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Walmart Parking Lot Regeneration Transform walmart parking lot into public green space in suburban area Yimiao Li 2012


Š 2012 Yimiao Li. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-234-56789-1

Walmart Parking Lot Regeneration

Yimiao Li



This book is written for a thesis which is based on an accumulation of researches, knowledge and design tests gained over the past two years, While this book might serve as the closing product of my MLA degree, it will always stand out as a highlight of my academic journey in the study of Landscape Architecture. To achieve this academic milestone, I got much support and help, I really appreciate my study experience here. A major thanks to Professor Rod Barnett for all his effort, patient, logical guidance and insightful suggestions for my projects during the whole process. Rod knows how to teach us effectively ,how to management the time, and how to design landscape in a logic way. He inspired us to keep climbing on a higher level of research and design qualities with his broad knowledge and insight. To Professor Pittari, guide me with useful planning knowledge and key point for my project, and provide me very helpful books and lectures. To Professor Michael Robinson, thank you for your guidance about detail, the main direction and realistic works. To Professor Jocelyn Zanzot who allowed me to be part of the team, working under her successful project, mobile studio and small hospital big idea competition. The experience and knowledge gained from this grant is immeasurable. Thanks to Professor Jacqueline Margetts for her useful instruction in teaching me how to do a good presentation in her Contemporary Landscape Course, which changed me a lot in the later presentation preparation for

other courses. Thanks to David hill, for help me with my design, let me have a sense of space and improve the creativity. I would like to thank my family and especially to you, my mom, for being a constant source of encouragement, love and support. My father ,you give me financial support for my study. I wish you all pride of me and I pride of you too! I am grateful for my parents’ unconditional support and encouragement in giving me freedom to live the life I want. Without your support and sacrifice I cannot make it. Finally thank to my best friend cunqing, with your company it become a happy and unforgettable journey to me. And last, I’d like to thank all of my classmates for their encouragement,care and support which make Auburn an suffering and sweet place for me. The shining Europe trip to Rome, Paris and Munich; the sad experience when I cry in a corner of one of outdoor presentation; the happiness moment when our team cooperate to won the suburban transform competition after huge quarrels. I also remember many late nights without a car to go back home making me choose this thesis topic. That is all my experience here which I cherish a lot.




a. Explanation of problem of the parking lot,suburban,walmart b. Objective

a. Site location b. Map analysis c. Site history d. Town center analysis

a. Case study b. Experiment c. Phytoremediation d. Parking lot

a. Public space must be multifunctional b. Ecological design and co-evolve is key c. Detail Design d. Final Design

a. Conclusion b. Limitation 7

“What brings us together with people is not that we live near each other, but that we share the same timetable: It is our sense of time, our sense of ritual, which in the long run creates our sense of place, and of community� - J.B. Jackson

Theoretical Framework

What is initial condition? Design with initial condition is a kind of bottom-up design. Design emphasis is on form-finding instead of form-making. The final design is not a new creation of the landscape architect, it is more of an outcome of a generative process. Based on the steady data, Walmart would leave in 30 or 40 years. How to reuse the vacant parking lot needs to be rethinking. Because of the unknown future use of the big box as well as unknown future planning change to this kind of space, it requires the designer to develop an adaptive approach to transform the parking lot, set up the initial condition , let the interaction of people and the ecosystem find its own form, and manipulate the processes, elements and

conditions that enable ecologies to develop and evolve. At the same time landscape architects need to have some degree of control over the outcome of these processes. So in my design, there are initial operation and further operation to control the process of design.


Parking lots have been described as “sterile, unattractive environments that deaden city and suburban streets alike, further isolate users and preclude lively pedestrian-friendly streets.” -(Maryland Governor’s Office of Smart Growth, (2005), Driving Urban Environments: Smart Growth Parking Best Practices,


Parking Lot Problem

Suburban Problem

Walmart Parking Lot Problem

According to the study, we have built eight parking spots for every car in the country. In some U.S. cities, parking lots cover more than one third of the land area, becoming the single most salient landscape feature of our built environment. We need to think more about these lots as public spaces, part of the infrastructure of our streets and sidewalks. Can places for various activities change and evolve?

