb had cost over $80,000, despite the fact that it had very limited functionality. He realised that the girl would need several prosthetics during her life, and thought of the enormous expense she and her family would face. Easton calls that meeting his ‘Aha!’ moment. As he later explained, ‘This turned into something that started from boredom and became something that could change people’s lives.’ Easton then became interested in developing fully functional prosthetic limbs that people could afford*. He began experimenting with 3-D printers, silicone (for skin), motors and advanced technology, all in his bedroom! He found ways of using cheaper technology that functioned just as well as much more expensive equipment. ‘I really saw an opportunity to change this industry by creating a prosthetic that cost less than a thousand dollars.’ The latest version of Easton’s prosthetic limb uses a wireless headset that works with ten different channels of the brain. The technology is so effective that it caught the attention of NASA: Easton is now working with them on the ‘Robonaut’, a robot that copies human movements and performs tasks and duties too dangerous for astronauts. If everything goes as planned, NASA hopes that the Robonaut will eventually become a working member of the space crew. With some friends, Easton has also started a company called ‘Unlimited Tomorrow’. One of their projects involves designing and developing exoskeletons that will allow paraplegics to walk again. This is a personal goal for Easton, who knows a young man from his school who became a paraplegic as the result of an accident. Easton would like to help him achieve something that seems simple to most of us. ‘My goal is to create an exoskeleton pair of legs for him so he can actually walk for graduation.’ afford permettersi (a livello economico)

2

Read the text and match a title to each paragraph (1–5). D A very personal goal A ‘Aha!’ moment E Changing an industry B A young inventor’s beginnings C Easton goes to NASA

222  Unit 6  Superhuman


Competences   3

b c d e   4

5 What does the doctor want Kevin to follow very carefully? A the instructions for antibiotics B a healthy diet 6 If Kevin still feels bad, when should he make another appointment? A in one week  B in two weeks

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 Easton taught himself to code 2 Easton had an ‘Aha!’ moment 3 While developing a prosthetic limb, 4 If everything goes as planned, 5 One of Easton’s personal goals a

6

when he met a girl with a prosthetic arm at a local science fair. in order to continue improving his invention. is to help a student at his school walk for graduation. Easton’s work will be included in NASA’s Robonaut project. Easton saw an opportunity to change an industry.

Complete the definitions with the words in the box. brain functional headset skeleton skin sophisticated 1 The _________ is the natural outer covering of a body. 2 The _________ is the organ of the body that controls thoughts and feelings. 3 _________ describes a machine or system that works in a clever way. 4 The _________ is the structure that supports the body of a person or animal. 5 A _________ is a piece of equipment that you wear over your ears with a part that you can speak into. 6 _________ describes something that is designed to be good at doing a particular job.

LISTENING Listening Tip When you listen, you may understand the content better if you know whether a person is being serious, funny, dramatic and so on. Pay attention to the speaker’s tone of voice and intonation.   5

Listen to a doctor leaving a voicemail message for a patient, Kevin. Choose the correct answer to each question. 1 What does Dr Jacobs say he has received? A some test results B a message from the hospital 2 What illness does Dr Jacobs say that Kevin has? A an allergy   B an infection 3 What does the doctor say about the illness? A It is very unusual.  B It isn’t serious. 4 Where does the doctor want Kevin to go? A to the hospital  B to the pharmacy 11

6

7

12 Listen to James, a young man who has no arms, talking about his life. Choose the best title for the talk. A Not normal, but OK B No arms, amazing feet C Hard to deal with

12 Listen to James again. Choose the correct option(s). 1 Which THREE things does James say he does with his feet? A He eats. D He cleans his teeth. B He cooks. E He plays video games. C He gets dressed. 2 What comes naturally to James? A using his feet like hands B answering lots of questions C asking for help sometimes 3 Which statement is true? A He never needs help. B He sometimes needs help. C He doesn’t like help. 4 What does James think is very important? A to be helpful B to be adaptable C to be acceptable 5 What is hard for James to deal with? A teachers who don’t know him B getting to know people C people who judge him 6 What is James’ message for all of us? A explain yourself B accept yourself C admire yourself

Unit 6  Superhuman  223


Summative Revision 5-6 VOCABULARY

4

Revision of describing work, responsibilities and skills; the human body; ways of seeing; verbs describing ability.   1

Stop hospital infections! In order to stop infections (1) _________ spreading in hospitals it’s important to follow this advice. Patients and visitors should: • (2) _________ areas of risk and (3) _________ them by always washing hands and removing outer clothing to (4) _________ the spread of infections. Medical practitioners should: • (5) _________ any areas of danger and take action to (6) _________ the spread of infection by wearing gloves, disinfecting and keeping surfaces clean at all times.

Write the opposites. easy employed full-time low-paid permanent relaxing 1 2 3 4 5 6

2

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

1 2 3 4 5 6

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 After he lost his job, 2 Being a chief executive is well-paid, 3 I love being a writer 4 The newspaper industry is changing 5 Acting is competitive because 6 I am very busy at home, a b c d e f

3

temporary part-time out of work demanding well-paid challenging

but it is also very demanding. because I can be creative. he was out of work for six months. so I’d prefer a part-time job. so many people want to do it. because people often get their news online.

Complete the doctor’s advice with the words in the box. bacteria digestion foods muscles nutrients system You’re feeling ill because of problems with your digestive (1) _________. You’re eating too many processed things. It’s important to eat a variety of (2) _________ full of (3) _________. Your organs and (4) _________ need these to stay healthy. You should also eat more yoghurt to get plenty of (5) _________ into your stomach: this sounds bad but actually it’s good! When you do this, your (6) _________ will improve and you’ll feel much better, too.

224  Summative Revision

Choose the best option to complete the text.

A from A catch A avoid A let A allow A catch

B of B enable B help B prevent B notice B help

C to C recognise C identify C spot C save C stop

GRAMMAR Revision of verb + -ing / verb + to; present & past modal verbs; modal verbs for deduction; Zero, First & Second conditionals; If only & wish.   5

Choose the correct option. 1 I’m planning to look / looking for a part-time job when I can finally drive. 2 I’d consider to work / working at a shopping centre. 3 I’ve spent hours to apply / applying for jobs online and asking / to ask my friends if they know of any. 4 I haven’t managed to get / getting any interviews so far. 5 I hope to find / finding a job sometime soon because I really need the money. 6 My friends invited me to travel / travelling across Spain with them. 7 We want to fly / flying to Barcelona and visit some friends there. 8 I’ll keep to look / looking for a job until I find one that I really like.


Summative Revision   6

7

Choose the correct option. 1 You can _________ me anything. I won’t be angry. A to ask  B had asked  C asking  D ask 2 Scientists _________ tell us a lot about climate change. A should to  B ought  C aren’t able to  D can 3 You might _________ that new exhibition at the art gallery. A like  B to like  C liking  D had liked 4 Natalie _________ come on holiday with us last year. A may  B couldn’t  C wasn’t able  D didn’t need 5 You _________ study in India – it would be such an interesting experience. A are able  B might to  C should  D shouldn’t 6 You should _________ at least two new languages. A learn  B to learn  C learning  D learn to 7 _________ I ask you about your job? A Should to  B Be able to  C Ought  D Can 8 He_________ got the job - he looks very pleased! A can’t have  B could have  C must have  D should have Read the situation and the question in each case. Then complete the answer. 1 Carl would buy his mother that scarf if she liked bright colours. Why isn’t Carl going to buy his mother that scarf? Because she __________________________. 2 If Maddie liked fish, Zach would recommend that new restaurant. Does Maddie like fish? _________, she _________. 3 Annie and Marcus could take an Italian class together if Annie liked learning languages. Why aren’t Marcus and Annie going to learn Italian together? Because __________________________. 4 Lily said, ‘I wish I could climb Mount Everest.’ Is Lily able to climb Mount Everest? _________, she _________. 5 Danny could go to the theatre with me if he didn’t have to work. Does Danny have to work? _________, he _________. Can Danny go to the theatre? _________, he _________ . 6 If Natalie didn’t have a cold, she would play tennis with us tomorrow. Does Natalie have a cold? _________, she _________. Is Natalie going to play tennis tomorrow? _________, she _________.

8

Complete the First conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 If you _________ (increase) how much you exercise that you do, you _________(begin) to lose weight. 2 You _________ (not get) injured if you _________ (warm up) before you exercise, but you don’t! 3 If you _________(end up) up in hospital, the staff _________(take) good care of you. 4 Don’t worry the nurse _________(tell) you if she _________(observe) any changes - but she hasn’t! 5 You _________(not get) dehydrated if you _________ (remember) to drink water. 6 Your condition _________(not improve) unless you _________(follow) your doctor’s instructions.

9

Complete the mini-dialogues with suitable responses using the Second conditional. 1 A I can’t come shopping because I haven’t got enough time. B ________________________ if you had more time? 2 A Sally’s thinking about moving to Greece! B Really? I think I’d miss her a lot if __________________________. 3 A I’ve got a really bad sore throat. B I think __________________________ if you smoked less. 4 A My phone’s really old but I can’t afford a new one. B Well, if you had enough money, which __________________________? 5 A I’d love to go to Italy on holiday one day. B So would I. Somewhere like Venice or Florence. Which town __________________________?

Summative Revision  225


7

Shopping around   4

WHAT YOU KNOW

borrow brand browsing earn logo offer quality refund

Money & shopping   1

Choose the correct option. 1 This shirt doesn’t feel nice against my skin. The material /design is rough. 2 People don’t know how wonderful this new product is. We need to produce / advertise it better. 3 One reason computers are expensive is because they are difficult to manufacture / sell. 4 It’s hard to option / pick one of those perfumes – they all smell really nice. 5 Recycling / Throwing away plastic bags helps the environment and decreases waste. 6 In some cities, restaurants are creating / growing vegetables on their rooftops.

2

Read and complete the email with the correct form of words from Ex. 1.

Hi Sam, We’re having a wonderful time in New York City. The shopping is fantastic! There are billboards everywhere that (1) ___________ new products. Today, I bought a new jacket. The (2) ___________ is really soft and warm. The man who (3) ___________ it to me is a fashion designer. He uses (4) ___________ buttons and material from old jackets. He (5) ___________ all his clothes on a special computer programme, but they’re (6) ___________ in a small factory. I will certainly never (7) ___________ this jacket because I really love it! Can’t wait to show you – see you soon! Love, Kayo

VOCABULARY Money & shopping   3

Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

> SB pp. 87–88

Match the two parts of each expression. 1 afford to a something back 2 take b around someone money 3 shop c 4 lend d buy something 5 waste money e away on something 6 give something f

226  Unit 7  Shopping around

1 I don’t need any help, thanks. I’m just ____________. 2 My new phone stopped working after one week! I’m taking it back to get a ____________. 3 If you need to ____________ some money this month, I can help. 4 Andy’s new coat was really good value – it was cheap, but the ____________ is pretty good. 5 If people recognise the ____________, they might be more likely to buy the product. 6 Sometimes I buy winter clothes during the summer when they’re on special ____________. 7 Her goal is to find a job where she can ____________ a lot, so that she can travel. 8 That jacket looked almost the same as the cheaper one, but it had a familiar company ____________.   5

Complete the sentences with prepositions in the box. back for (x2) from in on to (x2) 1 He really wants that watch, but he doesn’t have enough to pay _____ it. 2 I don’t have my wallet right now – can I pay you _____ later? 3 Do you ever donate money _____ charity? 4 She inherited some money _____ her uncle. 5 If I had more money I would invest it _____ shares. 6 We’re saving _____ a holiday in Japan. 7 I hate seeing people waste money _____ expensive brands. 8 Maria often lends money_____ her friends - she’s really generous.

6

Write answers that are true for you. 1 How do you manage your money? Are you more of a saver or a spender? _______________________________________ 2 Are you more likely to lend or borrow money? _______________________________________ 3 Do you ever donate money to charity? Which one? _______________________________________ 4 If you buy something, then change your mind, what do you do? _______________________________________ 5 How do you feel when you get a good bargain? _______________________________________ 6 What are you most likely to waste money on? _______________________________________


Vocabulary & Word Building Expand your vocabulary   7

Match the two words of each expression related to shopping. Then read the text and check your answers. 1 click and store ____________ 2 contactless rooming ____________ 3 electronic commerce ____________ 4 social payments ____________ 5 mobile retailing ____________ 6 pop-up payments ____________ 7 voucher collect ____________ 8 web code ____________ Shopping innovations Nowadays there are many innovations which make shopping much quicker and easier than it once was. Click and collect is a service which enables shoppers to buy items online and pick them up in a physical shop when it’s most convenient. Electronic retailing goes a step further and only sell products over the Internet. They are delivered straight to your home. Examples include Amazon, ASOS or eBay. Social commerce uses social media to buy and sell things. Apart from the big electronic retailers mentioned above, there are also social shopping websites and apps like Motilo, Threadless or The Fancy. Pop-up-stores are also popular these days. They are temporary shops or sales spaces that come and go within a specific period, such as Christmas and in a specific space, such as a city square. How we shop has also changed in recent times. Many of us enjoy webrooming, browsing online before going to a physical shop. People often use Pinterest or Instagram for webrooming. How we pay has changed too, we often make mobile payments, using technology and no money, through apps like Apple Pay, Google Wallet or PayPal. You can also make contactless payments in shops, by waving the chip in any credit or debit cards, or your smart phone in front of a payment terminal. Voucher codes are also popular on our smartphones or when we checkout online. They are usually a string of text and, or numbers that a customer enters at checkout to obtain a special discount or offer.

7

WORD BUILDING Adverbs

> SB p. 90

Make adverbs out of these adjectives. 1 careful ___________ 2 fast ___________ 3 good ___________ 4 independent ___________ 5 occasional ___________ 6 perfect ___________ 7 professional ___________ 8 temporary ___________ 9 cheap ___________ 10 fortunate ___________

8

9

Now complete the sentences with an adverb from Ex. 8.

1 Why don’t you ever get your hair cut ____________ and stop doing it yourself? 2 Sorry, but the coffee machine is ____________ out of service. 3 I try not to eat too much chocolate, but I ____________ give myself a treat. 4 Slow down a little – you’re driving too ____________! 5 I love coming to this excellent ____________ -run café. 6 They serve these delicious fish dishes which are always ____________ cooked. 7 Choose your words ____________ – you don’t want to make her angry! 8 I always sleep ____________ after a long walk. 9 We can get to London ____________ if we go by coach instead of taking the car. 10 I thought I’d lost my mobile but ____________ it was in the bottom of my bag.

Unit 7  Shopping around  227


7 Grammar The passive (all tenses)

> SB pp. 88–89

1

Are the words in bold active (A) or passive (P)? 1 Cheaper brands can be found, but they are not as good as the more expensive ones. __ 2 I bought these shoes online, but I might return them. __ 3 Customers had sometimes been given the wrong information. __ 4 Was the money ever paid back? __ 5 Parents donated money to buy a new computer for the school. __ 6 These products are often manufactured in India. __ 7 I didn’t find a new pair of headphones because they didn’t have the ones I like. __ 8 Shoppers can pay full price if they don’t want to wait for the sale. __

2

Choose the correct option. 1 The way we spend our money is changed / has been changed by online shopping. 2 I wasn’t recommended / don’t recommend that department store: it’s really expensive. 3 One pound is donated / donates to charity every time the song plays / is played. 4 Was the money spend /spent on something useful? 5 My sister is sold / sells CDs she no longer wants on eBay. 6 The TV was returned / returned and the customer has been given / gave a full refund.

3

Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Use the tense given. 1 Students ________________ (give) the choice of using print or online textbooks. (Present perfect) 2 If the goods ________________, (damage) they can’t be returned. (Present simple) 3 The last pair ________________ (sell) just before we arrived. (Past perfect) 4 The smaller sizes ________________ (take) to the back of the shop. (Past simple) 5 ________________ all the orders ________________ (deliver) yet? (Present perfect) 6 A lot of sports equipment ________________ (manufacture) in China. (Present simple) 7 This dress ________________ (make) from recycled materials. (Present perfect) 8 There was no waste because nothing ________________ (throw away). (Past perfect)

228  Unit 7  Shopping around

4

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use the passive. 1 We sold the extra tickets at a reduced price. The extra tickets ___________________ at a reduced price. 2 They can repair the broken guitar quite easily. The broken guitar ___________________ quite easily. 3 The heavy rain had damaged his leather jacket. His leather jacket ___________________ by the heavy rain. 4 We have already returned the extra stock to the supplier. The extra stock ___________________ to the supplier. 5 Most of the shop assistants wear a uniform. A uniform ___________________ by most of the shop assistants. 6 They have sent a refund to every unhappy customer. A refund ___________________ to every unhappy customer.

5

Think about the clothes you are wearing today. Write passive sentences about them. Use some of the words in the box or your own ideas. buy damage deliver give manufacture make recycle repair sell throw away This beautiful dress was bought for me by my mum. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________


Grammar have/get something done

> SB p. 92

6

Write who did the action in bold. Write ‘don’t know’ if it isn’t clear. 1 The classroom was cold, so our teacher had the temperature increased. ____________ 2 Santosh got his phone fixed. ____________ 3 The music at the restaurant was too loud, so we got it turned down. ____________ 4 I have the newsletter delivered to my inbox every week. ____________ 5 We had our bags checked as we entered the stadium. ____________ 6 The company has every TV tested before it leaves the factory. ____________

7

Complete the sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets. 1 I _____________________ every three weeks. (have / hair / cut) 2 The Smith family _____________________ every summer. (have / a family portrait / take) 3 My gym _____________________ recently. (get / a new sound system / install) 4 Andy _____________________ for everyone at the meeting yesterday. (have / coffee and biscuits / bring) 5 I _____________________ today to see if I needed glasses. I hope they’re OK. (get / my eyes / check) 6 He usually _____________________ before each concert. (have / the piano / tune) 7 We _____________________ after we finish studying tomorrow. (have / pizza / deliver) 8 You should _____________________: it’s really dirty! (get / your car / wash)

8

Look at Nadia’s to-do list from yesterday. Write sentences with have/get something done. • • • • • •

new passport photo ✓ electrician here to fix lights – 3:00 ✓ phone > repair shop ✗ Sandy here to clean windows – midday ✓ haircut – 4:30 ✓ dentist (check-up) ✗

Reflexive & reciprocal pronouns   9

7

> SB p. 93

Read the sentences and decide which ones have reflexive pronouns (REF) and which have reciprocal pronouns (REC). 1 I bought myself some new clothes yesterday. _____ 2 My friend and are I always give each other Christmas presents. _____ 3 The company directors gave themselves big bonuses at the end of the financial year. _____ 4 We all need to teach ourselves how to save money. _____ 5 My dad hates eating out because he likes to cook all our meals himself. _____ 6 Good teachers and their students should respect each other. _____

10 Choose the correct option to complete the text about

life in a student house.

Life in a student house It can be fun to live with other students, but it can also be full of tension, so here are some simple tips to sharing a house: Household bills won’t pay (1) each other / themselves so talk to your housemates and try to agree a budget for things like water, gas and electricity bills with (2) each other / yourself and stick to it! Cooking and eating can also cause problems, so ask (3) yourselves / themselves if you are going to avoid sharing any food with your housemates and operate on a ‘feed- (4) each other / myself only’ basis, or whether you’d rather share (5) each other’s / themselves meals and cook together. Cleaning can lead to arguments too, so the best strategy is to make a rota or schedule. To set a good example, force (6) yourself / myself to do your share, so that each housemate will follow your lead and do the cleaning when it is his or her turn. Good luck!

1 ______________________________________ 2 ______________________________________ 3 ______________________________________ 4 ______________________________________ 5 ______________________________________ 6 ______________________________________ Unit 7  Shopping around  229


7 Competences READING   1

Think first Look at the photo and answer the following questions. 1 Where does your family usually shop for food and why? 2 Is it a weekly shop or more or less often? 3 Is it at the same time of day or at different times?

TRICKS OF THE TRADE: HOW SUPERMARKETS INFLUENCE SHOPPERS

1 2 3

Do you notice the music playing in the background when you’re shopping in a supermarket? Do you care how the fruit and vegetables are arranged? Though we may not realise it, most of us do pay attention to things like colour, sounds and even smells when we shop. Shopping for groceries in a supermarket is a good example of how shops manipulate your shopping experience in order to persuade you to buy more or to buy something you didn’t know you wanted. 5

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Once you’re in the door, the first thing you’ll see in most supermarkets is the fruit and vegetable department, packed with smells, colours and textures that make you feel both energised and hungry. This gives the supermarket a welcoming impression, a colourful place filled with natural foods that are fresh and good for you. The truth is that this department is the first of several carefully organised areas. Special lighting is used to make the fruit and vegetables on display appear bright and colourful. Even the mist* that periodically sprays produce in some supermarkets is only there for effect. Though it makes fruit and vegetables look as if they were picked that morning, the spray serves no practical purpose and rather than keeping them fresh, actually causes them to rot* more quickly than normal. Music also helps to keep shoppers browsing. One study found that people spend up to 34% longer shopping in shops that play music. That’s significant because research has also found that after about 40 minutes, people stop shopping rationally and carefully, and instead shop emotionally, buying things they hadn’t planned to buy.

4 5

Supermarkets want you to spend as much time as possible in the shop. They know that the longer you stay, the more you’ll see and want to buy, so while you’re there, they try to distract you to make you spend a little more money. How do they do it? For one thing, once you enter a supermarket, it is not always easy to get out again, and that’s not accidental. Most supermarkets have only one entrance. To find the way out, you’re forced to walk through quite a lot of the shop, past tempting displays* of goods for sale.

Another trick involves the placement of goods for sale. In most supermarkets, the more expensive items are kept on shelves at eye level, where they’re easily seen and reached. Bargain or cheaper brands are placed closer to the floor, so that you have to bend down to get them. The displays at the ends of aisles*, known as ‘endcaps’, are also designed to catch your eye and convince you to buy the items placed there. Researchers have found that products placed on endcaps sell eight times faster than they would if put in a different part of the shop! What can you do to avoid spending all afternoon buying things you didn’t think you wanted? If you want to get your shopping done efficiently, make a list and stick to it! Don’t go shopping when you’re hungry or because you’re bored. And keep your eyes and ears open. Don’t let a shop trick you into buying something you don’t need!

230  Unit 7  Shopping around

displays esposizioni mist nebbiolina, pioggerellina rot marcire aisles corridoi, corsie


Competences   2

3

Read the statements. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or is the information not given (NG)? 1 Supermarkets and other shops know how to manipulate your shopping experience. 2 Supermarkets would like you to spend as little time as possible in the shop. 3 Some supermarkets only sell organic, naturally-grown produce. 4 Special lights are used to make supermarket fruit and vegetables look attractive. 5 After about 40 minutes of shopping, people begin to buy things they hadn’t planned to buy. 6 ‘Endcaps’ are used to display products that the shop doesn’t want to sell.

Listening Tip When you listen, pay attention to words that sound similar but have different meanings. Avoid confusion by listening for common collocations and thinking about the context.

13 Listen to seven sentences. Which word or expression do you hear in each one? 1 pay for / pay off 5 brand / company 2 bargain / donation 6 sold in / sold out 3 borrow / browse 7 save for / shop around 4 logo / lend

1

Listen to three mini-dialogues. Which item are they talking about in each dialogue? 14

A

B

C

B

C

B

C

2

A

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. 1 Whether or not we know it, most of us do pay attention to how things are ____________ in a supermarket. A arranged B bought C stored D wanted 2 Supermarkets want shoppers to ____________ as much time as possible in the shop. A browse B pay C shop D spend 3 Supermarkets make sure that they arrange fruit and vegetables very ____________. A carefully B emotionally C naturally D quickly 4 Research has found that music encourages shoppers to spend more time ____________ in shops. A singing B listening C browsing D talking 5 Expensive brands are put where they’re more ____________ seen and reached. A completely B easily C normally D rationally 6 You should make a list if you want to shop ___________. A cheaply C successfully B efficiently D unemotionally

LISTENING

4

5

3

A

6

7

7

14

Listen again and tick (✓) the sentences you

hear. 1 Have you ever had it cleaned? 2 You can put it in the dryer. 3 Wow! I really like that. It looks great. 4 I bought it in a charity shop. 5 It’s in perfect condition – that’s why I like it so much. 6 How about that one? 7 I was looking for something a bit more sophisticated. 8 I’m gonna try it on.

Listen and complete the sentences. Each one uses the expression have / get something done. 1 They ___________ the pool ___________ every spring. 2 We ___________ the parcel ___________ to a different address. 3 I need to ___________ my laptop___________. 4 You should ___________ your fence ___________, it would look so much better. 5 Penny ___________ her dog ___________ while she’s at work. 6 Max ___________ the brakes ___________ before he bought the car. 15

Unit 7  Shopping around  231


8

Effective communication 3 It’s important to give / pay attention in class. 4 We won’t be able to send / tell texts while we’re travelling. 5 You can share / take photos on the new website. 6 Using social media is a great way to get across / connect with new people, but person-to-person contact is better!

WHAT YOU KNOW Effective communication

1

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 I can’t leave my office 2 I’ll probably be driving then, 3 She sent me a message 4 My dad can’t text, 5 You need to speak louder 6 If you need to talk to me, a b c d e f

2

Which option does NOT collocate with the verb? 1 pay attention / a fine / a text 2 get connection / distracted / into an argument 3 make connections / friends / messages 4 respond to a text / to a friend / to a phone 5 share photos / chat / computers 6 post on a forum / on social media / on an email

5

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box. back up  bring up  get across  get back to  speak up  tell off

so send me a text and I’ll read it later. because I’m expecting an important call. because I can’t understand you. so he calls me instead. call my mobile. to say that she wasn’t coming tonight.

Read the sentences. Are the words in bold nouns (N) or verbs (V)? 1 He told me to give him a call this weekend. 2 Text me when you get to the restaurant. 3 Have you emailed them with the directions yet? 4 We rang Cynthia but there was no answer. 5 You should never send texts when you’re driving. 6 She checks her emails every evening. 7 The phone’s ringing – could someone answer it? 8 Please call me when you arrive in Japan.

Ways of communicating

__ __ __ __ __ __

> SB p. 97

Choose the correct option. 1 When I study in my room, I bring / get distracted far too easily. 2 My sister always takes ages to post / respond to texts.

232  Unit 8  Effective communication

1 Our teacher often _________ us _________ when we talk in class. 2 I find it very difficult to _________ exactly what I want to say in lessons. 3 Please don’t _________ that embarrassing incident again! 4 My parents _________ what I say in public, but in private they want to know the truth. 5 I’ll _________ you with a response in a few days. 6 Some students _________ in class, but others stay silent in case they get into trouble.

__ __

VOCABULARY   3

4

6

Write answers that are true for you. 1 When did you last speak up about an injustice? _______________________________________ 2 Which teachers always get across the main ideas to you in class? _______________________________________ 3 What do your parents constantly bring up in public and you’d rather they didn’t? _______________________________________ 4 When was the last time you were told off about something, and by whom? _______________________________________ 5 Have you ever sent an email or message that nobody got back to you about? _______________________________________ 6 Who always backs you up in life? _______________________________________


Vocabulary & Word Building Expand your vocabulary   7

Match the communication verbs to the definitions. Then read the text and check your answers. 1 argue 3 debate 5 gossip 2 chat 4 give a presentation 6 question a b c d e f

talk to friends or people we know in an informal way talk about other people or things in a casual and often indiscreet way. express doubt or object to somebody’s motives and reasons explain your work or ideas to small or large groups of people in formal settings exchange conflicting or opposite views in an angry way disagree and give your opinion about something in a formal way

How we communicate with each other There are many different ways in which we communicate, depending on the people and the context. We tend to chat to friends or people we know, talking to them in an informal and friendly way. If we know them well we might even gossip, or talk about other people or things in a casual and often indiscreet way. We would not use these two methods of communication when talking to figures of authority such as our teachers or a boss at work. If we disagreed with them we might debate, which means to give your opinion about something in a formal way; and maybe question, doubt or object to their motives and reasons. However we tend to argue, or exchange conflicting or opposite views in an angry way, with the people we are closest to, such as friends and family. In public many of us give a presentation, explaining our work or ideas to small or large groups of people at school, college or in other formal settings.

8

8

In your notebook, write a short paragraph about a type of communication you have used recently. Say who you were with, what you were talking about and the reason for talking.

WORD BUILDING Indefinite pronouns   9

> SB p. 100

Choose the correct option to complete the text.

In today’s hyperconnected world (1) nobody / somebody can be anonymous: it’s practically impossible! Thanks to social media and the Internet of things (2) anybody / everybody leaves a trace of (3) something / everything they do and (4) nowhere / everywhere they go. Whether it is through smartphones, fitness trackers, or satnavs, basically (5) anybody / nobody can find out where we have been and (6) something / nothing is a secret! What is worrying is that it is (7) something / nothing we seem to accept without question. But is there (8) anywhere / anything we could do about it even if we wanted to?  10 Write answers that are true for you. Use indefinite

pronouns where possible. 1 Is there anything you wish you could change in the world? _______________________________________ 2 Is there anybody from the past you’d like to meet? _______________________________________ 3 How should everybody behave on social media? _______________________________________ 4 What information should nobody put on social media? _______________________________________ 5 Is there anywhere you wouldn’t want to visit in the world? Why? _______________________________________

Unit 8  Effective communication  233


8 Grammar Reported speech

> SB pp. 98–99

1

Are these sentences direct (D) or reported (R) speech? 1 Some animals use special chemicals to communicate. __ 2 She told us that some animals used special chemicals to communicate. __ 3 Juan said that his dog scratched the door when he wanted to go outside. __ 4 My dog scratches the door when he wants to go outside. __ 5 Do pets react when they hear the word ‘treat’? __ 6 She asked whether pets reacted when they heard the word ‘treat’. __

2

Choose the correct form of reported speech (A or B) for each sentence. 1 John: ‘Do you like to text your friends?’ A He asked if we liked to text our friends. B He asked that we liked to text our friends. 2 Mina: ‘I spend a lot of time texting my friends.’ A She said that she spent a lot of time texting my friends. B She said that she spent a lot of time texting her friends. 3 Michael: ‘I text really fast; I use a lot of abbreviations.’ A He commented that he had texted really fast and that he had used a lot of abbreviations. B He commented that he texted really fast and that he used a lot of abbreviations. 4 Natalie: ‘Texting is the best way to communicate with my friends.’ A She said that texting was the best way to communicate with her friends. B She said that texting will be the best way to communicate with her friends. 5 Jake: ‘I even taught my grandmother how to text!’ A He admitted that he had even taught his grandmother how to text. B He admitted that he was even teaching his grandmother to text. 6 Susan: ‘I text my best friend if I’m having trouble with my homework.’ A She explained that her best friend texts her if she is having trouble with her homework. B She explained that she texted her best friend if she was having trouble with her homework.

3

And you? How many people do you text every day? Do you text your friends only, or your relatives too? What types of text message do you write?

