ELECTRONICS NEED FAR MORE THAN AN EYEWASH
t is evident from the data that widening trade deficit is a great concern for the policymakers. In the last three years, many steps have been taken, but there is still a need, including the very fundamental reforms, to go ahead with the reform process. There is no doubt that the tax hike will boost domestic manufacturing in the country. It will impact companies like Apple, which imports 88 percent of its devices into India. Such companies will either lead to increase the product prices or be forced to start assembling more in India. Therefore, we must re-orient our policies to ensure that the industry at home become manufacturing-oriented and competitive in export and domestic markets. Large-scale manufacturing has its own advantages. Large companies are better equipped to exploit both economies of scale and of agglomeration. As they compete in the world markets to sell large volumes of output, they also have the incentive to continuously upgrade their processes, management and technology to stay competitive. Small and medium firms are also forced to adopt cost-saving technologies to remain profitable. All in all - the ecosystem must be friendly to the operation of large-scale firms.
Data for 2014-15 shows that about 58 percent or $37 billion worth of domestic consumption is sourced through imports. Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electronics imports grew about 31 percent to $29.8 billion during April to October from a year earlier. Mobile phones and TVs account for 12 percent of total imports, contributing to a widening current account deficit. India's goods imports in the seven months ending in October rose from 22 percent to $256.4 billion (roughly Rs. 1642514 crores), from a year earlier.
Geographical location of the companies has its own importance in the success of the industry. Creation of the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and Economic and Technical Development Zones (ETDZs) along the development of high-tech ports ensure the fast progress of the industry. The Government needs to rectify the incentive schemes that predominantly focus on nudging the producers towards the domestic market contrary to exports. On the tax front, anomalies which discourage domestic manufacturing on account of an inverted duty structure can be rectified. The government, as a large consumer of electronics, can source locally. Our Government needs to rethink a specific package of incentives to augment domestic manufacturing of electronics. There is a big gap in the Indian manufacturing ecosystem that deter global giants to invest in India. Compared to investment that other sectors such as automobiles have attracted, electronics have been far behind. In this situation, Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policy should be to find ways to attract more FDI. If India were to get its act together in reforming factor markets such as labour, land, and enhancing the quality of human capital, it would become a far more attractive destination in the global supply chain. Enjoy Reading ELE Times
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ELE Times | 04 | January, 2018
In the second week of December 2017, India has increased the import tax on dozens of electronic products such as mobile phones and television sets to help curb supplies from overseas and build-up domestic manufacturing.
Another important feature to boost the industry at home is that in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world, large companies are predominantly multinationals. These global companies in the electronics industry as Foxconn, Sony, Fujitsu, Panasonic, Samsung, LG, IBM, Hewlett Packard, Apple, and Dell have driven the rapid growth of electronic industry in China. Inference may be derived that the policy regime should be friendly to these multinationals. Developing large firms at indigenous level is important but it would take a long time and even then success may be difficult to achieve.
Indian ESDM Industry To Receive ESDM and IT Industry Seek Tax Excuse from $2bn From Abu Dhabi Investors Government Newly established Abu Dhabi based will be raised from the region, while the fund, Next Orbit Ventures (NOVF) ESDM announced that it has initiated a $2 billion fund to invest in India's electronics and semiconductor industry. This massive investment could give a huge impetus, especially to India's dormant semiconductor industry. “Around $1.5 billion for the fun d
remaining $500 million has been secured from a consortium of investors involving both the Indian government and ultra-high net worth individuals,” NOVF said.
Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, in conversation with leaders of India's electronics and IT sector during the 6th Pre-Budget session, said that the current NDA government has taken several steps over the last 3 years to promote indigenous manufacturing of electronics. These steps include rationalization of the tariff structure with the extension of differential excise duty dispensation on specified electronic equipment and withdrawal of duty exemption.
It is a well-known fact that India is yet to have a fully functional fabrication plant that can involve in the manufacturing of semiconductors. Several bureaucratic issues have turned mega companies, which wanted to open semiconductor manufacturing plants in India, away.
The IT industry also sought the government to help in combating visa issues faced by several software professionals. Boosting domestic manufacturing of electronic goods was one of the key agendas of the NDA government. India is one of the biggest consumers of electronic goods, but even today, only a handful of them are manufactured domestically. The government, then, should seek to rationalise taxes for the electronics and IT industry, especially, the corporate tax.
Now with this ginormous investment of $2 billion, all that could change. The government of India has been trying to push for indigenous manufacturing of electronic goods and components in order to tackle trade imbalances and enhance cybersecurity, and this could just be the investment that it needs to hit the ground running.
By lowering down corporate taxes, India can exponentially increase manufacturing of electronics goods. As manufacturing processes increase, more factories will be set up in the countryside. And an increase in the number of manufacturing plants in rural India, more jobs will be created. It then seems that the government can solve a myriad of problems if it listens to the pleas of the electronics and IT industry.
Arun Jaitley Bats for Domestic Production of Electronic Goods withdrawal of duty exemption.
Jaitley said that “in the Union Budget 2017-18, with the aim of creating an eco-system to make India a global hub for electronics manufacturing, the allocation for incentive schemes like MSIPS and Export Declaration Form (EDF) has been exponentially increased to Rs. 745 crores.”
Arun Jaitley made it clear to them that the NDA government has always tried to boost indigenous production of electronics and IT goods. He highlighted that the government has taken a lot of steps to promote domestic manufacturing over the last three years, including rationalisation of the tariff structure with the extension of differential excise duty dispensation on specified electronic equipment, and
Representatives of the IT industry urged the Minister to realise that India's competence in the IT-Software industry is recognised globally. India's BPO sector is renowned all over the world and is one of the fastest growing industries in the country. It also has a huge employment potential. However, following certain protectionist and discriminatory policies adopted by certain countries, India's IT sector will need help from the government at the policy level to remain competitive globally.
Smartphones to have screen embedded fingerprint scanners Synaptics will soon be unveiling their latest sensor that could be embedded into the screens of smartphones. Called the Clear ID FS9500, the sensor will be mass produced for the top five smartphone companies in the market. The new sensors will eliminate the need for an external fingerprint reader mounted on the back of phones. This will be a groundbreaking innovation in the smartphone industry. Currently, Apple's FaceID is considered to be the most advanced biometric security option on any phone. Fingerprint sensors are considered to be the greatest safety option for phones. Because, unlike face detection technology, they don't depend on ambient light. You can unlock your phone even when it's in your pocket.
ELE Times | 08 | January, 2018
LED Expo 2017 reflected growth of efficient lighting technology LED Expo 2017, India's largest exhibition on LED lighting products and technology, concluded on an affirmative note marking new growth records. This key business and networking event that took place in Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, served as an apt platform to showcase the product and technical innovations that the LED industry is witnessing with an array of never seen before technologies and cost – effective alternatives in full display. The three day event was beautifully lit with some of the most eye-catching technologies by 374 exhibitors from 11 countries attracting 12,524 visitors. The international participation which grew by 75% saw companies from India, China, Demark, Finland, Germany, Hongkong, Italy, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, the UAE and the USA. Overall, the show marked a 30% increase in exhibitors and 20% increase in visitors compared to the last edition.
Future Zone, a platform presenting smart and intelligent lighting solutions in the LED sector was one of the major highlights of the show. Ashish Garg, Partner, Light Tape, shared: “This is a very new concept introduced for the first time in India where light comes out of tapes as thin as a credit card. We have introduced this concept through Messe Frankfurt. The light can be used for multiple purposes like back lighting, signages and security signages, and auditoriums. The light emitted from these tapes has no heat in it and are available in florescent colours that are not available in the regular lighting industry at the moment. We have received a great response from the visitors and we are looking forward to convert them into deals after the show.”
A mix of top decision makers from the industry, lighting and design engineers, representatives from government and regulatory bodies and trade professionals marked their presence over the three days. The exhibition also saw many prominent members from government bodies showing their support. Talking about the tremendous growth in the industry Mr S.K. Marwah, Director, Ministry of Electronic & Information Technology (IT) said: “The 17th editions of LED Expo covers the whole value chain and has been receiving great response."
MeitY aims Digital Inclusion of Small NITI Aayog working on States via BPO Promotion Scheme Labour Utilisation Fund The growth of electronics and IT sector in India remains to be limited to certain urban clusters like Delhi-NCR, Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Chennai. However, in 2014, the government decided to boost employment in rural areas of the country by spreading IT jobs across smaller cities with the BPO Promotion Scheme. In an address to the media, Ravi Shankar Prasad, Minister Law & Justice, Electronics & Information Technology of India emphasised on the government's initiative to bring BPOs to small cities. It not only brings employment to otherwise remote areas but also empowers the youth for a better tomorrow and promotes the local language. Along with that, the electronics ministry of India also aims to fulfill the promise of 48,300 reserved seats under the BPO Promotion scheme, by the end of next year.
incentives of upto Rs. 1 lakh per seat in the form of Viability Gap Funding (VGF). Disbursement of financial support under these schemes is directly linked with employment generation. These schemes provide special incentives for employment to women and Divyang, setting up operations in towns other than capital towns, generating employment beyond the target and promoting local entrepreneurship. There are also special provisions for the Himalayan states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. A total of 48,300 seats under India BPO Promotion Scheme and 5000 seats under North East BPO Promotion Scheme have been distributed across different states in proportion to their populations.
The BPO Promotion schemes provide special
ELE Times | 10 | January, 2018
to save jobs from Automation and AI
NITI Aayog has proposed the government set up a labour utilization fund in order to tackle the growing issue of redundancy of low-skilled labour. The institution believes that automation is replacing low-skilled manual labour, thereby increasing inflation. The fund shall be used to train people at the bottom of the pyramid to be competitive and well-versed with the growing technology. This would eventually attract foreign companies to hire people from India. NITI Aayog Vice Chairman Rajiv Kumar said this would encourage companies to hire manual labour, along with providing them social security. He remarked that the think tank has already been working on a blueprint of the fund to present in front of the government.
Government's New Electronics Policy eyes $1 Trillion in Digital Business Reports claim that the Cabinet is preparing a new electronics manufacturing policy. The Indian government plans to shift gears with an aim to boost India's digital economy to $1 trillion over the coming years. Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government understands the ambitiousness of that particular figure. And is trying to turn it into reality by boosting indigenous manufacturing of electronic and IT goods. The new electronics policy is also expected to encourage exports of electronics equipment and components. IT Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad told the press that the ministry is also planning to
provide benefits to blooming startups in order to boost India's digital economy, which currently stands at a valuation of $280 million. “The new policy will focus majorly on newage digital applications in the field of data analysis, artificial intelligence, internet-ofthings, virtual reality, healthcare, augmented reality and robotics,” the minister said. Prasad also shared that the government has been working closely with key industry associations like Nasscom, Internet and Mobile Association of India, and the Indian Cellular Association to devise the new
Ravi Shankar Prasad policy. Talking about numbers, the minister said that the government expects a turnover of around $400 billion from manufacturing electronic products and components.
Import Duty on Electronic Items Raised, Make in India to get Boost In a bid to promote domestic manufacturing of electronic items, the government of India has announced to hike the import duty. Imported electronic goods such as smartphones, televisions, LED lamps, and other electronic goods will now cost more. Imported smartphones will now be charged at a higher, 15%. The Finance Ministry said that this will boost local smartphone manufacturers' production under Make in India. At the same time, it will also impact certain smartphone companies that sourced cheap smartphones from overseas to seize
the market. Earlier this month, Arun Jaitley had said that the government is doing its best to aid indigenous manufacturing. The import tax levied on LED lamps has been doubled from 10% to 20% to make sure that domestic manufacturers remain competitive against foreign imports. Television sets, similarly, will now cost more as the import tax on them has been increased from 10% to 15%. People are speculating that this move has also been carried out in order to force
Scientists print electronic circuits on stretchable sheet Scientists have developed a technique for directly printing metal circuits, to create flexible, stretchable electronics. The technique can use multiple metals and substrates and is compatible with existing manufacturing systems that employ direct printing technologies. “Flexible electronics hold promise for use in many fields, but there are significant manufacturing costs involved – which poses a challenge in making them practical for commercial use,” said Jingyan Dong, from North Carolina State University in the US. The technique uses existing electrohydrodynamic printing technology, which is already used in many
manufacturing processes that use functional inks. However, instead of ink, researchers used molten metal alloys with melting points as low as 60 degrees Celsius. The researchers have demonstrated their technique using three different alloys, printing on four different substrates: one glass, one paper, and two stretchable polymers. “This is direct printing. There is no mask, no etching, and no moulds, making the process much more straightforward,” Dong said. The researchers tested the resilience of the circuits on a
ELE Times | 12 | January, 2018
certain western companies to start manufacturing in India locally. Apple, for instance, has been in constant dialogue with the government over its manufacturing plant in Karnataka. India is one of the largest consumers of electronic goods. In the fiscal year 2017-18, nearly $42 billion worth of electronic items were imported in the country. However, this move now will promote local manufacturing, while also providing a level playing ground for domestic and foreign companies. polymer substrate and found that the circuits conductivity was unaffected even after being bent 1,000 times. The circuits were still electrically stable even when stretched to 70 % of tensile strain. The researchers also found that the circuits are capable of “healing” themselves if they are broken by being bent or stretched too far.
