Elhameh Abrishami Design Report 6 BA3 3XN
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1.0 Introduction Realisation statement Project title Project description Location/site plan/floor plans
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Realisation statement In my opinion the key generator of an architectural form should be the context of the project and this will therefore influence programme and technology. The analysis of the context as well as study of a suitable programme and a technology which link everything together will help to inform the development of an accomplished design. The consideration of context will help with the design of a building which has an integrated link with its site, whether it is through form or materials, or both. The study of the site’s topography and surrounding environment from different views such as sun path and wind direction, a river flood zone and specific views will help to inform the layout and orientation of the building. Frank Lloyd Wright: ‘I never design a building before I‘ve seen the site and met the people who will be using it’. I completely agree and this is exactly what I did throughout the first semester. Also, Sergison Bates Architects state ‘the integration of the surrounding into the building therefore seems to be just as important as the integration of the building into the surroundings’. I believe the elements of a building should blur the boundaries between the interior and the external site, and this will help to anchor the building into its surroundings. Research into programme, through the study of precedents will help with the spatial planning of the building, which will also relate back to specific factors to do with context. For example the orientation of certain elements of programme towards certain views from the site, or away from some others such as noise and traffic. Finally technology will tie all other elements of the design together and give a set framework to which the form can be realised. The technology will be influenced by the site, for example the foundation type will be informed by the building location ground condition. In conclusion I believe that context will influence programme layout and technological systems, resulting in the realisation of a complete architectural form which sits perfectly on its context.
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Project title Project 6.1 was all about designing a hybrid concept to meet the communityâ€™s needs and sit perfectly on the site. I tried to combine what was discovered in the 1 semester and tie them all together to create a hybrid programme for the community. Following the semester 1 site analysis conclusions it seemed to me that the idea of a warm and welcoming community hub which provides the transportation links for the people is what exactly the area needs. The Collyhurst Interchange Station will provide all transportation links such as taxi, bus, tram, train, cars and even bike and pedestrian to the site and out. It also includes community requirements for instance cafĂŠ, restaurant, shops and free Wi-Fi access inside the building. It even created some job opportunities by including a bike repair workshop and flexible kiosks preferably for locals.
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3d site bird eye view
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2.0Materials, Structure & Construction Structural system Construction sequence Materials, Construction & Detailed Design Sustainability consideration-Construction Cost consideration-construction Legislation-Construction Building Regulations Fire strategy Social Inclusion
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Structural system The primary structural frame of the concept is simply provided by exposed glue laminated timber frames. This creates a warm interior as well as required rigidity that can effectively distribute the loads that the building experiences. The distributions of these loads are shown by the arrows drawn over the structural diagram. Arrows are only shown on the typical examples of the structural elements but the shapes and sizes vary slightly along the building. These primary timber frames are supported by relatively deep pile foundations beneath the primary elements at the both sides of the building. As the site was dug in order to construct rail ways the location soil is not reliable and deeper piles are required. The structure is also supported by horizontal timber secondary structural elements every 4meters at the top part. Tertiary elements are also installed to provide the support for the Danpalite and Danpalone outer skin. As the envelope of the building is very light and partly transparent-translucent, there is no need for more support and this created a very simple structural system.
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Construction sequence The construction process follows a certain order; Foundation, Primary Structure, Secondary structure, External claddings, Internal Finishes and then Final Fittings and Furniture. Each of these processes has a different system of elements to construct; this is shown on the construction sequence diagrams. First of all the location should be fenced and provide a space for contractor and architects offices. The location of the building on site will be set out and the bare site prepared for the excavation of the foundation and underground floors. The layers of topsoil are removed and the land excavated down to formation level. Diggers will then be used to excavate the foundation trenches. Trenches for services will be excavated including connections to drains, water, gas and electricity supplies. After this stage an in-situ concrete layer will be poured to create the floor support. Once the floor slab is fully hardened, the pipes and electricity cables can be installed; the floors are now in place and will form a working surface to allow other trades to continue. The in-situ concrete columns should be constructed in a slightly earlier stage to the floors, but both can be finished at the same time. The columns of lower floors should be constructed before any floor on top of them. Then the primary structural elements and be installed in order to provide the main support to the building and make the next construction level possible. The tertiary structural elements are installed before the external cladding is fixed. Internal lining and finishes are followed by doors and windows fittings. Lifts and stairs are slightly different building component as they have to be constructed once when the early meanings of access is required and once when the building is nearly finished and the lift room and stairs surface materials should be concerned. Preparing the Immediate landscape of a building is the last sequence of the building construction which requires different design and installation contractor teams.
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Materials, Construction & Detailed Design
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Materials, Construction & Detailed Design Envelope Polycarbonate sheets are the new high-tech materials I chose for the envelope of my design. The technical properties of this material made it the perfect choice as it is light, translucent and thermally insulated. Danpalon and Danpalite are the complete day lighting solutions, offering exceptional quality of light, thermal insulation and UV protection with rich non-industrial visual appeal. The system offers substantial physiological and psychological benefits in all spaces. The usage of this material allowed a design benefiting from a mixture of transparency and translucency resulting in stunning effects during day and through the night. Danpalon and Danpalite are two material systems manufactured from the highest quality polycarbonate. The system consists of a main panel with snap-on connecting profiles made of aluminium or polycarbonate. The use of stainless steel fasteners allows for thermal expansion and penetrations through the sheet, hence the structure is 100% watertight. The flexibility of this material is another advantage that can assist to envelope the curved shape of the building. Structure Timber apart from being aesthetically pleasing material is far easier and cheaper to work with than the other materials with the equal properties. Timber has the best thermal insulation properties of any mainstream construction material. The exposed dark coloured structure as well as the interior wall panels creates a very warm and welcoming space for users and community. The material is locally provided and used. The Primary and secondary structural elements are mainly glue-laminated timbers manufactured locally and bring to site from a close distance. Floor cover Granite has been extensively used as a dimension stone and as flooring tiles in public and commercial buildings and monuments. Aberdeen in Scotland, which is constructed principally from local granite, is known as "The Granite City". Because of its abundance, granite was commonly used to build foundations for homes in New England. This type of stone is extremely durable and aesthetically beautiful. This material can be found in Scotland as it has geologically volcanic magma origins.