234  Unit 8  Effective communication

4

Choose the correct option. 1 Emily: ‘What time did my boss tell me that I have to be at work?’ Emily asked what time her boss did tell / had told her that she had / has had to be at work. 2 Elle: ‘We will need to get the shop ready for the morning before we leave.’ Elle said that they needed / would need to get the shop ready for the morning before they left / would leave. 3 Ryan: ‘My sister cooks dinner in the week and I do it at weekends.’ Ryan told me that his sister has cooked /cooked dinner in the week and he does / did it at weekends. 4 Caitlin: ‘I’m learning how to use the new laptop tomorrow.’ Caitlin explained that she has been learning / was learning how to use the new laptop the next/previous day. 5 Oliver: ‘We are getting a new puppy named Prince!’ Oliver posted on social media that they are getting / were getting a new puppy named Prince. 6 Dave: ‘Saturdays have always been busier than Sundays.’ Dave commented that Saturdays was always / had always been busier than Sundays.

5

Rewrite what the people say as reported speech. Make any necessary changes. 1 John: ‘I didn’t see you and Jim at the party last night.’ _______________________________________ 2 Mike: ‘Can you give us a lift to the station this afternoon, Dad?’ _______________________________________ 3 Amy and Jen: ‘We’ve never seen this film before. It’s really scary!’ _______________________________________ 4 Pete: ‘Have you all heard about the new show that we’re putting on next week?’ _______________________________________ 5 Mum: ‘Why aren’t you using your own battery charger? You can’t keep borrowing mine!’ _______________________________________ 6 Suzie: ‘The baby will start crying if it doesn’t eat now.’ _______________________________________


Grammar   6

Read the dialogue. Then rewrite it as reported speech.

Reported speech (Verb patterns) > SB pp. 102–103   9

Laura Are you going to study in the library after school?’ Dan No, I’ve got football practice. Laura I can’t stay either as I’ve got a dental appointment. Dan Do you want to go to the cinema tomorrow evening? Laura I’d love to! What’s on? Dan I’m not sure. I’ll check online and text you later. Laura asked if _______________________________. Dan replied that _____________________________. Then Laura explained _________________________. Dan asked _________________________________. Laura exclaimed that __________________________ and asked _________________________________. Then Dan replied that _________________________ _________________________________________.   7

Write answers that are true for you, giving reasons. 1 What’s your favourite social media site? _______________________________________ 2 When did you last check your phone? _______________________________________ 3 Do you think we will have smartphones implanted in our bodies one day? _______________________________________ 4 Can you live without technology? _______________________________________

8

Now report your answers to the questions in Ex. 7. I said that _________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

8

Choose the correct option. 1 My sister: ‘We should move to a big flat’. Me: ‘It’s too expensive.’ My sister suggested moving / to move to a big flat. I replied that / to it was too expensive. 2 Owen: ‘Sure, I can help you make dinner.’ Owen agreed helping / to help us make dinner. 3 Me: ‘I could go shopping with you tomorrow, Mum.’ I offered shopping / to go shopping with my mum the next day. 4 Carla: ‘Why don’t you join us at the cinema?’ She invited me to join / to join them at the cinema. 5 My dad: ‘I’ll pay for your school trip next week.’ He promised paying / to pay for the school trip the following week. 6 Moira: ‘Let’s watch the rugby this afternoon!’ Moira suggested to watch / watching the rugby that afternoon. 7 My sister: ‘Amal still hasn’t replied to my email!’ She explained that / to Amal still hadn’t replied to her email.

10 Report each sentence using the verbs in brackets.

1 2 3

My sister: ‘I’m going to jump over that chair.’ My sister __________________ over the chair. (say) My aunt: ‘Tori, did you go to the cinema on Friday?’ My aunt __________________ on Friday. (ask) Mr Henderson: ‘I’ll text Jen to ask her if she left her bag in class.’ Mr Henderson __________________ her bag in class. (promise) 4 My uncle to me: ‘I have tickets to the match on Saturday, so I can’t go to the play with you.’ My uncle __________________. (explain) 5 Me to my sister: ‘I’ll take you to the shops after your band rehearsal.’ I __________________ band rehearsal. (offer) 6 My friends to me: ‘Do you want to go sailing at the lake on Saturday?’ My friends __________________ at the lake the next Saturday. (invite) 5  11 Write answers that are true for you. 1 I once promised ___________________________. 2 I often remind _____________________________. 3 I suggest ________________________________. 4 My friend invited __________________________. 5 I never admit _____________________________. 6 I’ve offered _______________________________.

Unit 8  Effective communication  235


8 Competences READING   1

Think first Read the title of the article and guess the answers to the questions. Then read the article quickly and check your answers. 1 Which plants talk? 2 How do they talk? 3 Why do they talk?

Do plants talk?

1 5

2

10

15

20

3

25

30

35

Is a flower a member of a ‘family’? Does a plant recognise other similar plants, as part of a group? Research has recently shown that both possibilities may be true. Like animals and people, it seems that plants can recognise friends and relatives in order to work together. Obviously, plants can’t send texts, make phone calls or post photos on social media, so how do they communicate? Some researchers believe that plants may connect with each other by sending messages through their roots*, using chemicals specific to each plant’s family in order to identify themselves. One study found that plants from the same species of sea-rocket*, a coastal wildflower, grow aggressively near unrelated plants, but are less competitive when they share space with related plants. Researchers at McMaster University, Ontario, suggest that this may be an example of family selection, a behaviour in which closely related individuals work together to be successful in their environment. As Dr Susan Dudley of the university says, ‘Plants have this kind of hidden but complicated social life.’ In addition to chemical signals, it’s possible that plants ‘hear’ each other, and use what they hear to recognise their families and good neighbours. A study at the University of Western Australia has shown that chilli plants grow more quickly when they are near basil plants. The chilli plants seem to know that these neighbours help prevent the growth of competing plants and damage by insects. ‘We have shown that plants can recognise when a good neighbour is growing next to them,’ says Monica Gagliano, an evolutionary ecologist at the university.

4 40

45

50

5 55

Plants have even demonstrated that they know when an animal is eating them! Not surprisingly, they don’t seem to like it, and, luckily for them, they can defend themselves! Researchers at the University of Missouri made recordings of the vibrations a caterpillar* makes as it eats the leaves of a plant called ‘thale cress’. Their experiment showed that the cress* produced a type of oil when it heard or felt the caterpillar’s vibrations. Caterpillars don’t like this oil as it can be poisonous to them. Other plants, send chemical signals when they are under attack from insects, and they attract predators that attack and eat those same insects. Scientists accept that research into plant communication is in its early days. There are still many unanswered questions. Do plants intentionally communicate with one another? If they do, do they all speak one language or are there as many languages as there are types of plants? And can we, as humans, really understand what plants are saying? roots radici sea-rocket ravastrello caterpillar bruco cress crescione

236  Unit 8  Effective communication


Competences   2

3

4

3 Filipe __________________ that he liked my suggestion. 4 We __________________ to meet at Lee’s place. 5 I __________________ Claire about our ten o’clock meeting. 6 He __________________ me to come outside to see the beautiful sunset.

Read the text and match the paragraphs (1–5) with the summaries (A–E). A how plants defend themselves B how plants ‘hear’ their relatives and friends C unanswered questions about plant communication D plants don’t communicate like us E the ‘hidden but complicated’ interaction of plants Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones. 1 It’s possible that plants of the same type recognise one another as members of a related group. 2 Plants may use chemicals to send messages through their leaves. 3 Sea-rocket is a kind of herb you can eat. 4 Some plants seem to know that certain neighbours can help prevent the growth of competing plants. 5 A plant called ‘thale cress’ produces a poisonous oil when it feels that an insect is eating its leaves. 6 Scientists know that plants all speak the same language. Read again and write the correct person or institution next to each sentence. McMaster University  Monica Gagliano  Susan Dudley University of Missouri  University of Western Australia 1 Plants can recognise when a good neighbour is growing next to them. ________________ 2 Chilli plants grow more quickly when they are next to good neighbours. ________________ 3 Closely-related plants work together to be successful in their environment. ________________ 4 Plants, such as cress, can defend themselves from plant-eating insects. ________________ 5 Plants have a hidden but complicated social life. ________________

LISTENING Listening Tip To understand specific words, predict what you are likely to hear. For example in Ex. 5, read each sentence carefully before you listen. Look at the context and guess which verb would make sense.   5

8

6

Listen to a presentation about the Maasai people. Write T (true) or F (false). 1 The Maasai people depend on their cows. 2 The Maasai don’t like technology. 3 Availability of new information is changing Maasai life. 4 Maasai business was traditionally done person to person. 5 Taking photographs isn’t allowed in Maasai culture. 6 The Maasai are worried that technology is changing their culture.

7

Listen again and complete the sentences with the missing information. 1 Phones are a profound __________________ for them. 2 Instant connectivity has changed __________________ a Maasai person can communicate with. 3 Information includes __________________ for farmers. 4 Business transactions are __________________ and more efficient. 5 The men always mentioned two things __________________: women and cows. 6 They’re __________________ in ways that are relevant to their lives.

17

17

16 Listen to the sentences and write the reporting verbs that you hear. 1 He __________________ he’d enjoyed the play. 2 Dottie __________________ that she hadn’t had enough to eat.

Unit 8  Effective communication  237


Summative Revision 7-8 VOCABULARY

3

Revision of money & shopping; effective communication (expressions & phrasal verbs); compounds of some, any, no, every.   1

Complete the crossword.

a b c d e

C

1

B

2

L

L

3

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 Having poor interpersonal skills 2 You can use social media 3 You should never send or respond 4 I’ll miss you when you move, 5 Online forums are not

4

D

4

to connect with new people at your university. a good place to get medical advice. can be bad for your career. but we can have long phone conversations. to texts when you are driving.

Choose the correct option to complete the text.

5

B

6

R

7

Across 2 To take money from someone for a period of time. 3 A symbol or design on something. 5 Give money or things to charity. 7 The money you get when you take something back to the shop. Down 1 A business or organisation. 2 Something that costs much less than usual. 4 To give money to someone for a period of time. 6 To look around a shop without buying   2

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use no more than three words. 1 I haven’t got enough money for that dress. I __________________ buy that dress. 2 I don’t like buying everything in one shop. I prefer to __________________ for things. 3 If you don’t return that phone, you won’t get a refund. You won’t get a refund unless you __________________ back. 4 It’s good to pay a fair price for things. It’s good to get __________________ when you buy things. 5 We have to repay the money we owe before we go on holiday. We need to pay __________________ before the holiday.

238  Summative Revision

Next year, I’m starting university and I’m worried about losing touch with my old friends. We’re going to try to stay connected (1) _________ each other by using social (2) _________ . I’ll (3) _________ photos of my new friends and my life at university, and (4) _________ them online. And of course I’ll (5) _________ updates about what I’m doing and learning every week. Of course, I’ll also make sure that I (6) _________ to texts when I’m not too busy. I guess it will be important not to get (7) _________ by my social life and forget to go to lectures! But I’m sure that my old friends and I will still have great (8) _________ and lots of fun when we see each other in the holidays. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

A by A connections A do A get A send A respond A connected A chats B debates

B for C from B forum C media B get C make B make C share B post C have B say C speak B distracted C a paid C presentations D speeches

D with D texts D take D talk D give D write D told


Summative Revision GRAMMAR

8

our that that day then there they tomorrow yesterday

Revision of the passive (all tenses); adverbs; have/get something done; reflexive & reciprocal pronouns; reported speech (statements, questions, verb patterns with reporting verbs).   5

6

7

Put the words in the correct order to make passive sentences and questions. 1 can / on / be / Great deals / found / the Internet _______________________________________ 2 identified / Who / been / as / the previous owner / had / ? _______________________________________ 3 usually given / Gift cards / are / new customers / to _______________________________________ 4 donated / What / has / to / the / been / charity / ? _______________________________________ 5 are / clothes / only sold / These / Edinburgh store / our / in _______________________________________ Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 We had breakfast delivering to our room while we were on holiday. _______________________________________ 2 We have our tickets checked as we went into the concert. _______________________________________ 3 He has the weekly report copy before he sends it to Joe. _______________________________________ 4 She had the invitations be sent a week before the party. _______________________________________ 5 Anne get her post sent to her school. _______________________________________ Choose the correct option. 1 Pedro was picked up _________ a taxi. A by B got C had D with 2 He prepared the presentation _________. A herself B himself C myself D yourself 3 The door _________ opened by my friend Cathy. A has B has got C was D is 4 They _________ the carpets cleaned every year. A get B got C had D has 5 The tickets were _________ up a couple of days ago. A picked B pick C picks D picking 6 They waved to _________ at the station. A each other B itself C themselves D the other

Complete the table with the words in the box.

Direct speech (1) ________ now we (2) ________ book today this book here (3) ________   9

Reported speech the next day (4) ________ (5) ________ their book (6) ________ (7) ________ book (8) ________ the day before

Complete the sentences with these words and phrases. admitted agreed could he’d do invited  the next day  told  was making 1 He _________ rugby was more challenging than he thought it would be. 2 James _________ the boys for a meal before the play. 3 He said he _________ lasagne and that they _________ have it for lunch. 4 Emily _________ me she cried when she watched him on the TV. 5 Joan _________ to go to town with me _________. 6 Rob said _________ his homework later.

10 Report the sentences and questions.

1 Julie: ‘Did you meet the president?’ _______________________________________ 2 Charlie: ‘My car broke down yesterday.’ _______________________________________ 3 Me: ‘We need to do some more research.’ _______________________________________ 4 My little brother: ‘I’ve lost my pet lizard!’ _______________________________________ 5 Me: ‘Can I turn off the TV?’ _______________________________________ 6 Ben: ‘Yes, I’ll play tennis with you.’ _______________________________________ 7 John: ‘Remember that I can’t come to the party!’ _______________________________________ 8 My teacher: ‘I’ll phone your parents to say you did well in the test.’ _______________________________________

Summative Revision  239


9

Unexpected entertainment   4

WHAT YOU KNOW Creative arts   1

2

Match the examples with the nouns. 1 The Uffizi, The Louvre, MoMA a 2 painting, drawing b 3 classical, hip hop, pop c 4 bright, dark, fluorescent d 5 guitar, piano, violin e 6 digital, old, black and white f

broadcast exhibition lyrics mural musical play portrait sculpture 1 It was a spectacular show – the singers and dancers were amazing! ____________ 2 It was stone, but looked like a real man. ____________ 3 The queen looks very young in this picture, but also confident and serious. ____________ 4 The paintings showed how art changed in Spain from the 1920s to the 1960s. ____________ 5 This incredible painting covers the whole wall of the building. ____________ 6 I loved the show – the acting was wonderful and I cried at the end. ____________ 7 Singer-songwriters are often popular because of the words of their songs. ____________ 8 The match was live on national TV. ____________

art colour instrument music photograph museum

Complete the table with the words in the box. audience gallery listeners stadium studio theatre viewers visitors People

Venues

5

VOCABULARY Creative arts   3

> SB p. 113

Complete the words in the sentences. 1 My aunt is an artist. She works in a small s _ _ _ _ _ in the garden. 2 I heard such a catchy t _ _ _ on the radio today – I can’t get it out of my head! 3 The c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the play are so realistic you really care what happens to them. 4 I saw a new p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of Shakespeare’s Hamlet last week at the Globe T _ _ _ _ _ _ in London. 5 Read the words in the final v_ _ _ _ of this poem: they’re so sad! 6 Love Island is a popular TV s_ _ _ in the UK, but I’ve no idea why people like it!

240  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

Read the sentences and choose a proper word from the box for each one.

Choose the correct option to complete the text.

Last Friday evening, the band Wigwam did a small (1) ____________ at a new music (2) ____________ in town. The band’s (3) ____________ was exciting and full of energy, and the small (4) ____________, of about 50 people, seemed to love it. My only complaint was that it was difficult to hear the (5) ____________ of some of the songs because the applause from the crowd was so loud! But in any case, it was a great night of (6) ____________ entertainment. 1 2 3 4 5 6

A production A programme A musical A viewers A lyrics A exhibition

B concert B venue B entertainment B listeners B audience B live

C musical C production C performance C audience C performance C concert


Vocabulary & Word Building   6

Write answers that are true for you, giving reasons. 1 What kind of exhibitions do you like? _______________________________________ 2 Which TV show would you like to be in the audience for? _______________________________________ 3 Do you ever listen to podcasts? What genre are they? _______________________________________ 4 Are the lyrics or the tune most important for a great song? _______________________________________

8

9

Now complete the table with the adjectives in the box. appealing awful boring contemporary controversial emotional imaginative inspirational moving tedious traditional Positive

Neutral

Negative

Expand your vocabulary   7

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences about a New York museum.

WORD BUILDING Expressions with make   9

> SB p. 116

Complete the sentences with the phrases in the box. make a decision  make a difference  make a living make a splash  make friends  make sense  make the most  make time

1 The Whitney Museum of American Art in New York opened its new building in 2015. This modern, ____________ space was designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano. A boring C slow B contemporary D traditional 2 The museum now has large galleries that are full of light to display the ____________. A designs C studios B graffiti D works of art 3 The galleries are large and bright, making them more ____________ to young people. A appealing C emotional B controversial D moving 4 Many artists say they find the new museum ____________ and enjoy visiting it when they need new ideas. A award-winning C inspirational B awful D lifelike 5 The new museum building is so beautifully designed that many people say it is a ____________. A design C portrait B masterpiece D sculpture

1 Unless you’re very famous, it isn’t easy to ___________________ as an actor. 2 Because he’s so sociable, Dan has never found it difficult to ___________________. 3 We decided to ___________________ of the great weather and have a picnic. 4 I know there are lots of choices, but you’ll have to ___________________ soon. 5 I can’t understand this painting. Does it ___________________ to you? 6 I’m busy today so I can’t ___________________ to see you. 7 Offering to help an older person can really ___________________ in their life. 8 Her clothes designs are really going to ___________________ in the fashion industry.  10 Substitute the words in bold with the correct form of

an expression from Ex. 9. 1 I love socialising with new people. _____________ 2 My dad earned money as an architect for over 30 years. _____________ 3 Volunteering in a homeless shelter has an impact to people’s lives. _____________ 4 I can be available to go shopping this afternoon if you like. _____________ 5 I wanted to take advantage of living in London and go to lots of concerts. _____________ 6 Does Tom want to go to drama school or not? He needs to choose. _____________ Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  241


9 Grammar Question tags

> SB pp. 114–115

1

Choose the correct question tag. 1 It was a boring game, was it / wasn’t it? 2 John doesn’t like ballet, does he / doesn’t he? 3 We weren’t late, are we / were we? 4 You’ll come and see the exhibition with me, won’t you / wouldn’t you? 5 The museum closes in half an hour, isn’t it / doesn’t it? 6 They wouldn’t show that film to children, do they / would they? 7 She’d been to the stadium before, hadn’t she / haven’t she? 8 They’ve never done a better concert, did they / have they?

2

Complete the dialogue with the question tags in the box.

3

Write the missing question tags. 1 You like live music, _____________________? 2 You haven’t heard ‘Snow Patrol’ before, _____________________? 3 You could listen to their new album, _____________________? 4 You wouldn’t fancy coming to see them in concert with me, _____________________? 5 I’m afraid the tickets are £50 each. That’s quite expensive, _____________________? 6 But it isn’t until next year, so we can save up, _____________________? 7 They’ve already seen this film three times, _____________________? 8 My package hasn’t arrived yet, _____________________?

4

You want to go to the cinema with your friend. Use the prompts to write appropriate sentences with question tags. 1 (come to / cinema / tomorrow) ______________________________________? 2 (like / adventure films) ______________________________________? 3 (not see / latest Star Wars film / yet) ______________________________________? 4 (9 p.m. show / not too late) ______________________________________? 5 (share / taxi home) ______________________________________? 6 (not invite / anybody else) ______________________________________?

are we  aren’t we  did I  didn’t you  hasn’t it  have you  haven’t you  shouldn’t we

Defining & non-defining relative clauses

> SB pp. 118–119 Jess You haven’t been to this theatre before, (1) ____________? Amy No, but the place has had good reviews, (2) ____________? And you’ve been here before, (3) ____________? Jess Yes, that’s right. Come on, we should look for our seats, (4) ____________? Amy Row C seats 15 and 16… Hang on, we’re going the wrong way, (5) ____________? Jess We’re not, (6) ____________? Amy Yes, our seats are over here! You said you knew your way around here, (7) ____________? Jess Yeah, but I was with my parents so I didn’t really pay attention, (8) ____________? Amy Typical!

242  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

5

Read the sentences and write D for defining relative clause and ND for non-defining relative clause. 1 They’ve just played the song that you like. ____ 2 It’s a special keyboard, which is connected to some amplifiers. ____ 3 Our teacher, who usually takes us on theatre trips, is great fun. ____ 4 The girl who sings with the band has a beautiful voice. ____ 5 The paintings that the museum owns are not for sale. ____ 6 Two months ago I got free tickets to the cinema, which expire in a month. ____


Grammar   6

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use one word only. 1 We watch that show every week. I love it! I love that show, ____________ we watch every week. 2 Whitby is a seaside town in England. It is on the north-east coast. Whitby is a seaside town in England ____________ is on the north-east coast. 3 A detective solved the crime. She asked me questions. The detective ____________ solved the crime asked me questions. 4 Death Valley, in California, is the driest national park in the USA. Death Valley, ____________ is in California, is the driest national park in the USA. 5 Varanasi is a beautiful city in India. It is on the Ganges River. Varanasi is a beautiful Indian city, ____________ is on the Ganges River. 6 The mayor of our town used to be a rugby player. He’s very popular. The mayor of our town, ____________ used to be a rugby player, is very popular.

7

Choose the correct option. 1 The piano that / who I want costs €20,000. 2 The article, which / article which I read in my English class, was about Chinese history. 3 Our teacher said there will be a quiz on the article, that / article that we read today. 4 The man, who / which was waiting at the bus stop, looked just like my brother. 5 The photo who’s / that’s on my wall was taken by my grandma. 6 I bought the dictionary, that / dictionary that we need online. 7 Jackie, who / which was one of my university friends, is starting a teaching job. 8 This grey T-shirt is the one who / that I wore to the audition at the theatre.

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Choose the option (A or B) which is closest in meaning to the first sentence. 1 My brother who plays the clarinet had a concert today. A I have more than one brother. One of them plays the clarinet and he had a concert today. B I have one brother. He plays the clarinet and he had a concert today. 2 My friend who has a history degree helped me study for my history exam. A Several of my friends have history degrees. One of them helped me study for my history exam. B I have several friends. The one with a history degree helped me study for my history exam. 3 The man that was wearing the green tie asked me where the lift was. A There were several men wearing green ties. One of them asked about the lift. B There were several men around. The one with the green tie asked about the lift. 4 The letter, which I received on Thursday, said I had won the scholarship. A On Thursday, I received a letter saying I had won the scholarship. B I received a scholarship on Thursday. I also received a letter. 5 My dog, which always barks at the postman, is noisy. A I have one dog. It’s very noisy when it barks at the postman. B I have more than one dog. One of them barks at the postman and is very noisy.

9

Use the prompts to write sentences with defining or non-defining relative clauses. 1 (book / read last month / tedious) _______________________________________ 2 (actor / play Villanelle / in TV’s Killing Eve / incredible) _______________________________________ 3 (subjects / study this year / interesting) _______________________________________ 4 (film / saw / controversial) _______________________________________ 5 (art classes / do in school / creative) _______________________________________ Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  243


9 Competences READING   1

Think first Look at the photo and read the title. Answer the questions, then read the article quickly and check your answers. 1 What do you know about Cuba? 2 What type of arts is Cuba traditionally famous for?

The changing state of the arts in Cuba Cuba is a country that’s experiencing rapid and significant changes. Not surprisingly, the arts are playing an important role in this. Cut off from a lot of the world for many years, Cuba today is freer and crowded* with travellers. Cubans are embracing these visitors and the ideas they bring. As a result, new styles are emerging in almost every aspect of the arts.

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‘Cuba is changing now. It is opening to the world,’ says Alain Garcia Artola, a member of a rap group and an organiser of ‘Manana’, a music festival that mixes traditional Cuban sounds with international electronic music. At Manana, a respected traditional artist such as Mililian Galis, known as one of the greatest Afro-Cuban drummers*, performs new music with American and Iranian musicians, mixing Iranian tunes with elements of rumba and electronic music. Another artist, DJ Jigüe, combines hip hop, classic Caribbean music and electronica, accompanied by live percussion. ‘We’re trying to find new sounds based on what belongs to us,’ Jigüe explains. ‘Doing the same music as a European DJ or an American DJ wouldn’t sound like us and would be a failure.’ Yissy Garcia agrees. Yissy is a young drummer who was brought up in a family of musicians. She recently made her first album which mixes jazz, funk, electronica and Afro-Cuban rhythms. Yissy says ‘All the rhythms that we make aren’t pure. They’re more like developed rhythms, more fusion. For example, we love to use a street conga and mix it with a little drum and bass, funk; mix it up with the rumba.’ Yissy and her band are called Yissy & Bandacha, and they describe their music as ‘high speed Cuban jazz.’

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Music is one art form that has always been enormously important in Cuba. ‘It’s an expression of Cuban style,’ says Geovani del Pino, the director of a fifteen-piece band known internationally for playing a traditional Cuban dance, called ‘rumba’. While musicians like Geovani prefer the traditional Cuban styles, many young artists are experimenting with the rhythms they learnt as children. These young musicians are taking traditional Cuban music styles and mixing them with interesting results. These include funk, African American dance music; electronic music; and ‘reggaeton’, a type of Puerto Rican dance music.

Fashion is another area that’s developing in Cuba. Not long ago, the only option for most young people was working in a government job and making very little money – usually less than $100 a month. But that’s changing, too. Miguel Leyva is a fashion blogger in Havana. He sees new opportunities in fashion as an example of how things in Cuba are developing. He writes about young people who are making a difference, adapting to new influences and using them to create their own fashion. He looks forward to a day when Cubans will be able to look at popular magazines without feeling that they’ll never be able to buy the things in them. ‘This generation is doing something new,’ Leyva said. ‘They’re breaking the stereotype of Cuban fashion. It’s an important first step.’ What comes next for Cuba? If the youth of Cuba has anything to say about it, the future will be full of exciting performances, interesting exhibitions and satisfied audiences. Fans will be able to attend concerts in which they’ll hear traditional artists and new musicians working side by side, taking steps towards a more open, inclusive future. crowded piena, affollata drummers batteristi

Choose the best title (A or B) for each paragraph in the text. Paragraph 1 A The importance of the arts B Rapid changes in Cuba today Paragraph 2 A The changing face of Cuban music B The music of Geovani del Pino Paragraph 3 A The importance of live percussion B Manana, a place where musicians meet

244  Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment

Paragraph 4 A A mixture of rhythms B A family of Cuban performers Paragraph 5 A Fashion in popular magazines B The growth of fashion in Cuba Paragraph 6 A Young designers in Cuba B What’s next for Cuba?


Competences 3

Choose the correct option. 1 Cuba is visited by more travellers today than in the past because it is cheaper / freer. 2 Geovani del Pino is a Cuban musician who’s always preferred to play traditional / unconventional music. 3 At Manana, Mililian Galis performed with other Cuban / international musicians. 4 DJ Jigüe doesn’t want / wants to sound like a European DJ. 5 Mililian Galis and Yissy Garcia play the same / different musical instruments. 6 Yissy Garcia and her brothers and sisters are all musicians / drummers. 7 Today there are fewer / more job opportunities for young Cubans than in the past. 8 Miguel Leyva feels quite negative / positive about the future of young Cubans.

LISTENING Listening Tips • Visual images can help you with general context and specific understanding. • Try to describe what you see in your head before you listen to a speaker or a presenter.   4

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Read the list of adjectives and nouns below and check in a dictionary for any words you don’t know. Then listen to a description of the Paris catacombs. Match each adjective to a noun. 1 chilly a door 2 ghoulish-looking b patterns welcome 3 creepy c 4 infamous d tunnels 5 famous e buildings gallery 6 artistic f 7 threatening g air 8 spiral h staircase skull 9 frightening i guillotine 10 spooky j

18 Listen to a tour guide talking about three works of art. Match each sentence to a photo (A, B or C).

A B

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It’s an example of the Gothic style. 2 It was created between 1503 and 1506. 3 It’s made of marble. 4 It’s made of limestone. 5 It’s from about the 2nd century BC. 6 It’s on permanent display at the Louvre. 7 We don’t know who made it. 8 It is considered the artist’s masterpiece.

Listen again and choose the correct option. 1 Why were the bones put in tunnels? A the cemeteries were full B to hide them 2 In what year were the bones moved to the tunnels? A 1785 B 1786 3 Who ordered the bones to be arranged into artistic patterns? A Napoleon I B Napoleon II 4 How does the sign outside the catacombs describe the place? A the empire of death B the empire of peace 5 What do people sometimes try to steal? A souvenirs B bones

Unit 9  Unexpected entertainment  245


10

Time   4

WHAT YOU KNOW

Complete the dialogue with the correct form of the phrasal verbs from Ex. 3.

Time expressions   1

Complete the sentences with after, before, during, early, late or until. 1 I told the children to be quiet _________ the performance. 2 Make sure you put on sunscreen _________ you go outside. 3 Don’t cross the road _________ the lights turn green. 4 You will feel much better _________ a good night’s sleep. 5 We didn’t want to be _________ for the train so we took a taxi. 6 It’s always better to be _________ for an interview.

Teacher Hi Kerry. Could you just (1) ____________________ for a minute? I’ll be with you soon. Kerry Yes, sure. Thanks for (2) ____________________ me _____ today. I know you’re busy. Teacher Well, thank you for (3) ____________________ seeing me at last: we really need to talk! Kerry I know … I’m sorry that I’ve had to (4) ____________________ school a lot recently, but… Teacher Yes, and all your teachers are (5) ____________________ patience with you! Is there a good reason? Kerry Yes, I think so. They’ve (6) ____________________ the date of the exam I need to take if I want to study in the UK next year so I’ve been studying for that.

VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs about time   2

> SB p. 123

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs in the box. catch up  fall behind  hang out  look forward to put off  wait around for 1 I’m _________ with my friends after school today. 2 Hurry! We need to _________ with the rest of the tour group. 3 We don’t have time to _________ you to browse every book in the shop. 4 I am really _________ your wedding next March. 5 If you miss too many lessons, you will _________ at school. 6 If you keep _________ your homework, you’ll just have more to do on Sunday night.

3

Match the phrasal verbs in the box to the definitions. bring forward  fit in  get round to  hold on  run out of  take time off 1 do something in between other jobs ____________ 2 find time for something that you meant to do earlier ____________ 3 move to an earlier time or date ____________ 4 use up all the available (time / patience / money etc.) ____________ 5 be absent from work or school ____________ 6 wait or stop for a moment ____________

246  Unit 10  Time

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Complete the text with the phrasal verbs from Ex. 2 and Ex. 3. Studies show that students who miss a lot of lessons often (1) ______________ with their school work. When this happens, it can be very difficult for them to (2) ______________ with the rest of the class. Research also shows that these students are more likely to (3) ______________ their homework for another day because they feel they will never have enough time to do it all. But, of course, that day never comes. If you feel that you are behind at school, it’s important to plan your study time so that you can (4) ______________ everything ______________. Your teacher can help with this. If you work hard, you may even manage to (5) ______________ some of your tasks ______________ on your plan and get ahead!