How to Choose Cool Running, High Power, Scalable POL Regulators and Save Board Space
he art of designing efficient and compact dcto-dc converters is practiced by a select group of engineers with a deep understanding of the physics and supporting mathematics involved in conversion design, combined with a healthy dose of bench experience. A deep understanding of Bode plots, Maxwell's equations, and concerns for poles and zeros figure into elegant dc-to-dc converter design. Nevertheless, IC designers often avoid dealing with the dreaded topic of heat—a job that usually falls to the package engineer. Heat is a significant concern for point-of-load (POL) converters where space is tight among delicate ICs. A POL regulator generates heat because no voltage conversion is 100% efficient (yet). How hot does the package become due to its construction, layout, and thermal impedance? Thermal impedance of the package not only raises temperature of the POL regulator, it also increases the temperature of the PCB and surrounding components, contributing to the complexity, size, and cost of the system's heat removal arrangements. Heat mitigation for a dc-to-dc converter package on a PCB is achieved through two major strategies: Distribute it through the PCB: If the converter IC is surface-mountable, the heat conductive copper vias and layers in the PCB disperse the heat from the bottom of the package. If the thermal impedance of the package to the PCB is low enough, this is sufficient. Add airflow: Cool airflow removes heat from the package (or more precisely, the heat is transferred to the cooler fast air molecules in contact with the surface of the package). Of course, there are methods of passive and active heat sinking, which, for simplicity of this discussion, are considered subsets of the second category. When faced with rising component temperatures, the PCB designer can reach into the standard heat mitigation toolbox for commonly used tools such as additional copper, heat sinks, or bigger and faster fans, or simply more space—use more PCB real estate, increase the distance between components on the PCB, or thicken the PCB layers. Any of
7 Afshin Odabaee, Business and Marketing Manager, uModule Power Products, Analog Devices these tools can be used on the PCB to maintain the system within safe temperature limits, but applying these remedies can diminish the end product's competitive edge in the market. The product, say a router, might require a larger case to accommodate necessary component separation on the PCB, or it may become relatively noisy as faster fans are added to increase airflow. This can render the end product inferior in a market where companies compete on the merits of compactness, computational power, data rates, efficiency, and cost. Successful thermal management around high power POL regulators requires choosing the right regulator, which demands careful research. This article shows how a regulator choice can simplify the board designer's job. Don't Judge POL Regulators by Power Density Alone A number of market factors drive the need to improve thermal performance in electronic equipment. Most obvious, performance continuously improves even as products shrink in size. For instance, 28 nm to 20 nm and sub-20 nm digital devices burn power to deliver performance, as innovative equipment designers use these smaller processes for faster, tinier, quieter, and more efficient devices. The obvious conclusion from this trend is that POL regulators must increase in power density: (power)/(volume) or (power)/(area). It is no surprise that power density is often cited in regulator literature as the headline specification. Impressive power densities make a regulator stand out—giving designers quotable specifications when choosing from the vast array of available regulators. A 40 W/cm2 POL regulator must be better than a 30 W/cm2 regulator. Product designers want to squeeze higher power into tighter spaces— superlative power density numbers appear at first blush to be the clear path to the fastest, smallest, quietest, and most efficient products, akin to comparing automobile performance using horsepower. But how significant is power density in achieving a successful final design? Less than you might think. A POL regulator must meet the requirements of its application. In
ELE Times | 13 | January, 2018
Technology choosing a POL regulator, one must assure its ability to do the job on the PCB, where the treatment of heat can make or break the application. The following recommended step-by-step selection process for a POL regulator makes the case for prioritizing thermal performance: Ignore power density numbers: Power density specifications ignore thermal derating, which has a significantly greater effect on the effective real-world power density. Check the regulator's thermal derating curves: A well-documented and characterized POL regulator should have graphs specifying output current at various input voltages, output voltages, and airflow speeds. The data sheet should show the output current capability of the POL regulator under real-world operating conditions so you can judge the regulator by its thermal and load current abilities. Does it meet the requirement of your system's typical and maximum ambient temperature and airflow speed? Remember, output current derating relates to the thermal performance of the device. The two are closely related and equally important. Look at efficiency: Yes, efficiency is not the first consideration. Efficiency results, when used exclusively, can present an inaccurate picture of the thermal characteristics of a dc-to-dc regulator. Of course, efficiency numbers are required to calculate input current and load current, input power consumption, power dissipation, and junction temperature. Efficiency values must be combined with output current derating and other thermal data related to the device and its package. Consider the ease of cooling the POL regulator: The package thermal impedance values provided in the data sheet are key to simulate and calculate the rise in the junction, ambient, and case temperatures of the device. Because much of the heat in surface-mount packages flows from the bottom of the package to the PCB, layout guidance and discussions about thermal measurements must be articulated in the data sheet to minimize surprises during system prototyping. A well designed package should efficiently dissipate heat evenly throughout its surfaces, eliminating hot spots that degrade the reliability of a POL regulator. As described above, the PCB is responsible for absorbing and routing much of the heat from surface-mountable POL regulators. With the prevalence of forced airflow in today's dense and complex systems, a cleverly designed POL regulator should also tap this free cooling opportunity to remove heat from heat generating components such as MOSFETs and inductors. Guiding Heat to the Top of the Package and into the Air A high power switching POL regulator depends on an inductor or transformer to convert the input supply voltage to a regulated output voltage. In a nonisolated step-down POL regulator, the
device uses an inductor. The inductor and accompanying switching elements, such as MOSFETs, produce heat during dcto-dc conversion. In this package design, a heat sink is integrated into the module package and over molded. Inside the package, the bottom of the heat sink is directly connected to the MOSFETs and inductors, while the topside of the heat sink is a flat surface exposed at the top of the package. This new intrapackaging heat sinking technique allows a device to be cooled quickly with airflow (for an example, see the LTM4620 TechClip videos here). Go Vertical: POL Module Regulator with Stacked Inductor as Heat Sink The size of an inductor in a POL regulator depends on voltage, switching frequency, current handling, and its construction. In a module approach where the dc-to-dc circuit, including the inductor, is over molded and encapsulated in a plastic package and resembles an IC, the inductor dictates the thickness, volume, and weight of the package more than any other component. The inductor is also a significant source of heat. Integrating the heat sink into the package helps to conduct heat from the MOSFETs and inductor to the top of the package, where it can be dissipated to air, a cold plate, or a passive heat sink. This technique is effective when relatively small, low current inductors easily fit inside the plastic mold compound of the package, but not so effective when POL regulators depend on larger and higher current inductors, where placement of the magnetics inside the package forces other circuit components to be farther apart, significantly expanding the PCB footprint of the package. To keep the footprint small while improving heat dissipation, the package engineers have developed another trickâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;vertical, stack, or 3D (Figure 1).
Figure 1. A high power POL regulator module uses 3D (vertical) packaging technology to elevate the inductor and expose it to airflow as a heat sink. The remaining dc-to-dc circuitry is assembled on the substrate under the inductor, minimizing required PCB area while improving thermal performance.
ELE Times | 14 | January, 2018
Technology 3D Packaging with Exposed Stacked Inductor: Keep Footprint Small, Increase Power, and Improve Heat Dissipation A small PCB footprint, more power, and better thermal performance—all three are simultaneously possible with 3D packaging, a new method in construction of POL regulators (Figure 1). The LTM4636 is a μModule® regulator with on-board, dc-to-dc regulator ICs, MOSFETs, supporting circuitry, and a large inductor to decrease output ripple and deliver load currents up to 40 A from 12 V input to precisely regulated output voltages ranging from 0.6 V to 3.3 V. Four LTM4636 devices running in parallel can current share to provide 160 A of load current. The footprint of the package is only 16 mm × 16 mm. Another regulator in the family, the LTM4636-1, detects over temperature and input/output overvoltage conditions and can trip an upstream power supply or circuit breaker to protect itself and its load. To minimize the regulator's footprint (16 mm × 16 mm BGA), the inductor is elevated and secured on two copper lead frame structures so that other circuit components (diodes, resistors, MOSFETs, capacitors, dc-to-dc ICs) can be soldered under it on the substrate. If the inductor is placed on the substrate, the μModule regulator can easily occupy more than 1225 mm2 of PCB, instead of a small 256 mm2 footprint (Figure 2).
the inductor stacked on top of the molded section, the LTM4636's total package height, from the bottom of BGA solder balls (144 of them) to the top of the inductor, is 7.16 mm.
Figure 4. Thermal results of regulator at 40 W shows a temperature rise of only 40°C. Figure 5 shows the output current thermal derating results. At 200 LFM, the LTM4636 delivers an impressive full current of 40 A up to an 83°C ambient temperature. Half-current, 20 A derating only occurs at an excessively high ambient temperature of 110°C. This allows the LTM4636 to perform at high capacity as long as some airflow is available.
Figure 2. The LTM4636's stacked inductor doubles as a heat sink to achieve impressive thermal performance in a complete POL solution with a small footprint. Stacked inductor construction rewards system designers with a compact POL regulator with the additional benefit of superior thermal performance. The stacked inductor in the LTM4636 is not overmolded (encapsulated) with plastic, unlike the rest of the components. Instead, it is exposed directly to airflow. The shape of the inductor casing incorporates rounded corners for improved aerodynamics (minimal flow blockage). Figure 3. The modeled thermal behavior of LTM4636 shows heat is readily moved to the inductor package, which is exposed to airflow.
Thermal Performance and Efficiency The LTM4636 is a 40 A capable μModule regulator benefiting from 3D packaging technology, or component-on-package (CoP), as shown in Figure 1. The body of the package is an overmolded 16 mm × 16 mm × 1.91 mm BGA package. With
Figure 5. Thermal derating shows full current of 40 A delivered up to 83°C ambient, 200 LFM. The high conversion efficiency shown in Figure 6 is mainly a result of top performing MOSFETs and strong drivers of the LTM4636. Figure 6. High dc-to-dc conversion efficiency over a variety of output voltages. 140 W, Scalable 4 A × 40 A μModule POL Regulator with Thermal Balance One LTM4636 is rated for 40 A load current delivery. Two LTM4636s in current sharing mode (or parallel) can support 80 A, while four will support 160 A. Upscaling a power supply with parallel LTM4636s is easy; simply copy and paste the single-regulator footprint, as shown in Figure 7 (symbols and footprints are available).
ELE Times | 15 | January, 2018
Figure 7. It is easy to lay out parallel LTM4636s. Simply duplicate the layout of one channel.
85 80 75 70
The current mode architecture of the LTM4636 enables precision current sharing among the 40 A blocks. Precise current sharing, in turn, produces a power supply that spreads the heat evenly between devices. Figure 8 shows a 160 A regulator with four μModules. All devices with these specifications operate within a °C of each other, ensuring that no individual device is overloaded or overheated. This greatly simplifies heat mitigation. Figure 8
Figure 8. Precision current sharing among four LTM4636s running in parallel, resulting in only a 40°C rise in temperature for a 160 A application.
Load Current (A)
Figure 9. Efficiency of a 140 W regulator with four μModules.
This is an edited version of the original article. To read the complete article log on to www.eletimes.com
ELE Times | 16 | January, 2018
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Learn Ways to Shrink Your PLC Designs Since PLCs operate in rather harsh environments, designing them requires adhering to various criteria. They have to be precise, yet also flexible and configurable to support a variety of applications. They need to work flawlessly for years in environments where there could be a lot of electrostatic discharge (ESD), electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), and high-amplitude transient pulses. IO-Link and smart sensor technologies are enabling factories for distributed control. However, these technologies are driving factory automation In an automated factory, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) direct equipmentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;including PLCsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to smaller and smaller form the flow of activity. Based on analog and digital inputs and outputs, PLCs factors. make decisions for the machines, sensing and controlling everything from Achieving a Smaller PLC Footprint simple lighting functions to environmental systems. When input stimuli, in the form of voltage of current, comes in from machines, sensors, or process events, the PLC has the important task of accurately interpreting and converting the stimuli for the CPU. The CPU then instructs the output systems that control actuators in the factory.
Maxim engineers have done a lot of work to develop analog ICs that help reduce the PLC footprint. This allows these controllers to be placed closer to the edge of the manufacturing floor in an automated factory. For example, consider a PLC analog input module (Figure 1). For these modules, small precision analog ICs can help meet the reduced footprint requirement. There are a variety of considerations to keep in mind
Input signals going into PLCs come in various flavors. Large- and small-scale analog signals can range from millivolts to tens of volts or from milliamps to amps. A PLC analog input module accepts voltage and current-mode input signals. When choosing analog input circuits, your choice will likely depend on a variety of factors: The number and type of inputs the module will handle
Steve Logan, Executive Business Manager, Core Products Group Maxim Integrated
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Whether these inputs must be individually or group isolated Needs related to sensor simulation and/or biasing Multiple sensor sampling simultaneously Your design's targeted signal frequency range Requirements for anti-alias filtering Resolution of the AD converter Required sampling rate
Lowering Power in Key PLC Components In Figure 1, in the signal chain component, input from the voltage sensors is routed to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for signal processing before the signal eventually gets to
ELE Times | 18 | January, 2018
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Electronic Systems | Why to Invest? 4 Indian market size is expected to reach USD 400 Billion by 2020.