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Interior walls The interior wall Luminate panels are a combination of fused timber and translucent acrylic. This creates a harmony with the envelope design as well as a brighter interior space. Luminate combines translucent plastic and timber strips in a rigid panel format. This allows light to filter through a material used for applications that would usually require an opaque surface. The material is a modified acrylic adhered to selected locally sourced timbers with a proprietary fusion process. This is suitable for interior purposes such as doors, partitions, ceiling panels, features floor panels, stairs, counters, bench tops and interior furniture. Foundation Concrete is always the best and only choice for building foundation. The shallow soil is usually soft and not reliable and it is required to reinforce the soil using a more structurally stronger material. Between all different types of foundations piles are the most suitable for my concept as the building spans are too wide and the location soil is too weak.
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Sustainability considerations -Construction Timber
Timber is a 100%natural material which allows fabrication and processing. It offers a calm and warm space since most of the interior components are made of timber.
Granite is a 100% natural material which has volcanic origins. This can be found in and around any pre volcanic sites, for example Scotland.
Concrete is a building material made of cement, crashed rock and gravel (aggregate), sand and water. To prevent any failure from tensile stresses, steel or fibre reinforcement bars are used to stabilise the structure.
Processing/conversion/Environme ntal impact/resources
Timber is naturally sourced from forests and the most important impact on environment is that trees are being cut down to provide this material. However it has a positive contribution to tackling climate change and achieves low U-values.
Granite has to be quarried and this has an impact on global warming and fossil fuel depletion as well as water pollution during extraction. However, using locally quarried stone can offset this impact.
Transportation/proximity of source The transportation will be as minimal as possible due to careful considerations of material source locations. Type of timber used in my building is produced in Lancashire so the transportation limits within the county. Construction/assembly Assembly and fitting of the structural bays is simple and quick with help of machinery and experts, The interior wall panels are mostly prefabricated and brought to the site, so the construction process will be simple and fast.
Granite is available in Scotland and comparing to international or intercontinental travel distances it is a very short distance to provide this type of natural stone.
Major environmental impact of concrete is in the production of materials that make up concrete. Cement uses an energy intensive process during production. However according to the Concrete centre only 2% of the UK's co2 emission is associated with the production of cement. Most of the process happens on site and this means less transportation. All that needs delivering are the raw materials.
Danpalon and Danpalite are two types of polycarbonate sheets specialised for interior and exterior architectural purposes. It offers a new concept in flexible architectural design. It offers more thermal insulation than any other day lighting system. It reduces the need for air conditioning. This is a prefabricated product which is produce from an oil based material. It is actually a combination of glass and plastic, both of which are chemical and highly toxic. However the processed material is totally harmless and rather environmental friendly. There is a supplier company located in Leicestershire in less than 2 hours deriving distance with Manchester.
Assembly and fitting of granite floor covering will be quick as the modules are cut and prepared to be fit in the place. Only experts and manual process needed to work on site to do the job.
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Construction and assembly of insitu concrete is extremely labour intensive and it takes time to construct. It requires lots of skilled labour and time to erect the frame work, make the concrete and let it to fully set.
The assembly process will be quick and easy. This will be possible with minimum expert/hour rate as it is very light and simple to work with. It requires fewer frameworks because it is a light weight system.
Lifespan and potential for recycling Timber is a long lasting source of Stone and specially Granite is very material and can be easily recycled long-lasting and can be re-used and reused. It is a green choice and re-cycled. considering the environmental issues.
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The lifespan of reinforced concrete is long term. It is an extremely strong and static type of material that can last for decades. It also can be recycled. According to the Concrete Centre concrete waste is being utilised for a number of applications including road base, hardstand areas. It also has been used as the main aggregate in new concrete.
This material is 100% recyclable. Using this will reduce the need for artificial lighting. It is also very durable and low maintenance as it is oil based it would not rot or break due to weathering.
Cost consideration-construction Building form
Build ability/type system
It is important that the building has a form that is economic in shape and form (this includes plan/layout). By simplifying forms and spaces the building becomes more economic. It is also important that the design of the building does not become bland as a result of this. Simple well defined structure and detailing will be cost effective yet still aesthetically pleasing.
Although the building plans are fairly large the building fits onto a repeating structural grid. This means that all primary elements in the building are aligned, simplifying construction and therefore reducing costs. Despite my scheme being an unusual shape overall, it is constructed from a number of simple structural elements that next to each other create the overall shape, this simplicity reduces cost. The repetitive structural system of the scheme means that the construction is less complex thus reducing the amount of specialists and skilled labour required. The junctions between structural elements on my building are either simply bolted or fixed using prefabricated systems. This strategy of assembly again helps to lower building construction costs.
construction The type of construction system is important in considering the cost of a scheme. By having structural systems that are easy to assemble on site (without complex junction etc.) you can reduce costs in both structure and the labour required. By ensuring that the structure is easy to assemble you can also reduce the time on site of the build therefore again reducing labour costs.