Vocabulary & Word Building   6

Write answers that are true for you. 1 How often do you take time off school? Why? _______________________________________ 2 What are you most likely to put off doing until the last minute? _______________________________________ 3 Are you good at catching up on school work if you fall behind? _______________________________________ 4 What are you particularly looking forward to at the moment? _______________________________________

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Do the quiz about different aspects of time. Then check your answers in the text below. 1 On which planet in our Solar System is a day two years long? 2 How many days did it take for Apollo 11 to reach the Moon? 3 How many minutes does it take for sunlight to reach the Earth? 4 What is a nanosecond? 5 How many millenniums have humans been on the Earth? 6 Which country is so big it uses eleven different time zones? 7 How often does a leap year happen? Fun facts about time A day on Mercury lasts for two years: on Earth it’s only 24 hours long. It took Apollo 11 three days to reach the Moon, but the astronauts spent only 21 hours there. It takes the sun’s rays about 8 minutes 20 seconds to reach the Earth. A nanosecond is one-billionth of a second: a computer spends 2 to 4 nanoseconds following a software command. The Internet was born in 1983, nearly four decades ago. Our ancestors have been on Earth for about six million years, but modern humans evolved about 200,000 years, or two millenniums, ago. Russia uses 11 consecutive time zones because it’s so big: when it’s 5 p.m. on one side, it’s 3 a.m. on the other! Every four years, February has 29 days to balance the solar and calendar years. This is called a leap year.

Find a word or expression in the text which means: 1 a hundred years _________ 2 ten years _________ 3 a very short time – a billionth of a second _________ 4 a thousand years _________ 5 an area which has the same time _________ 6 every fourth year _________

WORD BUILDING Expressions with time   9

Expand your vocabulary

10

> SB p. 126

Choose the correct option. 1 ________, I enjoy going into town to watch a movie with my friends. A On time B Ahead of time C From time to time 2 Ron’s three young cousins all wanted to play his guitar ________. A now B at the same time C keep the time 3 Do you ________ right now to help me with something? A waste time B spend some time  C have some time 4 I think it was worth ________ it took us to find this holiday flat. A finding the time B a full-time job  C wasting some time 5 We usually have a ________ when we go on holiday with my cousins. A long time B great time C some spare time 6 Fairy tales always start with ________ A a time B once upon a time C one time

10 Write answers that are true for you.

1 From time to time I ________________________ ______________________________________. 2 We always have a great time _________________ ______________________________________. 3 In my spare time __________________________ ______________________________________. 4 I’ve _________________________ for a long time ______________________________________. 5 I can never find the time to ___________________ ______________________________________. 6 I _____________________ three times last month ______________________________________.

Unit 10  Time  247


10 Grammar Third conditional, if only & wish > SB pp. 124–125   1

2

Choose the option (A or B) that means the same as the first sentence. 1 The football match started early. I’m sorry I wasn’t on time. A If the football match hadn’t started early, I would have been on time. B I wish I had not been early for the football match. 2 The concert was sold out so we couldn’t get tickets. A If the concert had been sold out, we wouldn’t have got tickets. B If only the concert hadn’t sold out we could have got tickets. 3 The amusement park was closed. They didn’t ride the rollercoaster. A If only the rollercoaster had been working we would have gone to the amusement park. B If the amusement park hadn’t been closed, they would have ridden the rollercoaster. 4 The hockey equipment was stolen. We didn’t play in the finals. A If the hockey equipment hadn’t been stolen, we would have played in the finals. B I wish we had won the final after our equipment was stolen. 5 Her car broke down. She didn’t give us a lift to the beach. A If her car hadn’t broken down, she would give us a lift to the beach. B If her car hadn’t broken down, she would have given us a lift to the beach. 6 I arrived late at the airport. The plane left without me. A If only I had got to the airport on time I would have caught the plane. B I wish I could get to the airport early to catch the plane. Choose the correct option. 1 We would have found the hotel if he had brought / brought the map like I suggested. 2 If they had used a recipe, they wouldn’t have ruined / didn’t ruin their evening meal. 3 I had been / would have been happy with a low score if I hadn’t expected / wouldn’t expect more. 4 I wish / If only she hadn’t been so busy, she would have realised how tired she actually was. 5 We would have gone / had gone to the museum if it would rain / had rained. 6 I wish / If only the laptop hadn’t been broken so we could have watched videos all day.

248  Unit 10  Time

3

Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1 If the police ____________ (know) what happened, they ____________ (arrest) someone. 2 He ____________ (not cause) the accident if he ____________ (pay) attention to the road. 3 He ____________ (not crash) into the car in front of him if it ____________ (not stop) unexpectedly. 4 If the car in front of him ____________ (indicate), he ____________ (know) that the driver wanted to turn. 5 The cyclist ____________ (be hurt) if ____________ (not had) a helmet.   4

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 If you would study harder, you would have received better marks in that test. _______________________________________ 2 If only he have took better notes, he could have studied more easily. _______________________________________ 3 We would have created a WhatsApp group if we would have known each other’s phone numbers. _______________________________________ 4 I wish that we would do some practice tests before last month’s exam. _______________________________________

5

Use the prompts to write sentences about yourself using the Third conditional, if only or I wish. 1 (study / foreign languages / primary school) _______________________________________ 2 (pay / more attention in class) _______________________________________ 3 (have / more…) _______________________________________ 4 (not be…) _______________________________________


Grammar Modal verbs: past speculation, deduction & regret > SB pp. 128–129   6

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Write S/R (past speculation or regret) or D (deduction). 1 If I had heard my alarm, I wouldn’t have missed my bus. ____ 2 It can’t have been John that stole my bike: he was in France. ____ 3 If I hadn’t gone to see the doctor, I wouldn’t have been late for school. ____ 4 If you had told me about the concert, I could have gone with you. ____ 5 We’ve been stuck in traffic for ages. There must have been an accident. ____ 6 I should have bought more than one of these phone covers when they were on sale. ____ Read the statements and choose the correct answer to the questions. 1 If Alexander Graham Bell hadn’t been a curious child, he might not have developed the telephone. Was Bell a curious child? YES / NO 2 Amelia Earhart wouldn’t have been the first female pilot to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean if she hadn’t been adventurous. Was Earhart the first female pilot to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean? YES / NO 3 Usain Bolt may not have won so many Olympic medals if he had taken a lot of time off from training. Did Bolt take a lot of time off from training? YES / NO 4 If Jonas Salk hadn’t discovered a polio vaccine, more people would have been affected by the disease. Did Salk discover a polio vaccine? YES / NO 5 If Florence Nightingale had been born in the 1400s, she probably wouldn’t have started a nursing school. Was Nightingale born in the 1400s? YES / NO Choose the correct option to complete the dialogue. Joe

I went to the annual tomato festival in Valencia this year. Ellie I know. If I (1) had / hadn’t seen your photos on Instagram, I (2) can’t / wouldn’t have believed it was real. Joe Yeah, it was crazy. I (3) can’t / should have worn protective clothing though! Ellie Do you think you (4) could / must have avoided all those tomatoes then? Joe Maybe. And I (5) should / might not have had tomatoes in my hair for days afterwards! Ellie The tomato fight (6) may / must have been fun though! Joe Oh yes, it was!

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Complete each sentence with an appropriate modal verb + have.

1 Bill Gates ___________________ started Microsoft if he and Paul Allen hadn’t been friends. 2 I ___________________ spoken to my friend during the exam, because we both got into trouble. 3 He ___________________ studied in Berlin: he doesn’t speak any German. 4 I ___________________ let my soup cool down before I drank it: I burnt my tongue! 5 I ___________________ lost my mobile if I had kept it in my bag. 6 She ___________________ been in a real hurry, otherwise she ___________________ stopped to say ‘Hello’.  10 Write sentences that are true for you. Use past modal

verbs. 1 A regret you have about something you did in the past: I shouldn’t have ___________________________ _______________________________________. 2 A regret you have about something you didn’t do I should have _____________________________ _______________________________________. 3 Deductions about your classmates or teachers regarding the past: _______ must have ________________________ _______________________________________. _______ might have _______________________ _______________________________________. _______ can’t have ________________________ _______________________________________. Example Alessio can’t have brought his maths book to school today: he shared Federico’s. My French teacher might have been ill today: she wasn’t at school.

Unit 10  Time  249


10 Competences READING   1

Think first Look at the photo and title and answer the questions. Then read the first paragraph of the text and check your answers. 1 What is a biological clock? 2 How does it affect you? 3 Do plants and animals have biological clocks?

BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS 1 5

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Do you need an alarm clock to wake you up in the morning? Have you ever thought ‘Oh, if I’d woken up on time, I wouldn’t have missed that bus’? Or do you wake up at just about the same time every morning, with or without a clock? You may not know it, but we all carry an inner alarm clock, or ‘biological clock’, with us. Our bodies know more or less what time it is, even when we’re not exactly sure of the hour of day. And it isn’t only people who carry an internal clock. Animals and plants know what time it is, too.

For years, scientists have known that plants, like humans and animals, have daily routines that include ‘going to sleep’ and ‘waking up’ on a regular basis. Recently, researchers have discovered that the cells within plants also contain their own biological clocks. They’ve learned that these clocks allow each cell and the whole plant to make tiny adjustments when the amount of light changes throughout the day and they can even adjust to changing seasons. ‘Having a biological clock is particularly important for plants to prepare for daylight and at night-time to store energy for growth,’ says Professor Andrew Millar, of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Our internal clocks, like those of plants and animals, follow a pattern or rhythm called a ‘circadian rhythm’. The word ‘circadian’ comes from the Latin circa, meaning ‘about’, and dies, meaning ‘day’. Each rotation of the Earth, which takes 24 hours to complete, represents a circadian period in the life of an organism. Plants, because they depend on the sun and its light for food, need to know on a daily basis

Now read the text and match each paragraph (1–5) to a title (a–e). a How biological clocks help our bodies work. b What is ‘circadian rhythm’? Our inner alarm clock. c d Plants have biological clocks too! e How internal clocks affect our health.

250  Unit 10  Time

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how long or short the day will be, when and where the sun will rise and set, and how much daylight they’ll receive. To ensure their survival, plants also need to know when the sun will be high overhead* (hot and strong), and when it will be low on the horizon (weak, distant and cold). Similarly, our own biological clocks help manage the complex work that our bodies do every day. Our organs, for example, need to know when to get to work and when to take time off. At about midday, your stomach may tell you it’s time to eat. About 30 minutes after you’ve eaten, your other organs get to work, creating and storing energy, and processing what you’ve eaten. The human body’s ‘master clock’, a type of control centre located in the brain, coordinates all of this activity and sends signals throughout the day that tell the body what to do. In the morning, for example, it makes your body temperature go up so that you feel alert* and then at night your body temperature falls again because it’s time to sleep. This master clock works with your body’s circadian rhythms, and, like the biological clocks found in plants, it follows the sun. Researchers look forward to unlocking the mysteries of circadian rhythms, from discovering how to control our internal clocks to knowing exactly where in the brain the clocks are located. Health and productivity are both linked to cycles of sleep and being awake, and to our internal clocks. ‘We have found over 35 medical conditions that are affected by the body’s internal clock,’ says Michael Smolensky, professor of environmental physiology at the University of Texas. ‘This concept is revolutionary but we’re still overhead in alto, nel cielo alert vigile, sveglio learning about it.’

Match the two parts of each expression from the text. 1 alarm time _________________ 2 daily rhythm _________________ 3 biological routines _________________ 4 day clock _________________ 5 night- light _________________ 6 circadian clock _________________


Competences   4

5

Answer the questions. Use short answers. 1 Are our bodies always exactly sure of the hour of the day? ____________ 2 Do plant follow daily routines? ____________ 3 Does a circadian period last 24 hours? ____________ 4 Does the word ‘circadian’ have Greek roots? ____________ 5 Is the body’s ‘master clock’, located in the brain? ____________ 6 Do scientists know how to control the body’s internal clock? ____________

Listening Tip It can be hard to understand every word in fast natural speech. In Ex. 6, you may not hear the job clearly, but if you listen to the other words in the sentence you can understand the context and guess the answer.   6

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Listen to a talk. What is the speaker’s main purpose? a to describe a journey by Sven Hagemeir b to describe Guinness World Records to describe Honolulu, Hawaii c d to describe some unusual birthdays

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that plant cells contain biological clocks. a type of ‘inner alarm clock’. works with your body’s circadian rhythms. affect our health and productivity. is approximately 24 hours long.

LISTENING

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Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 We all have 2 Researchers have recently discovered 3 A circadian period 4 Your ‘master clock’ 5 Cycles of sleep and wakefulness a b c d e

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Listen again and choose the correct option. The book is published _______. A weekly B monthly C annually Sven Hagemeir kept his birthday going for _______ A 24 hours B 35 hours C 46 hours Hagemeir’s journey began in _______. A New Zealand B Hawaii C Australia The International _______ Line is an imaginary line in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. A Time B Date C Hour The previous record holder was _______. A less than 35 hours  B exactly 35 hours  C more than 35 hours The time in Honolulu, Hawaii, is _______ Brisbane, Australia. A ten hours behind B twenty hours behind  C ten hours ahead of Time _______ differences allow people to celebrate holidays more than once. A zone B line C area In 2013, private jet company offered passengers a chance to _______. A see the sun set twice B attempt a new record  C celebrate the New Year twice

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20 Listen to six people describing their jobs. Write the job that each speaker does. 1 _________ 4 _________ 2 _________ 5 _________ 3 _________ 6 _________

Listen again and complete the sentences. It’s hard to __________________ planning for five classes. I can never __________________ patients who are late. It’s difficult to __________________ from my job. I can never __________________ with my work. I often have to ask people to __________________ to suit my schedule. I have to tell them to __________________ until the doctor can give them more information.

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Unit 10  Time  251


Summative Revision 9-10 VOCABULARY

4 I’m afraid I fell _________ and I didn’t finish the report you asked for. A around B behind C off D out 5 Could you fit _________ a meeting with the chief executive tomorrow? A in B on C out D up 6 I can’t wait for the weekend, when I can hang _________ with my friends and relax. A in B on C up D out

Revision of creative arts & forms of entertainment; expressions with make and time; phrasal verbs about time.   1

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Choose the correct option. 1 The most successful songs always have a catchy tune / lyrics / verse. 2 Over 10,000 fans packed into the studio / exhibition / stadium to watch the concert. 3 The lead singer sang the first stage / play / verse and then the others joined in. 4 This early morning radio programme has over 2 million listeners / audience / viewers. 5 The Prime Minister is going to make a live broadcast / show / entertainment to the country tonight. 6 I never liked that series because the audience / broadcast / characters seemed really stupid. 7 What’s your favourite form / make / venue of entertainment – music, TV or theatre? 8 I’d love to have a little gallery / studio / exhibition where I could do my artwork.

Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones. 1 If you never get round to exercising, you exercise a lot. 2 Someone who holds on to a job keeps on working. 3 Looking forward to something means being excited about something happening in the future. 4 If you run out of time, you have a lot of time left. 5 When you bring something forward, you make it happen earlier. 6 If you try to fit something in, you try to find extra time to do it. 7 When you hang out, you are usually busy. 8 If you take time off work, you go to work even when you are ill.

5

Complete the text with ONE suitable word in each space.

Complete each sentence with an adjective in the box. abstract award-winning controversial imaginative lifelike  modern 1 The sculpture is incredibly _________– it looks exactly like him. 2 The painting doesn’t show objects as they really appear; it’s a piece of _________ art. 3 It’s a _________ art museum displaying the work of contemporary artists. 4 The artist has made very _________ use of recycled objects. 5 The _________ design of the museum has inspired many other buildings. It has merited every prize it has received. 6 These portraits of politicians in comical situations have proved _________.

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Choose the correct option. 1 Can you bring _________ the appointment with the doctor? A around B behind C forward D on 2 I tried to read the book before today’s lesson, but I ran _________ time. A into B off with C out of D up with 3 When do you think you’ll get _________ to finishing the painting? A at B next to C near D round

252  Summative Revision

Hanging out in London I have a (1) _________ time living in London because I make the (2) _________ of all the interesting and free things that there are to do (3) _________ the time. If you’re new to the city, doing activities is a great way to meet new people and make (4) _________. So in my (5) _________ time I go to meet-ups and I take cycling and walking tours or visit art galleries or parks. It really makes a (6) _________ to how you see a city if you try lots of different things. Recently I’ve made the (7) _________ to contribute something to my local community, so I’ve (8) _________ the time to volunteer in my local city garden. It’s such fun: you should try it!


Summative Revision GRAMMAR

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Revision of question tags; defining & non-defining relative clauses; Third conditional; if only & wish; modal verbs (past speculation, deduction & regret).   6

Match each sentence to a question tag. 1 Ricky Wilson sings with the Kaiser Chiefs, 2 You’ve never been to the opera, 3 That’s a Bansky work of art, 4 There weren’t many people in the audience, 5 You’ll be able to watch the match on TV tonight, 6 These portraits aren’t very lifelike, 7 We almost missed the start of the play, 8 Surely you can’t like this song, a b c d

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are they? can you? doesn’t he? didn’t we?

e f g h

10 Complete the text with the expressions in the box.

can’t have existed  could have simply absorbed may have looked  may once have been occupied might not have flown  might know  must contain must have heard  might have taken

have you? isn’t it? were there? won’t you?

Read the sentences. Are the relative pronouns necessary (N) or unnecessary (U)? 1 The musicians that opened the concert have been playing together for five years. 2 The drummer uses a kit which her father bought her for her sixteenth birthday. 3 The singer who writes songs for the band is also a poet. 4 Together they make music that speaks to young people around the world. 5 The song that we’ve just heard is one of their most popular ones. 6 When they first started, they played in a small club which their friend owned.

Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. 1 I ______________ (not meet) my best friend if we ______________ (go) to different schools when we were children. 2 If I ______________ (not find) my passport last week, I ______________ (not be able) to fly home yesterday. 3 If only Sharon ______________ (not eat) all those sweets! 4 I wish I ______________ (oversleep) this morning. Then I ______________ (not miss) the train. 5 What ______________ (you do) yesterday if you ______________ (lose) your mobile?

__ __ __ __ __ __

Correct the mistakes in the words in bold. 1 The piano is the instrument who he plays in the band. _______________________________________ 2 The postcard who she sent from Sicily, shows a beautiful picture of the Mediterranean Sea. _______________________________________ 3 I hung the certificate, I received at graduation on my bedroom wall. _______________________________________ 4 The menu who the waiter gave me was dirty. _______________________________________ 5 The photographer took pictures at our graduation will post the photos online. _______________________________________ 6 Karen’s neighbour, loves to bake, often gives us homemade cakes. _______________________________________

In 1526, an explorer called Hernán Cortés recorded stories of fabulously rich towns hidden in Honduras, in Central America. He (1) __________________ the stories from a variety of local people. If early explorers like Cortés hadn’t recounted stories of a ruined city in the jungle, modern archaeologist Chris Fisher (2) __________________ to the area known as La Mosquitia in 2015 to look for the ruins of a lost city. Fisher didn’t believe in the legends of a mythical city built of white stone: he thought it (3) __________________. However, he did believe that the mountains of La Mosquitia (4) __________________ the ruins of a real city, which had been abandoned for at least 500 years. When archaeologists first explored La Mosquitia in the 1930s, they thought the area (5) __________________ by a sophisticated culture because they discovered signs of ancient settlements. Some thought that a group of Maya warriors (6) __________________ control of the area, and others thought that a local culture (7) __________________ some of the characteristics of the Maya. If these mysterious people had built their cities of stone, we (8) __________________ more about them today. When the buildings were decorated and painted, they (9) __________________ as amazing as some of the great temples of the Maya, but sadly they were not made of stone and, once abandoned, they dissolved in the rain and rotted away.

Summative Revision  253


UNIT 1

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

Z

SUBJECT & OBJECT QUESTIONS Wh- questions begin with a question word, e.g. What, Where, Who, When, How. Questions normally ask about the object, but sometimes they ask about the subject. In object questions, we are asking about the object of the verb. An auxiliary verb (do / does / did / is / have etc.) goes before the subject. ‘Which film do you want to see?’ ‘The Irishman.’ (Which film asks about the object.) ‘Who are you speaking to?’ ‘Diana’ (Who asks about the object.) In subject questions, the question word is the subject and we don’t normally use an auxiliary verb in the Present or Past simple, or inversion (the word order is the same as in statements). ‘Who likes this game?’ ‘I like it.’ (Who is the subject.) ‘Which video made you laugh the most?’ ‘The one with the cats made me laugh the most.’ (Which video is the subject.) NOT: Who does like the game?  Which video did make…? In subject questions using other tenses, we always use the auxiliary verb, e.g. has, will, am. Who is making all that noise? Which movies have made the most money? Exercises 1–2

TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT There are a number of ways to talk about the present. We can use the Present simple, the Present continuous and the Present perfect. (Some people think of the Present perfect as a past tense, but it always has a connection with the present, so is really a present tense.) Present simple We use the Present simple: • to talk about things that are always or generally true, e.g. scientific facts. Some planets have many moons. Jupiter has at least 67! • to describe habits and routines (often with words like sometimes and never). I don’t normally go out during the week, but sometimes I go to the cinema on Saturdays.

254  Unit 1  Grammar reference

• with stative verbs (verbs of feeling, thinking, owning and sensing), e.g. enjoy, think, belong, seem. I don’t believe that you stayed at home all weekend. To make negatives and questions in the Present simple, we use the auxiliary verb do/does + infinitive. She doesn’t often cry in public. Why do you enjoy making cakes and cookies? Present continuous We use the Present continuous: • to talk about temporary actions happening at or around the present time, or at the time of speaking/writing. What’s that man doing? He’s looking for something. I’m reading a really interesting book at the moment. • to talk about changing situations. The world is getting warmer at a very fast rate. • with always to describe actions that happen often (and perhaps irritate the speaker). He’s always telling lies about me. Don’t listen to him! To make affirmatives, negatives and questions in the Present continuous, we use the auxiliary verb is/am/are + -ing. He’s talking to his friends online so he isn’t listening to me. I’m not studying very hard at the moment. Why are you always stealing my pens? Present perfect We use the Present perfect: • to describe actions that began in the past and continue to the present. Peter and I have been friends since we were young. • We also use the Present perfect after expressions like the first / second time. This is the first time I’ve met your parents. It’s the fourth time you’ve seen that film! To make affirmatives, negatives and questions in the Present perfect, we use the auxiliary verb have/has + past participle. They’ve only known each other for two weeks. She hasn’t been very happy recently. How long have you lived in Istanbul? Exercises 3–7


1

Are the questions correct? If not, correct the mistake.

4

1 2 3 4 5

Where does Henri work? (He works in Paris.) What Ingrid does? (She’s a pilot.) Which bus does go to the city centre? (The number 12.) Who saw the show yesterday? (We all saw it.) What you were doing when the concert started? (We were in a traffic jam.) 6 Who loved Lina in the story? (She loved Antonio.)  2

3

become

5

get

go up

use

Write questions with How long. Use the Present simple or Present perfect. Ask the questions to a classmate. 1 2 3 4 5 6

6

you know your best friend? be your journey to school? be at this school? this lesson usually last? be able to swim? know how to speak English?

Match the two parts of each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Choose the best option to complete the mini-dialogues. 1 A How often do you go / are you going camping? B Not that often, but my family plans / is planning a trip soon. 2 A Do you come? / Are you coming? Hurry up! B Wait a minute! I need / I’m needing to send my brother a text. 3 A I normally take / have normally taken the bus to school, but this week the bus drivers don’t work / aren’t working, so I cycle / I’m cycling instead. B My mum always takes / is always taking me in the car. 4 A How long are you having / have you had a mobile phone? B Oh, it’s not mine. I borrow / I’m borrowing it from my sister for the school trip. 5 A You always play / You’re always playing computer games. You should go outside more! B I’m finishing / I finish my game now and then I’ll go and meet my friends. 6 A Can you help me? I’m looking / I’ve looked for my hat. I don’t see / haven’t seen it since Saturday. B Sorry, I don’t know / I’m not knowing where it is and I’m doing / I’ve done my homework right now. Can I help you look later?

eat

fatter 1 Teenagers in many parts of the world too much. because they year by year. 2 The temperature of the planet text messaging as a 3 More and more people way to communicate. popular in cities again because 4 Cycling driving is slow and expensive.

Write a subject and object question for each sentence. 1 Tariq dropped his phone. a What did Tariq drop ? b Who dropped his phone ? 2 The children enjoy their maths classes. ? a Who ? b Which classes 3 Eva watched three films yesterday. do yesterday? a What ? b How many 4 Most of the class like the new teacher. ? (subject) a Who ? (object) b Who 5 Karina has lost her bag. ? a What ? b Who 6 Carlo told Naomi the secret. Naomi? a What the secret to? b Who

Complete the sentences about changing situations with the correct form of the verbs in the box.

I’ve enjoyed drawing and painting I do some drawing or painting I go to art class I’ve been in art class I’m painting a picture of a forest In fact, I’m doing a lot of painting But of course I’m not drawing anything

a

for about two years. I’ve learnt a lot since I started going. b my whole life. c nearly every day, even if it’s only a quick drawing. d right now; I’m studying English! e these days. More than ever! f this week. g twice a week.   7

Write the dialogue in your notebook using the words given and the correct tense: the Present simple, Present continuous or Present perfect. A What jobs / your parents / do? B Well, my mum is a doctor but my dad / not / work / at the moment. He / study / to be a computer programmer. A Oh, really? Why’s that? B He / be / a restaurant manager for most of his life, but he wants to do something different. A So / he / like / computers? B Oh, yes, he / always / play / with computers at home. My computer / never / work / because my dad / think / he can ‘improve’ it! A Oh, no! Well, I / hope / he learns how to fix your computer on this course! Unit 1  Grammar practice  255


UNIT 2

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE Past continuous

ADJECTIVES ENDING IN -ED AND -ING Many adjectives ending in -ed and -ing (participle adjectives) are formed from verbs. Many participle adjectives describe feelings. The Aztec culture excites a lot of visitors. (verb) We went on exciting excursions from Mexico City. (adjective) I was excited about visiting the Aztec pyramids. (adjective) We use -ing adjectives to describe the thing that makes us feel an emotion, e.g. exciting excursions. We use -ed adjectives to describe how we feel, e.g. I was excited. Exercises 1–2

NARRATIVE FORMS

We use the Past continuous: • to give background information or to describe a situation when other things happen. Some people at the party were already dancing and singing. • to describe an incomplete action when another action happened. The train left while they were buying coffee. We often use the Past continuous and the Past simple together in the same sentence to express a long action that was interrupted by a shorter one. The actions are usually connected with when, while or as. She was checking her mobile when she noticed she was late.

When we tell stories or talk about actions in the past, we can use the Past simple, the Past continuous and the Past perfect.

While I was unpacking, Joanna went to reception to ask for a map. Past perfect

Past simple We use the Past simple: • to describe completed actions and situations in the past. I bought a ticket to Athens last week. • if actions happen one after another. When the food arrived they sat down and started to eat.

We use the Past perfect to emphasize that one past action finished before another past action. The actions are often connected with after, before and already. She had already been to Peru and didn’t want to go back. We form the Past perfect with had + past participle.

• to describe repeated past actions. When I was younger, I walked to school every day.

I didn’t get to the concert on time because I’d missed my train.

We form the Past simple of regular verbs by adding -ed to the infinitive. Note the spelling changes: packed pack hoped (only add -d if the infinitive ends in e) hope stopped (double the final consonant if the infinitive stop ends consonant + vowel + consonant) studied (with consonant + -y, change the y to i) study

We use used to + infinitive to talk about situations, habits and routines that were true in the past but are not true any more. We don’t use used to to talk about single actions.

Many common verbs are irregular. got go went get

The Past simple can be used to talk about these actions when the situation is clear:

catch

used to

caught

To make negative and question forms in the Past simple, we use did/didn’t with the infinitive. It’s strange that we didn’t meet when we lived in Tokyo. Did you visit the Guggenheim Museum last year? The verb be doesn’t use did/didn’t. I wasn’t scared. Was it an expensive trip?

They used to have a house in Bucharest. (situation) She used to eat meat. (habit) We used to see them every Sunday. (routine)

They had a house in Bucharest. (It’s clear that they don’t have a house there now.) She ate meat. (It is not clear whether this happened once or many times, or whether she has stopped eating meat.) We form negatives and questions using did/didn’t use to + infinitive.

The verb have is like all irregular verbs.

T he voyage to America didn’t use to be as safe as it is today. Did you use to live in an apartment?

I had a pet. (NOT I had got …) Did you have a pet? (NOT Had you …) I didn’t have a pet. (NOT I hadn’t …)

Instead, to talk about habits in the present, we use the Present simple and a frequency adverb.

For a list of irregular verbs see pages 274–275. 256  Unit 2  Grammar reference

I usually eat meat. (NOT I use to eat ...) Exercises 3–6


1

1 If you get bored / boring reading on the train, try listening to audiobooks instead. 2 A surprised / surprising number of students spend more than two hours a day getting to and from school. 3 Were you worried / worrying about travelling alone on the train late at night? 4 Bolivia’s cable cars look frightened / frightening, but many commuters say they feel more relaxed / relaxing after their journey. 5 The trip to the museum was interested / interesting, but I was very tired / tiring by the end of the day. 6 I understand when I’m in class, but when I’m doing my homework I get confused / confusing. 7 I didn’t enjoy that at all! The taxi was driving much too fast. It was terrified / terrifying! 8 Phew! Those stairs are exhausted / exhausting. They should put a lift in your building.   2

Are the sentences correct? If not, correct the mistake. 1 Don’t be worried. It’s not an embarrassed photo of you at all. You look great! 2 Simon enjoyed watching horror films, but he didn’t like feeling frightening. 3 The exercise is complicated and I’m not surprised that you feel confused. 4 Everyone told her the film was great, but she was boring after the first ten minutes. 5 If you want to feel relaxing while you explore Canada’s west coast, consider a cruise. 6 The news is shocking, isn’t it? 7 Our holiday was good fun, even though the weather was quite depressed. 8 You must be feeling disappointed with that result. What went wrong?

3

4 Everyone had left when she got home. 5 Everyone left when she got home. 6 Everyone was leaving when she got home.

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences.

Match sentences 1–3 with a–c and sentences 4–6 with d–f. 1 When the police searched the train, the man got off. 2 When the police searched the train, the man was getting off. 3 When the police searched the train, the man had got off. a

The man got off before the police started searching the train. b The man got off at the same time as the police started searching the train. c The man got off after the police started searching the train.

d e f 4

Everyone left after she got home. Everyone left before she got home. Everyone left at the same time as she got home.