The U.S. is predominantly suburban country. Suburban growth has surged over the past 30 years, doubling population to over 113 million. From 1982 to 2003 the U.S. population increased by 25 percent while developed land increased to 48 percent, nearly double of that rate. There are 35 million acres of developed land. The current economic crisis has left millions of square feet vacant, abandoned, and foreclosed development.

Walmart is famous for its large parking lot. The same as the big box, these parking lots are also single-functioned, single-minded, and lack of ecological function. They become scars of a city.

People rely too much on cars because public transit systems are often so abysmal. The urban planning of the suburban area are single-minded, only considering the people with a car. J.B Jackson pleaded that the parking lot be treated like the city common with its own community values.

Auburn is a typical example of suburban town. It suffered from the disadvantage of suburban model. In Auburn, only the Toomer‘s Conner can be considered as the public space for the town, however, it is too small to have any big activities. Public space is vital for residents to communicate with each other and have some events in order to build a sense of community and belonging. Auburn town is lacks of such public spaces.

As the suburban population grows and spreads, its center of gravity shifts as well, altering the basic formulas of where major retailers want their primary location. Thus, it comes as no surprise that there are 167 current vacant in Walmarts, with their associated access ways and expansive parking lots. The big box building only can exist for 30-40years. After it is gone, how to reuse the vacant parking lot become an urgent topic. It is also what i am going to deal with in my following research.


Parking Lot Problem We have built eight parking spots for every car in the country. Parking lots cover more than one third of the land area. These land are boring, single minded, lack community value. 2.8 million acres of greyfields to be avalable for redevelopment by 2015. If 1/4 were redeveloped, we could meet half our house re-inhabitation.

Walmart Problem

1100 shoppingmall all over the country: 100 dead , 200 sick. More than 50000 strip malls , and 11% of them are vacancy site.

The big box building only can exist for 30-40years. After it gone, parking lot become scar of a city. Lack of ecological function. Lack of social function , which might become a public space and have multiple function.


Suburban Problem Car dominated life style waste more energy and money. It made the country so depend on foreign oil. Health problem: obesity trends among U.S. Suburban pattens have been liked with sedentary life styles. Dramatic increases in obesity and consequent higner risk factors for cardiovasular disease and diabetes. Transportation fee: 9-12% in walkable urban. 25% in drivable suburban 30% in lower income sprawl. The current economic crisis has left millions of square feet of vacant, abandoned, and foreclosed development. 130 mil s.f. of vacant retail space has been added to the U.S. this recession. (Cushman & Wakefield, 10-2009) (approx. 7000 acres) Urban dwellers have 1/3 the carbon footprint than suburban dwellers.

Problems Suburban Parking lot Community





Goals social problem

waste enery and stormwater


relay on

land effiPublic





History 15


I Retransform grey field into green field for public use in suburban area

1 research on residents composition and their casual way to use that place. Figure out what is their needs. 2 research the possible way to use the parking lot and how to use it? 3 experiment on multiple way to change the parking lot into community center and to find out the best solution. 4 research on the local weather ,topography, soil

II Create a sustainable environment on parking lot


III Provide a catalyst for a healthier lifestyle

1 research on the current and historical ecosystem to inspect the existing ecosystem condition. Study the advantages and disadvantages of it. Which part need to improve? ( Find out the rule to judge the ecosystem) 2 research and experiment to find out the best way to improve the ecosystem condition. 3 design to open up the ecosystem which people can enjoy . Meantime,design program for the eco-route. 4 research and ex-

1 design the program and facilities to educate people a sense of healthier lifestyle.(process) 2 research to design a walkable community to attract residents nearby to this park for recreation.


Site Introduction and Analysis

Site selection: I choose the walmart parking lot in the south collage road of Auburn since it has all the main components of a typical walmart parking lot. Residents community, business and fragmented ecosystem are around it. It is at the side of the main road. I lived in the nearby community for a long time. So It was a chance to have a closed eyes on the site and residents activity within this area.


Location Map

[city scale]

Site is located in the south college

[region scale]

[site scale]

Regional Analysis

[ social density ]

[ light at night ]

[ water system ]

[ building ]

[ ecosystem ]

[ community system ] 21

Natural and Social Intensity Based on google map to figure out the natural intensity. Connecting the main point

Based on people’s activities to find out the social intensity. Focused on the busi-

Parking Lot Map in Auburn


water connectio greenway conne

Natural and social desity map


Site History



In 1958 the site was open space. With part of the forestry on site.