Defence Manufacturing | Why to Invest? 4 India's current requirements on defence are catered largely by imports. 4 Contractual offset obligations worth approximately USD 4.53 billion in next 5-6 year. 4 The allocation of Defence in the India's union budget is approx USD 34.53 billion and 31.1% of the defence budget is spent on capital acquisitions. 4 60% of defence related requirements are met by imports which offers a huge opportunity for import substitution. Armoury of Opportunities: India has opened its classified gates in defence sector for private sector participation that is aimed to help foreign original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to enter into strategic partnerships with Indian companies and influence the domestic markets as well as aim at global markets. India is one of the largest importers of conventional defence equipment and spends about 31.1% of its total defence budget on capital acquisitions. About 60% of its defence requirements are met through imports. The allocation for Defence in the Union Budget 2016-17 is approximate USD 34.53 billion.
The 2013 Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) is to encourage indigenous manufacturing of defence equipment, has been amended in 2016 to provide for IDDM (Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured). The DPP is giving weightage to 'Buy (Indian-IDDM)', 'Buy (Indian)' and 'Buy and Make (Indian)' over 'Buy (Global)' categories of capital acquisition. India is also open for 100% FDI in defence sector, with up to 49% under automatic route and FDI above 49%, through Government route where it is likely to result in access to modern technology. Electrical Machinery Why to Invest? 4 Market-oriented reforms, such as the target of 'Power for All' and plans to add 88.5 GW of capacity by 2017 and 93 GW by 2022 which will generate huge demand for power transmission & distribution equipment. 4 Incentives for capacity addition in power generation will increase the demand for electrical machinery 4 Investments in R&D in the electrical machinery industry are amongst the largest in India's corporate sector 4 A comparative advantage in terms of manufacturing costs, market knowledge, technology and creativity
ELE Times | 24 | January, 2018
4 Electronic Manufacturing Services (EMS) industry is expected to be a significant contributor to the entire industry's development. 4 India has the third largest pool of scientists and technicians in the world. 4 Strong design and R&D capabilities in auto electronics and industrial electronics. 4 The government is promoting development of electronics manufacturing clusters throughout the country to provide world class infrastructure and facilities. 4 65% of the current demand for electronic products is met by imports which presents an opportunity for import substitution. 4 Major government initiatives like Digital India and Make in India and supportive policies including favourable FDI policies for electronics manufacturing. Renewable Energy | Why to Invest? 4 India has the fifth largest power generation portfolio worldwide with a power generation capacity of 304.76 GW. 4 Economic growth, increasing prosperity, a growing rate of urbanisation and rising per capita energy consumption has led to increased demand for energy in the country.
4 Huge renewable resource availability and potential. 4 The target of National Solar Mission has been up-scaled to 100 GW from 20 GW of grid connected solar power by 2022, which creates a positive environment among investors keen to tap into India's renewable energy potential. 4 Government of India has a target of adding 175 GW of renewable power in the country by 2022, which will offer massive investment opportunities across the value chain.
ELE Times | 25 | January, 2018
Space | Why to Invest? 4 India's cost-effective space programme has launched more than 200 satellites for 28 different countries and has the potential to serve as the world's launch pad. 4 The ISRO has forged a strong relationship with a large number of industrial enterprises, both in the public and private sector, to implement its space projects. 4 ISRO undertaking the development of cutting-edge technologies and interplanetary exploratory missions 4 ISRO provides technical consultancy services to industries and R&D institutions in diverse areas of its expertise. IT | Why to Invest? 4 India's IT â&#x20AC;&#x201C; BPM industry amounts for 56% of the global outsourcing market size.
Cover Story 4 Rapidly growing urban infrastructure has fostered several IT centers in the country.
manufacturing in India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from the current levels of 15% to 25% by 2025.
4 Favorable government policies and incentives to facilitate investments in IT sector.
Smart Industrial Cities are being developed along the Corridors. These cities are being developed to integrate the new workforce that will power manufacturing and will lead to planned urbanization. Industrial Corridors and 21 new nodal Industrial Cities to be developed.
4 Presence of skilled manpower, India is home to a large number of IT professionals. India with full vigor but utmost humbleness, is drawing the road map to economic empowerment with emphasis on international trade, which has been a time-tested formula for economic growth trajectories for other developed geographies like China, Japan, US, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, etc., in the recent past. Sturdy progress in India's relative position in the global economy, with growing influence in international institutions (G-8, G-20) and negotiating free trade areas (with ASEAN, EU) are vital factors for business development. Corridors of Prospects Government of India has launched five industrial corridor projects across India and the country is to spend a total amount 3.3 lakh crore INR to set up three new dedicated rail freight corridors (5,500 km in length, adding to the existing 3,300 km) over the next eight years. These proposed new corridors are the 2,328km-long north-south corridor connecting Delhi to Chennai, the 2,327-km-long eastwest corridor linking Kolkata with Mumbai, and the 1,114-km-long east coast corridor from Kharagpur to Vijaywada. With a sheer aim to encourage investment, 100% FDI under the automatic route is permitted for both dedicated freight lines and rolling stock, including train sets, and locomotive/coaches manufacturing and maintenance facilities. These corridors are focused on inclusive development to provide an impetus to industrialization and planned urbanization. In each of these corridors, manufacturing will be a key economic driver and these projects are seen as critical in raising the share of
The Power in Indian Power India today is claiming surplus production of power and this piece of information needs to get high dissemination in the lobbies of world trade centres, as there has been evident skepticism on the power efficiency of the country that has failed to bring investors to the land. India today stands with a production of 1108 TW, and is the world's fifth largest producer and consumer of electricity with a total demand of 1905 TW expected by 2022. 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is allowed under the automatic route in the power sector for generation from all sources (except atomic energy), transmission and distribution of electric energy and Power Trading, subject to all the applicable regulations and laws. The government is focused on providing universal access and 24/7 supply of power. The commanding addition of new capacities to meet social and economic needs is taking India towards renewables, including solar, wind, mini hydel and biomass-based power, over the next 5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;10 years. There is also a huge market for electrical energy storage in India, especially in integrating the renewable energy (RE) sources to the grid. The Potentials in '0 and 1' What is the biggest promise India is making to the world is the Digital India Drive. India, like never before is waving a huge green flag to this phenomenon. The rigorous adoption of digital technology is revolutionising factory shop floors, reorganising
ELE Times | 26 | January, 2018
old business models and making products smarter. Smart City Project across 100 Indian cities, is the greatest platform here which will enforce Digitalisation into every nook of the ecosystem. To facilitate this, a whole army of players in IT and major disruptive technologies will need to build up the force. Demographical Advantages A nation where 53% of the country's total population is in the working age bracket, India is standing tall, chest broaden with a steady rise in its GDP. India's average GDP growth rate of 7.7 per cent per annum, India's has a significant Englishspeaking population, The literacy rate in India is 74 percent, 250 million people are set to join India's workforce by 2030, India's young working age gives a significant edge in terms of cost competitiveness and low labour costs. The Country that Consumes India is heading upward to an altitude where it will hover as the 'nation of consumers'. This implies that a new middle class is breeding up and this will accelerate vital alterations in the country and internationally in innovation of production processes, distribution and delivery of goods and services: 4 India's consumption is expected to rise 7.3 per cent annually over the next 20 years. 4 Consumer spending in India grew from US$ 549 billion to US$ 1.06 trillion putting India on the path to becoming one of the world's largest consumer markets by 2025. 4 By 2040, nine out of every ten Indians will belong to 'the global middle class group' with daily expenditures ranging between US$ 10 and US$ 100 per person in today's purchasing power
parity terms. 4 70pc expenditure will be on entertainment, healthcare, communication, education, personal products and services Make in India Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in September 2014, initiated the coveted 'Make in India' programme as part of a wider set of nation-building initiatives. This initiative is devised to project India as a global design and manufacturing hub. Some Facts on Indian Infrastructure Build-up Trajectory 4 India is expecting $56 billion worth of investments over the next four years in the electronics sector to meet its increasing demand 4 India, not without the support of the entire electronics gamut, is aiming for an electronics output of $400 billion a year by 2020 to meet domestic demand and generate exports worth $80 billion.
4 India has allowed 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the electronics sector with a 25 per cent subsidy. 4 Marketing campaigns are being held across the world to attract more and more investments in the sector, which also holds the potential of $80 billion worth of exports Infrastructure Ecosystem: 4 Road - India's total road network spans 3.34 million KM which is second largest in the world. This road network consists of 65,589 KM of highways. 4 Rail - Indian rail route is 63,028 KM long which is largest in Asia and second largest in the world under one management. Indian Railways have 222,147 freight wagons for use in movement of freight to any corner of the country. 4 Ports - There are 13 major ports and 187 minor/intermediate ports along the coast line of the country. Total
ELE Times | 27 | January, 2018
capacity of Indian ports in the year 2010-11 was 616.73 million tons. Ports handle over 90% of India's international trade. 4 Airports - India has a total of 125 Airports, which include 11 International Airports. 4 SEZs - With a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000 by Indian Government. There are 133 special economic zones operating presently all over India. India is on the threshold of major reforms and is poised to become the third-largest economy of the world by 2030. India offers the 3 'Ds' for business to thriveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; democracy, demography and demand. Today, Indian manufacturing companies in several sectors are targeting global markets and are becoming formidable global competitors.
DATA BREACH: NO MORE A
QUESTION ABOUT IF,
IT IS ABOUT WHEN
When the world is fighting war outside the four walls, there are greater threats mankind is facing from each other in the dark shadows of data breaching, which has already earned the reputation of being a bigger threat than nuclear attacks. Rahul Kumar, Country Manager & Director of India Business Operations at WinMagic India Pvt Ltd, and Dibyoshnata Talukdar, Sub Editor, ELE Times recently had a tête-à-tête, on Data Breach Scenario in India and internationally and where does WinMagic stands here to fix up this entire conundrum of threats, regulations, compliances and cyber terrorism happening inside the virtual world. Excerpts from the interview.
Dibyoshnata Talukdar: Why has Cyber Security become a major concern for organizations? Rahul Kumar: It was 2015, when the cyber security phenomenon started to pick up, as 2015 has been declared as the Year of Data Breach. When 2016 came in, we started to talk more and more of bigger number of breaches that happened. Essentially it was 2016 and 2017 that we saw the worst by a long stretch right now. Will 2018 be any different? The answer is No. Security has become a mainstream function in an organization now, because the hackers are really two steps ahead looking for loopholes before you even start creating a solution. This industry is right now so unforgiving plus the fact that regulations like General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) coming up in May 2018, which will make life so very difficult because this is the single biggest regulation which makes data theft for an organization very painful and penalising. The fines are in the tunes of twenty million euros or four percent of your global revenue. It is a European Union General Data Protection Law and which effects Indian companies as well. Anybody keeping EU nationals data or EU nationals PII (Personally identifiable information) is responsible for that. Twenty million euros would mean a company shutting down. That's how penalising that is. Earlier that was only a slap of a 500 dollars for an US company that did not mean much. Now we are talking about a scenario where companies will close down because of one breach incident and they have to report one in 24 hours that a breach is happening. It is very difficult. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: Where does WinMagic stands in this scenario? Rahul Kumar: WinMagic is in the fundamental layer of security
that any country has. We are in data protection and we are really core to what a data protection strategy for a CSO or CIO should be. We started with end-point encryption which really makes sure that if you lose your device for example, nobody can steal your data ever and that's the only full-proof mechanism for protecting your data in case of loss of device. We have presence in North America of course which is our biggest market. We have presence in Europe, and in Japan where we have a 52 % market share, we have been in Singapore, now in India. We started in India three years back, and we have come a long way in three years going beyond hundred enterprise customers really. Today, with our solutions we can encrypt servers be it physical, virtual or on cloud. That's the kind of data security strategy we have built for our customers. Essentially our philosophy is, that we want to really be able to protect anything that is data addressed. Imagine if anything is addressed, we can protect it today and secure that. That's what we have experience in doing for twenty years. We were the first FIPS 140-2 certified encryption company in the world. So that's how long back we go. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: However it has been reported that many companies are not even aware about the data breach threat. Is that a fact? Rahul Kumar: It's not that people are not aware about it. It is just human nature of not taking any heed of a situation. We don't wake up and until we see it happening with another person getting affected and then a huge case study is made out of that. It is just human nature. Another reason why people do not take it seriously is because lack of regulations. The only thing that drives any security practice is especially in our business is regulation, how regulated it is, what is the penal action. Otherwise it will cost. If we are looking at a compliance here, then people will come in and buy. So that is something we are
ELE Times | 28 | January, 2018
In Conversation lacking in. And in India, insurance market has compliance on security with a very well defined compliance structure, banking has it, NBFCs are getting it. If you look at the BFSI (Banking, Financial services and Insurance) sector is becoming big. Because of the fact that these guys works with international clients and those international customers drive compliance and they give a checklist having protected their address having protected their data in motion. It is really a customer or a compliance driving market. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: The challenges with encryption has traditionally made it a difficult software to adopt? How does WinMagic make it better?
this market for us, which is a huge welcome for us. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: A lot/ most large companies use BitLocker as their encryption tool, as it is â&#x20AC;&#x153;freeâ&#x20AC;?. Does WinMagic has a play there?