Assembly/in-situ vs. prefabrication/ Consideration of assembly is important in construction, if the building level of standardisation/repetition needs to be quickly assembled then â€˜made to measureâ€™ prefabricated components are best however are more expensive. In-situ construction takes longer but is cheaper. So a fair mixture of both systems of construction would make the perfect choice. Standardisation of elements wherever possible is a simple way of keeping costs low as it allows for mass production of parts (thus reducing cost) and rapid assembly.
Time of construction is not an element that we consider in our studio work so that could affect the type of structure used in reality. For my project lower cost in-situ concrete underground construction is used for strength on the lower floors of the building with standardised prefabricated glue-laminated timber on the ground floor station building. In reality it speeds up the construction process.
My building uses an economy of materials in its construction. The facades consist of just one main type of material which is simply fixed to the tertiary structure as well as to its next sheet. The material is very light weight and with help of one or two manual labours can be moved and installed. It helps to reduce costs whilst still being aesthetically pleasing. This strategy applies to floor material and other parts of the scheme too.
Careful material selection can be a very important factor in the overall cost of a scheme. Cheap materials are available that will greatly reduce the cost of a project however it is important that this does not affect the design intension of the building as well as aesthetic factors. As well as physical cost of material it is important to consider whether it has any associated running costs that may add to the costs of building over time.
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Lifespan, maintenance and potential for Choosing materials that have a long life span is an important part of recycling ensuring that the long term running costs of a building are not excessive. Concrete, Natural stone, plastic and timber are examples of material with very long life spans all of which were used in my design for this purpose. The use of materials that can be recycled is important in ensuring that the building does not have a lasting environmental impact. Building components can be sold for scrap.
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The materials used on my building all have a long life span with only glazing needing regular maintenance; this reduces the running costs of the building over time. The foundation and lower level of the building are mainly constructed with concrete which is one of the materials with very long life span. The primary structure on ground floor is timber with long life span. This means the building has a long lifespan making it more cost effective. Nearly 100% of the material that was used in the design id recyclable or reusable with very low maintenance costs in long term.
Legislation-Construction Building Regulations Part of regulations
Content of regulation
Relevance to programme
Approved Document ‘A’
This document is concerned with the structure of the building. This mainly deals with the primary structure of the building. It provides us with the minimum requirements for each element of the structure to ensure that it can deal with all types of loading that is exposed to. As well as the structure itself, this document also covers the aspects of ground loading and structure collapse. It covers all the varying materials used in the primary structure of a building.
Approved Document ‘B vol 2’
Approved Document B (Volume 2) deals with fire safety in buildings other than dwelling houses. This covers all the aspects of fire safety that must be considered during the design stages of building projects such as means to escape, escape distances and fire separation. It therefore provides us with the minimum requirements for all of these. The document also provides information on the individual materials that make up the structure and systems that should be in place to minimise the effects of fires within the building such as alarm and sprinklers. Document C is concerned with site preparation and resistance to contaminants and moisture. This covers all aspects of site; it informs us about how to deal with sites that have had previous uses and therefore may contain contaminants and also how to tackle risks on site such as flooding. As well as this the document provides us with information on how to make the structure resistant to moisture from the ground and gives minimum requirements for each element of the building fabric involved in this.
Building regulations provides us with sizing requirements for various structural elements therefore affecting the building form. Ensures that the building structure can effectively deal with loads placed upon it, preventing collapse, again affecting the building form. Information and diagrams within the document provide minimum requirements for building elements increasing our understanding of structure and cladding systems and how they are constructed and assembled. Maximum fire distances and the provision of protected escape stairs both affect the internal layout and form of our buildings. Shows how our structure should be protected to prevent deformation or failure in fire. Provides information on how the spread of fire can be prevented in large public buildings such as our proposals. Safe and easy access for fire fighters must be considered in the layout of our scheme. As my site has been an industrial site over the past century it is important that contaminants on the site are identified and dealt with accordingly (especially as this was a heavily industrial area). Moisture control legislation will affect the structural make-up of the building where it meets the ground surface. Provides vital information about how the building would actually be constructed on site.
Approved Document ‘c’
Approved Document ‘E’
This document deals with resistance to the passage of sound. This covers both sound from within the building itself and sound from the exterior environment entering the building. It gives examples of how the building can be constructed to void excessive transfer of sound from one area to another. As well as noise limitation this document deals with acoustics and gives examples of the correct acoustic conditions for different parts of buildings.
This part of the building regulation will provide information on how to design rooms within the building that meet acoustic requirements. It deals with sound spreading throughout the building, this will be particularly relevant in the station spaces and the sound generated from the vehicles (train, tram, buses). The control of sound from the exterior environment and within the building will affect the construction of the interior walls, cladding and also the sound insulation of the spaces.
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Part of regulations
Content of regulation
Relevance to programme
Approved Document ‘K’
This provides information on providing protection from falling, collision and impact. Data and diagrams within this document contain information on how to build elements such as staircases, balconies and windows so that they provide adequate protection for those using them. As part of this, the document also covers how to protect people from colliding with building elements.