In 1971 more roads were built. The surrounding en-


In 1998 site was surrounded by forestry. More areas are covered by forestry. Some area near the high way was occu-


In 2011, this site was occupied by walmart. Previous greenland was removed and change to grey parking lot. More students communities and single families 25

Town Center Analysis Figure out: Community centers are always near the supermarket. Parking lots always provide cheap land for residents to have emergency activities.

The overall social environment in Auburn Auburn is a suburban town, single families are all of the land, but it lacks of public space. In our mind, only the Toomer’s corner is the public space. But it is not large enough for some activities.

Most of apartments around the south college street are students’ apartment, especially those near the walmart. Students come in and get out frequently. They do not have the since of community and sense of place. They need the

public space to share the public experience and life with each other as well as local residents. They need a public space nearby their community. Walmart parking lot is a perfect place to meet such needs.

Relationship Analysis


Contextual Research

• • • •

Case study Experiment for future direction Phytoremediation Walmart parking lot research




Case study shows several initiative research and attempts which is considered to be a successful way to deal with parking lot problems. Urban planning and landscape architecture both do their effort to solve this problem. However, they choose the different ways to do. According to case studies, my design will take the advantage of them at the same time generate a better way that especially fit to abundant walmart parking lot.


Re-inhabitation Other examples


uch as From K-Mart to the Museum of Spam. From Walmart to mega church. From dying mall to artist theater.( Art Space at Crest wood Count Mall. St. Louis, MO).From strip center to hip “third place“( La Grande orange Croceria, Phoenix)

From grocery store to library North Branch Public Library Denton, Texas


his project reinvents an abandoned grocery store into a library. The design adapts the existing footprint into a highly functional library and reconfigures the site to provide a foreground for the building that supports its reuse. A new glass curtain wall, composed of both transparent and translucent glazing, visually transforms the building from a grocery store into a library.

Re-development Urban Planning Way --- For Growth Ar-


rban Planning Way is always to find a solution to shrink the area. Using the smart-growth strategies to transform a suburban community into a complete community. Shrink the parking lot or change the surround planning.

Urban Planning Way is suitable for those areas which surge a lot in the future. According to rearrange the lay out, encourage multiple way to access into the site other than caronly.

Highly energy and water-efficient buildings Allow densification without increased 33

Re-design stormwater system

Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, Inc., Ap-

ASLA Design Honor Award, Herman Miller Factory Landscape, Cherokee County, GA1


proached the project with a simple strategy: They graded the entire 22-acre building site at five percent to place the factory on a level base, so that water would sheet drain from impervious areas into wetlands they constructed for the purpose, thereby eliminating the need for curbs, pipes, and manholes. The parking lot was divided into three bays that drain into wetlands planted with grasses, forbs, and sedges. When dry, these areas become meadows. The edges of these wetland trays transition to 10 to 15-footwide thickets of floodplain trees.


Thornton Creek Water Quality

As landscape architects and civil engineers, SvR designed the channel to treat runoff generated from 680 acres during small, high-frequency storms.

The channel provides habitat and functions as a bioswale, mimicking the structure of a natural stream bed and riparian zone with a central base flow channel and densely vegetated banks. The site provides water quality treatment and accommodates seasonal high flows. Channel highlights include:

Designed to remove an estimated 40-80% of total suspended solids from 91% of the average volume of annual stormwater runoff from the 680-acre drainage basin. Created new habitat within this heavily paved commercial area. Within one month after opening, native birds were observed at the project. A variety of desirable native volunteer plants have migrated into the site and begun to establish. Catalyzed $200 million in adjacent private residential and commercial development.

Increased open space within the Northgate Urban Center by about 50%. Provides pedestrian links from adjacent commercial and residential neighborhoods. Shortened walking access by 50%. Reduced impervious surfaces by 78%.