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Sometimes both options are possible. 1 Where did you go / use to go last weekend? 2 When you were a child, did you have / did you use to have a bicycle? 3 I talked / used to talk to him after school every day. 4 We didn’t move / use to move from Toronto to Vancouver until 2015. 5 As a family, we didn’t go / didn’t use to go to the cinema unless it was somebody’s birthday. 6 My father smoked / used to smoke.

5

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 6

6

Who was teaching you to ride a bike? He ran out of money while he travelled in Germany. Had you seen Gareth yesterday? When I arrived in class, the exam already started. Did you used to walk to school? First I missed the bus, then I had lost my train ticket!

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence. Use between two and four words including the word in capitals. 1 John checked that no one was in the house, then he slowly opened the door. UNTIL that no one John didn’t open the door was in the house. 2 We spent every holiday with my grandparents when we were little, but we don’t these days. TO every holiday with my grandparents We when we were little. 3 Everyone started to eat dinner before I got home. They still hadn’t finished when I arrived. EATING dinner. When I got home, everyone 4 Marcos met a friend in Budapest before he went to Japan. ALREADY a friend When Marcos went to Japan he in Budapest. 5 We got on the bus in the middle of an argument between all the passengers. ARGUE When we got on the bus, all the passengers . 6 She didn’t bring her passport so she couldn’t get on the flight. BROUGHT She couldn’t get on the flight because she her passport. Unit 2  Grammar practice  257


UNIT 3

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

PAST SIMPLE & PRESENT PERFECT We use the Past simple to talk about completed actions in the past. We often use expressions that show completed time with the Past simple, e.g. last week, yesterday, in 2007. Australia beat Fiji on Sunday in the World Cup. We use the Present perfect to talk about: • actions which began in the past and continue to the present. Teams have played modern ice hockey for almost 150 years. (This continues today.) • actions in the past which are connected to a present situation. Spain have won the Championships again this year. (They are the champions now.) • past experiences when the exact time isn’t stated. Lee ’s played more matches than Jim. (He played more matches at any point in the past until now.) • recent actions, often with adverbs like just, already and yet. You haven’t missed anything. They’ve just started. The game’s already finished – you missed it! I haven’t seen her score yet, but she’s looking very good. We form the Present perfect with has/have + past participle. Has and have are often contracted to ’s/’ve. She’s improved her swimming style. The verb go has two past participle forms, been and gone. We use been to say someone went to a place and came back. We use gone to say that the person is still in that place. He’s been to China. (And now he’s back home.) He’s gone to China. (He’s still in China.) For a list of irregular past participles see pages 274–275. Exercises 1–2

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE & CONTINUOUS As mentioned above, we form the Present perfect simple with have/has + past participle. A Oh no! I’ve lost my phone. B Really? Have you looked in the car? We form the Present perfect continuous with have/has + present participle (verb + -ing). A Has Jill been studying for the test? B Yes, she’s been working really hard.

The Present perfect simple and continuous are both used to describe actions that began or finished in the past but have a connection with the present. However, they emphasize different things. The Present perfect simple: • emphasizes the fact that an action is finished. William has practised enough today. He’s coming off the court. • emphasizes the present result of the action, i.e. How many/much/often? We’ve played five times. I’ve won two matches and lost three. • is used with stative verbs, e.g. want, know, believe, be. I’ve wanted to try his racket ever since he bought it.

• emphasizes the duration of an action. They’ve been playing together for a couple of years.

Questions with How long are formed with the Present perfect continuous to emphasize the continuous nature of the action. How long has she been competing professionally? Time expressions We use for and since with the Present perfect simple and continuous to say how long an action has been going on. They’ve been swimming for more than half an hour. (for + period of time) He’s played golf since the age of ten. (since + point in time) We can use ever and never with the Present perfect simple to say at any/no time in the past. He’s never been snowboarding. Have you ever tried it? We can use already and just with the Present perfect simple to say that an action is complete. We’ve already played three games this morning. (This happened before now.) I’ve just come back from work. (I came back very recently.) We use yet in questions and negatives to ask whether an action is complete, and to say it isn’t. Has the team won yet? We haven’t played any matches yet. Exercises 3–6

258  Unit 3  Grammar reference

The Present perfect continuous: • emphasizes the fact that an action is unfinished. Jo’s been practising all day. She won’t stop until late. • emphasizes the action itself. The girls have been training hard.


1

Complete the text with the Past simple or Present perfect simple form of the verbs in brackets.

4

1 A How long / you / play / hockey? B Six years. In that time, I / play / for three different teams. A And / your teams / win / any tournaments? B We / not / win / any big trophies, but we won the local tournament last month. A Congratulations! 2 A Where / you / be? B I / work out / at the gym. A You / not / have / a shower yet, that’s for sure! You smell terrible! B Give me a chance! I / just / get / home! 3 A Who’s that player with the ball? He / play / well so far. B That’s Gareth Bale. You must have heard of him! He / play / for Madrid all season. A Of course I / hear / of him! But I didn’t know what he looked like.

I (1) (always love) the sea, ever since I was (invite) me to go a girl, so when a friend (2) sailing with her last summer, I was very excited. (go) on boat trips many times in my life, I (3) (be) quite scary. but my first day sailing (4) There was a lot of wind and the boat nearly (turn over)! However, I (6) (5) (not give up) that day and now I love it. Since then, (spend) nearly every weekend at the I (7) sailing club or on the water. In fact, I (8) (not take) (just buy) a small boat. I (9) (take) anyone sailing with me yet, but I (10) the boat out on my own last Wednesday for a short trip (not see) my friend and it was great. I (11) (go) to New for a while because she (12) Zealand to sail professionally!   2

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 We have played three matches yesterday. 2 She hasn’t tried yet rollerblading, but I’m sure she will. 3 The team competed in the tournament for more than 30 years. In fact, this year will be their 33rd year! 4 Oh, no! You hurt your arm. It looks really sore. 5 A Where’s Tom? B He’s been to the changing rooms to get ready. 6 Sam and I have played together since three years. 7 They hasn’t won many matches so far this year. 8 I’ve met him since 2014.

3

5

Write How long/many/much questions in response to these comments. Use the Past simple, Present perfect simple or Present perfect continuous. 1 I can’t believe Serena Williams has won another Grand Slam! ? (Grand Slams / she / win) 2 The club are spending so much money on new players at the moment. ? (they / spend / so far) 3 Darya isn’t doing t’ai chi any more. She left the club a few weeks ago. ? (she / be / a member) 4 I met my oldest friend when we played volleyball on holiday together. ? (you / know / each other) 5 I’m not enjoying riding my bike any more. I’m thinking of selling it. ? (you / cycle) 6 This new tennis racket was expensive. ? (it / cost)

Choose the best option to complete the sentences. 1 Two races have already taken / been taking place this morning, but it’s rained / been raining since 2 p.m., so nothing is happening at the moment. 2 I’ve injured / I’ve been injuring my leg, so I haven’t wanted / haven’t been wanting to compete in the last month or two. It’s really annoying! 3 Although she has known / has been knowing how to play chess since she was a little girl, she’s only just started / been starting playing seriously. 4 A How far have you swum / been swimming? B Well, I’ve swum / I’ve been swimming for 45 minutes, so about two kilometres, I think. 5 The coach hasn’t chosen / hasn’t been choosing me for the team yet, but I’ve trained / I’ve been training all year! 6 A How many times has your team been winning / won the cup? B None, but they have a chance this year. They’ve been playing / played really well recently. 7 He’s been reading / read books since he was five. He’s been finishing / finished hundreds.

Use the prompts to complete the dialogues with the Present perfect simple or Present perfect continuous.

6

Put the words in brackets in the correct place in the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Have you run a marathon? (ever) He’s bought some new trainers. (just) They’ve won before. (never) Has she played for the team? (yet) We’ve met a famous person. (never) I haven’t had time to wash my football boots. They’re very dirty! (yet) 7 I’ve done some exercise today. (already) 8 Have you arrived? Get your swimming costume on! (just)

Unit 3  Grammar practice  259


UNIT 4

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

THE FUTURE (1): PLANS, INTENTIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS Present continuous & going to We can use both the Present continuous and be going to to talk about plans for the future. They are often interchangeable. Are you having lunch with your uncle tomorrow? Are you going to have lunch with your uncle tomorrow? The Present continuous is preferred when we talk about things we have already decided to do and made arrangements for, involving other people. We’re eating at Coco’s. The table is booked for 7 p.m.

THE FUTURE (2): PREDICTIONS will We use will for future events that are certain to happen. Dinner will be ready in ten minutes. We often use will with think, expect, imagine and know, and expressions like I’m sure. I expect he’ll want a big dinner. He didn’t eat at lunchtime. If the sentence is negative, not usually goes with the first verb. I don’t think she’ll eat it. (NOT I think she won’t eat it.) be going to

We use be going to, not the Present continous, to talk about personal intentions when there is no clear time given.

We often use be going to when there is clear evidence for the prediction.

I’m going to read that book. (= I plan to read it in the future.) I’m reading that book. (= I’m reading it at the moment)

Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. This food is very hot. You’re going to burn your mouth. Watch out! You’re going to drop all those books!

will We can use will: • to talk about decisions that we make at the moment of speaking. These are often offers of help or promises. You’re going to the supermarket? I’ll give you a lift. I won’t say anything about it to him, I promise. • when we haven’t made arrangements, but we are thinking about hopes, expectations, beliefs and plans. In this case, will is often used with I think, I expect, I’m sure, probably, possibly, maybe or perhaps. I haven’t decided who to invite. I’ll probably ask Joe. may/might Another way to talk about plans and intentions that aren’t firm decisions yet is to use may or might. She may ask Joe. (= It’s possible that she will ask him.) I might stay in tonight. It depends what’s on TV. (= It’s possible that I will stay in.) We can use may and might with possibly, but not with probably. Present simple We use the Present simple: • for events in the future which are on timetables or schedules. The restaurant opens at six o’clock. • after time expressions with when, until, after, as soon as, if and unless. Will is used in the main clause. What will you do when you finish school? Exercises 1–4 260  Unit 4  Grammar reference

may/might We can use may or might if we are less certain that a prediction is true. It might rain. If it does, we can eat indoors. There’s quite a lot of traffic so we might be late. I’m cooking this dish, but you might not like it.

FUTURE CONTINUOUS We use the Future continuous to talk about an action that we know or think will be in progress at a certain point in the future. We form the Future continuous with will + be + -ing. Don’t come before 3 p.m. I’ll be having my siesta till then! Will you be doing your French exam at this time tomorrow? I’ve hurt my back so I won’t be dancing at the gig.

FUTURE PERFECT We use the Future perfect to talk about an action that we know or think will be finished before a given time in the future. We form the Future perfect with will + have + past participle. I won’t have finished this work before midnight. By this time next week, she’ll have had her baby! How much of that book will you have read by tomorrow? Exercises 5–6


1

Choose the best option to complete the sentences.

4

1 I haven’t written much of the essay yet, but I’m working / going to work on it soon. 2 What time does the plane / is the plane going to take off? 3 Those bags look heavy. I’m going to / I’ll help you carry them to the car. 4 I’ll / I’m going to make a sandwich. Do you want anything? 5 What will you / are you going to wear to the party? 6 I’ll have a pizza. What might you / are you going to have? 7 I spend / I’m spending a few days with a friend after I visit / will visit my grandparents. 8 I don’t know what to do. I have to study, but I might / will go to the park instead. 2

1 2 3 4 5 6

Complete the sentences using the correct form of the pairs of verbs in the box. call + give get + not be

find out + text understand + talk

get + arrive  5

very excited when 1 I imagine the audience at the stadium in an hour. he home with the shopping, there 2 Until Dad any lunch. the situation better after you 3 He to him. what’s happening, 4 When you you me? You can’t phone me at work. you as soon as they me 5 I the result.  3

Complete the offers and decisions using the correct form of the verbs in the box. be call carry cook help make 1 A These bags of shopping are heavy. them for you. B I 2 A Could you help me clean the kitchen in about an hour? Beryl with her B I’m sorry, I can’t. I computer then. 3 A Make sure you get to the restaurant on time. late, I promise. B I 4 A Where’s Agata? She said she’d be here ten minutes ago. her. B I 5 A I’m not going to have time to cook dinner today. B You told me that yesterday. I told you, . I bought some fish this morning. I 6 A This coffee tastes horrible! B Oh, no! I put salt in it, not sugar! Sorry! I some more.

Use the prompts to complete the mini-dialogues. A  ? (what / do / weekend) B  I’m having my hair cut and going to a party. A  Can you let me know what the doctor says? . (I / text / you / after / speak / to B  OK. her) ? (you / see / anyone / this evening) A  B  Yes, Julie is meeting me after basketball. A  Could you try not to wake Olivia? She’s sleeping. . (I / not / make / a noise). B  ? (you / think / you / go back / to A  So, that restaurant) B  I don’t know. The food wasn’t that good, but the atmosphere was fantastic. A  Please could you ask Sarah if she’s coming on the trip? (I / not / see / her) until Tuesday, B  Sorry, when we’re having coffee.

Complete each sentence with the Future continuous or Future perfect form of the verb in brackets. 1 Good evening, everybody. We (eat) in about twenty minutes, so you have time to get a drink. (pass) my cookery 2 This time next week, I diploma. I’m excited, but sad that the course is ending. 3 Marc will stay in your bedroom. But don’t worry – he (not stay) long. Just a few days. (go), so if 4 By the time you get this note, I you need anything from the shop, call me. (not cross) 5 At the speed he’s running, he the finish line before it gets dark! 6 We’ve decided to go to the burger place this evening. (you join) us?

6

Complete the dialogue with the best form of the verbs in brackets. A I ’m taking my little brother to the park. Do you want to come? B What are you going to do there? (want) A I’m not sure. I imagine Victor (1) to go rollerblading. (definitely come). B In that case, I (2) (you leave) in the next five minutes? (3) A Victor has to get ready and put his rollerblades on. (be) ready in about ten I think we (4) minutes. B Oh! I’ve just remembered. Carrie’s going to call me, so (not be) able to come with you. I (5) A Shall we just meet at the park? (see) you at the B Good idea. I (6) park gate. Tell Victor that when he sees me, (wear) my rollerblades, too. I (7)

Unit 4  Grammar practice  261


UNIT 5

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

VERB PATTERNS: VERB + -ING / VERB + TO These verbs change their meaning if they are followed by the -ing form or the infinitive with to. remember / forget go on mean regret stop try

-ing form • memories I clearly remember leaving the letter on your desk. I’ll never forget receiving my first job offer. I was so excited! • an action in progress They went on talking after the meeting had finished. • the consequence of an action I can’t be late again! It would mean losing my job this time! • things we are sorry we did I regret not taking that job. I hate this job! • an action ending The camera stopped working after I dropped it. • ways of solving problems Isn’t it working? Have you tried restarting it?

Infinitive with to • things we need to do Did you remember to buy some stamps? Don’t forget to send me a text when you arrive. • doing one thing after doing something else After university, she went on to become a lawyer. • intentions or plans Sorry, I meant to call you earlier. • introduces something bad I regret to say that you didn’t get the job. • the reason for the end of an action They stopped to look at the view. • things that are difficult to do She tried to fix it, but it was impossible.

Exercise 1

PRESENT & PAST MODAL VERBS Obligation & prohibition We use must + infinitive for obligation and necessity. I must phone my brother to congratulate him on his new job. We use have to, not must, in the past and usually for questions. I had to take an exam yesterday. Do you have to do that? We often use have to to describe obligations other people, laws or authorities put on us. I really must clean my desk. I can’t find anything! (It is my decision.) My boss says I have to clean my desk. (Someone else’s decision.) We use mustn’t or can’t + infinitive for prohibition. You mustn’t ask questions until the end of the presentation. We can use couldn’t or wasn’t/weren’t allowed to in the past. I couldn’t wear jeans yesterday because I had an interview. I wasn’t allowed to touch my sister’s computer. We use don’t/didn’t have to, don’t/didn’t need to or needn’t to say that something is not obligatory or necessary. I didn’t have to wear a uniform in my last job. Possibility, ability & permission We use can/can’t or be able to for ability and possibility. Robots can serve food but they can’t eat. We use can/can’t or be allowed to for permission. They can start and finish work when they want.

In the past, we use could for general ability. To describe a single event in the past, we use was/were able to or managed to. I was able to save my work but I couldn’t finish the document. Advice We use should and shouldn’t to talk about advice. Should I wear a suit to the interview? We can also use ought to for advice. It is less common in negatives and questions. You ought to see a careers advisor. Exercises 2–4

MODAL VERBS FOR DEDUCTION We also use modal verbs to make deductions (to say how sure we are about something, depending on how strong the evidence is). She must be the boss. She’s wearing a suit. (= very strong evidence) It might / may / could be too late to order food. (= It’s possible, but I’m not sure.) It can’t be lunchtime already. I’ve only just had breakfast! (= very strong evidence) Note that we never use can in affirmative deductions. When we make deductions about things that are in progress, we use the -ing form. Look, the dog’s moving in his sleep. He must be having a dream! John can’t be sleeping. I just heard his footsteps upstairs. Exercises 5

262  Unit 5  Grammar reference


1

Complete the sentences using the correct form of the pairs of verbs in the box. forget + arrive go on + win regret + do remember + set try + open

forget + pay mean + hurt regret + inform stop + do try + talk

go on + chat mean + miss remember + put stop + look

1 I know she’s angry, but you haven’t even tried talking to her yet. I’m sure she’d listen. the door, but the key got stuck in  2 He the lock. my mobile phone charger in my bag,  3 I but it isn’t there now. your alarm for 7:30 tomorrow  4 Can you morning, please? the  5 The team started badly, but they match. into the night.  6 It was late, but they that? It’s really annoying!  7 Can you in the window of the new shop in the  8 I high street. you that you will not be accepted  9 We for a place at the college. it 10 It was a stupid thing to do, but I don’t because it was such good fun. for my drink! I’ll have to 11 Oh, no! I think I go back to the café straight away. on the island. It was so 12 I’ll never beautiful! 13 I could go back home to get an umbrella, but that my train. would you. It was an accident. 14 I didn’t  2

3

1 A few years ago, wearing a suit was obligatory in the office. in the A few years ago, you office.  2 I really think it is important for me to eat less sugar. less sugar. I really  3 They weren’t allowed to take breaks during work hours. during work hours. They  4 Is it obligatory to wear a helmet when you ride a bicycle in your country? when you ride a bicycle in your country?  5 It isn’t possible to use the printer because there isn’t any paper. because there isn’t any You paper.  6 It wasn’t necessary for him to buy a new phone. a new phone. He  7 Smoking was permitted in the building until last year. in the building until last You year.  8 The manager says that it is necessary to arrive at the shop half an hour before it opens. at the shop half an hour We before it opens.  9 Drinking coffee or tea is prohibited in the library. in the library. You  4

Correct the mistake in each sentence.  1 When I was younger, I didn’t have to touch my parents’ computer.  2 When do we must tell the teacher if we can’t go on the school trip?  3 We mustn’t complete the project until next week, so we’ve got lots of time.  4 When you finish your lunch you needn’t to do the washing-up. I’ll do it later.  5 I’m not allowed to stay up late when I was younger.

Choose the correct option.  1 Do I must / have to answer this email?  2 Employees in most companies are allowed to / needn’t choose when to take holidays.  3 I didn’t get the job, but I could / managed to find a better one.  4 I have a good typing speed now, but I couldn’t / shouldn’t type very well when I started.  5 My boss says I should / ought go to the conference.  6 Receptionists mustn’t often / don’t often have to work after the office closes.  7 The old stars of silent films didn’t need to / needn’t have good voices.  8 We can’t / aren’t allowed to talk to our colleagues. The boss thinks we’re wasting time!

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first sentence. Use a form of can, could, have to or must.

5

Complete the mini-dialogues with must or can’t.  1 A It’s eight o’clock. Is Pete still at work? B Yes. He love his job!  2 A Oh, no! The printer’s broken again! be. It was working ten minutes B It ago.  3 A Oh, that’s your phone. be Shona – she said she would call. B It  4 A Have you heard that Kirsty’s resigning from her job? be true. She told me she B Really? That likes her job. Unit 5  Grammar practice  263


UNIT 6

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

ZERO & FIRST CONDITIONAL

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Conditional sentences contain a main clause and an if-clause. We use an if-clause to describe a condition and the main clause to describe the result of the condition happening.

The Second conditional describes situations which we can imagine, but which are not real now and not likely to happen in the future.

In both Zero and First conditional sentences, the if-clause is in a present tense.

I would be very bored if I didn’t have my phone with me. (I have my phone with me now, so I don’t feel bored.)

The if-clause can go before or after the result clause. We use a comma to separate the clauses in sentences which begin with the if-clause.

We form the Second conditional with would + infinitive in the result clause and the Past simple in the if-clause.

You will feel some pain if you don’t take these pills. If you don’t take these pills, you will feel some pain. Zero conditional Zero conditional sentences describe situations that are generally or always true. The result clause can be in the Present simple, with an imperative or a modal verb. If you heat ice, it melts. (Present simple) If you have a headache, take an aspirin. (imperative) You should see a doctor if a headache doesn’t go away. (modal verb) First conditional First conditional sentences describe possible future situations. The result clause is usually formed with will/won’t. You’ll get a headache if you keep on watching TV. If you don’t come tonight, you won’t miss much. Other modal verbs or an imperative can replace will. If you go to the chemist this afternoon, pick up my prescription. He may injure his feet if he keeps walking in those boots. (= It’s possible that he will hurt his feet.) I can help you get home tonight if you’re tired after the race. (= I will be able to help you.) unless and other alternatives to will Instead of if, we can use when, as soon as, until or unless. Remember that after these words we use Present simple, never will. I’ll have a big party when I am 18. As soon as I get home, I’ll give you a ring. I’ll repeat it until I learn it. Note that unless means if … not and is followed by an affirmative verb. The pain won’t go away unless you take the medicine. (NOT … unless you don’t take …) Exercises 1–2 264  Unit 6  Grammar reference

She would help if she knew what to do. We wouldn’t have to pay so much if they gave discounts. Would you speak to Ed Sheeran if you met him? What would Ally say if she knew about the accident? The if-clause can come before the main clause, but we use a comma to separate the clauses. If she knew what to do, she would help. You can use was or were with I, he, she and it. Were is more formal. We often use the phrase If I were you to give advice. If she was/were here, I’m sure she’d agree. I’d see a doctor if I were you. We can replace would with could to mean would be able to. I could come to the first aid lesson with you if I had some spare time. We can replace would with might to mean possibly would. He might feel better if he took some time off. If only & I wish When we want a present situation to be different we can use the Second conditional. If there were a lift, wheelchair users would have access. We also use I wish and If only to emphasize this feeling. I wish there were a lift – then wheelchair users would have access. If only the restaurant had a lift! If only and I wish are followed by verbs in the past form. If only I had night vision. (But I don’t.) I wish I could change my height. (But I can’t.) First or Second conditional? In cases where a situation is a real possibility, we use the First conditional, whilst in cases where it is hypothetical or very unlikely we use the Second conditional. I’ll go if I can. (It’s possible that I can go.) I’d go if I could. (It’s impossible or very unlikely that I can go.) Exercises 3–5


1

Complete the text using the correct form of the verbs. Use the Present simple, will, can, should or may.

4

1 The teacher is angry with him because he doesn’t help his classmates. If he helped his classmates , the teacher wouldn’t be angry with him . 2 I can’t come out with you this evening because I have a lot to do. with you this evening if I a I lot to do. 3 She has to look after her brother because their parents both work. her brother if . She 4 I’m afraid our printer’s broken, so you can’t print the photo here. – then you If only our printer the photo here. 5 It’s such a shame that they can’t come to visit us any more. still come to visit us! I 6 The library’s closed, so I have to study at home. ,I . If the library 7 A car is parked in front of our car, so Mum can’t drive to work. if in front of Mum would our car. 8 It’s so sad that Patrick doesn’t live here any more. . If only

If you (1) (wake up) with a sore throat, it may be the beginning of an infection. Salt water is a good way (drink) it, just to stop the pain, but you (2) hold it in your mouth. Take a paracetamol if it (continue) to be sore. Be careful – you (3) (pass) your infection on to other people (4) (cover) your if you share drinks. And you (5) mouth if you cough to protect other people. Wash your (pass) on infections hands regularly. You (6) (have) a if you don’t. However, unless you (7) (go) outside, but keep temperature, you (8) (get) better warm. Normally, a sore throat (9) (look after) it. in a few days unless you (10)    2

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 If he’ll feel sick, I’ll make him some green tea. 2 The pain’s gone now. I won’t take another pill if it comes back. 3 This website says it should be very difficult for a broken bone to heal if it’s in the foot. 4 Unless the doctor is happy with your progress, you can go home tomorrow. 5 I phone the school and tell them you are ill if your stomach ache gets worse. 6 Normally, the teachers let the children play outside unless it will rain. 7 Many people think that you should get a cold if you go out in wet weather. 8 If you’re feeling sick, you will see a doctor.

3

Choose the correct form to make sentences in the Second conditional. In which sentence are both answers correct? 1 If I could have any tattoo, I chose / would choose a tiger. 2 I wouldn’t get a tattoo even if you paid / would pay me. I don’t like them. 3 If I was / were rich, I’d ask the dentist to fix my teeth so that they were perfect. 4 I couldn’t / wouldn’t afford that much work on my teeth unless I won the lottery. 5 I wish my feet weren’t / wouldn’t be so big. 6 If I had / have more time, I’d learn to dance. 7 I’d love to go shopping. If only I didn’t / wouldn’t have that doctor’s appointment! 8 If I became an actor or writer, I might / would change my name, but I’m not sure.

Complete the sentences about the imaginary situations.

5

Decide whether the situations are a real future possibility, an imagined present situation or an unlikely future situation. Then choose the correct options to complete the sentences. 1 He’ll probably visit tomorrow. If I saw / see him, I’d / I’ll let you know. 2 What will / would you buy if you win / won £1 millon? 3 We can’t help you, I’m afraid. If we had / have a car, we’d / we’ll give you a lift to the station. 4 ‘What will / would you do to celebrate if you pass / passed your exams?’ ‘I’m going to buy a new pair of trainers!’ 5 It’s a shame about the weather. If it isn’t / wasn’t raining, I’ll / I’d take the dog for a walk. 6 I can’t believe you left your passport at home! We will / would be in Singapore now if you aren’t / weren’t so forgetful. 7 I know you can’t go to the cinema tonight, but what will / would you see if you can / could? 8 I’m not sure if your magazine is in my bag. I’d / I’ll bring it to school on Monday if it is / was.

Unit 6  Grammar practice  265


UNIT 7

GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE

THE PASSIVE

We can also use have for an action we didn’t cause to happen.

Sentences in English can be active or passive. A sentence is active when the subject of the verb is the person or thing doing the action. We call this person or thing the agent. In the passive form, the object of the verb becomes the subject. (object) They sold the last copy of the game yesterday.

She had her wallet stolen. There was a lot of money in it. Oh no! I’ve had my email hacked by someone!

(subject) The last copy of the game was sold yesterday. We make the passive with the verb be + past participle. Present simple Present continuous Past simple Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect Modals will

Active Passive make(s) is/are made is/are making is/are being made made was/were made was/were making was/were being made has/have made has/have been made had made had been made can/must/should can/must/should … … make be made will make will be made

Olive oil is produced in this country. (Present simple) New songs are being written all the time. (Present continuous) This jacket was made in Turkey. (Past simple) The dog was being washed when I arrived. (Past continuous) All the small sizes have been sold, I’m afraid. (Present perfect) I’d met him before he became famous. (Past perfect) Things can be bought at cheaper prices in the sales. (modal verb) The winners will be announced next week. (will) The agent is expressed with the preposition by. My dress was made by my mum. However, we do not usually mention the agent when it is unknown or unimportant. Most sports trainers are made in Asian countries. Exercises 1–3

HAVE / GET SOMETHING DONE When we want to explain that we ask someone else to do something for us without saying who, we can use have / get + something + past participle. I had my watch repaired recently. She got some flowers delivered to her grandmother. Have and get have similar meanings in this case, but get is usually less formal. They had their house valued at $250,000. Where do you get your hair cut? 266  Unit 7  Grammar reference

Exercises 4–5 Reflexive & reciprocal pronouns We form reflexive pronouns with -self or -selves. myself we ourselves I yourself you yourselves you itself they themselves it himself he herself she Reflexive pronouns are often used: • where the subject (who does the action) and object (who receives the action) are the same person. I cut myself while peeling the onions. If you cheat in tests, you’ll only be hurting yourselves. • as emphasisers (meaning ‘that person and nobody else’), often to show pride in an action. The child baked the cake herself. He wrote the speech himself. • with by to emphasise the solitary nature of an action. I was all by myself. (= alone) She carried the suitcase by herself. (= without help) Note that some common verbs like get dressed, feel, relax and wash are reflexive in Italian, but not normally used reflexively in English. She doesn’t feel well. (NOT … doesn’t feel herself…) I’m tired. I need to relax. (NOT … relax myself.) Reciprocal pronouns, each other (or one another), are used when two or more people do the same thing. Laura and Paul looked at each other. (= Laura looked at Paul and Paul looked at Laura) We all helped each other with the science project. (= We all worked together on the project) Notice the difference between reflexive and reciprocal pronouns. In the film, Bill and Frank killed each other. (= Bill killed Frank and Frank killed Bill.) Bill and Colton killed themselves. (= They committed suicide.) Joe and I made each other sandwiches. (= Joe made a sandwich for me and I made one for him.) Joe and I made ourselves sandwiches. (= Joe made his sandwiches and I made mine.)


1

In which sentence (a or b) would you leave out the agent? 1 a The shoplifter was arrested by policemen after she stole a coat. b The woman was spotted stealing clothes by 62-yearold store detective, Maureen Backwell. 2 a All of the biscuits we made have been bought by people. b I didn’t bake them. They were baked by my sister. 3 a The school bought the computers. However, they weren’t bought by the school for the students. b The computers were donated by the school to a charity.

2

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. 1 We understand better now how the environment affects / is affected by the products that we buy. 2 In the past, most products, such as food, are / were produced locally, often just a few miles away. 3 Nowadays, products are / had transported over great distances, often from other countries. 4 Take the milk you had for breakfast. It may be / may have been driven the length of the country to get to your town. 5 What’s more, it’s possible that the carton that the milk comes in had been made / making even further away, on the other side of the world. 6 The environment is / was constantly damaged by pollution from all the transportation required to get our daily milk on the table. 7 We must also think about what happens to the carton after it has been / was thrown away. 8 If the carton hadn’t been / isn’t recycled, it will be buried under the ground or burned, which releases greenhouse gases. So if you can get your food locally, do.