Approved Document ‘M’
Approved Document M provides us with details on access to and use of buildings. This sets down guidelines that buildings that we design must adhere to in order to ensure that disabled people can use the building fully and access all areas within it. The regulations provide us with data diagrams that describe the minimum requirements for access and facilities for disabled people (such as for circulation elements and sanitary provisions). Approved Document N deals with the legislation for glazing, this covers safety in relation to impact, opening and cleaning. This ensures that glazing elements are installed in such a way as to prevent the public from being harmed by their day to day operation (opening into areas that may cause harm to passing people). It also suggests ways in which glazing can be designed so that it can be safely and effectively cleaned.
Governs the health and safety aspects of many common internal features of the building, ensuring that adequate protection is in place. Will affect the design of circulation and glazing elements within my building, ensuring there is enough space within the form of the building to provide safety railings. Provision of protective railing will affect the aesthetic quality od spaces within the building. DDA requirements will greatly affect the form of the building, particularly circulation elements (ensuring disabled passengers have access to all parts of the station) Consideration needs to be put into furniture and fixtures within the building to ensure the wheelchair users can reach all facilities. Specially designed disabled toilets need to be in place at regular intervals throughout the building (one for each set of male and female toilets) Care must be taken in designing the glazing within my building to ensure that it does not open out onto public areas without adequate protection. Railings and safety provisions must be in place to ensure people are not harmed around glazing units. Glazing must be designed so that all glazed areas within the building are easy and safe to reach for clean.
Approved Document ‘N’
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Fire strategy Means of escape: The main purpose of the building regulations that are concerned with fire is to protect the lives of the people within and surrounding the building. As such there are a number of design aspects that the building must incorporate to ensure the safety of its occupants. The best way to achieve this is to get people out of the building as quickly as possible. So it is necessary to provide areas of safety within the building and also ensure that the distance required to travel to get to the protected staircases and fire escape doors are kept to a minimum. The building regulation part B set maximum escape distance that very depending on the type of building. For a building such as that in my project the maximum distance are 18m dead end and 45m for alternative exits. Controlling the spread of fire: The management of fire within the building is important to allow people using the building enough time to escape and also to limit the damage caused to the structure by the fire. The primary structural elements will have fire resistant coatings to ensure they can withstand fire. To reduce the spread of fire within the building spaces can be compartmentalised. This involves making the walls between each space more resistant to fire and ensuring that there is no space along the wall through which the fire can bridge. As my building has some large open plans spaces within it I feel that it is important that the isolated spaces have this protection. Another part of fire control is providing equipment that can be used to tackle the fire. It is important to have this equipment at regular intervals throughout the building so that it can be reached easily when required.
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Social Inclusion Approved Document M of the Building Regulations provides us with the minimum requirements of the design of a building so that it allows all occupants of a building to fully use all of the facilities within it. It also sets out legislation that ensures that measures are in place to allow easy access to all parts of the building for disabled people. There are a number of ways in which my building has to been designed to ensure it complies with the disability Discrimination Act: -Due to difficulty that disabled people have in accessing buildings I have designed the entrance to provide level access into the building. This means that the interior floor level is at the same height as the exterior pavement level. -As the building is a public interchange station I ensured to fallow the specific access regulations for a station as well. This includes designing the complete floor with no single or double stairs, the number of stairs should be more than 3 and completely visible. I designed the building in on level with no other steps at the floor level to ease the access even more. -To ensure that disabled people have full access to the sanitary facilities within the building my building plans include a disabled toilet alongside each toilet block. The disabled toilets conform to the standard layouts and provide rails for support and more space to manoeuvre. -As access to different spaces can be difficult for disabled people I have ensured that all spaces within the building are designed so that they can be entered and exited easily. This means that doors to all spaces are automatic sliding doors and wide enough for a wheelchair user to pass through them. -To ensure that vertical circulation within the building was designed to make access easy for disabled people. The lift system is in place in the main circulation core of the building. This means that it is close to the entrance of the building and close to all of spaces.
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3.0 Environmental Systems Environmental Considerations-site Environmental Considerations-Programme Environmental Systems Heating, cooling and ventilation Electrical installation and lighting Water and waste systems Integrated environmental design Sustainability- Environment Cost considerations-Environment Legislation-Environment Building Regulations
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Table of average temperature in Manchester Month
Yearly Average 12.8
Min Temp (c)
Environmental Considerations-Programme Space Main station hall
Train platform and waiting area
Careful control of lighting, both natural and artificial lighting can be controlled, directed light when needed, the entire space must be ventilated to remove heat generated by people and equipment. Control of lighting (natural and artificial), temperature control as the space is partially open.
Control of lighting is done by choice of a translucent material which allows healthy natural lighting and for dark hours a combination of LED and CFL light bulb system would serve the main floors. Train platforms are located 4.5 m underground and they are partially open as the platforms are sheltered to outside. The space is naturally lit and ventilated but there are air heaters in enclosure waiting areas to provide standard temperature for passengers. LED and CFL systems would provide the required light during dark hours. Tram platforms located 10m underground and the space need to be mechanically ventilated and mostly artificially lit. The main area is benefiting from the natural light reflected from the reflective surfaces upstairs but the platforms need to be perfectly lit by artificial systems. A well designed and directed translucent shelter provided required UV protection as well as weather sheltering. Danpalon is the material to do this job perfectly. This space needs the most interior heat control which is done by axillary heating systems in rooms for colder months. It also needs artificial low energy use lighting systems as they are in use most of the time.