Rahul Kumar: Typically insurance is a very intrusive solution. If suppose my OS fails, if my windows crashes I will not be able to work on the devices for supposed, twenty hours. That's a long time and twenty hours is not funny. Now that's something that really puts people off. Another thing is that really have to change the way you function is how you reset your password, and similar things. That too is very difficult because we are looking at two of us are doing at one thing but twenty thousand employees doing it, it is then an absolutely different story. And that's where we commit, we alleviate all those space for customers. What we turn around these challenges that the customers have faced for twenty hours to two minutes. So that is the value that we give it to our customers. Even though we are a late entrant in India specifically, we have gone into the largest of banking customers, insurance customers, financial services customers, pharma customers, ITITS (Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems) customers, and solved their pains for them. That's why they take away another encryption solution and bring us in. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: Please share about your recently launched solution for virtual server market. Rahul Kumar: Now we are really talking about the server market, it may be virtual, hybrid or cloud server. What we do is we encrypt everything. Where we are able to encrypt a server as a server and that's what we bring to the table for our customers. So now servers have a lot of data centres that are prime security targets for a lot of customers in fact almost everybody. Theses servers are connected to the outside world. For example tomorrow you are putting yourselves on Amazon as your cloud and they make multiple copies, now one of the copies is taken off by one of the admins which is not encrypted then he can read the data, but not if it is encrypted. Nobody can take a snapshot and starting using it. We have now had a couple of insurance companies and payment regulators in India who are our customers. We are seeing this as a very significant tractions in
Rahul Kumar: BitLocker is an encryption tool from Microsoft, which is free and not free at the same time. It is a very good strategy for Microsoft. If you look at the total cost of ownership it is much more expensive than other solutions. The encryption tool engine is really the same. It is 260 Bit, NFC certified like our encryption. But the fact with the management of BitLocker engine is, we can manage BitLocker more than BitLocker can. We take the authentication of the BitLocker and that's unique because nobody else has done it. So we help customers authenticate on their own and that takes away a lot of challenges with BitLocker's management. For example if you are using a desktop, sharing a desktop than all of you have to share a password and that's a big pain area from BitLocker's side. But with WinMagic you need not do that, and you will able to still use your own password to get to in and everybody will use their own passwords. Sharing the password is a big security problem, because the first thing in security is 'Do no share your password'. We have come up with BitLocker data protection, i.e. if you are a user on a device you can disable the BitLocker in a common scenario and the admin would never know. Dibyoshnata Talukdar: What are your market strategies in India? Rahul Kumar: Right now we are focusing on six markets in India, Delhi-NCR, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Chennai. We are laser focused into these markets what we have brought in. We are a channel-driven company, so we do all our transactions with our channel partners without an exception. We are completely focused on really building up the channel, training them, enabling them and making sure that the channel is completely with us. Every region we work with three or four key channel partner with whom we do most of our transactions. You as a businessman are making more money at the same time customers loves you. What else do you want? And that is what we bring in to our channel partners.
ELE Times | 29 | January, 2018
USING 800 V CoolMOS P7 to power Flyback designs Byoungho Choo, Hyosang Jang, Junbae Lee, Minsub Lee, Daewoong Chung Infineon Technologies, Power Semitech, Korea
he internal circuit of the new IPM is composed of inverter stage and PFC stage. The three phase inverter stage has six 600 V rated TRENCHSTOP IGBTs and six emitter controlled diodes together with one SOI gate driver IC which provides integrated bootstrap circuit, and thermistor for temperature monitoring. The PFC stage consists of a 650V rated TRENCHSTOP IGBT and a rapid switching emitter controlled diode which has fast and soft switching characteristics (figure 1).
Miniaturized transfer molded package Package outlines of the new IPM with high level integration are shown in figure 2. The new IPM builds in a compact size of Infineon Technologies CIPOS (Control Integrated POwer System) Mini package of 21mm x 36mm x 3.1mm. The new IPM is UL approved (UL 1557 File E314539) and RoHS compliant.
Figure 2: External View
A new PFC and inverter IPM intelligent power module) optimized for low power drives is introduced. A three phase inverter and a single boost PFC stage are integrated in one single miniaturized DIL (dual-in-line) transfer molded type package with a SOI (silicon on insulator) gate driver. With this new IPM, the size and cost of system can be dramatically reduced.
DCB (Direct Copper Bond) which is a substrate with good thermal conductivity is adopted as a substrate for high thermal performance. The cross section view of the new IPM. All of the major heat sources like IGBTs and diodes are mounted on DCB, in order to fully utilize the heat transfer capability of this package. Therefore the new IPM can be an excellent solution for up to 3 kW motor drives even though the package size is extremely compact.
Figure 1: Internal circuit Cost Reduction Minimizing total cost is the most important consideration for system engineers when developing new motor drives. Main contributors to the total cost are not only material cost like the IPM itself, heatsink and PCB but also development time to market.
ELE Times | 30 | January, 2018
Heatsink and PCB size All of the power semiconductor components (i.e. a bridge rectifier, a discrete IGBT for PFC, a discrete boost diode, and an IPM for motor drive) are normally mounted on one
Technology heatsink for heat dissipation. Figure 3 shows how much the size of PCB and heatsink can be reduced. Additionally the assembly process can be simplified by integrating discrete power semiconductor and drivers into one package.
thus, provide higher reliability and ruggedness in an unstable AC grid .
resistor R1 is 3.6 kΩ VFO voltage at about 100°C is 2.95 Vtyp at Vcrt = 5 V and 1.95 V at Vcrt = 3.3 V as shown in figure 10.
Features of inverter stage The inverter stage has many functions for safe operating of the inverter. These functions can be achieved by a rugged
Thermal evaluation The test circuit and measured waveforms evaluating the thermal performance at an
Table 1: Product line up, ratings and target switching frequency Part number
PFC Stage Voltage rating
Inverter Stage Current rating
New circuit design, artwork and PCB assembly take much time in a system development process. To reduce the time spent in the process, and quickly determine whether the new IPM can run a motor, a reference board has been developed. The minimum set of peripherals to operate a motor are mounted on the board and the others like PWM signals, +5/+15 V DC power source, PFC inductor, DC-link electrolytic capacitor can be utilized from outside of the board via wire connection to the reference board. 650 V rated PFC stage Infineon Technologies has developed two kinds of products according to their PFC IGBT characteristics. They are High Speed 3 (HS3) for 20 kHz switching frequency and TRENCHSTOP 5 (TS5) for 40 kHz switching frequency, as listed in Table 1. The rapid emitter controlled diode from Infineon is optimized to operate with TRENCHSTOP IGBT as a boost diode in PFC topology. It combines low VF for lower conduction losses and low Irr to reduce Eon of the IGBT . All power devices have a 650 V rating and,
SOI gate driver and a thermistor.
Figure 3: Mounting configuration on a heatsink, (a) discrete PFC and inverter IPM solution, (b) the new IPM solution
Maximum Motor power
Allowable negative VS potential up to -11 V for signal transmission at VBS = 15 V
Integrated bootstrap functionality
Under-voltage lockout at all channels
All six switches turn off during protection
Over current shutdown
Over current protection The new IPM monitors the voltage of ITRIP pin and when the voltage exceeds the VIT,TH+ (positive going threshold voltage), a fault signal is activated and the six IGBTs are turned off. The maximum over current trip level is generally set to below two times of the nominal rated collector current. Over temperature protection For over temperature protection, a thermistor is integrated in this IPM. The resistance is typically 85 kΩ at 25°C and 5.4 kΩ at 100°C. VFO pin is connected directly to ADC and fault detection terminals of micro controller because the thermistor is connected in parallel with fault out terminal which has open drain configuration. For example, when pull-up
ELE Times | 31 | January, 2018
input power of 2 kW. The operating conditions are PFC controller = ICE2PCS05G, input power PIN = 2 kW, AC input voltage VIN = 220V/60Hz, DClink voltage VDC = 400V, switching frequency of inverter = 5 kHz, switching frequency of PFC = 20 kHz, R-L load (R = 13.75 Ω, L = 2.96 mH, Power factor = 0.99), MI = 0.69, Gate resistor Rg = 5.1 Ω, ambient temperature Ta = 25°C. The device under test is IFCM15S60GD. Input power factor is about 0.995 and THD is about 9.78%. The case temperature under PFC IGBT's position is about 67.5°C as the highest point and is higher than the inverter part. IFCM15S60GD is enough to deal with over 2 kW power.
The opportunities in the satellite space are mushrooming at an incredible pace in military and defense applications, broadband IP services, and ground- and space- segment products and services. These technologies have accomplished significant breakthrough efficiencies and improvements in performances in very recent times over last decade. However, these advancements have happened simultaneously with vast performance gains by other telecommunication and IT systems.
5 Subhas Kamble, Portfolio Manager, Communication & Devices, Product Engineering Services, Sasken Technologies Limited
The Role of Satellites in Day-to-Day Communication Not many people are aware of the fact that a major part of the day-to-day communication happens through the satellite and not ground cables. There was a time when ground cabling carried a vast portion of communication, but today it is assisted by new satellites, especially geostationary models, helping almost continuous and total global coverage.
What Is the IMMEDIATE FUTURE
This almost incessant global coverage assists in the realization of a lot of remote healthcare services, like remote health monitoring, emergency communication, assistance in search or rescue operations, and very recently trend is extended to tele-diagnosis. These along with several other associated services can now be implemented at almost any under-services or remote location on the Earth. This would have been impossible without satellite communications.
in the Satellite Communication Space? Trends in Satellite Communication 4
Transmitting Data from Observation Satellites: Several observation satellites have been developed to continuously monitor the Earth for probing the environment and forecasting weather. These satellites possess space radio stations on board using which they collect data and transmit it back to the Earth through feeder links.
Data Transmission Using Deep Space Probes: The power, volume, and mass of the onboard equipment in deep space probes are strictly limited and so the transmit power and antenna diameter is also restricted. Thus, a high power transmitter and huge receiving antenna are generally equipped in the ground station to compensate for the onboard limitations.
Communication within the Clusters of Satellites: The functions that are generally carried out by one huge satellite can be allocated to several interlinked and co-located smaller satellites. Each satellite may be assigned with a different function, but on the whole this cluster would act as one huge satellite. Maneuvering synchronization and cooperative control are crucial for maintaining safety boundaries within the colocation slots. LEO satellites monitoring and control systems are controlled using connectivity extended by GEO satellites.
ELE Times | 32 | January, 2018
Internet Broadband Service to Space Planes and Aircrafts: High speed access to internet is possible in several aircrafts today. Similarly, Unattended Aerial Vehicles (UAV), and high altitude platforms are also promising contenders for the optical communication system applications. IoT and Connected Car: IoT and Connected car is new GaGa in the satellite industry. Every operator is adding the connected car portfolio as emerging segment.4 LEO satellites: LEO satellite based High Throughput data supply is taking huge momentum to meet the high capacity requirement with low latency
While these are the most important trends, there are few others like the setup of benchmarks depending upon Digital Video Broadcast (DVB), application of inter-platform links and optical intersatellite, use of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in satellite networks and on-board switching application considering quality of service (QoS) ruling the satellite space. Latency: A Major Challenge to Satellite Communication
Advancements The main challenge faced by satellite communication is latency â&#x20AC;&#x201C; delays caused due to switching and distance. This does not matter with broadcasts or web browsing, but it is important where quick communication is needed between consumers who are just few miles (say 3,000 miles) away as an aircraft flies (but more than 70,000 miles apart if the signal bounces through a satellite). It is a matter of great concern for surgeons who are controlling robotic operating equipment during a surgery in another country and it gets quite annoying in video conferences. Also for ADAS domain the satellite communication is not suitable as it needs very low latency. Future of Satellite Communication Forecasting the future is uncertain in Science. Nonetheless, in the satellite space, there's a trend for ever-increasing flexibility, capacity, and service availability in addition to increasingly lighter, more compact, more affordable, and ergonomic personal and ground terminals. In future, satellite communication is most likely to find applications in satelliteoriented air traffic management,
customized land mobile radio broadcasting, and aeronautical satellite communication. It is justified to expect incessant gains with respect to intelligent space communications systems. Noteworthy new technologies are yet to be developed in the satellite communication space. As the world economies turn out to be increasingly global and as all global parts, the atmosphere, and the oceans are exploited by mankind, the need for efficient wireless interlinks through satellite and terrestrial wireless communication will expand. Furthermore, the increase usage of space systems (planetary, manned, and unmanned bodies) will give rise to the need for enhanced space communication systems. The future of the satellite communication space depends upon how successful the present satellite networks are. Seamless interworking with terrestrial core networks and terrestrial wireless access networks is of utmost significance for the satellite networks' success. With revolutionary advancements in satellite communication, it's possible to bring several space-age fantasies to life.
Become more efficient and effective on social media... We're there for you
ELE Times | 33 | January, 2018
48V/12V Dual Battery Automotive Systems Require Bi-Directional DC/DC Controllers for Optimum Performance With fuel economy regulations tightening and autonomous-driving capability with connectivity proliferating, the old-fashioned 12-volt automotive electrical system has reached its usable power limit. Furthermore, a vast increase in automotive electronic systems, coupled with related demands on power, has created an array of new engineering opportunities and challenges. As a result, the 12V lead-acid battery automotive system with its 3kW power limit has been supplemented.