3

4 These days, they keep items like milk at the back of the shop so that you have to walk through the whole store to find them. These days, items like milk at the back of the shop so that you have to walk through the whole store to find them. 5 Shop owners had encouraged customers to spend more than they planned long before it became a ‘science’. to spend more Customers than they planned long before it became a ‘science’. 6 For example, someone designed the shopping trolley in 1938 to make customers buy more. For example, the shopping trolley in 1938 to make customers buy more. 4

1 after / by a cleaning company / clean / have / the house / the party / we 2 before / fix / get / happens / please / the fire alarm / something terrible 3 a new pair / buying / have / I / instead of / my old trainers / repair 4 can / clean / get / I / suit / this / where / ? 5 all the walls / before they moved in / have / paint / they 6 your car / every year / have / test / should / you  5

Use an expression with have or get to replace the words in italics so the sentence means the same. 1 He left the car at the garage for the mechanics to change the oil.  to get the oil changed 2 The man took his suit to the drycleaner’s so they could clean it. 3 She went to the florist’s and told the lady there to send some flowers to her mother. 4 Once a month, my grandfather goes to the barber’s shop, where a man cuts his hair. 5 Before we could go on holiday, I had to pay a photographer to take a photo for my passport. 6 They were so tired in the evening that they phoned a restaurant to deliver some Chinese food to the house.

Read the sentences about ‘supermarket science’. Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use no more than three words. 1 Supermarket designers have designed every part of this shop to make you spend more money. Every part of this supermarket to make you spend more money. 2 They have put products that they want us to buy on shelves at eye level so we can see them easily. Products that they want us to buy on shelves at eye level so we can see them easily. 3 It was the same when we were children. They encouraged us to choose the expensive children’s food in the same way. It was the same when we were children. to choose the expensive children’s food in the same way.

Put the words and phrases in the correct order. You will need to change the form of the verbs.

6

Choose the correct option. 1 Is he teaching himself / herself to play the guitar? 2 She introduced by herself / herself as Mrs Smallet. 3 I’m very good with cars – I always fix ours myself / ourselves. 4 Mum, dad, prepare yourself / yourselves for some bad news. 5 They live themselves / by themselves in the countryside. 6 I always feel / feel myself exhausted after school. 7 I’m going to get myself / each other some tea. Would you like some too? 8 Maria and I help each other / ourselves with our homework a lot. Unit 7  Grammar practice  267


UNIT 8

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

REPORTED SPEECH Reported statements and questions When we report statements and questions, we introduce them with a reporting verb, such as tell, say or ask. The reporting verb can be followed by the direct speech in inverted commas (‘ ’), or we can report what was said in a that-clause. It is usually not necessary to include that. She said ‘I’ve been here before.’ She said (that) she’d been there before. say, tell and ask The most common reporting verbs are ask, say and tell. Ask always reports a question or request; say and tell report statements. Tell and ask need a direct object, but say doesn’t. ‘The weather has been good.’ He told us / said that the weather had been good. He asked the man where he lived. ‘Where do you live?’

MAIN CHANGES WHEN WE REPORT Changes in tense The verb tense usually changes to a past tense. • The Present simple changes to the Past simple. She said she spoke French. ‘I speak French.’ • The Past simple changes to the Past perfect. ‘We didn’t do it.’ They said they hadn’t done it. • The Present perfect changes to the Past perfect. ‘Have you eaten?’ He asked me if I had eaten. • The Present continuous changes to the Past continuous. ‘I’m seeing the mechanic tomorrow.’ She explained that she was seeing the mechanic the next day. • The Past perfect stays the same. ‘They’d already read that book.’ I told him that they’d already read that book.

Changes in questions In direct questions, the word order is: (question word) + auxiliary/modal + subject + main verb In reported questions, the word order is: (questions word) + subject (+ auxiliary/modal) + main verb She asked me where I had been. ‘Where have you been?’ When we report Yes/No questions, we use if or whether. He asked me if I owned a phone. ‘Do you own a phone?’ He asked whether I was tired. ‘Are you tired?’ Other changes Pronouns, time expressions and other reference words (you, my, now, this, etc.) often change. They said that they loved her. ‘We love you.’ ‘We’re going shopping later today.’ They told her they were going shopping later that day. ‘We lived here many years ago, in this house.’ She said that they had lived there many years ago, in that house.

REPORTING VERBS WITH THAT add   admit   complain   claim    explain   reply They complained that they didn't have time. Exercises 1–4

VERB PATTERNS WITH REPORTING VERBS Reporting verbs tell us the function of the direct speech they report – asking a question, instructing, suggesting, etc. ‘What did you see?’ The policeman asked Jenny to tell him what she had seen. ‘You need to tidy up.’ Dad told me to tidy up. I agreed to go with him. ‘Yes, OK, I’ll come with you.’ ‘Why don’t we leave?’

She suggested leaving.

• Will and shall change to would. ‘I won’t call you until tomorrow.’ He said that he wouldn’t call me until the next day.

Verbs followed by to + infinitive agree, claim, offer, promise She promised to give the book back.

• Must changes to had to. ‘I must phone my sister!’ She remembered that she had to phone her sister.

Verbs followed by someone + to + infinitive ask, invite, remind, tell They invited me to join them on the walk.

• Can changes to could. He asked me if he could drive. ‘Can I drive?’

Verbs followed by the -ing form admit, recommend, suggest I had to admit being a little frightened.

Note that if what we are reporting is still true at the time of speaking, we don’t usually need to change the tense. Our teacher told us ‘Helsinki is the capital city of Finland.’ that Helsinki is the capital city of Finland. 268  Unit 8  Grammar reference

Note: admit can also be followed by to + -ing. Exercises 5–6


1

Complete the reported speech with the correct form of say, tell or ask. 1 Did you that you wanted a sandwich? you the hotel didn’t have a spa. 2 I that they didn’t want to see the film 3 They because it started too late. me what the time was because he 4 He didn’t have a watch. you where you bought that dress? 5 Can I It’s very beautiful. the audience that the 6 It wasn’t easy to show had been cancelled.

2

4

1 ‘What kind of camera do you use for your videos?’ 2 ‘How many videos have you posted on YouTube?’ 3 ‘Are you happy with the number of people who watch your videos?’ 4 ‘Do you post videos every day?’ 5 ‘Have you ever made a video that people didn’t like?’ 6 ‘Will you ever stop posting on YouTube?’  5

1 Jerry: ‘Oh, no! This is terrible. We’ve run out of chocolate.’ run out of chocolate. Jerry 2 Jerry: ‘Paolo, did you eat it?’ had eaten it. He 3 Paolo: ‘No, it wasn’t me.’ been him. Paolo 4 Paolo: ‘And anyway, I’m not eating chocolate at the moment.’ eating chocolate at that time. He 5 Paolo: ‘You see, I’m on a diet.’ on a diet. He 6 Jerry: ‘But I saw you eating chocolate this morning!’ seen him eating chocolate that Jerry morning. 7 Paolo: ‘OK, it was me. I ate it.’ eaten it. Finally, Paolo 8 Jerry: ‘Well, you must buy some more next time you’re at the shops.’ some more. Jerry

Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. 1 2 3 4 5 6

‘ I’ve been in Antarctica with my team for six months.’ She told the reporter that ‘ I’m studying small fish that live here.’ She explained ‘ I arrived last November, at the beginning of summer.’ She said ‘ The temperature is -25° today.’ She told him that the temperature

‘ I don’t want to leave this magical place.’ She said that ‘ But I can’t stay. I must catch the plane to New Zealand tomorrow.’ But she explained that

Complete the reported speech using a suitable verb from the box in the correct form and three more words. Contractions count as one word. add admit ask claim complain explain reply tell

Complete the reported speech sentences. 1 ‘I go there every Saturday.’ She said that she there every Saturday. He told me that he 2 ‘I didn’t enjoy that meal at all.’ the meal at all. 3 ‘They’re starting at the new school in two weeks.’ at the new school in He said they two weeks. He said that 4 ‘We’ll find out the winner next week.’ the winner the following week. they He told the teacher 5 ‘I can’t see the whiteboard.’ the whiteboard. that he 6 ‘I visited the museum after I’d studied Egyptian history.’ He told me he the museum after he Egyptian history. 7 ‘It’s alright, everyone. I’ve found my phone.’ her phone. She said that she 8 ‘While you’re here, you must visit the castle.’ there, they I told them that while they the castle.

3

Report the questions. Use He asked her …

6

Match the two parts of each sentence.  1 The doctor recommends  2 He suggested  3 He’s invited  4 I told  5 One student admitted  6 She asked me  7 She offered to  8 Thanks for reminding  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h

give me a lift. me to buy Michaela a present. me to have dinner at his house. playing a game while we waited. staying in bed for a few days. to buy some bread when I went shopping. cheating in an exam. you to stay in the classroom while I was gone. Unit 8  Grammar practice  269


UNIT 9

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

QUESTION TAGS Question tags are short questions that we often use to ask for agreement, usually in spoken English. If the sentence is affirmative, the tag is negative and vice-versa. It’s a great film, isn’t it? Lena didn’t see it, did she? A tag is always preceded by a comma, and is formed with an auxiliary or modal verb + a subject pronoun. Main sentence be (verb or auxiliary) It’s interesting, have (verb or auxiliary) We haven’t won, Present simple It sounds nice, Past simple He didn’t deserve it, Modal verbs (can, You can do it, must, should, etc.)

Tag isn’t it? have we? doesn’t it? did he? can’t you?

Note these exceptions: The negative tag of the 1st person singular of be is aren’t I? I’m late, aren’t I? (NOT am not I?) The tag in imperatives is usually formed with will. Go to bed now, will you? The tag with let’s is shall. Let’s have a drink, shall we? Exercise 1

RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. We use who (for people), which (for things) and that (for either) It wasn’t Mike Leigh who directed the film. It was Ken Loach. The film which I enjoyed most last year was Rogue One. The relative pronoun can be the subject or the object of the relative clause. If it is the subject, the relative pronoun cannot be omitted. This is the channel which only shows reality TV programmes. If it is the object, you can omit the relative pronoun. That’s the show which I was telling you about. If the relative pronoun represents a person and is the object of the relative clause, you can use whom instead of who. However, most people don’t use whom because it sounds very formal. He’s the man whom I spoke to at the theatre. (formal) A relative pronoun replaces the subject or object in the relative clause, so we don’t include it twice. The viewers who they completed the survey were all men. The viewers who the producers interviewed them were all men. Exercise 2 270  Unit 9  Grammar reference

DEFINING & NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES Defining relative clauses In defining relative clauses, the information in the relative clause completes the meaning of the sentence because it helps to define a noun in the main clause. A ‘That’s the show.’ B ‘Which one?’ A ‘The show I was telling you about.’ (This information is essential because it tells us which show.) In defining relative clauses, we can replace who and which with that. Non-defining relative clauses In non-defining relative clauses, the information in the relative clause is not essential. These relative clauses are often used to give extra information that is not necessary for the sentence to be clear. ‘Gravity’, which won seven Oscars, was directed by Alfonso Cuarón. In this sentence, the information won seven Oscars is not essential for the main clause (‘Gravity’ was directed by Alfonso Cuarón.) to be complete on its own. When we use non-defining relative clauses: • we don’t replace who or which with that. The painting, that which is worth over $10 million, has been removed for cleaning. • you cannot omit the relative pronoun, even if it is the object of the relative clause. The main character, who I thought was brilliant, is played by Olivia Coleman. In written English, non-defining relative clauses are separated from main clauses by commas (see examples above). In spoken English, the speaker usually pauses before and after the relative clause. Some relative clauses refer to a whole phrase or a whole sentence. We always use which to introduce these clauses. In 2017, an Oscar was mistakenly assigned to the wrong film, which was very embarrassing. (which refers to the entire situation) Exercises 3–7


1

2

Complete each sentence with a question tag. 1 You’re a fan of Alfred Hitchcock, 2 That actress has been married before, ? 3 They wouldn’t watch a boring film, ? 4 Let’s stay in tonight, 5 There’s nothing on TV tonight, 6 She’ll help us set up the show, 7 You didn’t turn up last night, 8 Jo and Ned love making vlogs,

5

?

3

1 A silent disco is an event where the music comes from headphones instead of loud speakers. 2 To anyone who is not wearing headphones, it looks as if a crowd of people is dancing in silence. 3 The music which is played by a DJ is broadcast by radio to the dancers’ headphones. 4 Often two or three DJs work at the same time which means that dancers can choose the type of music they want to dance to. 5 Silent discos are sometimes organized by nightclub owners who are not allowed to play loud music late at night.

? ? ? ? ?

Complete the sentences with who or which. If the relative pronoun is not necessary, leave a blank. 1 It was my dad bought the tickets. you saw last 2 Isn’t that the same actor week in that play about the war? 3 Is it right that Hollywood produces the movies make the most money around the world? I enjoy, 4 There aren’t many movie sequels to be honest. she painted was in 1932. 5 The last portrait 6 Supersize Me was the first documentary talked about the dangers of fast food. we have to do is advertise. 7 The first thing

6

1 All the galleries / they’re taking part in this year’s art festival / they can be found on the website. All the galleries that are taking part in this year's art festival can be found on the website.

4

Join these sentences using a non-defining relative clause. 1 I was born in 2001. That was the year the animated movie Shrek came out. 2 My favourite author is Marguerite Abouet. She wrote the AYA graphic novels. 3 The only musical I’ve ever seen is Les Misérables. It’s been playing in the capital for years. 4 She’s Just A Shadow stars Tao Okamoto. She is one of several new successful Japanese actors. 5 Have a look at his Facebook page. It has a photo of his new baby nephew.

Delete who or which where possible. Then replace the remaining relative pronouns with that where possible. 1 Her poetry, which is suitable for radio, is meant to be read out loud. 2 Her self-portraits, which were all she painted, were always colourful. 3 Beyoncé is a singer who I really want to see live before she retires. 4 People who want to listen to the podcast can subscribe to the newsletter. 5 The ballet which will be performed next is the annual production of The Nutcracker. 6 The director, who spent ten years as a mountaineer, also wrote the script. 7 The member of the band who I thought really made the show special was the drummer. 8 This play is set in a city which is based on the writer’s home town.

Use the prompts to write one sentence. Use a defining relative clause.

2 Every picture is made of old glass / the artists found it in rubbish bins and recycling centres. 3 Older programmes / they were made before 2005 / they won’t be available online until 2021. 4 Please show tickets / they were bought online / show them at the main theatre box office. 5 Viewers / they want to vote for the best singer / they need to call this number.

Decide if each sentence contains a defining or non-defining relative clause. Then add commas where necessary.

7

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1 There are many theatres in the city only show popular musicals. 2 She’s the opera singer which is singing at the Opera House tonight. 3 The woman who she is speaking at the moment is the writer Han Kang. 4 The tickets, that I bought outside the venue, were twice as expensive as the ones I bought online. 5 The sketch I’m drawing it is part of my art project. 6 The Sculptures in the Park exhibition which is part of the summer festival goes on until 15th September. 7 She starred in the Alien series, that were some of the first science fiction movies to have a female main character. 8 Her fourth novel, was published last year, has earned her many fans around the world.

Unit 9  Grammar practice  271


UNIT 10

GRAMMAR REFERENCE & PRACTICE

THIRD CONDITIONAL We use the Third conditional to talk about an imaginary past which is different from what really happened. The Third conditional lets us talk about the possible consequences of these imagined events. If humans had lived at the same time as dinosaurs, the dinosaurs would have died out more quickly. (Humans didn’t live at the same time as dinosaurs. The dinosaurs didn’t die out more quickly.) We often use the Third conditional to express regret or sadness that the past was not different.

MODAL VERBS: PAST SPECULATION, DEDUCTION AND REGRET We can use could, may, might, would, wouldn’t + have done to talk about the consequences of imaginary past events (to speculate about the past). Sentences which speculate describe events which couldn’t possibly be true because they didn’t happen. You didn’t wear your helmet? You could have had an accident! Third conditional

If I had understood the importance of education, I wouldn’t have left school when I was fifteen.

In Third conditional sentences might, may and could can replace would to express a less certain hypothesis.

Like all conditionals, Third conditional sentences have two clauses.

If the alarm had worked, I may have woken up on time. We could have got an autograph if we’d gone to the gig!

if- clause/condition if + Past Perfect,

main clause/result would have + past participle

If you hadn’t arrived so late, we would have caught the train. When the if-clause begins the sentence, we use a comma to separate the clauses. She would have missed the meeting if she hadn’t driven fast. If she hadn’t driven fast, she would have missed the meeting. Note that both had and would can be contracted to ’d. I’d have made some cookies if I’d known you were coming. (= If I had known … I would have …) If only & I wish If only and I wish are structures which share similar form and meaning to the Third conditional. They express the condition but not the result. If only I had remembered my camera. (If I had remembered my camera, I could take a picture of this wonderful view now.) I wish you had been there with me. (If you had been there, I wouldn’t have felt scared.) We can use If only and I wish to express a desire for things to be different, but in this case, the change that we are imagining is in the past (see page 264). If only the journey wasn’t so long. We would be there by now. (= Second conditional. We are still travelling, i.e. talking about the present.) If only the journey hadn’t been so long. We would have had more time there. (= Third conditional. We stopped travelling before now, i.e. talking about the past.) Exercises 1–4

272  Unit 10  Grammar reference

Regret We can use could, might, may, should, shouldn’t + have done to speculate about events that we wish had been different in the past, i.e. to express regret. You can’t come? I’ve already bought the tickets! I could have saved $50! If only someone had warned us about the weather. We might not have got so wet. I knew it was his birthday and I forgot to tell you. I should have let you know. I’m sorry. The exam’s been cancelled! We shouldn’t have wasted so much time revising for it. Deduction We can use must, might, may, could, can’t + have done to talk about past events that could possibly be true (to make deductions). We use must if we feel sure that something is true. We use can’t if we feel sure it is not true. We use might, may or could if it is possible that something is true. A Henry isn’t here. He must have gone out. B Or he may have decided to go upstairs to sleep. A No, he can’t have done that. Look, his coat isn’t here. He might have gone shopping. The fridge is empty. B Or he could have gone to visit Daniel. I know he was planning to go over to his house. Exercises 5–6


1

Choose the correct option. 1 If I’d gone / I went to university, I wouldn’t have started a successful business when I was twenty. 2 I wouldn’t learn / have learnt so much when I was young if I hadn’t listened to older people. 3 I wish I had taken / took good care of myself when I was younger. 4 If / If only I had travelled more when I was young. 5 I would / wouldn’t have been able to buy such a big house if I didn’t work / hadn’t worked hard as a young man. 6 If I had eaten / ate healthier food, I wouldn’t have enjoyed my meals as much. 7 I wish I’d spent / I spent more time with my friends last summer. 8 If I’d / I would have known the test was going to be so easy, I would / wouldn’t have spent all weekend studying!

2

Which sentences in Ex. 1 express regret?

3

Read the text. Then complete the sentences (1–6) with the correct form of the verbs.

4

1 2 3 4 5  5

(be able) to communicate 1 If towns (keep) the same time. quickly, they (be) a problem if people 2 Time differences (travel) faster. (be) fewer time zones, passengers 3 If there (get) confused. (solve) the problem much earlier 4 The USA (follow) other countries. if they 5 Bus drivers in West Virginia and Ohio probably wished (be) a national law! there (pass) the Uniform 6 If the government Time Act in 1966, it’s possible they (continue) to live with this situation for many years.

Do you ever regret not going to university? WISH to university? Do I feel sick now because I ate that burger. ONLY . I feel sick! If I bought an expensive jacket so I didn’t have enough money for a pair of jeans. HADN’T for a pair of jeans. If He needed to go back to the shop because he left his wallet there. REMEMBERED to pick up his wallet. He The journey was so slow! I should have taken the train. QUICKER the train. The journey

Complete the sentences using must, might, should, shouldn’t or can’t. 1 There was a knock at the door. It have been Amy and I didn’t want to speak to her. 2 If I had studied Chinese when I was at school, have understood what he was saying. I 3 Izuo said he would definitely be here by 3 p.m. It’s 3.30 have been delayed. now, so he have seen me. 4 She didn’t say hello. She 5 Weren’t you cold at the match? I was freezing! have brought a jumper. I have survived at first, 6 The mountaineers but sadly, the rock fell when they were under it. have left your purse in the car 7 You because it’s not there now. I’ve looked. have told him my password because 8 I now he keeps changing my profile picture.

Before the 19th century, every town in the USA kept its own time. This was not a problem until the railways were built because people travelled slowly and couldn’t communicate quickly. In a large country like the USA, there were more than 300 local times for train companies to choose from, which was confusing for passengers. The American railroads reduced the number of time zones to four in 1883, even though other countries’ railways had been using standard time for more than 30 years. During the two World Wars, a system of ‘daylight saving’ was introduced to save energy in winter. However, there was no national law, so individual states and cities could choose whether or not to put their clocks back an hour. In some areas, it was not unusual to have to change your watch several times during a short trip. Bus drivers working on a route in West Virginia and Ohio had to change their watches seven times over just 35 miles! Finally, in 1966, the Uniform Time Act solved the problem.

Use the word in capitals to complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first sentence.

6

Correct the mistake in each mini-dialogue. 1 A  That’s your brother over there. B  No, that mustn’t be him. He’s at home because he’s got a cold. 2 A  Are you happy with third place in the race? B  Not really. I could had done much better if I’d had more sleep last night. 3 A  Are you going for a run today? B  No, I haven’t got time. I must have gone yesterday when I had more time. 4 A  You can have told me you’d gone to the shopping centre. I’d have come too. B  I did tell you. Didn’t you get my text? 5 A  She was really angry with me. I didn’t do anything wrong. B  Well, you might have done something to upset her.

Unit 10  Grammar practice  273


IRREGULAR VERB LIST BASE FORM

PAST SIMPLE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ITALIAN TRANSLATION

be /biː/ become /bɪˈkʌm/ begin /bɪˈɡɪn/ break /breɪk/ bring /brɪŋ/ build /bɪld/ buy /bʌɪ/ catch /katʃ/ choose /tʃuːz/ come /kʌm/ cost /kɒst/ cut /kʌt/ do /duː/ draw /drɔː/ dream /driːm/

was /wɒz/ were /wə/ became /bɪˈkeɪm/ began /bɪˈɡan/ broke /brəʊk/ brought /brɔːt/ built /bɪlt/ bought /bɔːt/ caught /kɔːt/ chose /ˈtʃəʊz/ came /keɪm/ cost /kɒst/ cut /kʌt/ did /dɪd/ drew /druː/ dreamed /driːmd/ dreamt /dremt/

been /biːn/ become /bɪˈkʌm/ begun /bɪˈɡʌn/ broken /ˈbrəʊk(ə)n/ brought /brɔːt/ built /bɪlt/ bought /bɔːt/ caught /kɔːt/ chosen /ˈtʃəʊzn/ come /kʌm/ cost /kɒst/ cut /kʌt/ done /dʌn/ drawn /drɔːn/ dreamed /driːmd/ dreamt /dremt/

essere diventare iniziare rompere portare costruire comprare prendere, afferrare scegliere venire costare tagliare fare disegnare sognare

drink /drɪŋk/ drive /drʌɪv/ eat /iːt/ fall /fɔːl/ feel /fiːl/ fight /fʌɪt/ find /fʌɪnd/ fly /flʌɪ/ forget /fəˈɡɛt/ forgive /fəˈɡɪv/ get /ɡɛt/

drank /draŋk/ drove /drəʊv/ ate /eɪt/ fell /fɛl/ felt /fɛlt/ fought /fɔːt/ found /faʊnd/ flew /fluː/ forgot /fəˈɡɒt/ forgave /fəˈɡeɪv/ got /ɡɒt/

drunk /drʌŋk/ driven /ˈdrɪvn/ eaten /ˈiːt(ə)n/ fallen /ˈfɔːlən/ felt /fɛlt/ fought /fɔːt/ found /faʊnd/ flown /fləʊn/ forgotten /fəˈɡɒtn/ forgiven /fə(r)ˈɡɪv(ə)n/ got /ɡɒt/ gotten /ˈɡɒt(ə)n/

bere guidare mangiare cadere sentire, provare combattere, litigare trovare volare dimenticare perdonare ricevere, ottenere

give /ɡɪv/ go /ɡəʊ/ grow /ɡrəʊ/ have /hav/ hear /hɪə/ hit /hɪt/ keep /kiːp/ know /nəʊ/ learn /ləːn/

gave /ɡeɪv/ went /wɛnt/ grew /ɡruː/ had /həd/ heard /hɜː(r)d/ hit /hɪt/ kept /kɛpt/ knew /njuː/ learned /ˈləːnɪd/ learnt /lɜː(r)nt/

given /ˈɡɪv(ə)n/ gone /ɡɒn/ grown /ɡrəʊn/ had /həd/ heard /hɜː(r)d/ hit /hɪt/ kept /kɛpt/ known /nəʊn/ learned /ˈləːnɪd/ learnt /lɜː(r)nt/

dare andare crescere avere sentire, udire colpire tenere, mantenere sapere, conoscere imparare

leave /liːv/ lend /lɛnd/ let /lɛt/ lose /luːz/ make /meɪk/ mean /miːn/ meet /miːt/ pay /peɪ/ put /pʊt/ read /riːd/ ride /raɪd/ ring /rɪŋ/

left /lɛft/ lent /lɛnt/ let /lɛt/ lost /lɒst/ made /meɪd/ meant /mɛnt/ met /mɛt/ paid /peɪd/ put /pʊt/ read /red/ rode /rəʊd/ rang /raŋ/

left /lɛft/ lent /lɛnt/ let /lɛt/ lost /lɒst/ made /meɪd/ meant /mɛnt/ met /mɛt/ paid /peɪd/ put /pʊt/ read /red/ ridden /ˈrɪdn/ rung /rʌŋ/

lasciare, partire prestare permettere, lasciare perdere fare, fabbricare significare, intendere incontrare, conoscere pagare mettere leggere cavalcare suonare, squillare

274  Irregular verb list


IRREGULAR VERB LIST BASE FORM

PAST SIMPLE

PAST PARTICIPLE

ITALIAN TRANSLATION

run /rʌn/ say /seɪ/ see /siː/ sell /sɛl/ send /sɛnd/ show /ʃəʊ/ shut /ʃʌt/ sing /sɪŋ/ sit /sɪt/ sleep /sliːp/ speak /spiːk/ spend /spɛnd/ stand /stand/ swim /swɪm/ take /teɪk/ teach /tiːtʃ/ tell /tɛl/ think /θɪŋk/ throw /θrəʊ/ understand /ʌndəˈstand/ wake /weɪk/ wear /wɛː/ win /wɪn/ write /rʌɪt/

ran /ræn/ said /sɛd/ saw /sɔː/ sold /səʊld/ sent /sɛnt/ showed /ʃəʊd/ shut /ʃʌt/ sang /sæŋ/ sat /sat/ slept /slɛpt/ spoke /spəʊk/ spent /spɛnt/ stood /stʊd/ swam /swam/ took /tʊk/ taught /tɔːt/ told /təʊld/ thought /θɔːt/ threw /θrəʊn/ understood /ʌndəˈstʊd/ woke /wəʊk/ wore /wɔː/ won /wʌn/ wrote /rəʊt/

run /rʌn/ said /sɛd/ seen /siːn/ sold /səʊld/ sent /sɛnt/ shown /ʃəʊn/ shut /ʃʌt/ sung /sʌŋ/ sat /sat/ slept /slɛpt/ spoken /ˈspəʊk(ə)n/ spent /spɛnt/ stood /stʊd/ swum /swʌm/ taken /ˈteɪkən/ taught /tɔːt/ told /təʊld/ thought /θɔːt/ thrown /θrəʊn/ understood /ʌndəˈstʊd/ woken /ˈwəʊkən/ worn /wɔːn/ won /wʌn/ written /ˈrɪtn/

correre dire vedere vendere spedire, mandare mostrare chiudere cantare sedere dormire parlare spendere, passare, trascorrere stare (in piedi) nuotare prendere insegnare dire, raccontare pensare gettare, buttare capire svegliarsi indossare vincere scrivere

Alfabeto e simboli fonetici A /eI/

B /bi/

C /si/

D /di/

E /i/

F /ef/

G /dZi/

H /eItS/

I

J /dZeI/

K /keI/

L /l/

M /m/

N /n/

O /əU/

P /pi/

Q /kju/

R /A/

S /es/

T /ti/

U /ju/

V /vi/

W /’dblju/

X /ks/

Y /wI/

Z /zd/

/I/

Vocali /i/ see

/i/ happy

// cat

// jump

/ɔ/ four

/ɒ/ got

/ə/ the

/i/ it

/e/ bed

/ɑ/ father

/U/ look

/u/ usually

/u/ two

// purple

Dittonghi /eI/ day

/aU/ now

/aI/ nine

/Ie/ hear

/ɔI/ boy

/eə/ hair

/əU/ go

/Uə/ tour

Consonanti /p/ pen

/k/ car

/θ/ think

/ʃ/ she

/tS/ chair

/ŋ/ sing

/b/ book

/g/ give

/ð/ this

/Z/ vision

/dZ/ juice

/r/ run

/t/ table

/f/ five

/s/ sit

/h/ he

/m/ me

/l/ look

/d/ desk

/v/ very

/z/ zoo

/w/ we

/n/ no

/j/ you Irregular verb list  275


TED TALKS

VIDEOSCRIPTS

Units 1–2 pages 32–33

Happy maps Speaker: Daniele Quercia Part 1 Daniele I have a confession to make. As a scientist and engineer, I’ve focused on efficiency for many years. A few years ago, after finishing my Ph.D. in London, I moved to Boston. I lived in Boston and worked in Cambridge. I bought a racing bicycle that summer, and I bicycled every day to work. To find my way, I used my phone. It sent me over Mass Ave, Massachusetts Avenue, the shortest route from Boston to Cambridge. But, after a month, that I was cycling every day on the car-packed Mass Ave, I took a different route one day. I’m not entirely sure why I took a different route that day, a detour. I just remember a feeling of surprise; surprise at finding a street with no cars, as opposed to the nearby Mass Ave full of cars; surprise at finding a street draped by the leaves and surrounded by trees. But after the feeling of surprise, I felt shame. How could I have been so blind? For an entire month, I was so trapped in my mobile app that a journey to work became one thing only: the shortest path. In this single journey, there was no thought of enjoying the road, no pleasure in connecting with nature, no possibility of looking people in the eyes. And why? Because I was saving a minute out of my commute. Now, let me ask you, am I alone here? How many of you have never used a mapping app for finding directions? Most of you, if not all, have. And don’t get me wrong – mapping apps are the greatest game-changer for encouraging people to explore the city. You take your phone out and you know immediately where to go. However, the app also assumes there are only a handful of directions to the destination. It has the power to make those handful of directions the definitive direction to that destination. Part 2 Daniele After that experience, I changed. I changed my research from traditional data-mining to understanding how people experience the city. The result of that research has been the creation of new maps, maps where you don’t only find the shortest path, the blue one, but also the most enjoyable path, the red one. How was that possible? Einstein once said, ‘Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere.’ So, with a bit of imagination, we needed to understand which parts of the city people find beautiful. At the University of Cambridge, with colleagues, we thought about this simple experiment. If I were to show you these two urban scenes, and I were to ask you which one is more beautiful, which one would you say? Don’t be shy! Who says A? Who says B? Brilliant! Based on that idea, we built a crowdsourcing platform, a web game. Players are shown pairs of urban scenes, and they’re asked to choose which one is more beautiful, quiet and happy. Based on thousands of user votes, then we are able to see where consensus emerges. We are able to see which are the urban scenes that make people happy. After that work, I joined Yahoo Labs, and I teamed up with Luca and Rossano, and together, we aggregated those winning locations in London to build a new map of the city, a cartography weighted for human emotions. On this cartography, you’re not only able to see and connect from point A to point B the shortest segments, but you’re also able to see the happy segment, the beautiful path, the quiet path. In tests, participants found the happy, the beautiful, the quiet path far more enjoyable than the shortest one, and that just by adding a few minutes to travel time.