Tram platform and waiting area
Control of artificial light and ventilation as the space is underground and it is not possible to use direct natural light and natural ventilation.
Bus and Taxi waiting areas
Need to be weather sheltered because these spaces are outdoor and exposed to elements. Control of artificial light during dark hours and natural light during day hours. Control of interior temperature and natural ventilation is required. The space can partially use the natural light and controlled artificial light.
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Space CafĂŠ serving area
CafĂŠ seating area
Restaurant serving area
Restaurant seating area
This space needs to be well lit and ventilated either actively or passively. Mechanical ventilation and heating cooling equipment are in place to Direct light on the serving table to ease the process. control the air quality. Artificially lit food serving surface is provided by LED systems. Control of natural light during summer days and artificial light during dark Natural light is used to light the area predominantly, controlled general hours and when the cafĂŠ is closed the area should still be lit and artificial light serves the area where and when required more. The whole accessible. area is naturally cross ventilated. The temperature is kept pleasant with the help of axillary heaters. The area should be perfectly ventilated and well lit to avoid any Mechanical ventilation and heating cooling equipment are in place to unpleasant smell or smoke get into the building. There is also a need for control the air quality. Artificially lit food serving surface is provided by natural and control artificial lighting. LED systems. Unpleasant smoke and smell of the food preparation process is taken out by mechanical ventilation systems. Need to be temperature controlled and well ventilated. The amount of Natural light is used to light the area predominantly, controlled general light should be controlled to create a pleasant space to seat for long time artificial light serves the area where and when required more. The whole and enjoy. area is naturally cross ventilated. The temperature is kept pleasant with the help of axillary heaters. The kiosks are in a relatively more open environment as they are located Each individual kiosk benefits from a heating system for its keepers and between two rows of automatic sliding doors the air is naturally the required light is provided mainly by natural lighting and a standard ventilated but there is a need for heating. The area is naturally lit but system of artificial lighting where and when it is proper. there is still a need for controlled artificial and natural light. The main staircase space is enclosure and need to be ventilated and very The stair case areas are 10m deep and need to be partially ventilated and well lit. The natural ventilation is possible and the space can be partially well lit every time of day for whole year. An emergency lighting system is naturally lit. required as well because in case of emergency the stair case is used to let the people out of the building. This room does not need to be ventilated or lit perfectly because it is not A simple system of artificial lighting and ventilation is used for the for public use. The standard amount of light and fresh air would serve the interior spaces of this room, but the main generators should be room to ease the technicians work. ventilated perfectly to avoid harming the environment and users. Male and Female rooms should be ventilated perfectly and at least have To provide a pleasant space for this purpose very controlled natural and the minimum standard light to serve the public. Preferably no natural artificial light would serve the space and strong mechanical ventilation ventilation for this room but there are possibilities for natural lighting. equipment are placed in the room.
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Environmental System Heating, cooling and ventilation
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Electrical installation and lighting
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Water and waste systems
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Integrated environmental design
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Sustainability- Environment Heating system
Environmental Strategy The environmental strategy for the heating systems is that there is maximum use of natural solar heat gains. That is a main reason that the building is oriented regarding the location sun path. The materiality of the envelope and structure alongside with orientation axillary mechanical systems provide the required interior heat.
The environmental strategy for the buildingâ€™s cooling systems is that there is as much natural cooling as possible. Similar to the heating systems the use of natural elements and earth tubes provide the fresh air for the interior spaces. There are also axillary mechanical systems placed to be used when necessary.
The ventilation strategy for this building is mainly natural ventilation. Rapid ventilation will be possible via window openings and there will be earth tube ventilation systems available as another environmental solution. This sustainable alternative solution reduces or eliminates the need for conventional compressorbased air conditioning systems.
Large buildings use up more energy-fact-. To try to minimise this as much as possible, this building purposely is not an exclusive or selective building. It is a hybrid building-a building that is predominantly a selective building (using as much incidental and ambient gains) but also having exclusive environmental methods and systems. There will be as much natural cooling as possible, and when the internal environment gets uncomfortable, the air-conditioning can be switched on.
Keeping with the theme of low energy emission, natural ventilation will be the main option through incidental and ambient gains. However, this building is very large and has deep spaces and these spaces will be far away from windows or any open space, particularly the tram platforms. That is why light and floor roofs have been put in place to help solving the problem. But still, natural ventilation will probably not be enough and to ensure high user comfort, mechanical ventilation systems will be used if need to be.
The environmental lighting strategy in the Station building is maximising the amount of natural light ingress (via roof and envelope translucent materials) and there is a use of energy efficient ceiling and floor lights. Through building orientation the maximum healthy solar ingress is possible (99%UV filtration through envelope material). The longest and highest elevation of the design is oriented south/south-west facing. Natural lighting will help to keep energy emissions low. The whole building envelope will allow for high ingress of natural light, as this is crucial to a public station building. There are spaces within the design with lack of natural lighting. This problem has partially been solved with using reflective surface materials where necessary to reflect the light to the desire space.
Passive cool gains will be maximised by opening of window. Active earth tubes ventilation systems will provide fresh air for the building from. And axillary active mechanical air conditioners are available to provide the pleasant temperature.
Passive gains will be via natural ventilation. Windows can be opened to ventilate the spaces and change air. Active ventilation will be via earth tubes and axillary mechanical ventilations where necessary.