A newly proposed automotive standard, LV148, combines a secondary 48V bus with the existing 12V system. The 48V rail includes an integrated starter generator (ISG) or belt start generator, a 48V lithiumion battery and a bi-directional DC/DC converter for delivery of up to 10kW of available energy from the 48V and 12V batteries combined. This technology is targeted at conventional internal combustion automobiles, as well as hybrid electric and mild hybrid vehicles, as auto manufacturers strive to meet increasingly stringent CO2 emissions targets.
alternators. Figure 1. shows a block diagram how the ISG, LTC3871 along with the 12 volt and 48 volt batteries are incorporated into an internal combustion engine vehicle.
The LTC3871 demonstration circuit DC2348A shown in figure 2 can be configured with two or four phases utilizing one or two LTC3871 devices. The photo below shows the four phase version and when operating in buck mode, this demo circuit has an input voltage range of 30V to 75V and produces a 12V output at up to 60A. When operating in boost mode, the input voltage is from 10V to 13V and produces a 48V at up to 10A.
A Single Bi-Directional IC Solution The LTC3871 is a 100V/30V bi-directional two phase synchronous buck or boost controller which provides bi-directional DC/DC control and battery charging between the 12V and 48V board nets. It operates in buck mode from the 48V bus to the 12V bus or in boost mode from 12V to 48V. Either mode is configured on demand via an applied control signal. Up to 12 phases can be paralleled and clocked outof-phase to minimize input and output filtering requirements for high current applications (up to 250A). Integrated Start-Generator The electronically controlled ISG replaces both the conventional starter and alternator with a single electric device for the following reasons: 1. To eliminate the starter which is only a passive component during engine operation 2. Replaces the present belt and pulley coupling between the alternator and the crankshaft 3. To provide fast control of the generator voltage during load dumps 4. To eliminate the slip rings and the brushes in some present wound rotor
LTC3871 to synchronize to the CLKOUT signal of another LTC3871. The CLKOUT signal can be connected to the SYNC pin of the following LTC3871 stage to line up both the frequency as well as the phase of the entire system.
Figure 1 Buck and Boost Modes The LTC3871 can be dynamically and seamlessly switched from buck mode to boost mode and vice versa via a simple control signal. There are two separate error amplifiers for VHIGHor VLOWregulation. Having two error amplifiers allows fine tuning of the loop compensation for the buck and boost modes independently to optimize transient response. When the buck mode is selected, the corresponding error amplifier is enabled, and ITHLOWvoltage controls the peak inductor current. The other error amplifier being disabled. In boost mode, ITHHIGHis enabled while ITHLOWis disabled. Multiphase Operation Multiple LTC3871s can be daisy chained to run out of phase to provide more output current without increasing input and output voltage ripple. The SYNC pin allows the
Figure 2 Over Current Protection In buck mode, the LTC3871 includes current fold-back protection to limit power dissipation in an over current condition or when the VLOWis shorted to ground. If the VLOWfalls below 85% of its nominal output level, then the maximum sense voltage is progressively lowered from its maximum programmed value to one-third of the maximum value. Foldback current limiting is enabled during soft-start. Under short-circuit conditions with very low duty cycles, the LTC3871 will begin cycle skipping in order to limit the short-circuit current.
For further inquiries you can reach us at: email@example.com | Toll Free: 1 - 800 - 419 - 0108
IMPROVING Mild Hybrid POWER Supply Systems Reducing CO2 emissions in vehicles is a major challenge, and improving fuel efficiency is an important step in achieving this goal. To this end, 48V mild hybrid vehicles that provide good cost performance is expected to see increased adoption. Growing demand for energy savings and the proliferation of mild hybrid vehicles. A current social trend is the need to integrate countermeasures against global warming in all areas. The automotive field is no exception, establishing regulatory targets in each region for 2020, with the most severe restrictions enacted in Europe (95g/km). To achieve these limits many manufacturers are working on developing electric vehicles. Makers of electric vehicles employ 5 main drive methods: Pure EV, powered solely by electricity, Fuel Cell EV that runs on fuel cells, Strong Hybrid, which charges using regenerative energy and supports electric-only operation, Plug-In Hybrids that can be charged with a standard AC outlet, and Mild Hybrid that charges a 48V li-ion battery using regenerative energy and adopts startstop operation along with drive assistance. In the Mild Hybrid category alone, a total of 7.1 million vehicles are expected to be produced by 2024 (Fig. 1).
Strong Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid systems are extremely effective in reducing CO2 emissions, but they entail significant additional costs and are Britto. EV. difficult to install in compact vehicles. In Design Center Head, ROHM Semiconductor India contrast, 48V Mild Hybrid systems that provide a lower-cost solution while still reducing CO2 emission compared with conventional 12V vehicles are attracting increased attention. Power supply ICs required for Mild Hybrid EVs The major difference between Mild Hybrid and standard vehicles is the power supply voltage of the battery. Mild Hybrid systems utilize a 48V battery, quadruple the voltage of standard systems. However, because all other elements remain the same, including ECUs, the input /output voltage difference is significantly increased (Fig. 2). Conventional 12V Lead Acit Battery
48V (2-Battery) System
Figure 2: Power Supply Differences
Figure 1: Yearly xEV Production Forecast How does the shift towards electric motors improve fuel economy? In the case of conventional vehicles using gasolinepowered engines, a lead-acid battery charged by the engine powers all electrical systems, including lighting and AC. As a result, fuel efficiency decreases as the electrical systems are used, whereas in electric-powered vehicles regenerative energy (i.e. generated through braking) charges a lithium-ion battery that powers the electrical systems. This reduces the need to use engine power, improving fuel economy.
As a result, DC/DC converters with high step-down ratio capable of generating a low output voltage from a much higher input voltage is required. In addition, to prevent radio interference in vehicle-mounted power supply ICs, a switching frequency of 2MHz is needed to ensure that the AM radio band (0.5MHz to 1.7MHz) is not affected. Until now, 2 chips are necessary for stepping down the voltage from 48V to the 3.3V or 5V demanded by ECUs (48Vâ&#x2020;&#x2019;12Vâ&#x2020;&#x2019;3.3V/5V). However, this doubles the number of peripheral components, increasing mounting area significantly. There is also a way to use just one chip by lowering the frequency to convert voltage, but this method requires larger coils and capacitors that generate harmonics which can interfere with the AM radio band. For these reasons, there is an increasing demand for DC/DC
ELE Times | 36 | January, 2018
Automotive converters capable of directly stepping down 48V input to 3.3V or 5V output at a switching frequency higher than the AM radio band. But to achieve this a number of obstacles must first be overcome. Monolthic Power Supply IC Utilizing Proprietary Nano Pulse Control Technology One technical hurdle for achieving lower output voltage from a higher input voltage at high frequency is narrowing the switching pulse width. The switching pulse width of a DC/DC converter is a function of the input voltage, output voltage, and switching frequency, and is calculated by:
control makes it possible to provide stable 2.5V output from an input voltage range of 16V to 60V at a high frequency of 2MHz or more (Fig. 5). Figure 4: Direct Step-Down Enabled from 60V to 2.5V at 2.1MHz
(ton: Switching Pulse Width, VOUT: Output Voltage, VIN: Input Voltage, f: Switching Frequency) As can be seen from the above equation, the switching pulse width narrows as the input voltage increases, output voltage decreases, and frequency rises. Therefore, a method for reducing the switching pulse width is required for 48V Mild Hybrid systems. But to reduce pulse width it is first necessary to solve problems related to noise generation during switching. Increasing the input voltage will cause the noise component to increase during switching due to parasitic inductance contained in the IC. The noise component will also rise at high frequencies, resulting from the increased switching frequency and parasitic capacitance of the element (Fig. 3). Switching Waveforms
Figure 3: Noise Component Increases at Higher Voltages and Frequencies
When this switching noise is introduced into the IC unstable operation may occur. To prevent this, conventional control methods utilize mask time. Also, an analog circuit is required for operation, introducing a delay time. These two factors that arise due to the increased noise component cause the pulse width to become wider. In response, ROHM developed a new technology, Nano Pulse Control, which leverages high voltage BiCDMOS processes and ultra-fast pulse control circuitry to detect information before noise is generated and perform appropriate control.
Figure 5: Stable Switching Frequency Over a Wide Input Voltage Range
Utilizing ROHM's IC allows users to configure DC/DC converters capable of stepping down 48V to 3.3V with a single chip, instead of conventional systems that require 2 chips to first convert 48V to an intermediate voltage such as 12V, then from 12V to 3.3V. Our approach for the automotive market includes developing these automotive-grade ICs that integrate protection functions to prevent IC destruction even during abnormalities. When the input voltage increases to 60V and the output and switching terminals are shorted a large amount of energy is generated, causing large current flow which can lead to destruction in ICs employing conventional short-circuit detection methods. In response, we developed a new type of protection technology that detects abnormalities beforehand to protect the IC against large currents. Also, adopting a wettable flank package that provides superior wettability and visibility contributes to improved mounting reliability. Support for the industrial equipment market Besides the automotive sector, 48V lithium ion batteries are expanding to industrial applications such as base stations and construction equipment. Many MCUs used in these sets operate at 3.3V or 5V (as in vehicle systems), enabling compatibility with ROHM's Nano Pulse ICs. And high frequency operation that cannot be achieved with existing solutions will make it possible to reduce peripheral component size.
The BD9V100MUF-C is the first IC released using this technology. The pulse width required to 3.3V output from 60V (the maximum voltage required for 48V power supplies) is 30ns, but when considering load and power supply fluctuations within the IC a narrower pulse width is needed. ROHM's IC is capable of high-speed 9ns pulse control, much shorter than 30ns, resulting in the industry's highest step-down ratio of 24:1 and enabling 2.5V output from 60V input (a pulse width of 20ns is required to step down 60V to 2.5V.) (Fig. 4) This high-speed
ELE Times | 37 | January, 2018
& the Evolution of
Soumyarendra Barik, Technology Correspondent, ELE Times
LUXURY is a subjective word. Not only it means different things to different people; it is subject to constant change. Take cars from the 80s for example. Having a power steering was considered to be the holy grail of luxury then. Power windows were fathomable only by the most affluent of the society. But the fact is, we are decades ahead of 80s. And like everything else, our cars and in-car luxury and technology have come a long way.
If you look at it, technology has come to decide the subjectivity of luxury in 2017. Today, hopping in your car is no longer like the visit to the local cathedral where you have to spend time away from access to Wi-Fi and iTunes. Today, the car has become more than just what it has been. It has become a technological iceberg, only with windscreen wipers.
question: What did Tesla do to not only survive in an unforgiving industry, but to redefine it in every way possible?
Infact, technology has not just changed in cars; it has changed the car altogether. The industrial revolution of the 18th and the 19th century gave us the internal combustion engine, and that changed the automotive world. But, the technological revolution of the 21st century gave us the electric car.
For starters, it's powered by lithium-ion batteries; the same cells that power your iPhones and laptops. But we had electric cars before Tesla, and none of them made an impact on the market. The fact is, Tesla made the electric car cool. And it did so, by using unprecedented electronic circuitry. Take Tesla's giant touchscreen for instance. From playing songs to opening the boot, from watching your favorite shows on Netflix to opening the giant sunroof, the infotainment system in Teslas sent all the big car makers back to their drawing boards.
In 2006, the early part of the noughties, Tesla unveiled the Roadster. A zippy little electric car, which could render the most sophisticated of combustion engines obsolete. Later, the Model S and Model X disrupted the entire car manufacturing industry. And that raises an important
The touchscreen panel in Tesla is special. Not only because it can do so much, but because it defines luxury today. The earliest electronic system found on any car was way back in the early 30s. It was a vacuum tube based car radio. Could you imagine having that fitted to any
ELE Times | 38 | January, 2018
Future Technology vehicle today? The fact is, we wouldn't have an electric car today without that vacuum tube car radio. Generations of inventions have aided the herald of the electric car. The giant Tesla touchscreen then is not just a central control system; it is the amalgamation of hundreds of years of innovation in the electronics industry. From the development of the first semiconductors after the Second World War to the invention of the microprocessor in the 70's and the Internet of Things today (IoT), groundbreaking designs in the electronic industry has allowed the electric car of today to be born. Experts believe that the Internet of Things will not only include your automobiles and homes, but around 30 billion different objects. And by 2020, IoT will be so big that it will have a global market valuation of about $7.1 trillion. Automobile giants Volkswagen know a thing or two about making cars. And their latest Budd-e concept seems to be a promising leap towards the future. Among its forward-thinking features is its ability to let the driver have access to devices connected in a home. All, by virtue of IoT. Do you realise how disruptive this could be? You can switch on the air conditioner in your home from your car, so that it has the perfect temperature before you enter. You can open your security gates for friends or relatives, even when you're away. Talk of luxury.
The Volkswagen Budd-e is a futuristic car equipped with groundbreaking IoT technology This neatly puts us in a place where we can understand that electronics have also brought down the production cost of electric cars and has made them a lot safer. Tesla's Model S and Model X come equipped with a state of the art autonomous mode that takes the pain out of driving. Infact, Elon Musk, Tesla's CEO, believes that electronic components are better drivers than humans. That may sound like a long shot today, but so did the electric car five years ago. And look where that has got us today.