276  Videoscripts

Participants also love to attach memories to places. Shared memories – that’s where the old BBC building was; and personal memories – that’s where I gave my first kiss. They also recalled how some paths smelled and sounded. So, what if we had a mapping tool that would return the most enjoyable routes based not only on aesthetics but also based on smell, sound and memories? That’s where our research is going right now. More generally, my research, what it tries to do is avoid the danger of the single path, to avoid robbing people of fully experiencing the city in which they live. Walk the path through the park, not through the car park, and you have an entirely different path. Walk the path full of people you love and not full of cars, and you have an entirely different path. It’s that simple. If you think that adventure is dangerous, try routine. It’s deadly. Thank you.

Units 3–4 pages 58–59 Why I’m a weekday vegetarian Speaker: Graham Hill Part 1 Graham About a year ago, I asked myself a question: ‘Knowing what I know, why am I not a vegetarian?’ After all, I’m one of the green guys: I grew up with hippie parents in a log cabin. I started a site called TreeHugger – I care about this stuff. I knew that eating a mere hamburger a day can increase my risk of dying by a third. Cruelty: I knew that the 10 billion animals we raise each year for meat are raised in factory farm conditions that we, hypocritically, wouldn’t even consider for our own cats, dogs and other pets. Environmentally, meat, amazingly, causes more emissions than all of transportation combined: cars, trains, planes, buses, boats, all of it. And beef production uses 100 times the water that most vegetables do. I also knew that I’m not alone. We as a society are eating twice as much meat as we did in the 50s. So, what was once the special little side treat now is the main, much more regular. So really, any of these angles should have been enough to convince me to go vegetarian. Yet, there I was – chk, chk, chk – tucking into a big old steak. Part 2 2.1 Graham So why was I stalling? I realized that what I was being pitched was a binary solution. It was either you’re a meat eater or you’re a vegetarian, and I guess I just wasn’t quite ready. Imagine your last hamburger. So, my common sense, my good intentions, were in conflict with my taste buds. And I’d commit to doing it later, and not surprisingly, later never came. Sound familiar? So I wondered, might there be a third solution? And I thought about it, and I came up with one, and I’ve been doing it for the last year, and it’s great. It’s called weekday veg. The name says it all: nothing with a face Monday through Friday. On the weekend, your choice. Simple. If you want to take it to the next level, remember, the major culprits in terms of environmental damage and health are red and processed meats. So, you want to swap those out with some good, sustainably harvested fish. It’s structured, so it ends up being simple to remember, and it’s okay to break it here and there. After all, cutting five days a week is cutting 70 percent of your meat intake. The program has been great, Weekday Veg. My footprint’s smaller, I’m lessening pollution, I feel better about the animals, I’m even saving money. Best of all, I’m healthier, I know that I’m going to live longer, and I’ve even lost a little weight. So, please ask yourselves, for your health, for your pocketbook, for the environment, for the animals: What’s stopping you from giving Weekday Veg a shot? After all, if all of us ate half as much meat, it would be like half of us were vegetarians. Thank you.


Units 5–6 pages 84–85 Deep sea diving … in a wheelchair Speaker: Sue Austen Part 1 Sue It’s wonderful to be here to talk about my journey, to talk about the wheelchair and the freedom it has bought me. I started using a wheelchair sixteen years ago when an extended illness changed the way I could access the world. When I started using the wheelchair, it was a tremendous new freedom. I’d seen my life slip away and become restricted. It was like having an enormous new toy. I could whizz around and feel the wind in my face again. Just being out on the street was exhilarating. But even though I had this new-found joy and freedom, people’s reaction completely changed towards me. It was as if they couldn’t see me anymore, as if an invisibility cloak had descended. They seemed to see me in terms of their assumptions of what it must be like to be in a wheelchair. When I asked people their associations with the wheelchair, they used words like ‘limitation’, ‘fear’, ‘pity’ and ‘restriction’. I realized I’d internalized these responses and it had changed who I was on a core level. As a result, I knew I needed to make my own stories about this experience, new narratives to reclaim my identity. Part 2 Sue I started making work that aimed to communicate something of the joy and freedom I felt when using a wheelchair – a power chair – to negotiate the world. I was working to transform these internalized responses, to transform the preconceptions that had so shaped my identity when I started using a wheelchair, by creating unexpected images. The wheelchair became an object to paint and play with. When I literally started leaving traces of my joy and freedom, it was exciting to see the interested and surprised responses from people. It seemed to open up new perspectives, and therein lay the paradigm shift. It showed that an arts practice can remake one’s identity and transform preconceptions by revisioning the familiar. So when I began to dive, in 2005, I realized scuba gear extends your range of activity in just the same way as a wheelchair does, but the associations attached to scuba gear are ones of excitement and adventure, completely different to people’s responses to the wheelchair. So, I thought, ‘I wonder what’ll happen if I put the two together?’ And the underwater wheelchair that has resulted has taken me on the most amazing journey over the last seven years. So, to give you an idea of what that’s like, I’d like to share with you one of the outcomes from creating this spectacle, and show you what an amazing journey it’s taken me on. Part 2 Sue It is the most amazing experience, beyond most other things I’ve experienced in life. I literally have the freedom to move in 360 degrees of space and an ecstatic experience of joy and freedom. And the incredibly unexpected thing is that other people seem to see and feel that too. Their eyes literally light up, and they say things like, ‘I want one of those’, or, ‘If you can do that, I can do anything’. And I’m thinking, it’s because in that moment of them seeing an object they have no frame of reference for, or so transcends the frames of reference they have with the wheelchair, they have to think in a completely new way. And I think that moment of completely new thought perhaps creates a freedom that spreads to the rest of other people’s lives. For me, this means that they’re seeing the value of difference, the joy it brings when instead of focusing on loss or limitation, we see and discover the power and joy of seeing the world from exciting new perspectives. For me, the wheelchair becomes a vehicle for transformation.

And the other thing is, that because nobody’s seen or heard of an underwater wheelchair before, and creating this spectacle is about creating new ways of seeing, being and knowing, now you have this concept in your mind. You’re all part of the artwork too.

Units 7–8 pages 110–111 Ten ways to have a better conversation Speaker: Celeste Headlee Part 1 Celeste All right, I want to see a show of hands: how many of you have unfriended someone on Facebook because they said something offensive about politics or religion, childcare, food? And how many of you know at least one person that you avoid because you just don’t want to talk to them? You know, it used to be that in order to have a polite conversation, we just had to follow the advice of Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady: Stick to the weather and your health. But these days, with climate change and anti-vaxing, those subjects are not safe either. So, this world that we live in, this world in which every conversation has the potential to devolve into an argument, where our politicians can’t speak to one another and where even the most trivial of issues have someone fighting both passionately for it and against it, it’s not normal. Pew Research did a study of 10,000 American adults, and they found that at this moment, we are more polarized, we are more divided, than we ever have been in history. We’re less likely to compromise, which means we’re not listening to each other. And we make decisions about where to live, who to marry and even who our friends are going to be, based on what we already believe. Again, that means we’re not listening to each other. A conversation requires a balance between talking and listening, and somewhere along the way, we lost that balance. Now, part of that is due to technology. The smartphones that you all either have in your hands or close enough that you could grab them really quickly. According to Pew Research, about a third of American teenagers send more than a hundred texts a day. And many of them, almost most of them, are more likely to text their friends than they are to talk to them face to face. There’s this great piece in The Atlantic. It was written by a high school teacher named Paul Barnwell. And he gave his kids a communication project. He wanted to teach them how to speak on a specific subject without using notes. And he said this: ‘I came to realize ...’ ‘I came to realize that conversational competence might be the single most overlooked skill we fail to teach. Kids spend hours each day engaging with ideas and each other through screens, but rarely do they have an opportunity to hone their interpersonal communication skills.’ Now, I make my living talking to people. I talk to people that I like. I talk to people that I don’t like. I talk to some people that I disagree with deeply on a personal level. But I still have a great conversation with them. So, I’d like to spend the next ten minutes or so teaching you how to talk and how to listen. Many of you have already heard a lot of advice on this, things like look the person in the eye, think of interesting topics to discuss in advance. Look, nod and smile to show that you’re paying attention. Repeat back what you just heard or summarize it. So I want you to forget all of that. There is no reason to learn how to show you’re paying attention if you are in fact paying attention. Now, I actually use the exact same skills as a professional interviewer that I do in regular life. So, I’m going to teach you how to interview people, and that’s actually going to help

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VIDEOSCRIPTS

you learn how to be better conversationalists. Learn to have a conversation without wasting your time, without getting bored, and, please God, without offending anybody. Part 2 Celeste So I have ten basic rules. I’m going to walk you through all of them, but honestly, if you just choose one of them and master it, you’ll already enjoy better conversations. Number one. Don’t multitask. And I don’t mean just set down your cell phone or your tablet or your car keys or whatever is in your hand. I mean, be present. Be in that moment. Don’t be thinking about your argument you had with your boss. Don’t be thinking about what you’re going to have for dinner. If you want to get out of the conversation, get out of the conversation, but don’t be half in it and half out of it. Number two. Don’t pontificate. If you wanted to state your opinion without any opportunity for response or argument or pushback or growth, write a blog. Now, there’s a really good reason why I don’t allow pundits on my show: Because they’re really boring. And you don’t want to be like that. You need to enter every conversation assuming that you have something to learn. The famed therapist M. Scott Peck said that true listening requires a setting aside of oneself. And sometimes that means setting aside your personal opinion. Bill Nye: ‘Everyone you will ever meet knows something that you don’t.’ I put it this way: everybody is an expert in something. Number three. Use open-ended questions. In this case, take a cue from journalists. Start your questions with who, what, when, where, why or how. If you put in a complicated question, you’re going to get a simple answer out. If I ask you, ‘Were you terrified?’ you’re going to respond to the most powerful word in that sentence, which is ‘terrified’, and the answer is ‘Yes, I was’ or ‘No, I wasn’t.’ ’Were you angry?’ ‘Yes, I was very angry.’ Let them describe it. They’re the ones that know. Try asking them things like, ‘What was that like?’ ’How did that feel?’ Because then they might have to stop for a moment and think about it, and you’re going to get a much more interesting response. Number four. Go with the flow. That means thoughts will come into your mind and you need to let them go out of your mind. We’ve heard interviews often in which a guest is talking for several minutes and then the host comes back in and asks a question which seems like it comes out of nowhere, or it’s already been answered. That means the host probably stopped listening two minutes ago because he thought of this really clever question, and he was just bound and determined to say that. And we do the exact same thing. And we stop listening. Stories and ideas are going to come to you. You need to let them come and let them go. Number five. If you don’t know, say that you don’t know. Now, people on the radio are much more aware that they’re going on the record, and so they’re more careful about what they claim to be an expert in and what they claim to know for sure. Do that. Err on the side of caution. Talk should not be cheap. Number six. Don’t equate your experience with theirs. If they’re talking about having lost a family member, don’t start talking about the time you lost a family member. If they’re talking about the trouble they’re having at work, don’t tell them about how much you hate your job. It’s not the same. It is never the same. All experiences are individual. And, more importantly, it is not about you. Number seven. Try not to repeat yourself. It’s condescending, and it’s really boring, and we tend to do it a lot. Especially in work conversations or in conversations with our kids, we have a point to make, so we just keep rephrasing it over and over. Don’t do that. Number eight. Stay out of the weeds. Frankly, people don’t care about the years, the names, the dates, all those details that you’re

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struggling to come up with in your mind. They don’t care. What they care about is you. They care about what you’re like, what you have in common. So, forget the details. Leave them out. Number nine. This is not the last one, but it is the most important one. Listen. I cannot tell you how many really important people have said that listening is perhaps the most, the number one most important skill that you could develop. Buddha said, and I’m paraphrasing, ’If your mouth is open, you’re not learning.’ Why do we not listen to each other? Number one, we’d rather talk. When I’m talking, I’m in control. I don’t have to hear anything I’m not interested in. I’m the centre of attention. I can bolster my own identity. But there’s another reason – we get distracted. The average person talks at about 225 words per minute, but we can listen at up to 500 words per minute. So our minds are filling in those other 275 words. One more rule. Number ten, and it’s this one. Be brief. Be interested in other people.

Part 3 Celeste You know, I grew up with a very famous grandfather, and there was kind of a ritual in my home. People would come over to talk to my grandparents, and after they would leave, my mother would come over to us, and she’d say, ‘Do you know who that was? She was the runner-up to Miss America. He was the mayor of Sacramento. She won a Pulitzer Prize. He’s a Russian ballet dancer.’ And I kind of grew up assuming everyone has some hidden, amazing thing about them. You do the same thing. Go out, talk to people, listen to people, and, most importantly, be prepared to be amazed. Thanks.

Units 9–10 pages 136–137 Inside the mind of a master procrastinator Speaker: Tim Urban Part 1 Tim So in college, I was a government major, which means I had to write a lot of papers. Now, when a normal student writes a paper, they might spread the work out a little like this. So, you know – you get started maybe a little slowly, but you get enough done in the first week that, with some heavier days later on, everything gets done, things stay civil. And I would want to do that like that. That would be the plan. I would have it all ready to go, but then, actually, the paper would come along, and then I would kind of do this. And that would happen every single paper. But then came my 90-page senior thesis, a paper you’re supposed to spend a year on. And I knew for a paper like that, my normal work flow was not an option. It was way too big a project. So I planned things out, and I decided I kind of had to go something like this. This is how the year would go. So I’d start off light, and I’d bump it up in the middle months, and then at the end, I would kick it up into high gear just like a little staircase. How hard could it be to walk up the stairs? No big deal, right? But then, the funniest thing happened. Those first few months? They came and went, and I couldn’t quite do stuff. So we had an awesome new revised plan. And then – But then those middle months actually went by, and I didn’t really write words, and so we were here. And then two months turned into one month, which turned into two weeks. And one day I woke up with three days until the deadline, still not having written a word, and so I did the only thing I could: I wrote 90 pages over 72 hours, pulling not one but two allnighters – humans are not supposed to pull two all-nighters – sprinted across campus, dove in slow motion, and got it in just at the deadline.


Part 2 Tim

Part 3 Tim

I thought that was the end of everything. But a week later I get a call, and it’s the school. And they say, ‘Is this Tim Urban?’ And I say, ‘Yeah.’ And they say, ‘We need to talk about your thesis.’ And I say, ‘OK.’ And they say, ’It’s the best one we’ve ever seen.’ That did not happen. It was a very, very bad thesis. I just wanted to enjoy that one moment when all of you thought, ’This guy is amazing!’ No, no, it was very, very bad. Anyway, today I’m a writer-blogger guy. And a couple of years ago, I decided to write about procrastination. So, here’s the brain of a non-procrastinator. Now … here’s my brain. There is a difference. Both brains have a Rational DecisionMaker in them, but the procrastinator’s brain also has an Instant Gratification Monkey. Now, what does this mean for the procrastinator? Well, it means everything’s fine until this happens. So the Rational Decision-Maker will make the rational decision to do something productive, but the Monkey doesn’t like that plan, so he actually takes the wheel, and he says, ‘Actually, let’s read the entire Wikipedia page of the Nancy Kerrigan/Tonya Harding scandal, because I just remembered that that happened. Then – Then we’re going to go over to the fridge, to see if there’s anything new in there since ten minutes ago. After that, we’re going to go on a YouTube spiral that starts with videos of Richard Feynman talking about magnets and ends much, much later with us watching interviews with Justin Bieber’s mum. All of that’s going to take a while, so we’re not going to really have room on the schedule for any work today. Sorry!’ Well, turns out the procrastinator has a guardian angel, someone who’s always looking down on him and watching over him in his darkest moments – someone called the Panic Monster. Now, the Panic Monster is dormant most of the time, but he suddenly wakes up any time a deadline gets too close or there’s danger of public embarrassment, a career disaster or some other scary consequence. And importantly, he’s the only thing that the Monkey is terrified of. Now, he became very relevant in my life pretty recently, because the people of TED reached out to me about six months ago and invited me to do a TED Talk. Now, of course, I said yes. It’s always been a dream of mine to have done a TED Talk in the past. But in the middle of all this excitement, the Rational DecisionMaker seemed to have something else on his mind. He was saying, ‘Are we clear on what we just accepted? Do we get what’s going to be now happening one day in the future? We need to sit down and work on this right now.’ And the Monkey said, ‘Totally agree, but let’s just open Google Earth and zoom in to the bottom of India, like 200 feet above the ground, and we’re going to scroll up for two and a half hours til we get to the top of the country, so we can get a better feel for India.’ So that’s what we did that day. As six months turned into four and then two and then one, the people of TED decided to release the speakers. And I opened up the website, and there was my face staring right back at me. And guess who woke up? So the Panic Monster starts losing his mind, and a few seconds later, the whole system’s in mayhem. And the Monkey – remember, he’s terrified of the Panic Monster – boom, he’s up the tree! And finally, finally, the Rational Decision-Maker can take the wheel and I can start working on the talk.

Part 4 2.1 Tim And this entire situation, with the three characters – this is the procrastinator’s system. It’s not pretty, but in the end, it works. And this is what I decided to write about on the blog just a couple of years ago. When I did, I was amazed by the response. Literally thousands of emails came in, from all different kinds of people from all over the world, doing all different kinds of things. These are people who were nurses, and bankers, and painters, and engineers and lots and lots of PhD students. And they were all writing, saying the same thing: ’I have this problem too.’ But what struck me was the contrast between the light tone of the post and the heaviness of these emails. These people were writing with intense frustration about what procrastination had done to their lives, about what this Monkey had done to them. And I thought about this, and I said, well, if the procrastinator’s system works, then what’s going on? Why are all of these people in such a dark place? Well, it turns out that there’s two kinds of procrastination. Everything I’ve talked about today, the examples I’ve given, they all have deadlines. But there’s a second kind of procrastination that happens in situations when there is no deadline. So, if you wanted a career where you’re a self-starter – something in the arts, something entrepreneurial – there’s no deadlines on those things at first, because nothing’s happening at first, not until you’ve gone out and done the hard work to get some momentum, to get things going. Now, if the procrastinator’s only mechanism of doing these hard things is the Panic Monster, that’s a problem, because in all of these non-deadline situations, the Panic Monster doesn’t show up. He has nothing to wake up for, so the effects of procrastination, they’re not contained; they just extend outward forever. And it’s this long-term kind of procrastination that’s much less visible and much less talked about than the funnier, short-term deadline-based kind. It’s usually suffered quietly and privately. And it can be the source of a huge amount of longterm unhappiness, and regrets. The frustration was not that they couldn’t achieve their dreams; it’s that they weren’t even able to start chasing them. I don’t think non-procrastinators exist. That’s right – I think all of you are procrastinators. And some of you may have a healthy relationship with deadlines, but remember: the Monkey’s sneakiest trick is when the deadlines aren’t there. We need to think about what we’re really procrastinating on, because everyone is procrastinating on something in life. We need to stay aware of the Instant Gratification Monkey. That’s a job for all of us. And it’s a job that should probably start today. Well, maybe not today, but … You know. Sometime soon. Thank you.

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KEY VOCABULARY 2  Enjoy the ride

1  In touch with your feelings

TRAVEL

DESCRIBING EMOTIONS

Adjectives angry confused delighted embarrassed excited exhausted friendly frightened/scared happy lonely nervous relaxed sad stressed

Types of journey cruise excursion expedition flight journey trip voyage

Nouns anger confusion delight embarrassment excitement exhaustion friendliness fright/fear happiness loneliness nervousness relaxation sadness stress

Verbs commute fly ride travel

3  Active lives

SPORTS

Collocations achieve your goal, your personal best, your ambition beat your opponent, the champion do gymnastic, yoga, your best encourage people to work as a team, children to exercise more go climbing, sailing, cycling play golf, tennis, an important role represent your school, your country, the team score a goal, ten points train for an event, before a race, hard win a prize, a trophy, a gold medal

4  Food DESCRIBING FOOD

Food can be deep-fried processed fresh raw great-tasting smoked healthy sweet-tasting home-made undercooked junk unhealthy overcooked well-balanced 280  Key Vocabulary

How food is cooked boiled steamed roasted fried grilled baked

Collocations catch/miss a bus, a train get home, lost, from A to B get into/out of a car, a taxi get on/off a bus, a train, a plane get to work, school get to know the city, your way around, a route go for a bike ride, a drive, a walk go on a flight, a journey, a trip, an expedition, a cruise take a taxi, an hour, public transport, a long time

Expressions break a record feel proud give / have a sense of freedom keep fit push your limits raise money represent a club

You can … a ball bounce catch kick throw

5  Work DESCRIBING WORK

Jobs can be competitive creative demanding flexible full-time part-time permanent stressful temporary unusual well-paid

Expressions be in charge of … be out of work be qualified be responsible for … be unemployed have a career have good prospects have skills work in (an industry) work long hours work on a (project)


7  Shopping around

6  Superhuman

MONEY & SHOPPING

THE HUMAN BODY

Parts of your body backbone digestive system blood heart blood vessels lungs bones muscles brain skeleton cells skin

Verbs breathe (your heart) beats break a bone get / have a cough sprain (your ankle) choke (on food) bleed

When people shop they might browse (for bargains) choose a brand get a good deal get a refund look for a bargain shop around take something back

8  Effective communication WAYS OF COMMUNICATING

Phrasal verbs back (someone) up bring up (an idea) get (an idea) across get back to (someone) speak up tell (someone) off

Ways of talking explain (something) have an argument have a chat have a conversation have a discussion speak angrily take part in a debate

9  Unexpected entertainment CREATIVE ARTS

Forms of entertainment concert / gig exhibition film / movie musical performance / show play podcast / blog / vlog (theatre) production talk / debate / speech (radio) transmission

Places stadium venue exhibition hall theatre cinema gallery studio People audience character listener performer spectator viewer

Sharing ideas communicate an idea give an opinion have a point of view support (someone’s idea) discuss pros and cons On social media connect with other people post on social media reply to someone respond to texts share photos

You can … money borrow donate earn inherit invest owe pay back run out of save spend waste win Goods can be brand new faulty in a sale in good / bad condition on special offer second-hand sold out

10  Time PHRASAL VERBS & EXPRESSIONS

Verbs bring (something) forward catch up (with) fall behind (with) fit (something) in get round to hang out (with) hold on look forward to put off run out of (time / money) take time off wait around

Expressions a great time a waste of time ahead of (his) time all the time at one time from time to time full-time in (my) spare time in (two days’) time in time it’s time to … on time once upon a time Key Vocabulary   281


DA QUI

WORDLIST A a good deal (phr) /ə ˌɡʊd ˈdiːl/ un buon accordo abandon (v) /əˈbandən/ abbandonare ability (n) /əˈbɪləti/ abilità abroad (adv) /əˈbrɔːd/ all’estero absolutely (adv) /ˈabsəluːtli/ assolutamente academic (adj) /ˌakəˈdemɪk/ accademico accelerate (v) /əkˈseləreɪt/ accelerare accept (v) /əkˈsept/ accettare access (v) /ˈækses/ accedere accessible (adj) /əkˈsesəbl/ accessibile accommodation (n) /əˌkɒməˈdeɪʃ(ə)n/ alloggio accountant (n) /əˈkaʊntənt/ ragioniere, commercialista accuracy (n) /ˈakjʊrəsi/ esattezza accurate (adj) /ˈakjʊrət/ esatto accurately (adv) /ˈakjʊrətli/ in modo accurato achieve something (phr) /əˈtʃiːv ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ ottenere qualcosa act (v) /ækt/ comportarsi action (n) /ˈakʃ(ə)n/ azione active (adj) /ˈaktɪv/ attivo adapted (adj) /əˈdaptɪd/ adattato admire (v) /ədˈmaɪə(r)/ ammirare admit (v) /ədˈmɪt/ ammettere advantage (n) /ədˈvɑːntɪdʒ/ vantaggio advertise (v) /ˈadvə(r)taɪz/ pubblicizzare affection (n) /əˈfekʃ(ə)n/ affetto ahead (adv) /əˈhed/ davanti ahead of its time (phr) /əˌhed əv ɪts ˈtaɪm/ in anticipo sui tempi aid (n) /eɪd/ sostegno aim (v) /eɪm/ mirare alive (adj) /əˈlaɪv/ vivo allow (v) /əˈlaʊ/ permettere allowance (n) /əˈlaʊəns/ quota alternative (adj) /ɔːlˈtɜː(r)nətɪv/ alternativo although (conj) /ɔːlˈðəʊ/ anche se altitude (n) /ˈæltɪtjuːd/ altitudine amongst (prep) /əˈmʌŋst/ in mezzo a amount (n) /əˈmaʊnt/ quantità amusement park (n) /əˈmjuːzmənt pɑːk/ parco divertimenti angry (adj) /ˈæŋɡri/ arrabbiato animal shelter (n) /ˈænɪmlˈʃeltə(r)/ rifugio per animali ankle (n) /ˈæŋkl/ caviglia annoyed (adj) /əˈnɔɪd/ infastidito ant (n) /ænt/ formica apart from (phr) /əˈpɑː(r)t ˌfrɒm/ a parte apology (n) /əˈpɒlədʒi/ scusa applaud (v) /əˈplɔːd/ applaudire application (n) /ˌaplɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ applicazione apply (v) /əˈplaɪ/ fare domanda appreciate (v) /əˈpriːʃiˌeɪt/ ringraziare appropriately (adv) /əˈprəʊpriətli/ adeguatamente argue (v) /ˈɑː(r)ɡju/ discutere, litigare argument (n) /ˈɑː(r)ɡjʊmənt/ discussione, litigio arranged (adj) /əˌreɪndʒd/ programmato arrest (v) /əˈrest/ arrestare arrogant (adj) /ˈærəɡənt/ arrogante artificial (adj) /ˌɑː(r)tɪˈfɪʃ(ə)l/ artificiale assertive (adj) /əˈsɜːtɪv/ assertive, determinate assumption (n) /əˈsʌmpʃn/ supposizione at one time (phr) /ət ˈwʌn tɪme/ un tempo attachment (n) /əˈtætʃmənt/ allegato attack (n) /əˈtæk/ attacco attack (v) /əˈtæk/ attaccare attitude (n) /ˈatɪˌtjuːd/ atteggiamento attraction (n) /əˈtrakʃ(ə)n/ attrazione