It is important that there is high energy conservation system in this building considering low emissions. It is a large building and this is likely that it becomes an exclusive building, closed off from the outside and self -sufficienthowever this will not be the case for the Collyhurst Interchange Station. Mechanical heating systems will be available in all spaces; however the main heating strategy will be through passive solar gains. Heat will be collected in the concrete thermal mass underground walls and floors and released during night time. Most of the natural heating systems will be via passive solar gains; however, there will be active axillary systems available as well. Because of the orientation and size of the building there will be lots of thermal mass floors to collect solar gains.
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Passive gains of natural light will be n abundance as this is the main method of lighting the building. Obviously not every part of the building benefits from the same amount of natural light but this problem can be solved with using passive solutions as well as environmental artificial lighting methods.
User comfort & control
The heating system will be controlled regularly 24/7 to provide the maximum pleasant temperature for the interior spaces. Generally a station building should not be cooled/heat as other buildings because this is usually a space to pass through and not for long stay, however the local users would enjoy the standard space to socialise. It is possible to recycle heat from the earth tubes, service room and toilets. This needs equipment to gain and filter the hot air and re-pump the clean warm air to the interior.
The cooling system same as heating system will be constant and kept to standard. The temperature in office spaces is user controllable and this allows the maximum user comfort. This is especially important in the office area as the staff use the space every day and night.
The ventilation systems will be controlled as an important fact affecting the users comfort and this is possible by controlling the air inlet/outlets. This happens by a main control system managed by technician staffs that are responsible for this sort of issues.
To reduce waste via the air conditioner units they will not be automatically controlled 24 hours a day but manually controlled regarding the interior standard temperature during hot seasons. However this will not be possible for individual users as the station is a large public building and is mainly to pass through. The method of natural cooling would be possible with standard openings and earth tubes that the same rules would apply to this as well as the heating services.
Natural ventilation via windows and earth tube operations takes existing air and changes it for fresh air. This can be considered a method of recycling. All of the mechanical equipment in operation can be recycled and probably re-used after they are not in use of building any more.
The general natural lighting would not be extreme as this is not through transparent but translucent materials and the artificial lighting would be controllable by usual users such as shop keepers and station staff. The public spaces lighting will be controlled generally and kept to standard level. The use of artificial lighting will use up energy and in a large building like this station more energy will be used up. That is why the use of natural lighting will be enforced. Also the bulbs and artificial lighting systems can be recycled and possibly re-used after they are not in use.
The method of passive solar design is long term. As long as there is the thermal mass concrete floor and sunlight, this method of heating will always be possible. With regards to earth tube systems, if they are high quality and standard work then they should last long enough to serve the building for a very long time.
The advantage of natural methods of ventilation is that it is designed for the building from the beginning to the last day of its service and it means they are long lasting systems. However, the mechanical equipment should be checked and regularly maintained to last long and beneficial.
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Natural lighting would obviously be long lasting as the source is sun light. Artificial lighting will need to have its light bulbs changed regularly regarding a time table. The bulbs will vary in terms of energy efficiency and usage frequency. There are LED and CFLs are four times more efficient and last up to 10 times longer than incandescent.
Strategic Environmental design
Installation and equipment
Cost of construction and maintaining building structures
Cost of Servicing and Running the Building
The station will be a large building project and obviously the cost of construction increases by increasing size of the project. Therefore the environmental impact would be considerable as well. This was the main reason of reducing the scale of the building at the early stages of the project. A larger building means more material and that means taking more resources from the environment. For example to cover a dwelling project floor we need less material in comparison with the station floor. This means that more stone needs to be quarried and this will create greater water pollution and increase the global warming. All buildings have maintenance costs and the bigger the building, the more maintenance needed. Fortunately, most of these problems were considered at different design stages to prevent extreme costs. The station will have numerous environmental systems. There will be both natural and artificial lighting, natural and mechanical ventilation and various means of cooling and heating systems. The cost of constructing all the natural environmental systems will be standard as these strategies are based on using what is already available in the building. There will be costs to construct earth tubes and natural ventilation systems. The main cost to make the building more environmentally friendly would be spent on the materials. Since the ecofriendly materials are usually more expensive this will increase the general costs. There will also be a lot of maintenance costs, since many of systems depend on the use of the building. Greater effects on the environment are the energy usage of the mechanical and artificial environmental strategies and unfortunately this is unavoidable due to the size of building. However this cost was reduced as much as possible in different design stages. There are many different programmes in this building, and the cost of constructing each to fit their individual specifications will be higher than repeating the same installations in all areas of the building. Therefore my strategy to reduce the cost was to repeat and standardise the dimensions of prefabricated structural elements as well as main wall panels. The general foundation and underground floors will be constructed in-situ to reduce construction costs.
The large size of the building will increase servicing and running costs of the building. This is because there will be a lot more systems to operate and staff to employ. There will be more general maintenance and cleaning and servicing of the building due to its size. There will be high costs due to the high number of the environmental systems needed to let the building function comfortably (the need for more machinery, power, running water and materials). There will be high maintenance cost to repair and replace the building features and fabric. However the linear shape of the building will reduce the cost of running in comparison with a non-linear building, where spaces may be unusual and if any repairs are needed, replacements need to be specially ordered to fit its unique form.