And then, there is all the in-car technology that puts EVs on a different pedestal altogether. Tesla's R&D wing is working closely with chipmakers AMD to refine the chip that controls the entire drivetrain. The new chip will be responsible for making Teslas completely autonomous. Tech giants Google and Apple are also planning similar cars that can drive itself and learn the roads with an advanced AI system. Now you might say, this technology is one for the future. But can you imagine its potential? The reliance we have on public transport today for long distance journeys will be decreased dramatically. You would be able to get in your car, sleep, and wake up at your destination. And Musk believes that you can do all that in only a couple of years. However, if your electric car is the only self-driving vehicle on the road, that could be a bit of a problem. For complete autonomy while driving to be possible and safe, all cars on the road should be able to communicate with each other. In order to join the bandwagon of the car's technological future, automakers are working with the governments of their nation to develop what is called Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication. This would be made possible by unprecedented wireless communication between cars on the road. Infact, engineers at MIT have already started to devise an algorithm to make V2V communication possible. They predict it could bring down the number of accidents by about 80 per cent. When it's about life and death, that is a huge number. The matter of the fact is, centuries of development in electronic circuitry gave us the electric car. The car that everyone knows and believes is the future of automotive. Even motoring journalist, Jeremy Clarkson knows that. From the first vacuum tube car radio, to Internet of Things, the revolutions in electronics have given the car industry an impetus towards countless possibilities. Electric cars have arrived and are getting efficient every day. So is the infrastructure to bring and keep them on the road. Self-driving cars are only waiting in the wings due to certain diplomatic issues, and it won't be long before they become a common scene on our roads. Technology has disrupted this industry, and we've reached a point today, where it really is hard to tell what will happen in the automotive world tomorrow. But, one thing which we can tell is that it will be luxurious.
We all know that electric cars are the way forward. We know they cause less harm to the nature than traditional combustion engine powered cars. However, electric cars have certain technical benefits of their own too. Transport & Environment, which is one of Europe's leading NGOs campaigning for cleaner transport, released a report that portrayed the efficiency of electric powered cars. From the production of torque to its application on the road, electric powered cars were found to be 60 per cent more efficient than regular cars.
ELE Times | 40 | January, 2018
T&M not whole 802.11ax packets â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and back-off when an 802.11ax STA is transmitting. The following table highlights the most important changes to this revision of the standard, in contrast to the current 802.11ac implementation:
BANDS CHANNEL BANDWIDTH FFT SIZES SUBCARRIER SPACING OFDM SYMBOL DURATION HIGHEST
Figure 4. AP using MU-MIMO beamforming to serve multiple users located in spatially diverse positions
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 80+80 MHz& 160 MHz 80+80 MHz & 160 MHz 64, 128, 256, 512
256, 512, 1024, 2048
3.2 us + 0.8/0.4 us CP
+ 0.8/1.6/3.2 us CP
1024 QAM -
MODULATION DATA RATES
AP can initiate a simultaneous uplink transmission from each of the STAs by sending a trigger frame. The AP applies the channel matrix to the received beams in-order to separate the information from each user.
433 Mbps (80 MHz, 1 SS)
600.4 Mbps (80 MHz, 1 SS)
6933 Mbps (160 MHz, 8 SS)
9607.8 Mbps (160 MHz, 8 SS)
Table 1: 802.11ac vs. 802.11ax Multi-User Operation: MU-MIMO and OFDMA The 802.11ax standard has two modes of operation: Single User: in this sequential mode the wireless STAs send and receive data one at a time once they secure access to the medium.
The 802.11ax standard borrows Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) technology from 4G cellular to multiplex more users in the same channel bandwidth. The 'ax' revision divides the existing 802.11 channels (20, 40, 80 and 160 MHz wide) into smaller sub-channels with a predefined number of subcarriers which can be assigned to individual users. The smallest subchannel is called a Resource Unit (RU. Based on multi-user traffic needs, the AP decides how to allocate the channel, it may allocate the whole channel to only one user at a time or it may partition it to serve multiple users simultaneously.
Figure 3. Narrower sub-carrier spacing
Multi-User: this mode allows for simultaneous operation of multiple non-AP STAs. The standard divides this mode further into Downlink and Uplink Multi-user. 4 Downlink multi-user refers to data that the AP serves to multiple associated wireless STAs at the same time. The existing 802.11ac standard already specifies this feature. 4 Uplink multi-user involves simultaneous transmission of data from multiple STAs to the AP. This is new functionality of the 802.11ax standard, it did not exist in any of the previous versions of the Wi-Fi standard. Under the Multi-User mode of operation, the standard also specifies two different ways of multiplexing more users within a certain area: Multi-User MIMO and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). An 802.11ax AP can also combine MU-MIMO with OFDMA operation. Multi-User MIMO 802.11ax devices use beamforming techniques to direct packets simultaneously to spatially diverse users. That is, the AP will calculate a channel matrix for each user and steer simultaneous beams to 8 different users simultaneously, containing specific packets for its target user. Each MU-MIMO transmission may have its own Modulation and Coding Set (MCS) and a different number of spatial streams. In the MU-MIMO Uplink direction, the
Figure 5. A single user using the channel Vs. multiplexing various users in the same channel using OFDMA National Instruments' WLAN Measurement Suite and the PXI RF VST combine to deliver a modular and powerful test solution for 802.11ax devices. The WLAN Measurement Suite gives researchers, engineers and technologists the power and flexibility to generate and analyze a wide range of 802.11 waveforms, such as 802.11a/b/g/n/j/p/ac/ah/af. Now, with the measurement suite's latest update targeting 802.11ax, these users can speed up development work on 802.11ax devices. The software supports key features of 802.11ax including narrower subcarrier spacing, 1024-QAM, and Multi-user OFDMA. The updated measurement suite also includes LabVIEW system design software example code to help engineers automate WLAN measurements quickly and easily.
ELE Times | 46 | January, 2018
APS-7000 Series Programmable AC power sources by GW Instek GW Instek introduces new APS-7000 series programmable AC power sources, which consists of 500VA of APS-7050, 1000VA of APS-7100, 2000VA of APS7200 and 3000VA of APS-7300. APS7000 series feature power characteristics from its linear structure design including low noise, low THD, and highly stabilized power output that are ideal for the product development and verification of input power with low noise requirement or stereo, video and audio device applications, etc. The maximum rated voltage is 0~ 310Vrms, 25.2Arms, 100.8A peak current and the output frequency range is 45~500.0Hz. Users can conveniently augment the output voltage from 0Vrms to 600Vrms and output frequency from 45Hz to 999.9Hz by purchasing options without sending equipment back to GW Instek. APS-7000 series have the characteristic of absorbing reverse current so that additional power consumption resistors are not required. The input terminal of APS-7000 series is designed to isolate from the simulated AC power grid output terminal, therefore, users do not need an additional isolation device to protect DUT. APS-7000 series are suitable for simulating power grid and conducting inverter output characteristic tests, including synchronized phase and frequency. Reverse current and power detected by APS-7000 series will be displayed in red readings to facilitate
user's test observation. APS-7000 series utilize Simulate mode and Sequence mode to provide a single step or consecutive power changes; and to simulate power grid's Voltage Abnormality Test and Frequency Abnormality Test. APS-7000 series comprise nine measurement and test functions (Vrms, Irms, F, Ipk, W, VA, PF, Ipk hold, CF), and provide user interface similar to that of AC Power Meter. APS-7000 series are ideal for the LED industry and standby mode power consumption test. Under the ARB mode, APS-7000 series provide waveforms in seven categories including Sine waveform, Triangle waveform, Staircase waveform (Square wave), Clipped Sinewave, Crest factor waveform, Surge waveform, and Fourier series and 20,000 waveform combinations so as to meet the requirements of simulating abnormal input power waveform test of various industries. Ten Preset settings allow users to store ten sets of data; Power ON Output setting allows Sequence, Simulate, and Program to automatically execute output after the equipment power is on. To meet the test criteria of line voltage fluctuation often seen in consumer electronics, APS-7000 series feature five methods to cope with special purpose or abnormal voltage, frequency, and phase; ten sets of the Simulate mode simulate power outage, voltage rise, and voltage fall; ten sets of the Sequence mode allow
ELE Times | 47 | January, 2018
users to define parameters and produce sine wave by editing steps; ten sets of the Program mode can edit AC waveform output and define the ceiling and floor level of measurement items for different DUTs; Ramp Control allows users to set the variation speed for output voltage rise and fall; Surge/Dip Control simulates DUT's input power producing a Surge or Dip voltage overlapping with output voltage waveform at a specific time. For larger current output applications, voltage drop across the output cables should be avoided. APS-7200/7300 also provide the remote sense function, which senses DUT's voltage and sends the information back to APS-7200/7300 for program controlled voltage compensation. Therefore, APS-7200/7300 can provide users with very accurate large current measurement applications. Ethernet Port, on the rear panel, can be used for remote program control; Sync Output Socket provides external 10V sync output; Signal Output Connector provides monitor of Program execution results. APS-7000 series also provide users with Trigger In/Out and Output on/off remote control functions from J1 connector on the rear panel. For more information contact: Sumit Sharma, Marketing Manager, GW Instek Mob No: +91-9999167300 firstname.lastname@example.org
The Big Leap into the Body Scanner Market in India with new R&S QPS With a long inning with the company, Mohan Manmohar Kakde, Director Projects, Sales & Operations, Rohde & Schwarz India, is a man with deep knowledge and experience of the manufacturing and telecom industry. Over the years Rohde & Schwarz is focusing on the defence market in India having good experience in understanding the nuances of the opportunities against the challenges, found here. Kakde, here speaks about Rohde & Schwarz's global business strategy, giving particular focus to the introduction of the Quick Personnel Scanner (R&S QPS), with which the company is preparing to conquer the body scanner market in India. How is R&S business globally? What are the updates?
Mohan Manmohar Kakde Director Projects, Sales & Operations Rohde & Schwarz
Across its business fields, R&S is doing satisfactory progress. Especially for Software Defined Radio, company has huge success with German Armed Force. The company has added new business fields like Media solutions, IP based Voice Communication System, Cyber Security solutions, Counter UAV System, Body scanner etc. In addition, the company is consistently striving to be innovative on the technology development, share all the updates with their clientele, media. Today we have invited you all to share information on the body scanner solution from R&S, Quick Personnel Scanner. Please tell us what the current security aspects are and why is the need of body scanner? Twenty First Century has witnessed unprecedented transformation of security dynamics in the world. Terrorism and extremism have changed the threat perception of states. The old security
ELE Times | 48 | January, 2018
paradigms are giving way to new ones in which many governments now view global security concerns at the domestic level. Insecurity reflects a combination of threats and vulnerabilities, implying that states can reduce insecurity by either reducing vulnerability or decreasing threats. How the security measures are planned and actually implemented depends on the region, country and the authorities. In this perpective, body scanner in of the key need, which helps human efforts by automated, faster & accurate analysis/results. Please tell us on the technology used in R&S solution, how safe it is for human body. Any apprehensions on the use? Body scanners were developed in the early 1990s, operating in the X-ray range, later in microwave range and now on millimeter wave. Previously, body scanners were designed to generate images but this lead to emotionally charged public debate that forced authorities in the US and Europe to change their acceptance regulations. It is now forbidden to display photo-like images
Security at checkpoints. The challenge was to develop a method of detecting suspicious objects fully automatically; millimeter wave technology is the solution, which has rapid image processing system that could reliably filter out anomalies from the measured data for display on an Avita. What about the shape and convenience at the airports? Does body scanner takes consideration of the emergencies, evacuations etc. How is overall convenience? The tight spaces common with booth solutions are outdated. R&S solution has visually appealing, spacesaving flat panels that can be integrated without barriers into the checkpoint area. The open design gives security personnel an unobstructed view of the entire checkpoint. The scan procedure, considered unpleasant with traditional equipment because passengers are required to hold their hands up in the air as if being stopped by police is now significantly more comfortable for passengers. Arms are slightly spread in a natural pose that is possible even for physically impaired individuals and is considered ethically correct across cultures. R&S solution has no moving parts hence no stoppage of operation for calibration, it can works run continuously, its noise less. It uses modern technology of multistatic principle familiar from radar technology, where the reflected transmit signal is applied to a large number of receive antennas simultaneously; it should provide better illumination of the scanned individual, leading to an improved quality of detection. R&S has used their core strength of RF technology and German engineering in their solution. Will you please elaborate on the RF technology you have mentioned? Traditional microwave scanners illuminate objects at frequencies below 30 GHz. In contrast, R&S system achieve higher spatial resolution as it operates in the millimeter wave frequency band between 70 GHz and 80 GHz, the band also used by vehicle parking sensors. At about 1 mW, the peak transmit power is approximately three orders of magnitude lower than that of cellphone emissions and is almost undetectable in the spot where the scanned person stands. How the technology adoption globally? What is R&S success? Any change takes some time, depending on the area of implementation, economics it will take short, moderate or long time. Body scanners are fast adopted in America, Europe, now picking up in Asia. The benefits of R&S solution are well understood & appreciated by the end users and decision makes, the success is picking up. Last but not the least, how will you summarize R&S solution and what are the plans for India? Rohde & Schwarz opens a new chapter for body scanners. Innovative hardware and software solutions satisfy the requirements of operators responsible for airport security while meeting passenger expectations to the greatest extent possible. Operators can integrate the space-saving devices into the checkpoint area without barriers to ensure high passenger throughput. Passengers experience a comfortable and non-discriminatory scan procedure. Body scanners have immense applications & need in other segments e.g. parliament, state assemblies, defence & security organisations, key establishments, exhibitions and seminars, hospitality etc.