[ Ex路per路i路ment City Pattern Experi-



Use different successful urban pattern in walmart parking lot in order to find out the best direction to transform it. Judge these experiments with


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1 Encourage community interacts by changing the parking

lot into community center 2 Connect the existing condition to surrounding ecosys-


[ Phy·to·re·me·di·a·tion ]



Phytoremediation is a bioremediation process that uses various types of plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, or destroy contaminants in soil and groundwater. By harnessing the natural capabilities of plants we can


[ Three Ways of Phytoremediation ]

Motor vehicles are a constant source of pollutants, the most significant pollution elements are gasoline, motor oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. (PAHs are found in combustion by-

Main contamination in parking lot 1 metals 2 Lead

Based on new research: Sun flower can not do a lot of work as it shows. It is not Annuals Perennials Tree Water plant Crop


[ Research on Main Contaminants in Parking Lot ]

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) pinpoint-

ed parking lot sealants as a significant source of non-point source pollution, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a known carcinogen that can be toxic to fish and wildlife.1 PAHs are found in exhaust from vehicles and other gasoline and diesel engines, emission from coal, oil, and woodburning furnaces, cigarette smoke; general soot and smoke, and cooked foods, especially charcoal-broiled; in incinerators,coke overns, and asphalt processing and use.2 1 Van Metre, P. et al, (2006), Parking Lot Seal coat: A Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban and Suburban Environments, USGS Fact Sheet 2005-3147, January 2006. 2 Brownfields to green fields a field guide to phytoremediation

Automobiles are also a major source of pollutants in parking lot runoff, including antifreeze, oil, hydrocarbons, metals from wearing brake linings, rubber particles from tires, nitrous oxide from car exhausts, and grease. Other polluting materials include pesticides, fertilizers, litter, pet waste, dirt, and sand.3 Main contamination: iron, aluminum, copper, lead, phosphorus, nitrogen.

3 U.S. EPA, (2007), Polluted Runoff (Non point Source Pollution) website, accessed at:

[ Research on Phytoremediation ]

Excavation and Fill



Based on experiment : Contaminants succesfully removed in field studies have include heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated solvents, petroleum, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and explosives.


The benefit of phytoreme- mediation on sites where Most diation: Plants offer an aesthetic as well as an environmental value to the city beyond the phytoremediation process. Improved air quality and reduce storm water runoff. It can be a lowcost, but time-intensive alternative to traditional re-

toxins are at shallow depth. It can also be an effective approach to reducing the leaching of contaminants through soil or groundwater, and can be used in combination with other remediation techniques.

phytoremediation processes make use of the everyday plant process of transpiration, in which water and nutrients are brought up from the soil through the roots, used and distributed through trunks and branches, and evaporate through pore-like sto45

[ Parking Lot ]



Main problem are forcus on impervious surface, the over calculation of the parking lot , uncomfortable single minded design and the lack of so-


[ Parking Lot Problems ]

Car parking = 550’000 soccer fields Cars would occupy 1096352 acres of land if they were all housed in surface parking

3 [ Uncomfortable ] Can parking lot be designed in a more attractive and aesthetically pleasing way? Can parking lots be multifunction? Are there any great parking lots that can inspire alternatives? Can they be integrated into our built environment? They should be treated not as a residual space of our built world ,but as an integral part of it.

1 [ Impervious surface ] Large impervious surfaces increase runoff and affect watersheds, while exposed pavements increase the heat island effect of cities.

5[PULLUTION] faces increase r tersheds, while increase the he ies.

] Large impervious surrunoff and affect wae exposed pavements eat island effect of cit-

4 [ Lack of social function ] Parking lots are also a central part of our social and cultural life. They influence the way we drive, the destinations we choose, and the way we behave while looking or a parking space. Parking lot usually cannot generate feelings of belonging, or effectively produce rootedness. It always associated with the term “placelessness”.

2 [ Over calculation of the parking lot ] Most parking regulations call for the peak use, which is usually applicable only a few days of the year. Despite the fact that some spaces are used every day, some are used only once or twice a year, and some may never be used at all. “The surface parking lot is a landscape ripe for transformation.” 49



The problems of impervious surface ]

1 The engineered piping system in parking lot is built in to remove water as fast as possible which has often caused downstream flooding, erosion. 2 The dioxic element in the storm water will pollute the water and pose a danger to the supply of portable water. 3 Storm water volume and speed increase. 4 It prevents recharge of the aquifer. 5 As runoff flows across, water temperature rises and pollutants such as oil, metals and soils are carried into streams and waterways. 6 Sewer systems often become overwhelmed by the rapid runoff of stormwater, causing them to overflow and, in the case of combined sewer and stormwater systems, discharge raw sewage into receiving waterways. 7 these discharges can cause algal blooms to form, depleting aquatic oxygen levels and altering a waterbody’s habitat. 8 During storm events, runoff can erode stream banks and alter the natural shape of a waterway.