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There will be high costs of servicing and running the building environmental systems. This is because there will be many axillary mechanical systems in the station building. Each of this equipment is required to suit different internal environments, and it will be costly to purchase these systems as well as employ staff to run and maintain them. The building itself id important to its environmental strategies. The earth tubes as the main ventilation and heating/cooling system may cost initially but through time it will benefit the project as it is efficient and last long. Heat recovery will help decrease running costs of the building: less loss of heat via the walls and fenestration will decrease the need to use the mechanical heating systems, thus decreasing energy costs and negative environmental impacts. This is the same with the natural lighting strategy; it only needs initial material costs. The station building consists of; offices, cafĂŠ, restaurant, shopping kiosks, plant room, train and tram platforms, tram and train waiting areasâ€Ś, each of these are very different and under one roof. Each programme needs very different equipment. Servicing and running costs to provide equipment will be very high. Obviously the more equipment operates the more costs it has for the building and its environment.
Cost of construction and maintaining building structures
Cost of Servicing and Running the Building
Construction of the thermal mass parts of the building will be in-situ. This means that there could be greater conservation of energy due to less use of machinery (unlike prefabrication methods). Concrete is cheaper and more efficient than any other thermal mass materials in this scale. The other way of conserving energy in the building is use of timber as the main structural material. The energy conservation was concerned during the manufacturing and installing this material, by using the least possible machinery and low carbon emission products.
While initial costs of construction may be high, the outcome has many advantages. One of the benefits of a timber frame structure is the recycling/re-using possibilities it creates. The advantage of reusing and recycle timber has been the main reason to choose it as the main structure material. It is also cheap and can be locally provided to reduce the transportation costs.
By trying to maximise natural environmental methods, energy will be conserved thus decreasing running and operational costs of a building. However large buildings cannot rely on natural forces - incidental and ambient gains- and they cannot be just selective buildings. The main reason is because of their size: deep plan buildings will need artificial systems because some areas of the building can be hard to ventilate, may over-heat and can create user stress. The need for an artificial environment will increase operational and servicing costs, but it cannot be changed considerably â€“user comfort is vital to a public building-.Energy conservation will be far lower in this large building compared with a smaller building. The station building will have a long life span because of the choice of materials. Timber and stone are known as two most durable natural materials and this means less service and repairing costs as they do not need to be changed or replace very often, this is the same with most of the chosen materials. The major re-use strategy was to design and build a shelter on site to be used for any future purpose and this will allow expansion and demolition with the least material waste.
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Legislation-Environment Building Regulations Part of regulation
Approved Document ‘F’
Content of regulation
Relevance to proposal
This document covers the regulations regarding building ventilation. It covers both natural and mechanical ventilation and gives minimum requirements for each system. It also features diagrams that display how each system can be organised and incorporated into the building structure. It gives examples of ventilation requirements and strategies for a number of different space types. Approved Document ‘G’ Approved Document G deals with issues to do with hygiene. In particular this deals with sanitary systems within the building and the minimum standards that these facilities have to achieve. Diagrams and data is provided to further enhance the understanding of those that have to design these systems, As well as the sanitary facilities themselves, this document also provides information on the layout of bathroom facilities and the storage of hot water within a building. Approved Document ‘H’ This part of the building regulations is concerned with drainage and waste disposal. It gives details on all elements of drainage and waste disposal systems and provides data and diagrams to clarify how each part should be designed and installed (giving minimum pipe diameters etc.). It also provides information on exterior waste storage units such as septic tanks and cesspools as well as how to link building waste systems to the public sewer. Approved Document ‘J’ This document covers combustion appliances and fuel storage systems. This covers all aspects of installation and running of these appliances. Therefore it provides us with information on ventilation requirements, discharge of waste products, providing protection to the building and its users and safety requirements for handling and storing fuels. Diagrams are used extensively within this document to show how these systems should be designed. Approved Document Approved Document L2A covers aspects concerning the conservation of fuel ‘L2A’ and power in new buildings that are not dwellings (such as our proposal). It gives standards in energy conservation that must be met by the different building elements involved. It provides us with examples of ways in making buildings more efficient and therefore lowering their environmental impact. This will become increasingly more important in the future with diminishing fossil fuel supplies and with worldwide concerns about pollution and global warming.
Provides information on the ventilation requirements of the differing areas within my building proposal. Information and requirements within this document affected the form and design of my building as I designed openings to comply with all standards necessary. This informs me about mechanical ventilation systems and whether they are required and how they are integrated into the building’s form. Toilets and other sanitary facilities within my building design have to comply with these regulations, therefore the information given within this document affected how my building interior is arranged so that all facilities meet requirements. This part of the building regulations also provides information on the relevant pipework needed for the sanitary systems and therefore my building must accommodate these pipe runs within its form and construction. Informs me on the requirements for water drainage systems and therefore I must include space within my buildings for these pipe networks to run invisibly. All drainage systems within the building will have to meet the minimum requirements of the document so that they will function correctly and efficiently. This document also covers rainwater removal; the information given here affected the form of our roof and location of the down water pipes. This document is important to my scheme as it provides me with an understanding of how heating systems work within larger building such as my scheme, I designed my building to incorporate these systems. The document contents information about how the rooms involved in the heating process should be ventilated and waste gases removed, this particularly has impact on the design and layout of the plant room in my scheme. The efficient/economic use of fuel and power is important for the future longevity of the building. The building fabric has to be carefully designed so that there is little waste of energy through the building façade. By designing a building that is energy efficient it ensures that the building will still function in the future when fuel issues may be a problem.