282  Wordlist

audience (n) /ˈɔːdiəns/ pubblico automatically (adv) /ˌɔːtəˈmatɪkli/ automaticamente average (adj) /ˈævərɪdʒ/ medio avoid (v) /əˈvɔɪd/ evitare aware (adj) /əˈweə(r)/ consapevole B backbone (n) /ˈbækbəʊn/ colonna vertebrale background (n) /ˈbækˌɡraʊnd/ sfondo backpack (v) /ˈbækˌpæk/ zaino bacteria (n) /bækˈtɪəriə/ batteri baked (adj) /ˌbeɪkt/ cotto al forno bargain (n) /ˈbɑː(r)ɡɪn/ affare bark (v) /ˌbɑːk/ abbaiare be allowed to (phr) /ˌbiː əˈlaʊd tə/ avere il permesso di be responsible for (phr) /ˌbiː rɪˈspɒnsəb(ə)l fə(r)/ essere responsabile di beat (v) /biːt/ sbattere beat someone (phr) /ˈbiːt ˌsʌmwʌn/ picchiare qualcuno because of (phr) /bɪˈkɒz ˌəv/ a causa di behaviour (n) /bɪˈheɪvjə(r)/ comportamento benefit (n) /ˈbenɪfɪt/ beneficio best-selling (adj) più venduto bet (v) /bet/ scommettere big-headed (adj) /ˌbɪɡ ˈhedɪd/ pieno di sé billion (n) /ˈbɪljən/ miliardo blindness (n) /ˈblaɪndnəs/ cecità blood vessel (n) /ˈblʌd ˌves(ə)l/ vaso sanguigno boiled (adj) /ˌbɔɪld/ bollito, sodo bond (n) /bɒnd/ legame bone (n) /bəʊn/ osso book (v) /bʊk/ prenotare boot (n) /buːt/ stivale border (n) /ˈbɔː(r)də(r)/ confine bored (adj) /bɔːd/ annoiato bounce (v) /baʊns/ rimbalzare bowl (n) /bəʊl/ ciotola brand (n) /brænd/ marca break down (phr v) /ˌbreɪk ˈdaʊn/ guastarsi break the law (phr) /ˌbreɪk ðə ˈlɔː/ infrangere la legge breathe (v) /briːð/ respirare brief (adj) /briːf/ breve bring forward (phr v) /ˌbrɪŋ ˈfɔː(r)wə(r)d/ anticipare bring up (v) /ˌbrɪŋ ʌp/ crescere broadcast (n/v) /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/ trasmissione/ trasmettere browse (v) /braʊz/ dare un’occhiata building site (n) /ˈbɪldɪŋ ˌsaɪt/ cantiere busily (adv) /ˈbɪzɪli/ attivamente C cable (n) /ˈkeɪb(ə)l/ cavo calculate (v) /ˈkalkjʊleɪt/ calcolare calculation (n) /ˌkalkjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ calcolo calculator (n) /ˈkalkjʊˌleɪtə(r)/ calcolatrice calm (adj) /kɑːm/ calmo candidate (n) /ˈkandɪdeɪt/ candidato career (n) /kəˈrɪə(r)/ carriera career prospect (phr) /kəˈrɪə(r) ˈprɒspekt/ prospettiva di carriera carry out (v) /ˈkæri aʊt/ portare a termine cast (n) /kɑːst/ cast catch up (phr v) /ˌkatʃ ˈʌp/ raggiungere catering (n) /ˈkeɪtərɪŋ/ ristorazione cause (v) /kɔːz/ causare celebrate (v) /ˈseləˌbreɪt/ celebrare

celebration (n) /ˌseləˈbreɪʃ(ə)n/ celebrazione cell (n) /sel/ cellula certain (adj) /ˈsɜː(r)t(ə)n/ certo chance (n) /tʃɑːns/ possibilità character (n) /ˈkarɪktə(r)/ personaggio charge (v) /tʃɑː(r)dʒ/ addebitare check (v) /tʃek/ controllare chew up (v) /tʃuː ʌp/ masticare chill out (v) /ˈtʃɪl aʊt/ rilassarsi choice (n) /tʃɔɪs/ scelta choke (v) /tʃəʊk/ soffocare, soffocarsi chosen (adj) /ˈtʃəʊzn/ scelto chunk (n) /tʃʌŋk/ pezzo claim (v) /kleɪm/ affermare classic (adj) /ˈklasɪk/ classico clay (n) /kleɪ/ argilla climbing (n) /ˈklaɪmɪŋ/ arrampicata clockmaker (n) /klɒk ˈmeɪkə(r)/ orologiaio coach (n) /kəʊtʃ/ allenatore coconut (n) /ˈkəʊkəˌnʌt/ noce di cocco code (n) /kəʊd/ codice collection (n) /kəˈlekʃ(ə)n/ collezione collide (v) /kəˈlaɪd/ scontrarsi colourful (adj) /ˈkʌlə(r)f(ə)l/ colorato come up (phr v) /ˌkʌm ˈʌp/ emergere come up with (phr v) /ˌkʌm ˈʌp wɪd/ inventarsi, uscirsene con comedy (n) /ˈkɒmədi/ commedia comment (n) /ˈkɒment/ commento commit (v) /kəˈmɪt/ impegnarsi common (adj) /ˈkɒmən/ comune communicate (v) /kəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt/ comunicare communication (n) /kəˌmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃ(ə)n/ comunicazione community (n) /kəˈmjuːnəti/ comunità commute (v) /kəˈmjuːt/ fare il pendolare compare (v) /kəmˈpeə(r)/ confrontare compared to (phr) /kəmˈpeə(r)d ˌtə/ in confronto a compete (v) /kəmˈpiːt/ contendersi competitive (adj) /kəmˈpetətɪv/ competitivo competitor (n) /kəmˈpetɪtə(r)/ concorrente complain (v) /kəmˈpleɪn/ lamentarsi complaint (n) /kəmˈpleɪnt/ lamentela completely (adv) /kəmˈpliːtli/ completamente compound (n) /ˈkɒmpaʊnd/ composto compromise (n) /ˈkɒmprəmaɪz/ compromesso compulsory (adj) /kəmˈpʌlsəri/ obbligatorio concept (n) /ˈkɒnsept/ concetto condition (n) /kənˈdɪʃ(ə)n/ condizione confused (adj) /kənˈfjuːzd/ confuso connect (v) /kəˈnekt/ connettere connect with (phr v) /kəˈnekt ˌwɪd/ entrare in contatto con consequence (n) /ˈkɒnsɪkwəns/ consequenza consequently (adv) /ˈkɒnsɪkwəntli/ di conseguenza consider (v) /kənˈsɪdə(r)/ tenere conto consumerist (adj) /kənˈsjuːmərɪst/ consumistico contactless (adj) /ˈkɒntæktləs/ senza contatto contain (v) /kənˈteɪn/ contenere continue (v) /kənˈtɪnjuː/ continuare control (n) /kənˈtrəʊl/ controllo convince (v) /kənˈvɪns/ convincere cope (v) /kəʊp/ superare correspond (v) /ˌkɒrəˈspɒnd/ corrispondere court (n) /kɔː(r)t/ campo crash (n) /kræʃ/ scontro crash into someone (v) /kræʃ ˈɪntəˈsʌmwʌn/ scontrarsi con qualcuno crawl (v) /krɔːl/ strisciare


create (v) /kriˈeɪt/ creare creative (adj) /kriˈeɪtɪv/ creativo crime (n) /kraɪm/ crimine criminal (n) /ˈkrɪmɪn(ə)l/ criminale crowdsource (n) /ˈkraʊdsɔːs/ crowdsource cruise (n) /kruːz/ crociera culture (n) /ˈkʌltʃə(r)/ cultura currently (adv) /ˈkʌrəntli/ in questo momento customer service (n) /ˌkʌstəmə(r) ˈsɜːvɪs/ servizio clienti cycle (v) /ˈsaɪk(ə)l/ andare in bici D damage (n) /ˈdamɪdʒ/ danno danger (n) /ˈdeɪndʒə(r)/ pericolo dangerously (adv) /ˈdeɪndʒərəsli/ in modo pericoloso deadline (n) /ˈdedlaɪn/ scadenza deal (v) /ˈdiːl/ distribuire deal with (phr v) /ˈdiːl ˌwɪð/ avere a che fare con debate (n) /dɪˈbeɪt/ discussione decision (n) /dɪˈsɪʒ(ə)n/ decisione decorate (v) /ˈdekəreɪt/ decorare decrease (v) /diːˈkriːs/ diminuire deduction (n) /dɪˈdʌkʃn/ deduzione deep-fried (adj) /ˈdiːp ˌfraɪd/ fritto defeat (n) /dɪˈfiːt/ sconfitta definitely (adv) /ˈdef(ə)nətli/ sicuramente delicious (adj) /dɪˈlɪʃəs/ delizioso delighted (adj) /dɪˈlaɪtɪd/ contentissimo deliver (v) /dɪˈlɪvə(r)/ consegnare delivery (n) /dɪˈlɪv(ə)ri/ consegna demanding (adj) /dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ/ faticoso demonstrate (v) /ˈdemənˌstreɪt/ far vedere depend on (phr v) /dɪˈpend ˌɒn/ dipendere da depressed (adj) /dɪˈprest/ depresso depression (n) /dɪˈpreʃ(ə)n/ depressione design (n) /dɪˈzaɪn/ disegno, progetto despite (adv) /dɪˈspaɪt/ nonostante destination (n) /ˌdestɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ destinazione destroy (v) /dɪˈstrɔɪ/ distruggere determined (adj) /dɪˈtɜː(r)mɪnd/ determinato devastating (adj) /ˈdevəsteɪtɪŋ/ devastante develop (v) /dɪˈveləp/ sviluppare diagnose (v) /ˈdaɪəɡnəʊz/ diagnosticare diagnosis (n) /ˌdaɪəɡˈnəʊsɪs/ diagnosi diagram (n) /ˈdaɪəɡræm/ diagramma diet (n) /ˈdaɪət/ dieta digestive system (n) /daɪˈdʒestɪv ˈsɪstəm/ apparato digerente diminish (v) /dɪˈmɪnɪʃ/ ridurre direct (adj) /daɪˈrekt/ diretto directly (adv) /daɪˈrek(t)li/ direttamente disability (n) /ˌdɪsəˈbɪləti/ disabilità disagreement (n) /ˌdɪsəˈɡriːmənt/ disaccordo disappointed (adj) /ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntɪd/ deluso discourage (v) /dɪsˈkʌrɪdʒ/ scoraggiare discover (v) /dɪˈskʌvə(r)/ scoprire discussion (n) /dɪˈskʌʃ(ə)n/ discussione disease (n) /dɪˈziːz/ malattia distinguish (v) /dɪˈstɪŋɡwɪʃ/ distinguere distracted (adj) /dɪˈstræktɪd/ distratto diving (n) /ˈdaɪvɪŋ/ immersione do something (phr) /ˈduː ˌsʌmθɪŋ/ fare qualcosa do without (phr v) /ˌduː wɪðˈaʊt/ fare a meno di documentary (n) /ˌdɒkjʊˈment(ə)ri/ documentario don’t care about (phr) /ˌdəʊnt ˈkeə(r) əˈbaʊt/ non interessarsi a

donate to charity (phr) /ˌdəʊˈneɪt tə ˈtʃærəti/ donare in beneficienza doubt (n) /daʊt/ dubbio dramatically (adv) /drəˈmatɪkli/ drasticamente drop off (v) /ˈdrɒp ɒf/ calare drown (v) /draʊn/ annegare due to (prep) /ˈdjuː ˌtə/ per via di, a causa di duet (n) /djuˈet/ duetto dull (adj) /dʌl/ noioso, banale E eagerly (adv) /ˈiːɡə(r)li/ impazientemente, entusiasticamente eastern (adj) /ˈiːstə(r)n/ orientale easy-recognizable (adj) /ˈiːziˈrekəɡnaɪzəbl/ facilmente riconoscibile edit (v) /ˈedɪt/ modificare effect (n) /ɪˈfekt/ effetto effective (adj) /ɪˈfektɪv/ effettivo election (n) /ɪˈlekʃ(ə)n/ elezione electronic (adj) /ˌelekˈtrɒnɪk/ elettronico embarrassed (adj) /ɪmˈbarəst/ imbarazzato embarrassing (adj) /ɪmˈbarəsɪŋ/ imbarazzante embarrassment (n) /ɪmˈbarəsmənt/ imbarazzo emotion (n) /ɪˈməʊʃ(ə)n/ emozione emotional (adj) /ɪˈməʊʃ(ə)nəl/ emotivo emphasis (n) /ˈemfəsɪs/ enfasi emphasise (v) /ˈemfəsaɪz/ enfatizzare employed (adj) /ɪmˈplɔɪd/ occupato employee (n) /ɪmˈplɔɪiː/ impiegato employer (n) /ɪmˈplɔɪə(r)/ datore di lavoro enable (v) /ɪnˈeɪb(ə)l/ abilitare encourage (v) /ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ/ incoraggiare end up (phr v) /ˌend ˈʌp/ finire, ritrovarsi energetic (adj) /ˌenə(r)ˈdʒetɪk/ energico energy (n) /ˈenə(r)dʒi/ energia engage (v) /ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ/ coinvolgere engine (n) /ˈendʒɪn/ motore engineering (n) /ˌendʒɪˈnɪərɪŋ/ ingegneria enjoyment (n) /ɪnˈdʒɔɪmənt/ piacere enrol (v) /ɪnˈrəʊl/ iscrivere enthusiastic (adj) /ɪnˌθjuːziˈastɪk/ entusiasta entirely (adv) /ɪnˈtaɪə(r)li/ interamente environment (n) /ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt/ ambiente episode (n) /ˈepɪsəʊd/ episodio equipment (n) /ɪˈkwɪpmənt/ attrezzatura error (n) /ˈerə(r)/ errore essential (adj) /ɪˈsenʃ(ə)l/ essenziale establish (v) /ɪˈstæblɪʃ/ stabilire estimated (adj) /ˈestɪmeɪtɪd/ stimato event (n) ɪˈvent/ evento eventually (adv) /ɪˈventʃuəli/ finalmente, alla fine evolution (n) /ˌiːvəˈluːʃ(ə)n/ evoluzione exact (adj) /ɪɡˈzækt/ esatto examine (v) /ɪɡˈzamɪn/ esaminare exception (n) /ɪkˈsepʃ(ə)n/ eccezione exchange (n) /ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ/ scambio excitement (n) /ɪkˈsaɪtmənt/ agitazione excursion (n) /ɪkˈskɜː(r)ʃ(ə)n/ escursione exhausted (adj) /ɪɡˈzɔːstɪd/ esausto exhausting (adj) /ɪɡˈzɔːstɪŋ/ estenuante exhaustion (n) /ɪɡˈzɔːstʃən/ sfinimento exhibit (n) /ɪɡˈzɪbɪt/ mostra exist (v) /ɪɡˈzɪst/ esistere expect (v) /ɪkˈspekt/ aspettarsi expedition (n) /ˌekspəˈdɪʃ(ə)n/ spedizione experience (n) /ɪkˈspɪəriəns/ esperienza experiment (n) /ɪkˈsperɪmənt/ esperimento expert (n) /ˈekspɜː(r)t/ esperto explanation (n) /ˌekspləˈneɪʃn/ spiegazione

exploration (n) /ˌekspləˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ esplorazione explore (v) /ɪkˈsplɔː(r)/ espolare express (v) /ɪkˈspres/ esprimere expression (n) /ɪkˈspreʃ(ə)n/ espressione extend (v) /ɪkˈstend/ estendere extension (n) /ɪkˈstenʃ(ə)n/ estensione extinct (adj) /ɪkˈstɪŋkt/ estinto extraordinary (adj) /ɪkˈstrɔː(r)d(ə)n(ə)ri/ straordinario eyesight (n) /ˈaɪsaɪt/ vista F face to face (adv) /ˌfeɪs tə ˈfeɪs/ faccia a faccia facial (adj) /ˈfeɪʃl/ facciale faithfully (adv) /ˈfeɪθf(ə)li/ fedelmente, accuratamente fake (adj) /feɪk/ finto fall behind (phr v) /ˌfɔːl bɪˈhaɪnd/ rimanere indietro farming (n) /ˈfɑː(r)mɪŋ/ agricoltura fascinating (adj) /ˈfasɪneɪtɪŋ/ affascinante, accattivante fatty (adj) /ˈfæti/ grasso fault (n) /fɒlt/ colpa ferry (n) /ˈferi/ traghetto fighting (n) /ˈfaɪtɪŋ/ combattimento firstly (adv) /ˈfɜː(r)s(t)li/ innanzitutto fit in (phr v) /ˌfɪt ˈɪn/ incastrare fix (v) /fɪks/ riparare flexible (adj) /ˈfleksəb(ə)l/ flessibile flour (n) /flaʊə(r)/ farina fluent (adj) /ˈfluːənt/ fluente forecast (n) /ˈfɔːkɑːst/ previsione foreign (adj) /ˈfɒrən/ straniero forget (v) /fəˈɡet/ dimenticare frantically (adv) /ˈfræntɪkli/ freneticamente freak out (v) /friːk aʊt/ dare di matto freegan (n) /ˈfriːɡən/ freegan freely (adv) /ˈfriːli/ liberamente fried (adj) /fraɪd/ fritto friendliness (n) /ˈfren(d)linəs/ cordialità friendship (n) /ˈfren(d)ʃɪp/ amicizia frightened (adj) /ˈfraɪt(ə)nd/ spaventato fringe (n) /frɪndʒ/ frangia from time to time (phr) /frəm ˌtaɪm tə ˌtaɪm/ di tanto in tanto frustrated (adj) /frʌˈstreɪtɪd/ frustrato full-time job (phr) /ˌfʊl taɪm ˈdʒɒb/ lavoro a tempo pieno furious (adj) /ˈfjʊəriəs/ furioso fuss (n) /fʌs/ agitarsi G gadget (n) /ˈɡædʒɪt/ gadget gain (v) /ɡeɪn/ ottenere gallery (n) /ˈɡaləri/ galleria gap (n) /ɡap/ apertura, spazio vuoto general (adj) /ˈdʒen(ə)rəl/ generale genuine (adj) /ˈdʒenjuɪn/ puro, genuino get a refund (phr) /ˌɡet ə ˈriːfʌnd/ ottenere un rimborso get across (v) /ˌɡet əˈkrɒs/ arrivare, essere recepito (di messaggio, idea) get back to (v) /ˌɡet bæk tə/ riprendere, tornare a get distracted (phr) /ˌɡet dɪˈstraktɪd/ distrarsi get into (phr v) /ˌɡet ˈɪntʊ/ entrare in get out of (phr v) /ˌɡet ˈaʊt əv/ uscire da get rid of (phr) /ˌɡet ˈrɪd əv/ buttare via, sbarazzarsi di get round to (v) /ˌɡet raʊnd tə/ trovare il tempo per, riuscire a

Wordlist  283


WORDLIST get to know (phr) /ˌɡet tə ˈnəʊ/ conoscersi get together (phr v) /ˌɡet təˈɡedə(r)/ riunirsi get up (phr v) /ˌɡet ˈʌp/ alzarsi ghost (n) /ɡəʊst/ fantasma gig (n) /ɡɪɡ/ concerto give up (phr v) /ˌɡɪv ˈʌp/ rinunciare glance (v) /ɡlɑːns/ dare un’occhiata global (adj) /ˈɡləʊb(ə)l/ globale go back (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈbæk/ ritornare go on (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈɒn/ continuare go up (phr v) /ˌɡəʊ ˈʌp/ aumentare good listener (n) /ˌɡʊd ˈlɪs(ə)nə(r)/ buon ascoltatore good-looking (adj) /ˌɡʊd ˈlʊkɪŋ/ di bell’aspetto government (n) /ˈɡʌvə(r)nmənt/ governo grateful (adj) /ˈɡreɪtf(ə)l/ grato gratification (n) /ˌɡrætɪfɪˈkeɪʃn/ gratificazione grill (n) /ɡrɪl/ griglia ground (n) /ɡraʊnd/ terreno groundbreaking (adj) /ˈɡraʊndbreɪkɪŋ/ rivoluzionario guess (v) /ɡes/ tirare a indovinare guitarist (n) /ɡɪˈtɑːrɪst/ chitarrista gym (n) /dʒɪm/ palestra gymnastics (n) /dʒɪmˈnastɪks/ ginnastica H habit (n) /ˈhabɪt/ abitudine habitat (n) /ˈhabɪtat/ habitat hamster (n) /ˈhæmstə(r)/ criceto hang out (phr v) /ˌhaŋ ˈaʊt/ passare il tempo happiness (n) /ˈhapinəs/ felicità harbour (n) /ˈhɑː(r)bə(r)/ porto headphones (n) /ˈhedfəʊnz/ cuffie healthily (adv) /ˈhelθili/ in maniera sana heat (v) /hiːt/ riscaldare height (n) /haɪt/ altezza helmet (n) /ˈhelmɪt/ casco helpful (adj) /ˈhelpf(ə)l/ utile helpline (n) /ˈhelplaɪn/ assistenza telefonica hero (n) /ˈhɪərəʊ/ eroe hide (v) /haɪd/ nascondere highly (adv) /ˈhaɪli/ altamente hold on (phr v) /ˌhəʊld ˈɒn/ resistere, aspettare, tenere hole (n) /həʊl/ buco home-made (adj) /ˌhəʊm ˈmeɪd/ fatto in casa honest (adj) /ˈɒnɪst/ onesto hope to (v) /ˈhəʊp ˌtə/ sperare di host (n) /həʊst/ padrone di casa household (adj) /ˈhaʊsˌhəʊld/ familiare huge (adj) /hjuːdʒ/ enorme human (adj/n) /ˈhjuːmən/ umano hungry (adj) /ˈhʌŋɡri/ affamato hunt (v) /hʌnt/ cacciare hunting (n) /ˈhʌntɪŋ/ caccia I icy (adj) /ˈaɪsi/ ghiacciato identify (v) /aɪˈdentɪfaɪ/ identificare illustrate (v) /ˈɪləstreɪt/ illustrare image (n) /ˈɪmɪdʒ/ immagine implant (n) /ɪmˈplɑːnt/ impianto importantly (adv) /ɪmˈpɔː(r)t(ə)ntli/ in maniera importante impression (n) /ɪmˈpreʃ(ə)n/ impressione impressive (adj) /ɪmˈpresɪv/ impressionante in time for (phr) /ˌɪn ˈtaɪm fə/ in tempo per in two days’ time (phr) /ɪn ˌtuː deɪz ˈtaɪm/ tra due giorni

284  Wordlist

increase (v) /ɪnˈkriːs/ aumentare increasingly (adv) /ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli/ sempre di più incredible (adj) /ɪnˈkredəb(ə)l/ incredibile individual (adj) /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl/ individuale industrial (adj) /ɪnˈdʌstriəl/ industriale inexpensive (adj) /ˌɪnɪkˈspensɪv/ economico influence (v) /ˈɪnfluəns/ influenzare infographic (n) /ˌɪnfəʊˈɡræfɪk/ infografica ingredient (n) /ɪnˈɡriːdiənt/ ingrediente inherit (v) /ɪnˈherɪt/ ereditare inspire (v) /ɪnˈspaɪə(r)/ ispirare integration (n) /ˌɪntɪˈɡreɪʃn/ integrazione interact (v) /ˌɪntərˈækt/ interagire interactive (adj) /ˌɪntərˈaktɪv/ interattivo intermediate (adj) /ˌɪntə(r)ˈmiːdiət/ intermedio interpersonal skills (n) /ˌɪntə(r)ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl skɪls/ abilità interpersonali interview (v) /ˈɪntə(r)ˌvjuː/ intervista introduce (v) /ˌɪntrəˈdjuːs/ introdurre invaluable (adj) /ɪnˈvæljuəbl/ inestimabile invent (v) /ɪnˈvent/ inventare inventor (n) /ɪnˈventə(r)/ inventore invest (v) /ɪnˈvest/ investire involve (v) /ɪnˈvɒlv/ comportare, coinvolgere irregular (adj) /ɪˈreɡjʊlə(r)/ irregolare irritating (adj) /ˈɪrɪteɪtɪŋ/ irritante item (n) /ˈaɪtəm/ oggetto, articolo J join in (phr v) /ˌdʒɔɪn ˈɪn/ partecipare a, aggiungersi a journey (n) /ˈdʒɜːni/ viaggio judge (v) /dʒʌdʒ/ giudicare junk food (n) /ˈdʒʌŋk ˌfuːd/ cibo spazzatura K karate (n) /kəˈrɑːti/ karate keen (adj) /kiːn/ appassionato keep fit (phr) /ˌkiːp ˈfɪt/ mantenersi in forma kick (v) /kɪk/ calciare kid (n) /kɪd/ bambino killing (n) /ˈkɪlɪŋ/ omicidio kiosk (n) /ˈkiːɒsk/ chiosco knitting (n) /ˈnɪtɪŋ/ lavoro a maglia knowledge (n) /ˈnɒlɪdʒ/ conoscenza L label (n) /ˈleɪbl/ etichetta land (n) /lænd/ terra lazy (adj) /ˈleɪzi/ pigro leading (adj) /ˈliːdɪŋ/ di spicco, più importante learner (n) /ˈlɜː(r)nə(r)/ principiante leftover (adj) /ˈleftəʊvə(r)/ avanzato lend (v) /lend/ prestare lifestyle (n) /ˈlaɪfˌstaɪl/ stile di vita lifetime (n) /ˈlaɪfˌtaɪm/ esistenza limit (n) /ˈlɪmɪt/ limite limitless (adj) /ˈlɪmɪtləs/ illimitato listener (n) /ˈlɪs(ə)nə(r)/ ascoltatore live for (phr v) /ˈlɪv ˌfɔː(r)/ vivere per lively (adj) /ˈlaɪvli/ vivace load (n) /ləʊd/ carico local (adj) /ˈləʊk(ə)l/ locale lonely (adj) /ˈləʊnli/ solitario long-term (adj) /ˈlɒŋ ˌtɜː(r)m/ a lungo termine look forward to (phr v) /ˌlʊk ˈfɔː(r)wə(r)d tə/ non vedere l’ora di look like (phr v) /ˈlʊk ˌlaɪk/ assomigliare a look up (phr v) /ˌlʊk ˈʌp/ cercare (in un libro, dizionario)

loss (n) /lɒs/ perdita lung (n) /lʌŋ/ polmone luxury (n) /ˈlʌkʃəri/ lusso lyrics (n) /ˈlɪrɪks/ testo (di una canzone) M main (adj) /meɪn/ principale majority (n) /məˈdʒɒrəti/ maggioranza make a decision (phr) /ˌmeɪk ə dɪˈsɪʒ(ə)n/ prendere una decisione make a difference (phr) /ˌmeɪk ə ˈdɪfrəns/ fare la differenza make a living (phr) /ˌmeɪk ə ˈlɪvɪŋ/ guadagnarsi da vivere make friends (phr) /ˌmeɪk ˈfrendz/ fare amicizia make one’s bed (phr) /ˌmeɪk wʌnz ˈbed/ farsi il letto make the most of (phr) /ˌmeɪk də ˈməʊst əv/ trarre il meglio da make way for (phr) /ˌmeɪk ˈweɪ fə/ fare strada manage (v) /ˈmanɪdʒ/ amministrare, gestire management (n) /ˈmanɪdʒmənt/ gestione marathon (n) /ˈmarəθ(ə)n/ maratona mark (n) /mɑːk/ segno mean to (phr v) /ˈmiːn ˌtə/ avere intenzione di meanwhile (adv) /ˈmiːnˌwaɪl/ intanto, (nel) frattempo measure (v) /ˈmeʒə(r)/ misurare medical (adj) /ˈmedɪk(ə)l/ medico, sanitario memorable (adj) /ˈmem(ə)rəb(ə)l/ memorabile mend (v) /mend/ aggiustare merit (n) /ˈmerɪt/ merito messy (adj) /ˈmesi/ disordinato mile (n) /maɪl/ miglio mission (n) /ˈmɪʃ(ə)n/ missione misunderstanding (n) /ˌmɪsʌndəˈstændɪŋ/ equivoco mixture (n) /ˈmɪkstʃə(r)/ mescolanza moped (n) /ˈməʊped/ motorino mould (n) /məʊld/ muffa move (v) /muːv/ muoversi movement (n) /ˈmuːvmənt/ movimento mural (n) /ˈmjʊərəl/ graffito muscle (n) /ˈmʌs(ə)l/ muscolo mysterious (adj) /mɪˈstɪəriəs/ misterioso mystery (n) /ˈmɪst(ə)ri/ mistero N nation (n) /ˈneɪʃ(ə)n/ nazione navy (n) /ˈneɪvi/ marina militare nervous (adj) /ˈnɜː(r)vəs/ ansioso, nervoso nevertheless (adv) /ˌnevə(r)ðəˈles/ ciò nonostante normally (adv) /ˈnɔː(r)m(ə)li/ normalmente novel (n) /ˈnɒv(ə)l/ romanzo nowadays (adv) /ˈnaʊədeɪz/ oggigiorno nut (n) /nʌt/ nocciola O object (n) /ˈɒbdʒekt/ oggetto observe (v) /əbˈzɜː(r)v/ osservare obviously (adv) /ˈɒbviəsli/ ovviamente occasion (n) /əˈkeɪʒ(ə)n/ occasione occasionally (adv) /əˈkeɪʒ(ə)nəli/ ogni tanto, occasionalmente ocean (n) /ˈəʊʃ(ə)n/ oceano officer (n) /ˈɒfɪsə(r)/ agente old-fashioned (adj) /ˌəʊld ˈfaʃ(ə)nd/ vecchio stile, fuori moda omit (v) /əˈmɪt/ omettere


on one’s mind (phr) /ˌɒn wʌnz ˈmaɪnd/ (pensieri) per la testa on time (phr) /ˌɒn ˈtaɪm/ puntuale operation (n) /ˌɒpəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ operazione operator (n) /ˈɒpəˌreɪtə(r)/ operatore opponent (n) /əˈpəʊnənt/ avversario option (n) /ˈɒpʃ(ə)n/ opzione original (adj) /əˈrɪdʒ(ə)nəl/ originale otherwise (adv) /ˈʌðə(r)ˌwaɪz/ altrimenti oven (n) /ˈʌvn/ forno overall (adv) /ˌəʊvərˈɔːl/ in generale owe (v) /əʊ/ dovere dei soldi, avere un debito own (v) /əʊn/ possedere oxygen (n) /ˈɒksɪdʒ(ə)n/ ossigeno P pan (n) /pæn/ padella particularly (adv) /pə(r)ˈtɪkjʊlə(r)li/ particolarmente partly (adv) /ˈpɑː(r)tli/ parzialmente part-time work (phr) /ˌpɑː(r)t taɪm lavoro a tempo parziale pass the time (phr) /ˌpɑːs də ˈtaɪm/ passare il tempo passionately (adv) /ˈpaʃ(ə)nətli/ appassionatamente path (n) /pɑːθ/ sentiero pay attention (phr) /ˌpeɪ əˈtenʃ(ə)n/ fare attenzione pay back (phr v) /ˌpeɪ ˈbæk/ ripagare pay more for (phr) /ˌpeɪ ˈmɔː(r) fə/ pagare di più per payment (n) /ˈpeɪmənt/ pagamento percent (n) /pə(r)ˈsent/ percentuale performance (n) /pə(r)ˈfɔː(r)məns/ esibizione personal (adj) /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəl/ personale personality (n) /ˌpɜː(r)səˈnaləti/ personalità personally (adv) /ˈpɜː(r)s(ə)nəli/ personalmente persuade (v) /pəˈsweɪd/ persuadere photograph (v) /ˈfəʊtəˌɡrɑːf/ fotografare physical (adj) /ˈfɪzɪk(ə)l/ fisico physically (adv) /ˈfɪzɪkli/ fisicamente pigsty (n) /ˈpɪɡstaɪ/ porcile pitch (n) /pɪtʃ/ campo (da calcio) pity (n) /ˈpɪti/ peccato plan (v) /plæn/ pianificare plenty (pron) /ˈplenti/ in abbondanza plot (n) /plɒt/ trama poet (n) /ˈpəʊɪt/ poeta poetry (n) /ˈpəʊɪtri/ poesia point (v) /pɔɪnt/ indicare polished (adj) /ˈpɒlɪʃt/ lucidato politician (n) /ˌpɒləˈtɪʃ(ə)n/ politico politics (n) /ˈpɒlətɪks/ politica popularity (n) /ˌpɒpjʊˈlarəti/ popolarità population (n) /ˌpɒpjʊˈleɪʃ(ə)n/ popolazione portrait (n) /ˈpɔː(r)trɪt/ ritratto position (n) /pəˈzɪʃ(ə)n/ posizione positive (adj) /ˈpɒzətɪv/ positivo possession (n) /pəˈzeʃ(ə)n/ proprietà post on social media (phr) /ˌpəʊst ɒn səʊʃ(ə)l ˈmiːdiə/ postare sui social powerful (adj) /ˈpaʊə(r)f(ə)l/ potente prawn (n) /prɔːn/ gamberetto preparation (n) /ˌprepəˈreɪʃ(ə)n/ preparazione present (v) /prɪˈzent/ consegnare presentation (n) /ˌprez(ə)nˈteɪʃ(ə)n/ presentazione prevent (v) /prɪˈvent/ prevenire processed (adj) /ˈprəʊsest/ lavorato, trattato