ELE Times | 50 | January, 2018
Molly Bakewell Chamberlin, President/Sensors Industry Subject Matter Expert, Embassy Global, LLC
Reuven Goldstein, Vishay Foil Resistors brand of Vishay Precision Group, Inc.
Understanding High-Precision Resistor Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
What is Temperature Coefficient of Resistance? Temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is the calculation of a relative change of resistance per degree of temperature change. It is measured in ppm/°C (1 ppm = 0.0001%) and is defined as: TCR = (R2- R1)/ R1 (T2- T1). For high-precision resistors, this specification is typically expressed in parts per million (ppm) per degrees Celsius, with reference to normal room temperature, typically +25°C. Despite the importance of this specification, individual resistor manufacturers use different methods for defining TCR on their published
datasheets. In most cases, this definition does not provide enough information to enable an end user to accurately predict the influence of temperature changes on the resistance value. Where such published TCR variances are of concern, of course, is in their potential to create measurement uncertainty. Particularly, in applications where high-precision resistor performance and temperature stability are absolute requirements. This uncertainty is created when there is insufficient confidence that a TCR specification has been calculated with enough data to allow for the accurate prediction of the true impact of temperature change on resistor performance.
ELE Times | 51 | January, 2018
For example, some manufacturers may opt to list TCR as ±5 ppm/°C or ±10 ppm/°C, without reference to temperature range. Others may specify TCR as ±5 ppm/°C from +25°C to +125°C, yet omit data regarding other temperature ranges. In high-precision devices, such as the Bulk Metal Foil resistors manufactured by Vishay Foil Resistors, published TCR specifications include nominal typical curves, normally from –55°C to +125°C. Those curves define nominal “cold” (–55°C to +25°C) and “hot” (+25°C to +125°C) chord slopes. Their datasheets typically specify the maximum spread for each slope (e.g., ±0.2 ppm/°C and ±1.8 ppm/°C). In the case of a Bulk Metal Foil
resistor, a default TCR interpretation of Âą5 ppm/Â°C, for example, would mean that --at any point across the working temperature range-- the resistance would not change more than +5 ppm/Â°C. The Vishay Foil Resistors brand of Vishay Precision Group, Inc. (VPG) are longtime global industry experts in the design, development and manufacture of reliable high-precision Bulk Metal Foil resistors and power current sensors for a diverse array of applications. All VPG highprecision Bulk Metal Foil resistors feature some of the industry's most favorable TCR specifications, uniformly calculated per stringent industry best practices. This ensures their reliability across all resistance and operating temperature ranges. The Relationship between Temperature and High-Precision Resistor Performance The impact of temperature upon resistor performance is reflected, both internally, in terms of its effects on component operation; and externally, in terms of resistor behavior within the installation environment. Inherent to resistor design is the concept that, as electrical current flows through a resistor, it generates a certain amount of heat. This is a phenomenon known as the Joule effect. The thermal response created by the Joule effect then induces relative
mechanical changes, or stresses, within the resistor. These stresses are caused by differential thermal expansions in the resistor materials of construction, amounts of which can vary, based on the materials themselves. Ambient temperatures within the installation environment can similarly influence resistor response, in terms of generating heat which can potentially affect resistor performance. An optimal design is therefore one which minimizes high-precision resistor susceptibility to external and internal stresses during different usages and power loads, without sacrificing performance and reliability. In Bulk Metal Foil resistive technology, this goal is achieved by the creation of a precise thermo-mechanical balance between generated heat, materials of construction, and associated manufacturing processes. Through careful design, the need to compensate for the effects of heat and stress during operation can therefore be virtually eliminated, further increasing performance stability. In recognition of the important relationship between temperature and high-precision resistor performance, the R&D team at Vishay Foil Resistors ensures that its full ultra-high precision resistor portfolio is designed in this manner. For example, during the development of a
ELE Times | 52 | January, 2018
Bulk Metal Foil element, a proprietary cold-rolled foil material is bonded onto a ceramic substance. That material is photoetched into a resistive pattern, without introducing mechanical stresses onto the material. Following this process, high-precision resistors are laser-adjusted to a specified resistance value and tolerance. Because the resistive material is neither drawn, wound, nor mechanically stressed during the manufacturing process, the highprecision Bulk Metal Foil resistor can maintain its complete intended design characteristics, and therefore full performance reliability, including TCR. In contrast, other common resistor manufacturing methods, such as wire winding, thin-film sputtering, or thick-film glazing, have an inherently greater likelihood for the introduction of mechanical stresses, and therefore greater potential for thermo-mechanical imbalance. End users are therefore recommended to pay close attention to rated temperature specifications, to ensure that a resistor is operating according to published specifications. By adhering closely to these values, the enduser can be assured of continued resistor reliability, regardless of manufacturing process. When a resistor is operating above rated temperatures, it can fail to function, or otherwise incur damage which directly compromises accuracy. Should such resistor over-temperature conditions persist over an extended timeframe, individual resistance values may permanently change, leading to complete circuit malfunction. While manufacturers do routinely design products with a certain added margin of
Technology acceptable temperature limits beyond published specifications, such leeway can vary significantly by manufacturer. Interpreting TCR, Chord Slopes and Change Rate Analysis Specifications Despite differences in designs and associated manufacturing processes, TCR remains one of the most commonly accepted resistor performance stability indicators. TCR is imperative for predicting resistor sensitivity to ambient temperature variations, as well as anticipated component behavior at both low- and high-operating temperatures. In addition to its previously noted definition, TCR may be further defined as a resistance change between two temperatures, divided by the temperature difference (chord slope), or TCR = (ΔR/R)/ΔT. It is common practice to define cold chord slope from –55°C to +25°C, and hot chord slope from +25°C to +125°C (in this case ΔThot = 125 – 25 = +100°C). However, any other temperature interval (ΔT) may be defined as well. To define the rate of change in resistance at any temperature on that curve, TCR is calculated mathematically when ΔT becomes infinitely small (ΔT→ 0): TCR(ΔT→0) = (dR/R)/ dT It is well-known that the change in
resistance vs. temperature in NiCr resistors is not linear, and instead normally follows a parabolic pattern. Mathematically, this function can be described by: Y = aX2 + bX + c where: Y = ΔR/R (normally expressed in ppm) X = T (Temperature in °C). In this case, for any temperature T, Y will express the value of the change in resistance ΔR/R from the nominal value (at +25°C) in ppm. In other words, for the function Y, this will be expressed by the derivative function Y'. This function defines the slope (TCR) of a line tangent to the parabola and indicates how TCR is changing. For the above parabola function: Y'= 2aX + b (Y' is expressed in ppm/°C) For simplicity, one can also use the fact that a chord slope equals the tangent midpoint value of the relevant temperature range. For example, the value of the hot slope (+25°C to +125°C) equals the tangent value (Y') at the midpoint, T = +75°C. It is a common practice for thin-film resistor manufacturers to target best hot slope, while keeping cold slope within the specified limit. A study conducted to compare and analyze Bulk Metal Foil and thin-film precision resistor TCR, using the
ELE Times | 53 | January, 2018
change rate calculation method, has shown that the change in resistance due to temperature can be significantly larger than specified TCR limits. This comparison is based on the testing of two groups of different precision thin-film NiCr resistors, each from different manufacturers, each specifying a TCR of 5 ppm/°C. Results of this study demonstrated that the maximum change in resistance (TCR) due to temperature changes across the temperature axis from -55°C to +125°C will vary in Bulk Metal Foil resistors from -2.17 ppm/°C to +2.2 ppm/°C, for a total of less than 4.37 ppm/°C. For the same temperature range, the TCR of the thin-film resistor sample from manufacturer A will vary from -3.6 ppm/°C to +7.2 ppm/°C, for a total of nearly 11 ppm/°C; and from manufacturer B, from -9.1 ppm/°C to +4.99 ppm/°C, for a total of 14 ppm/°C. In other words, precision thin-film resistors may exhibit a TCR that is much higher than the specified limits of a manufacturer's datasheet. The Benefits of Low TCR in HighPrecision Resistor Applications Illustrations of the benefits of low TCR may be found within thousands of successful applications. For purposes of this paper, we'll review three application examples where low TCR offers certain
Technology performance advantages. Precision Instrumentation Transmille, a leading UK manufacturer of high-accuracy digital multimeters, was seeking a resistor component for a new series of 8.5- and 7.5-digit units. To achieve necessary 8.5-digit accuracy, the specified resistor needed to offer extremely low TCR, high-precision, repeatability, low thermal EMF, low noise, long-term stability and minimal harmonic distortion. As the multimeter was based on an analog circuit design, the resistor needed to have minimal drift from initial values when operating above room temperatures. The customer selected a VPG Bulk Metal Foil resistor, due to its low TCR specification of <1 ppm/°C maximum at +20°C. In addition to extremely low TCR, the resistor offered a low PCR of 5 ppm at rated power; loadlife stability of ±0.005% at +70 °C for 2000 hours, or ±0.015% for 10,000 hours; a thermal EMF of <0.05 μV/°C; and non-measurable noise. The extremely low TCR of the Bulk Metal Foil resistor allowed Transmille to introduce a new digital multimeter to market which could offer both industry best-in-class performance and necessary 8.5-digit accuracy. The resistor offered exceptional stability under maximum allowable drift, over thousands of hours of field service, even under harsh conditions. The user was further able to achieve this level of resistor performance rather cost-effectively. This allowed Transmille to introduce a new highperformance digital multimeter to market at a highly competitive price point. Metrology Secondary Reference In another example, VSL, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of the Netherlands, approached VPG for a highprecision resistor solution, as a secondary reference standard in its quantum Hall resistance (QHR) experiments. QHR is the globally recognized primary quantum resistance standard, with values of around 12.9 kΩ and 6.45 kΩ . To serve as an adequate secondary reference standard, VSL
needed a cost-effective, high-precision resistor, the values of which needed to closely match those of the primary QHR standard, yet offer a well-defined fourterminal configuration, low noise, low TCR and no RH effect, along with excellent long-term stability. Based upon the low TCR offered by VPG, VSL selected one of the company's ultrahigh precision resistors. The chosen resistor integrated 11 elements into a single housing, allowing for lower TCR and longer-term drift than could be achieved via a single resistive element. The device offered the necessary terminal connections, hermetic sealing for humidity protection, and oil fill, further ensuring that resistance values would remain largely unaffected by sudden temperature changes. The units were then tested for TCR value confirmations vis-à-vis the published VPG specification. For this purpose, the resistor was subsequently mounted within an enclosure thermostated at 29.00 ± 0.02°C, for further reduction of TCR effects, then measured against the primary QHR over a more than five-year period. Results of the five-year study showed that the actual long-term TCR of the two Bulk Metal Foil resistive elements were less than 0.5 ppm/°C over a temperature range of +18 °C to +28 °C, with a (very) small second order temperature coefficient Beta. This was well below the initial published 2 ppm/°C specification (over -55 °C to +125 °C), and proved the VPG resistors to be a reliable secondary QHR reference standard. Here, published TCR served as an added benefit, in terms of its empirically proven capability to exceed published specifications under long-term use. Diode Laser Current Drivers In another example, low-cost and easyto-use diode lasers are a virtual measurement staple in experimental atomic physics. For a diode laser to maintain its frequency, output power, current and temperature, careful regulation of parameters is required. To best manage costs, the Physics
ELE Times | 54 | January, 2018
Department at California State University looked to construct its own low-cost, lownoise current source for use with its inlaboratory diode lasers. To generate a suitably stable laser stream, the current sense resistor needed to be resistant to both internal and external temperature drifts, have a high-power rating, and a low thermal EMF. The most critical element of the current driver is the subcircuit, responsible for current regulation, since laser stability must not exceed overall sense resistor stability. In this application, the use of traditional commercial current controllers was too cost-prohibitive. The viable resistor solution therefore needed to be both lowcost and high-precision. The “True” Value of TCR in HighPrecision Resistor Selection For engineers selecting high-precision resistors, TCR specifications can help them to better predict reversible shifts in component resistance from an ohmic value within the application, both under intended operating temperatures and within the installation environment. Such data offers insights into key longer-term resistor performance indicators, and ultimately finished product designs. As TCR calculation methods can vary by manufacturer, manufacturing process, materials of construction, and other aspects, it is important for an end user to understand any nuances in the chosen method. This understanding, in turn, helps them to better understand the value of such data as a true component reliability metric. VPG Foil Resistor methods for TCR calculation follow strict protocols for high-precision resistors, with goal of helping customers to be confident in the long-term reliability of such components within demanding applications.
This is an edited version of the original article. To read the complete article log on to www.eletimes.com
Block your calendar
24 January, 2018 Hotel Green Park, Chennai, India th
“Redefining the Indian Electronics Supply Chain...”
International Conference & Buyer-Seller Meet Conference Theme: “Vision for Value Addition in ESDM Sector”
Buyers Confirmed so far & their Sourcing Interest
Many more to Conﬁrm...
Participation Charges for Delegate: ELCINA & MAIT Members : Rs.5500/- + GST 18% Extra Non Members : Rs.6500/- + GST 18% Extra Discount : 10% discount for 2 or more delegates from same Organisation.