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Part of regulation
Content of regulation
Relevance to proposal
Approved Document â€˜Dâ€™ Approved Document D covers issues to do with toxic substances. This is a fairly Ensure that the building fabric is designed in such way as to reduce the risk of toxic small part of the building regulations as a whole and is concerned mainly with fumes harming people around them. the health and safety of people working on the building rather than changes to the actual design. This document provides information on how to reduce the risk of toxic fumes harming people when using cavity insulation within buildings.
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4.0 Realisation Review When designing a building it is important to base your design on a number of present beliefs and theories. By doing this you get a definitive set of criteria that you feel that you must fulfil for your building to be successful. Having a clearly laid out set of ideas also helps me to orientate space in a much more determined manner as opposed to just trying to lay out a design proposal purely based on programme. In the realisation statement of section 1 of this design report I outline the theories that I would try to incorporate into my design ideas. Five key aspects of this approach to architectural realisation that I have included within my building scheme are shown below:
Flow of Space: In my realisation statement I raised the idea about spaces that do not require signposting and directions but instead rely upon a layout that has areas that lead into one another seamlessly (therefore creating a more intuitive interior design). I have attempted to achieve this in my design by using large open plan areas on each floor to link the main spaces. This ‘free flowing’ nature is enhanced in spaces where wall planes extend past one another and overlap. This idea is also supported by the programme of the concept as this is an interchange station and usually massive open halls are required for easy public use.
Ease of Understanding: I felt that part of the ‘initiative layout’ idea relied on spaces being easy to interpret visually. To achieve this I separated the public spaces from the private offices and service room. By doing this there is not only difference in atmosphere between the two spaces. It will therefore become instantly apparent to those within the building the function of each part of the station.
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Structural System: To achieve the aesthetic simplicity that I discussed in my realisation statement I decided that a simple regular structural grid would be required for the building. This would give the finished building an order and clarity as cladding systems and interior layouts would all conform to the one structural grid. By doing this there is a risk that the building will appear to be bland with no strong architectural gestures. Therefore it was important that rooms were moved around this structural grid to give an interesting form to the overall building.
Architectural Interest: To ensure that a bland building did not occur within the constraints of the rigid structural grid of my scheme I slid the spaces and rooms within the structural bays, so the structure fallows a grid system and the interior design fallows the structural grid. This created an open plan in each floor as well as an interesting space layout in relation to one another. Despite the various form for the station hall each bay consists of two structural elements and wall panels between them.
Simplicity of Envelope: To continue the idea of simplicity of form as displayed in the previous two sections of this realisation review it is important that the cladding system is well detailed and uncomplicated. I decided therefore that the cladding should consist of as few materials as possible. The finished faรงade is constructed from Danpalon/Danpolite and aluminium fixtures provided by the supplier. This will give an invisible appearance to the building which is appropriate to its context. Each space within the building has a different function and therefore different requirements. However this did not strongly reflect upon the faรงade and this gave me this opportunity to create a very smooth even texture as the envelope to sit perfectly on the location with no interruption to the surrounding. Within this general layout different elements could be installed to meet the specification of each interior space (such as ventilation louvers rather than glazing panels).
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5.0 References & Bibliography Reference books: Adler, D ‘Metric Handbook-planning and design data’, Architectural press, 2004 Everett, A, ‘Mitchell’s Materials’, Longman, 1994 Mitchell, G.A, ’Mitchell’s Structure and Fabric Pt 1’, Longman, 2000 Mitchell, G.A, ’Mitchell’s Structure and Fabric Pt 2’, Longman, 2000 Riley, Mike, (2002) ‘Construction Technology ‘Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire, England. Baden-Powell, Charlotte.(2005) ‘Architect’s Pocketbook’, Architectural Press, Oxford, England Osborn, Derek, (2002)’Introduction to building’-3rd Edition, Pearson Education limited, Essex, England
Online Reference Booklets: Building regulation (All) CDM Regulations Arup Student Structural Guide
Web Sources: Construction Information Service (MMU Library Database) Digimap (MMU Library Database) Arup-www.arup.com Cladding Solution Ltd-www. Claddingssolutions.com Ulltraclad-www.relenti.co.nz
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The weather channel-URL http://uk.weather.com/weather/climatology/S33 Environment Agency-URL http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/northwest The Concrete Centre-URL http://www.concretecentre.com Build Store Trade Card http://www.buildstore.co.uk/materials/foundations.html
H&S Guidance Sick Building Syndrome-URL: http://www.devonline.gov.uk/index/information_and_services/environmental_health/eh_healthandsafet y-intro/eh-hs-guidance/eh-hs-sickbuilding.html Timber Frameâ€™s Carbon Credentials UK Timber Frame Association-URL: http://www.timber-frame.org Hybrid ventilation system URL: http://greengaragedetroit.com/index.php?title=Hybrid_Ventilation_System Earth Tubes URL: http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/earth-tubes-low-tech-lowenergy.html Danpalon/Danpolite URL: http://www.danpal.co.uk/products/danpalon/danpalon.html View Platforms 2011.html
Timber steel connections URL: http://www.vermonttimberworks.com/joinery-3-steel-gusset-plates-fortimber.html 13 Scary Sky-High Platforms & Observation Decks URL: http://weburbanist.com/2010/12/24/13-scary-skyhigh-platforms-observation-decks/?ref=search Fan Coil Units by Ability... URL: http://www.abilityprojects.com/index.php
Periodicals: The Architectâ€™s Journal2007-present AJ Specification Detail Magazine
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Visited Buildings: London Euston rail station Manchester Piccadilly rail station Manchester Oxford Road station Liverpool Lime street station Chester Rail station
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