produce (v) /prəˈdjuːs/ produrre production (n) /prəˈdʌkʃ(ə)n/ produzione productive (adj) /prəˈdʌktɪv/ produttivo professional (adj) /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl/ professionale professional (n) /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəl/ professionista professionally (adv) /prəˈfeʃ(ə)nəli/ professionalmente profile (n) /ˈprəʊfaɪl/ profilo progress (n) /ˈprəʊɡres/ progresso promise (v) /ˈprɒmɪs/ promettere promote (v) /prəˈməʊt/ promuovere proposal (n) /prəˈpəʊz(ə)l/ proposta prospect (n) /ˌprɒspekts/ prospettiva protect (v) /prəˈtekt/ proteggere public (adj) /ˈpʌblɪk/ pubblico public transport (n) /ˌpʌblɪk ˈtrænspɔːt/ trasporto pubblico publish (v) /ˈpʌblɪʃ/ pubblicare puppy (n) /ˈpʌpi/ cucciolo purpose (n) /ˈpɜː(r)pəs/ scopo push one’s limit (phr) /ˌpʊʃ wʌnz ˈlɪmɪt/ spingersi al limite put off (phr v) /ˌpʊt ˈɒf/ rimandare R railway track (n) /ˈreɪlweɪ ˌtræk/ binario ferroviario rainforest (n) /ˈreɪnˌfɒrɪst/ foresta pluviale raise (v) /reɪz/ alzare raise money (phr) /ˌreɪz ˈmʌni/ raccogliere soldi range (n) /reɪndʒ/ gamma rather than (phr) /ˈrɑːðə(r) ˌdən/ piuttosto che raw (adj) /rɔː/ crudo reach (v) /riːtʃ/ raggiungere reader (n) /ˈriːdə(r)/ lettore realistically (adv) /ˌrɪəˈlɪstɪkli/ realisticamente receipt (n) /rɪˈsiːt/ ricevuta recently (adv) /ˈriːs(ə)ntli/ recentemente recipe (n) /ˈresəpi/ ricetta reckon (v) /ˈrekən/ supporre recommend (v) /ˌrekəˈmend/ consigliare recover (v) /rɪˈkʌvə(r)/ riprendersi da reduce (v) /rɪˈdjuːs/ ridurre referee (n) /ˌrefəˈriː/ arbitro reflect (v) /rɪˈflekt/ riflettere refund (n) /ˈriːfʌnd/ rimborso refuse (v) /rɪˈfjuːz/ rifiutare regret (v) /rɪˈɡret/ pentirsi di regularly (adv) /ˈreɡjʊlə(r)li/ regolarmente relationship (n) /rɪˈleɪʃ(ə)nʃɪp/ rapporto, relazione relative (n) /ˈrelətɪv/ parente relaxed (adj) /rɪˈlækst/ rilassato reminiscent (adj) /ˌremɪˈnɪsnt/ reminescente repair (n) /rɪˈpeə(r)/ riparazione repair (v) /rɪˈpeə(r)/ aggiustare replace (v) /rɪˈpleɪs/ sostituire reply (v) /rɪˈplaɪ/ rispondere represent (v) /ˌreprɪˈzent/ rappresentare reputation (n) /ˌrepjʊˈteɪʃ(ə)n/ reputazione research (n) /ˈriːsɜː(r)tʃ/ ricerca resident (n) /ˈrezɪd(ə)nt/ residente respect (v) /rɪˈspekt/ rispettare respond (v) /rɪˈspɒnd/ rispondere respond to texts (phr) /rɪˌspɒnd tə ˈteksts/ rispondere ai messaggi responsible (adj) /rɪˈspɒnsəb(ə)l/ responsabile result (n) /rɪˈzʌlt/ risultato revise (v) /rɪˈvaɪz/ ripassare reward (n) /rɪˈwɔː(r)d/ ricompensa

rhetorical (adj) /rɪˈtɒrɪkl/ retorico rice-filled (adj) /ˈraɪs ˌfɪld/ ripieno di riso ridiculous (adj) /rɪˈdɪkjʊləs/ ridicolo rink (n) /rɪŋk/ palaghiaccio risk (n) /rɪsk/ rischio rock (n) /rɒk/ pietra roll (n) /rəʊl/ rotolo rooftop (n) /ˈruːfˌtɒp/ tetto roommate (n) /ˈruːmˌmeɪt/ coinquilino rope (n) /rəʊp/ corda route (n) /ruːt/ itinerario rude (adj) /ruːd/ scortese rule (n) /ruːl/ regola rule (v) /ruːl/ governare run out of (phr v) /ˌrʌn ˈaʊt əv/ rimanere senza rush (v) /rʌʃ/ andare di fretta, correre S sadness (n) /ˈsadnəs/ tristezza safety (n) /ˈseɪfti/ sicurezza sailing (n) /ˈseɪlɪŋ/ vela sailor (n) /ˈseɪlə(r)/ marinaio sale (n) /seɪl/ saldo satnav (n) /ˈsætnæv/ navigatore satellitare scale (n) /skeɪl/ scale, bilancia scared (adj) /skeəd/ spaventato scene (n) /siːn/ scena schedule (n) /ˈʃedjuːl/ orario science fiction (n) /ˌsaɪəns ˈfɪkʃ(ə)n/ fantascienza scientist (n) /ˈsaɪəntɪst/ scienziato score points (phr) /ˌskɔː(r) ˈpɔɪnts/ segnare punti scratch (n) /skratʃ/ graffio screensaver (n) /ˈskriːn seɪvə(r)/ salvaschermo sculpture (n) /ˈskʌlptʃə(r)/ scultura seafood (n) /ˈsiːfuːd/ pesce, frutti di mare secondly (adv) /ˈsekən(d)li/ in secondo luogo secret (n) /ˈsiːkrət/ segreto security (n) /sɪˈkjʊərəti/ sicurezza seem (v) /siːm/ sembrare self-defense (n) /ˌself dɪˈfens/ autodifesa self-esteem (n) /ˌself ɪˈstiːm/ autostima seller (n) /ˈselə(r)/ venditore send texts (phr) /ˌsend ˈteksts/ mandare messaggi sense (n) /sens/ senso sequel (n) /ˈsiːkwəl/ seguito, sequel series (n) /ˈsɪəriːz/ serie service (n) /ˈsɜː(r)vɪs/ servizio set off (phr v) /ˌset ˈɒf/ partire shadow (n) /ˈʃadəʊ/ ombra shape (n) /ʃeɪp/ forma share photos (phr) /ˌʃeə(r) ˈfəʊtəʊz/ condividere foto shelter (n) /ˈʃeltə(r)/ rifugio shop around (phr v) /ˌʃɒp əˈraʊnd/ fare il giro dei negozi shout (v) /ʃaʊt/ gridare sight (n) /saɪt/ vista similar (adj) /ˈsɪmɪlə(r)/ simile similarly (adv) /ˈsɪmələ(r)li/ similmente simply (adv) /ˈsɪmpli/ semplicemente sir (n) /sɜː(r)/ signore situation (n) /ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃ(ə)n/ situazione size (n) /saɪz/ taglia skeleton (n) /ˈskelɪt(ə)n/ scheletro skill (n) /skɪl/ abilità skin (n) /skɪn/ pelle skyscraper (n) /ˈskaɪˌskreɪpə(r)/ grattacielo sleeve (n) /sliːv/ manica slide (n) /slaɪd/ diapositiva

Wordlist  285


WORDLIST slightly (adv) /ˈslaɪtli/ leggermente smile (n) /smaɪl/ sorriso social (adj) /ˈsəʊʃ(ə)l/ sociale soldier (n) /ˈsəʊldʒə(r)/ soldato sound like (phr v) /ˈsaʊnd ˌlaɪk/ suonare come, sembrare soundtrack (n) /ˈsaʊndtræk/ colonna sonora spacewalk (n) /ˈspeɪswɔːk/ passeggiata spaziale speak up (v) /spiːk ʌp/ parlare più forte spear (n) /spɪə(r)/ lancia spectator (n) /spekˈteɪtə(r)/ spettatore speculate (v) /ˈspekjuleɪt/ fare congetture speech (n) /spiːtʃ/ discorso speed (n) /spiːd/ velocità spicy (adj) /ˈspaɪsi/ piccante spot (v) /spɒt/ macchia sprain (n) /spreɪn/ distorsione spread (v) /spred/ diffondere sprint (n) /sprɪnt/ scatto squeeze (v) /skwiːz/ schiacciare stall (n) /stɔːl/ banchetto steamed (adj) /stiːmd/ al vapore steep (adj) /stiːp/ ripido stick (n) /stɪk/ ramoscello storey (n) /ˈstɔːri/ piano stressed (adj) /strest/ stressato stressful (adj) /ˈstresf(ə)l/ stressante strict (adj) /strɪkt/ rigido, severo strongly (adv) /ˈstrɒŋli/ fortemente studio (n) /ˈstjuːdiəʊ/ studio stuff (n) /stʌf/ cosa, roba style (n) /staɪl/ stile success (n) /səkˈses/ successo successful (adj) /səkˈsesf(ə)l/ di successo sudden (adj) /ˈsʌd(ə)n/ improvviso suggest (v) /səˈdʒest/ suggerire summit (n) /ˈsʌmɪt/ cima support (v) /səˈpɔː(r)t/ sostenere supporter (n) /səˈpɔː(r)tə(r)/ sostenitore suppose (v) /səˈpəʊz/ supporre surround (v) /səˈraʊnd/ circondare survey (n) /ˈsɜː(r)veɪ/ sondaggio swap (v) /swɒp/ scambiarsi sweet-tasting (adj) /ˈswiːt ˌteɪstɪŋ/ dal sapore dolce sympathetic (adj) /ˌsɪmpəˈθetɪk/ comprensivo system (n) /ˈsɪstəm/ sistema

V valid (adj) /ˈvælɪd/ valido valuable (adj) /ˈvaljʊb(ə)l/ prezioso vegetarian (n) /ˌvedʒəˈteəriən/ vegetariano

T take back (phr v) /ˌteɪk ˈbæk/ restituire take off (v) /ˈteɪk ɒf/ decollare take on (phr v) /ˌteɪk ˈɒn/ assumere take part (phr v) /ˌteɪk ˈpɑː(r)t/ partecipare talent (n) /ˈtalənt/ talento task (n) /tɑːsk/ incarico taste (n) /teɪst/ sapore tasty (adj) /ˈteɪsti/ saporito technology (n) /tekˈnɒlədʒi/ tecnologia tell off (v) /tel ɒf/ sgridare temporarily (adv) /ˌtempəˈreərəli/ temporaneamente temporary (adj) /ˈtemp(ə)rəri/ temporaneo terrifying (adj) /ˈterəˌfaɪɪŋ/ terrificante, spaventoso theft (n) /θeft/ ladro therefore (adv) /ˈðeə(r)fɔː(r)/ quindi, perciò think of (phr v) /ˈθɪŋk ˌəv/ ideare, pensare a though (adv) /ðəʊ/ tuttavia thoughtful (adj) /ˈθɔːtf(ə)l/ premuroso threat (n) /θret/ minaccia throw away (phr v) /ˌθrəʊ əˈweɪ/ buttare via tiger (n) /ˈtaɪɡə(r)/ tigre

Talk the talk Basically, … Been there, done that! Fair enough. Fingers crossed. He freaked out. Hold on! I (just) can’t get my head round it! I give up. I’m not fussed. I’m not taking sides. In your dreams! It doesn’t matter. It’s driving me crazy! Sounds gross! The silent treatment. What are you on about? What on earth…? What’s up? Who knows? You know…

286  Wordlist

tip (n) /tɪp/ mancia, suggerimento tiring (adj) /ˈtaɪərɪŋ/ faticoso tone (n) /təʊn/ tono tongue (n) /tʌŋ/ lingua toothpaste (n) /ˈtuːθˌpeɪst/ dentifricio total (n) /ˈtəʊt(ə)l/ totale tower (n) /ˈtaʊə(r)/ torre track (n) /træk/ pista trade (n) /treɪd/ commercio tradition (n) /trəˈdɪʃ(ə)n/ tradizione traditional (adj) /trəˈdɪʃ(ə)nəl/ tradizionale tragedy (n) /ˈtradʒədi/ tragedia train (v) /ˌtreɪn/ allenarsi transport (v) /trænsˈpɔː(r)t/ trasportare treat (v) /triːt/ trattare treatment (n) /ˈtriːtmənt/ trattamento tremendous (adj) /trəˈmendəs/ tremendo tribe (n) /traɪb/ tribù trip (n) /trɪp/ viaggio trophy (n) /ˈtrəʊfi/ trofeo trouble (n) /ˈtrʌb(ə)l/ difficoltà trust (v) /trʌst/ fidarsi di tunnel (n) /ˈtʌn(ə)l/ tunnel, galleria typical (adj) /ˈtɪpɪk(ə)l/ tipico U unappetising (adj) /ʌnˈæpɪtaɪzɪŋ/ non invitante uncomfortable (adj) /ʌnˈkʌmftəb(ə)l/ a disagio, scomodo undefined (adj) /ˌʌndɪˈfaɪnd/ imprecisato undercooked (adj) /ˌʌndə(r) ˈkʊkt/ poco cotto underground station (n) /ˈʌndə(r)ˌɡraʊnd ˈsteɪʃ(ə)n/ stazione (della) metropolitana unfamiliar (adj) /ˌʌnfəˈmɪljə(r)/ insolito unfit (adj) /ʌnˈfɪt/ fuori forma, inadatto unflattering (adj) /ʌnˈflætərɪŋ/ poco lusinghiero unhealthy (adj) /ʌnˈhelθi/ poco sano unless (conj) /ənˈles/ a meno che unnecessary (adj) /ʌnˈnesəs(ə)ri/ inutile unpredictable (adj) /ˌʌnprɪˈdɪktəbl/ imprevedibile update (n) /ˈʌpdeɪt/ aggiornamento upload (v) /ˈʌpˌləʊd/ caricare

venue (n) /ˈvenjuː/ sede verse (n) /vɜː(r)s/ verso version (n) /ˈvɜː(r)ʃ(ə)n/ versione viewer (n) /ˈvjuːə(r)/ osservatore viewpoint (n) /ˈvjuːˌpɔɪnt/ punto di osservazione, punto di vista vinegar (n) /ˈvɪnɪɡə(r)/ aceto vision (n) /ˈvɪʒ(ə)n/ visione vitamin (n) /ˈvɪtəmɪn/ vitamina volunteer (n) /ˌvɒlənˈtɪə(r)/ volontario vote (v) /vəʊt/ votare voting (n) /ˈvəʊtɪŋ/ votazione voyage (n) /ˈvɔɪɪdʒ/ viaggio (lungo) W wait around (phr v) /ˌweɪt əˈraʊnd/ aspettare wander (v) /ˈwɒndə(r)/ vagare warm up (n) /ˈwɔːm ʌp/ riscaldamento warm up (phr v) /ˌwɔː(r)m ˈʌp/ riscaldarsi warn (v) /wɔː(r)n/ avvertire waste (v) /weɪst/ sprecare wealthy (adj) /ˈwelθi/ benestante wedding (n) /ˈwedɪŋ/ matrimonio weight (n) /weɪt/ peso welcoming (adj) /ˈwelkəmɪŋ/ accogliente well-balanced (adj) /ˌwel ˈbalənst/ bilanciato, equilibrato wellbeing (n) /ˈwedɪŋ/ benessere well-known (adj) /ˌwel ˈnəʊn/ noto well-paid (adj) /ˌwel ˈpeɪd/ ben pagato wheelchair (n) /ˈwiːltʃeə(r)/ sedia a rotelle whether (conj) /ˈweðə(r)/ se willing (adj) /ˈwɪlɪŋ/ disponibile wisely (adv) /ˈwaɪzli/ saggiamente within (prep) /wɪðˈɪn/ all’interno di wonder (n) /ˈwʌndə(r)/ stupore wonder (v) /ˈwʌndə(r)/ chiedersi work in (phr v) /ˈwɜː(r)k ˌɪn/ lavorare in work on (phr v) /ˈwɜː(r)k ˌɒn/ lavorare a work out (phr v) /ˌwɜː(r)k ˈaʊt/ allenarsi worth (n) /wɜː(r)θ/ valore wound (n) /wuːnd/ ferita Y youth (n) /juːθ/ giovinezza, gioventù

In pratica,… Ci sono già passata! Mi sembra giusto. Incrociamo le dita. Ha dato di matto. Aspetta! Non riesco proprio a capire! Mi arrendo. Per me è uguale / fa lo stesso. Non mi sto schierando. Nei tuoi sogni! Non importa. Mi sta facendo impazzire! Sembra disgustoso! Il trattamento del silenzio. Di cosa stai parlando? Che diavolo…? Come va? Chi lo sa? Sai…


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Photo Acknowledgements 2 (tl1) Denis Allard/REA/Redux, (tl2) © Christoph Otto, (cl1) © Joey Schusler, (cl2) Photographee.eu/Shutterstock, (bl1) © Veronika K Ko, (bl2) K H Fung/Science Source, 4 (tl1) © Prasad Ambati, (tl2) © Almalki abdulrahman/500px Prime, (cl1) © Murdo Macleod, (cl2) Randy Olson/National Geographic Creative, 5 Mark Nazh/Shutterstock, 8-9 Denis Allard/REA/Redux, 10-11 Dinodia Photo/Passage/Getty Images, 12-13 (t) National Geographic Creative, 14 Boomer Jerritt/All Canada Photos/Getty Images, 15 DJTaylor/Shutterstock.com,16-17 imagebroker/ Alamy Stock Photo, 18-19 © Christoph Otto, 20-21 Luciano Mortula - LGM/Shutterstock, 22-23 Bradley Garrett/eyevine/Redux, 24 Christopher Groenhout/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images, 25 piola666/E+/Getty Images, 26 (bl) Miodrag Skilja/Shutterstock, (br) fizkes/Shutterstock, 27 Panther Media GmbH/Alamy Stock Photo, 28 Natee Meepian/Shutterstock, 29 (background) BBA Photography/Shutterstock, Oscar Johns/Shutterstock, 30 GEORGES GOBET/AFP via Getty Images, 31 Esenin (comic) Studio/Shutterstock, (student) Elnur/Shutterstock, (goal) Bplanet/Shutterstock, (climbers) Onchira Wongsiri/Shutterstock, (success) Pirina/Shutterstock, 32-33 © Wolfram Scheible/TED, 34-35 © Joey Schusler, 36-37 Zuma Press, Inc./Alamy Stock Photo, 36 (bl) Taylor Ballantyne /Sports Illustrated via Getty Images, 38-39 © Thomas Mukoya/Reuters, 40 FILIPPO MONTEFORTE/AFP via Getty Images, 41 Ian Walton/Getty Images Sport/Getty Images, 43 YanLev/Shutterstock, 44-45 Mark Nazh/Shutterstock, 46-47 Wolfgang Rattay/Reuters, 46 (bl) taa22/Shutterstock, 48 Tom Cockrem/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images, 50 UniversalImagesGroup/Getty Images, 51 Charoenkrung.Studio99/Shutterstock.com, 52 (l) G-Stock Studio/Shutterstock, (m) Pixel-Shot/Shutterstock, (r) SnowWhiteimages/ Shutterstock 53 darkpurplebear/Shutterstock, 54 Sergey Novikov/Shutterstock, 55 WAYHOME/Shutterstock, 56 (background) PBO Photography/Shutterstock, (A) Tyler Olson/Shutterstock, (B) Syda Productions/Shutterstock, (C) Dean Drobot/Shutterstock, (D) xiuren..Click.Here...FREE/Shutterstock, 57 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 58-59 © James Duncan Davidson/ TED, 60-61 © Veronika K Ko, 62-63 Bloomberg/Getty Images, 64 salajean/Shutterstock, 65 Vasin Lee/Shutterstock.com, 66 PastPix/SSPL/Getty Images, 67 (tl) Niday Picture Library/Alamy Stock Photo, (br) Buyenlarge/Archive Photos/Getty Images, 68-69 Ekaterina Pokrovsky/Shutterstock, 70-71 K H Fung/Science Source, 72-73 Aaron Huey/National Geographic Creative, 74 George Rudy/Shutterstock, 75 Aurora Photos/Alamy Stock Photo, 76 Shaun Curry/AFP/Getty Images, 77 Prostock-studio/Shutterstock, 78 (A) Nguyen van vien/Shutterstock, (B) oneinchpunch/Shutterstock, 79 (Steven Hawking) Jemal Countess/Getty Images, (C) Powerofflowers/Shutterstock, (D) Inu/Shutterstock, 80 Phovoir/Shutterstock, 81 (tl) Air Images/ Shutterstock (1) AJR_photo/Shutterstock, (2) goodluz/Shutterstock, (3) mimagephotography/Shutterstock, 82 (tr) David Parry/PA Images via Getty Images, (bl) Terry Mathews/Alamy Stock Photo, 83 l i g h t p o e t/Shutterstock, 84-85 © TED, 86-87 © Prasad Ambati, 88-89 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 91 Toshiyuki Shirai/EyeEm/Getty Images, 92 Bob KreiselAlamy Stock Photo, 93 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 94 (A) Elena Dijour/Shutterstock, (B) RossHelen/Shutterstock, (C) pikselstock/Shutterstock, 95 iStock.com/RapidEye , 96-97 © Almalki abdulrahman/500px Prime, 98-99 NASA, 101 © Crossing Borders Education, 102 martin-dm/E+/Getty Images, 103 ELI Archives, 104-105 Richard Newstead/Moment/ Getty Images 106 ra2studio/Shutterstock, 107 (bl) Halfpoint/Shutterstock, (tr) Lisa Kolbasa/Shutterstock, (br) Africa Studio/Shutterstock, 108 (mods) Mirror/Mirrorpix/Alamy Stock Photo, (emos) imageBROKER/Alamy Stock Photo, (punks) Keving3/Alamy Stock Photo, 109 Rido/Shutterstock, 110-111 © TED, 112-113 © Murdo Macleod, 114-115 © Johannes Stötter, 116 © Artez, 117 © Jason Larkin/Panos, 118 John Blanding/The Boston Globe/Getty Images, 120-121 Lucas Vallecillos/Alamy Stock Photo, 121 (tr) f11photo/Shutterstock, 122-123 Randy Olson/National Geographic Creative, 124 (bl) John Rensten/Stone/Getty Images, (br) Jim Richardson/National Geographic Creative, 125 (tr) Bettmann/Getty Images, (bl) Zurijeta/ Shutterstock, (br) LeventeGyori/Shutterstock, 127 Steve Vidler/Alamy Stock Photo, 128 Terry Williams/The Image Bank/Getty Images, 129 Kalman/Shutterstock, 130 Ableimages/David Harrigan/ Getty Images, 131 SpeedKingz/Shutterstock, 132 (tr) Corepics VOF/Shutterstock, (bl) MJTH/Shutterstock, 133 (Venice Beach) trekandshoot/Shutterstock, (Hollywood Boulevard) Chad Ehiers/Alamy Stock Photo, (tr) MuchMania/Shutterstock, (bl) Katja Jemec/Shutterstock , 134 (tr) Kateryna Kon/Shutterstock, (ml) Nadiia Korol/Shutterstock, (br) Rawpixel.com/ Shutterstock, (bl) zenstock/Shutterstock, 135 waldru/Shutterstock, 136-137 © Ryan Lash/TED, 138 (tl) Michael Putland/Getty Images, (poster) ELI ARCHIVES, 139 (poster) ELI ARCHIVES, (tr) SimoneN/Shutterstock, (m) Pakhnyushchy/Shutterstock,(br) Eliyahu Yosef Parypa/Shutterstock, 140 Featureflash Photo Agency/Shutterstock, 141 (t) Stephen Barnes/Shutterstock, (m) KK Stock/Shutterstock, (b) © Bernard/rove.me.com, 142 ELI ARCHIVES, 143 (l) Anton Gvozdikov/Shutterstock, (r) paparazzza/Shutterstock, 145 Juan Ci/Shutterstock, 146 (tr) WICHAI WONGJONGJAIHAN/Shutterstock, (m) Georgios Kollidas/Shutterstock, (b) ELI ARCHIVES, 147 (tr) ELI ARCHIVES, (m) Marzolino/Shutterstock, (b) ELI ARCHIVES, 148 (t) fizkes/Shutterstock, (m) ELI ARCHIVES, 149 Willy Barton/Shutterstock, 150 Helen Hotson/Shutterstock, 151 Syda Productions/Shutterstock, 152 Alex Yuzhakov/Shutterstock, 153 MarcusVDT/Shutterstock, 154 zoff/Shutterstock, 155 (l) goodluz/Shutterstock, (r) Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 156 (l) Merla/Shutterstock, (r) wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock, 157 (l) LightField Studios/ Shutterstock, (r) Pixel-Shot/Shutterstock, 158 (l) radioshoot/Shutterstock, (r) mentatdgt/Shutterstock, 159 (l) Bodnar Taras/Shutterstock, (r) khorkins/Shutterstock, 160 (l) Iakov Filimonov/ Shutterstock, (r) Kzenon/Shutterstock, 161 (l) Gorodenkoff/Shutterstock, (r) chatursunil/Shutterstock, 162 jijomathaidesigners/Shutterstock, 163 Stratos Giannikos/Shutterstock, 164 kovop58/Shutterstock, 165 WitR/Shutterstock, 166 Africa Studio/Shutterstock, 167 Featureflash Photo Agency/Shutterstock, 168 (t) fizkes/Shutterstock, (m) Evikka/Shutterstock, 169 Aaron Amat/Shutterstock, 170 T J/Shutterstock, 171 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 172 (tr) Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, (bl) Fer Gregory/Shutterstock, 174 (t) Lopolo/Shutterstock, (b) Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 175 (l) Gladskikh Tatiana/Shutterstock, (m) George Rudy/Shutterstock, (r) Lucky Business/Shutterstock, 176 taa22/Shutterstock, 177 (tl) Poznyakov/Shutterstock, (bl) Jacek Chabraszewski/Shutterstock, (br) YanLev/Shutterstock, 178 Syda Productions/Shutterstock, 179 George Dolgikh/ Shutterstock, 180 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 181 (tl) Cmspic/Shutterstock, (tr) Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock, 182 Tartila/Shutterstock, 184 Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock, 185 Antonio Guillem/Shutterstock, 187 Spectral-Design/Shutterstock, 188 Arthimedes/Shutterstock, 189 Dean Drobot/Shutterstock, 190 photobyphotoboy/Shutterstock, 191 Maridav/Shutterstock, 192 Gustavo Frazao/Shutterstock, 193 Phovoir/Shutterstock, 194 KalypsoWorldPhotography/Shutterstock, 196 Carla Castro/Shutterstock, 197 wavebreakmedia/ Shutterstock, 198 (tl) AboutLife/Shutterstock, (tr) Vasyl Shulga/Shutterstock, 199 Andrey_Popov/Shutterstock, 197 wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock, 200 (tl) Sinesp/Shutterstock, (m) David McNew/Getty Images, (b) David Crockett/Shutterstock, 202 Sinesp/Shutterstock, 203 (tl) otsphoto/Shutterstock, (tr) Dan Baciu/Shutterstock, (bl) Wlad Go/Shutterstock, 204 nehophoto/ Shutterstock, 205 (tl) Stock-Asso/Shutterstock, (tr) Golubovy/Shutterstock, 207 TMON/Shutterstock, 208 marilyn barbone/Shutterstock, 203 (t) Mega Pixel/Shutterstock, (b) Elena Cavallin/ Shutterstock, 210 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 212 (t) Pressmaster/Shutterstock, (b) ELI ARCHIVES, 213 lunamaria/Shutterstock, 214 RossHelen/Shutterstock, 215 (r) oneinchpunch/Shutterstock, (b) Alexander A.Trofimov/Shutterstock, 216 Travel Stock/Shutterstock, 217 4 PM Production/Shutterstock, 218 Reeed/Shutterstock, 219 ESB Professional/Shutterstock, 220 (l) Diego Cervo/Shutterstock, (r) Kachalkina Veronika/Shutterstock, 221 G-Stock Studio/Shutterstock, 222 Ivan Chudakov/Shutterstock, 223 wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock, 224 (tr) rui vale sousa/Shutterstock, (l) My Portfolio/Shutterstock, 225 Yasonya/Shutterstock, 227 (t) Cookie Studio/Shutterstock, (b) cornfield/ Shutterstock, 228 Aaron Amat/Shutterstock, 229 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 230 1000 Words/Shutterstock, 231 (1A) Karkas/Shutterstock, (1B) Alexander Tolstykh/Shutterstock, (1C) Bborriss.67/Shutterstock, (2A) Roman Yastrebinsky/Shutterstock, (2B) goory/Shutterstock, (2C) dora modly-paris/Shutterstock, (3A) Surrphoto/Shutterstock, (3B) Anatoliy Sadovskiy/ Shutterstock, (3C) rikkyall/Shutterstock, 232 Prostock-studio/Shutterstock, 233 (t) metamorworks/Shutterstock, (b) Antonio Guillem/Shutterstock, 234 Smeilova Anastasia/Shutterstock, 235 Phovoir/Shutterstock, 236 Karsten Neglia/Shutterstock, 237 Pixeljoy/Shutterstock, 238 Jacob Lund/Shutterstock, 240 (l) Dean Drobo/Shutterstock, (r) Christian Bertrand/Shutterstock, 241 Pmmrd/Shutterstock, 242 lapandr/Shutterstock, 243 (mr) Naamtoey/Shutterstock, (bl) wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock, 244 Julio-FotoVideo/Shutterstock, 245 (tr) Wyatt Rivard/ Shutterstock, (A) muratart/Shutterstock, (B) jackbolla/Shutterstock, (D) TTstudio/Shutterstock, 246 Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock, 248 Photographee.eu/Shutterstock, 249 JStone/Shutterstock, 250 Kaewmanee jiangsihui/Shutterstock, 251 ELI ARCHIVES, 252 gpointstudio/Shutterstock. Text Credits 26 Text about “freeganism in Sydney” by Becky Khalil., 94 Text about “Getting your message out” there by Chris Hadfield. Video Acknowledgements Commissioned video production in London: Mainline Design Ltd (David Turner & Nilesh Mistry), London. Video Grammar Maps: Lightbox ON THE COVER An image created by TED Prize winnner JR showing Elmar Aliyev, a 20-year old waiter who immigrated to the USA from Azerbaijin. JR’s original photograph was printed on 62 strips of paper and pasted on Flatiron Plaza in New York City. Because the image is abstract up close, and because passersby are free to step on it, it sends a powerful message that, like so many of New York’s 3.1 million immigrants, people pass by Aliyev without noticing him. © JR-art.net

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Perspectives Intermediate Daniel Barber, Lewis Lansford, Amanda Jeffries, Alison Smith National Geographic Publisher: Sherrise Roehr Publishing Consultant: Karen Spiller Executive Editor: Sarah Kenney Development Editor: Karen White Director of Global Marketing: Ian Martin Head of Strategic Marketing: Charlotte Ellis Product Marketing Manager: Anders Bylund Director of Content and Media Production: Michael Burggren Production Manager: Daisy Sosa Media Researcher: Leila Hishmeh Manufacturing Manager: Eyvett Davis Art Director: Brenda Carmichael Production Management and Composition: 3CD ELI Editorial department Editorial project and coordination: Simona Franzoni Editors: Sue Tremenheere, Simona Bagalà, Simona Pisauri Art director: Marco Mercatali Illustrated by: Pesciblu Picture editor: Giorgia D’Angelo Production manager: Francesco Capitano Page layout: Marina Pierini © 2020 ELI S.r.l P.O. Box 6 62019 Recanati Italy info@elilaspigaedizioni.it www.elilaspigaedizioni.it No unauthorised photocopying. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of ELI. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover than that in which it is published and without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. Segnalazione di errori Produrre un testo scolastico è molto complesso. L’esperienza ci insegna che è quasi impossibile pubblicare un libro senza un errore o una imprecisione, e ci scusiamo con i nostri lettori. Ogni segnalazione che potete inviarci sarà per noi preziosa. Vi ringraziamo se vorrete scriverci al seguente indirizzo: redazione@elionline.com Printed by Tecnostampa – Pigini Group Printing Division – Loreto, Trevi – Italia 20.83.027.0P

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The Publisher would like to extend a very special thank you to Grazia Cerulli and Giovanna Da Villa for their tireless work during the development of Perspectives. We would also like to thank the following teachers for the invaluable feedback they provided: Alessandra Baciga, Daniela Bogoni, Maria Tiziana Catinari, Patrizia Cespa, Valentina Chen, Daniela Cerroni, Francesca Ercolani, Pamela Gallio, Stefania Gobbi, Barbara Lombardi, Elena Marini, Carolina Posterivo, Angelica Rao, Giuliana Sguotti, Silvia Torresi, Anna Vergari, Francesca Zambito.