A B2B Event for suppliers and buyers from Consumer Electronics and Home Appliances Telecommunications Information Technology & Computers Auto Electronics, Industrial Electronics, Lighting, Medical, Solar and more.. New opportunity : Introducing Electrical Vehicles
IMPORTANT: Supporting Association Members will get 10% discount on the Non-Member Rates Delegate fee includes delegate pass, conference kit and complimentary lunch coupons. Delegates will be entitled for pre-arranged Buyer-Seller meetings.
Interaction for Business Development Opportunities - Demand Supply Gaps One to One Meetings between OEMs, ODMs, EMS companies with manufacturers of components, parts, consumables …… Opening a Gateway to India by Inviting global manufacturers & investors interested in the Indian market Enable JVs and partnerships
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Supporting Organisations Electronic Industries Association of India (ELCINA) #422. Okhla Industrial Estate Phase III, New Delhi 110020 Phone: +91-11-2692 8053 | Fax: +91-11-2692 3440 |www.elcina.com
CEAMA INDIAN PRINTED CIRCUIT ASSOCIATION
ST offers Payment Technology and Security Solution for IoT
Deepak Agarwal Senior Marketing & Application Manager Secure Microcontrollers ASEAN, ANZ & India STMicroelectronics
In the recently held 19th edition of SmartCard Expo 2017, in New Delhi, Deepak Agarwal, Senior Marketing & Application Manager, Secure Microcontrollers, ASEAN, ANZ & India, STMicroelectronics, spoke to Dibyoshnata Talukdar from ELE Times on how Smart Cards application in India is leveraging on the country's financial activities and on how his company is taking great strides moving ahead in the Smart Card technology roadmap.
ELE Times: What is the Indian mobile payment scenario today? Do you see it catching on? Deepak Agarwal: E-commerce market in India is growing due to rising online and mobile penetration, increasing consumer confidence around online transactions, and the growing presence of online gateways. The fast-growing e-commerce market is acting as a driver of payment card market growth, with credit and debit cards accounting for 25% of the total ecommerce transaction value. Emerging payment methods such as digital wallets, mobile wallets, and carrier billing are also being increasingly used for online purchases. Smart card technologies now comprise an integral part of the economy, as evidenced that the average enduser—consumer, business or government—utilizes smart card technologies for financial transactions, authentication to services or access control. India is emerging as one of the world's fastest-growing smartcard markets. Currently, Smart Card market in India is growing approximately at CAGR
ELE Times | 56 | January, 2018
of 13%. ELE Times: Which areas in Banking sector –you see the adoption of Smart Card technology and what solutions do you offer? Deepak Agarwal: Banking is key area where the increasing need for highly secure payment transactions drives the banking card market towards chip-andPIN solutions. The contactless/dual interface trend is being confirmed and should be reinforced in the coming years: contactless payments facilitate small payment transactions and maximize adoption and user experience. NFC (nearfield communication) technology is technology at the heart of an expanding spectrum of easy-to-use, intuitive, contactless & secured payment applications using our mobile phones. Already Samsung Pay is launched in India which allows to link multiple credit, debit cards to payment application. Our STPay system-on-chip solution offers a comprehensive range of “ready-to-use” banking solutions, including Static Java, Dynamic Java and Multos OS -based solutions, covering a wide range of
Technology payment applications such as Visa, Mastercard, CUP, Amex, Discover, JCB, CPA and many other domestic brands. For NFC-based solutions in mobile devices or wearables, we offer a complete portfolio from the ST21NFC NFC controller family to the ST53 / ST54 system-in-package platforms combining an ST31 or ST33 secure element with a STS392x booster or ST21NFC NFC controller embedding boosted NFC technology based on Active Load Modulation
Criteria EAL6+, EMVCo) & cover complete range a complete range of interfaces for both contact and contactless communication, including ISO/IEC 7816, ISO/IEC 14443 Type A & B, NFC, USB, SPI and I²C. ST is focused on 3 main vectors: •
Banking & ID solutions for traditional smartcard businesses such as payment, people identification, transport, and pay TV.
Mobile security addressing SIM solutions for cellular connectivity in mobile, wearable and machine-tomachine (M2M) products, as well as secure solutions for near field communication (NFC & eSE) and Secure Driving in automotive applications.
ELE Times: Can you please elaborate on your offerings for smartcard applications? Deepak Agarwal: ST is a technology leader in Smartcard with cutting-edge solutions for a broad range of applications in Banking, E-ID/eGovernment, IT Security, Telecom, Transport and Wearable. We offer a complete secure microcontroller product line from traditional applications such as SIM, Banking or ID to the latest one such as secure mobile transactions or IoT. All our secure microcontrollers are certified to the latest security standards (Common
Authentication covering brand protection, TPMs and strong authentication solutions for IoT networks
ELE Times: What are products are demonstrated and their applications at ST's booth at SmartCards Expo? Deepak Agarwal: ST is a global semiconductor leader serving customers
across the spectrum of electronics applications and a top supplier of secure solutions, and demonstrated our latest innovative products and technologies for the Internet of Things (IoT) at the 19th edition of SmartCards Expo 2017 in New Delhi, India. We showcased the widest array of technologies and solutions in payment technology and secure solutions dedicated to the banking and identification markets, secure transactions and wearable products for the Internet of Things, as well as for smarter homes and cities. Our star product was the mRobot Secure Platform, which is a complete system integration to manage platform integrity and to assure secure application update. The demo, a robot driven by an STM32L4 microcontroller embedding ProvenCoreM software associated with the STSAFEA100 secure element, demonstrates how to build a protected platform. The solution is capable of performing secure boot and secure application upgrade thanks to the root-of-trust STM32 /STSAFEA100/ProvenCore-M package.
hen the market is shifting, doing more of the same is not the answer. You simply end up with more irrelevant business, more ineffective campaigns, and more wasted time. Today a sucessful company should make fundamental change, They need to move to targeted engagement models that focus with precision on the right targets, so they can get to know their prospects and address the right market with the right product at the right time. The market potential of Indian electronics sector is enormous and business opportunities abound. However, unraveling the maze of Indian electronics, scope and opportunity is a daunting task. here's the solution you've been looking for i.e. SIE 2017-2018 Available at
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To advertise in ' The Spotlight on Indian Electronics 2018-19' call us on +91-11-42750100 or 42754100 OR email us at - live @newdelhi media.co.in ELE Times | 57 | January, 2018
Commitment of Reliable Connection Deals in all types of Connectors & Wire Harness
ME 2510 (2.54)
Murata Introduces 1210 inch Wire Wound Inductor, 560µH Max, for Automotive Product Name: LQH32NH_23 Series Wire Wound Inductor Applications: Automotive Tech Info: The 1210 inch size inductor can withstand a maximum usage temperature of 125°C, conforms to AEC-Q200 and features inductance with narrow deviation (±5%). The lineup includes a world-leading maximum inductance of up to 560µH. The product starts production in August 2017.
Murata revised its design using the consumer electronics oriented LQH32MN_23 as a base, and by improving quality and strengthening its process control it has created a wire wound inductor with a maximum usage temperature of 125°C. The product also conforms to AEC-Q200, and for some inductance value item improve the rated current and provides narrow deviation (±20%) for Rdc (DC resistance). Going forward, the company will expand its offering of automotive choke inductors and expand its inventory of other inductors as well. For more information, visit www.murata.com
Nuvoton Announces High Performance Cortex-M0 M0564 Microcontroller Product Name: NuMicro M0564 Series Microcontrollers
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Application: Metering Application, Solar Street Light, Glucose Meter, Vehicle Tracking System Tech Info: The new NuMicro M0564 series microcontrollers based on the Arm Cortex-M0 core, is operating at up to 72 MHz with 256 KB Flash and 20 KB SRAM. The M0564 series is pin to pin compatible with the M051 series and brings more competitive features to customers such as Voltage Adjustable Interface (VAI) for configurable serial interface connection, up to 144 MHz operating PWM for precision control, supports 8 sets of UART, 20 channels of 12-bit ADC, and up to three sets of Universal Serial Control Interfaces (USCI) supporting flexible serial interfaces. The M0564 series is available in LQFP48, LQFP64 and LQFP100 packages. For more information, visit www.nuvoton.com
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ELE Times | 58 | January, 2018
RECOM 18w and 30w AC/DC for Medical Applications
Product Name: RACM18-ER and RACM30-ER series
Allegro MicroSystems, LLC Introduces New 0° to 360° Angle Sensor ICs Product Name: A1330, New 0° to 360° Angle Sensor ICs Application: Automotive Tech Info: Allegro's A1330 devices include a system-on-chip (SoC) architecture that includes: a CVH front end, digital signal processing, and either an analog or digital PWM output signal. The A1330 is offered in both single and dual die versions for systems that require redundant sensors. They also include on-chip EEPROM technology, capable of supporting up to 100 read/write cycles, for flexible endof-line programming of calibration parameters. Both devices are ideal for automotive applications requiring 0° to 360° angle measurements, such as motor position measurements for pumps and other actuators, that require low latency and high-resolution. The A1330 also includes on-chip scaling to support “short stroke” applications with as little as 11.25° of motion, like valve position, pedal position, and fuel tank level sensing. For more information, visit www.allegro.com
Han M23 Power Offers Convincing High Current Carrying Capacity
Applications: Medical, Smart Building, Automation Appliances Tech Info: The RACM18-ER and RACM30-ER series comprise reliable and highly efficient power conversion modules for versatile uses in medical, household and industrial applications. They comply with requirements of the high-risk nature of medical applications, where very high standards of safety and reliability must be fulfilled. The modules take up less than 2”x2” on the PCB and their compact round shape design also allows them to be fitted into flush mount wall installations. For easy integration, the series are covered by the latest medical, household and ITE certifications and they pass Class B with at least 6dB below the limits without the need for any external components. They are CE-marked and come with a threeyear warranty. Samples are now available at all authorized distributors. For more information, visit www.recom-power.com
STs' Advanced Image-Stabilizing Gyroscope Product Name: L20G20IS Miniature 2-axis MEMS Gyroscope Application: Camera Modules
Product Name: Han M23 Power Application: Drive Technology Tech Info: The robust housing of the Han M23 Power meets IP protection classes 67 / 69K in closed position – making it particularly suitable for harsh industrial environments. Due to the tool-free assembly, the connector is suitable both for field assembly by service personnel as well as for serial production. With power contacts for a voltage range of up to 630 V AC and a maximum current carrying capacity of 28 A, large amounts of power can be transmitted in small installation space. In line with the contact insert, the Han M23 series offers a wide range of housings: straight, angled and rotatable sleeve housings, as well as the various bulkhead and coupling housings, in order to adapt optimally the connectors to the requirements of the respective environment.
Tech Info: The L20G20IS maintains its extreme accuracy even when soldered on the latest ultra-thin substrates, which are typically only 0.2mm or 0.3mm thick and increasingly used by handset designers to create new super-slim and flat cases with no “camera bump.” By eliminating the effects of substrate deformation as the smartphone is moved, the L20G20IS keeps the Zero-Rate Level (ZRL) within specification to ensure consistent measurements for image stabilization. The L20G20IS is compatible with singleor dual-camera modules and is available now in the 12-lead 2mm x 2mm LGA package. Pricing is from $1.69 for orders of 1000 pieces. For more information, visit www.st.com
For more information, visit www.sps.harting.com
ELE Times | 59 | January, 2018
Importers & Distributors
Systellar Innovations Brings MNRE approved All in One type Solar Street Lights Product Name: All In One type Solar Street lights Applications: Lighting Tech Info: MNRE approved All In One type Solar street lights are in 7W, 9W, 12W and 15W, 20W, 25W LED models in India. It is a new age and compact lighting solution integrating Solar panels, LED light, Lithium-ion battery and a PIR motion sensor. This light incorporates proprietary Systellar LED driver technology which combines worldclass battery charging technology with high-efficiency electronics. All In One Solar street light uses a PIR motion sensor to adjust the LED light brightness intelligently. On detecting any movement, the LED glows at full brightness.
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If no movement is detected for more than 1 minute, the brightness is reduced to one-third. This intelligent brightness control coupled with maintenance free Lithium-ion battery technology provides longer backup time and better battery life. For more information, www.systellar.co.in
Expanded Lineup Of Compact
High-power Low-ohmic Shunt Resistors Product Name: Compact High-Power LowOhmic Shunt Resistors Applications: Automotive, Industrial Equipment, LargeScale Consumer Electronics Sectors Tech Info: Unique materials and structure allowed ROHM to successfully reduce surface temperature rise by 45% compared with conventional products. As a result, stable resistance is achieved not only during normal operation but at overcurrent loads as well. In addition, adopting a high-performance alloy as the resistive metal results in excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) even in the low resistance region, ensuring greater accuracy and reliability. And the proprietary structure supports a lower profile form factor (0.4mm), 47% thinner than existing solutions. This ensures sufficient margin in sets demanding strict temperature requirements, such as automotive and industrial equipment applications, reducing design load and contributing to further end-product miniaturization. This series is also available for purchase (from November 2017) from online distributors Chip One Stop, Zyco Store (Core Staff), and RS Components at a pricing rate of 195 yen/pc (excluding tax). For more information, visit www.rohm.com
Web: www.bpimpexindia.com ELE Times | 62 | January, 2018