A one-acre parking lot produces almost 16 times the volume of runoff as that from a similarly sized meadow; The environmental impacts of the HIE Heat island effect (HIE) occurs in urban areas where materials that have heat-absorbing properties, such as asphalt, are prevalent. In urban areas, the combined effect of such surfaces can cause a change in the energy (temperature)balance, leading to hotter air and surface temperatures. The temperature of the impervious surfaces can be 68 to 104 higer than vegetated surfaces 1 Hotter temperature can lead to more CO2 emissions due to increased energy demand to cool neighboring buildings.1 2 HIE can also increase smog, and subsequently exacerbate pulmonary and cardiovascular health problems. 3 During rain events, paved surfaces can transfer heat to runoff , increasing the temperature of receiving waters. This warmer water can be detrimental to the natural habitats of fish and other aquatic life.



Over calculation of the parking lot ]

Typically, local governments require developers to construct the minimum number of parking spaces needed to satisfy peak demand. These minimum parking regulations often result in an oversupply of parking. One study found that the average parking supply at worksites is 30 percent greater than peak parking demand. In many instances, minimum parking requirements are inflexible to adaptation or variances. Also, the methods to determine these minimum parking requirements are often excessive and over-genralized, leading to an oversupply of parking. (Litman, 2002) Because of the negative impacts of parking lots,which including diminished recharge of groundwater, high rates of stormwater runoff and pollution from car. Planner need to deal with the over supply of parking lot. EPA give some of the suggestions: 1 local governments can encourage projects that are located near public transportation to reduce the demand for parking space. Reduced minimum parking requirements—Parking requirements should be determined on a project-by-project basis instead of by formula, taking into consideration how a project’s location can shape parking needs. 2 Shared parking is also an option for single use developments in mixed-use areas.. 3 reduce stall dimensions by creating more compact car spaces and realistic stall size requirements. 4 making the parking lot more visually pleasing and pedestrian pleasing. 5 Maximum Limits on Parking. 6 In-Lieu Parking Fees.. 7 encouraging alternative modes of transportation. 8 reducing of impervious surfaces



Uncomfortable ]

Parking lots have been described as “sterile, unattractive environments that deaden city and suburban streets alike, further isolate users and preclude lively pedestrian-friendly streets.� (Office, 2005, p. 4) Parking lots are a central part of our social and cultural life. They influence the way we drive, the destinations we choose, and the way we behave while looking fora parking space. They can breed feelings of both danger and dependency. They also provide a certain inherent flexibility that stimulates spontaneous public activities such as hosting festivals and markets, or a place to celebrate the car and sport culture. We need to think more about these lots as public spaces, as part of the infrastructure of our streets and sidewalks, places for various activities that may change and evolve. (KIMMELMAN, 2012)



Lack of Social function ]

There are some principles 1 circulation of automobiles and pedestrians should be simple and direct. It must be easy to use. 2 This place should be intergrated with the life of the community. It should not be walled off from its surroundings. 3 It should accept the automobile for what it is and not try to disguise its power with scenery artifacts. 4 Hardedge separation of automobile and pedestrian activity is unnecessary. 5 Electric lighting is an essential part of the experience and should form an integral part of the design. 6 We encourage the idea of using the parking lot as an urban plaza; the place can also be used without cars. 7 The natural landscape should form part of the design. We preferred the confrontation of machines with plants rather than that of machine



Pullution ]

Parking lot runoff is a major contributor to non-point source pollution of our waterways.--As it flows across pavement, the water picks up pollutants from the surface. This results in large volumes of polluted runoff entering surface water and groundwater resources, negatively affecting water quality. The contaminants in parking lot runoff also pose a risk to wildlife. Toxic substances from contaminated ground and surface water supplies have thepotential to bioaccumulate in the tissue of fish and other organisms in the wildlife food chain.

with architecture or machines with machines.


[ Protential Parking Lot Activities ]

[ Parking Lot Activities in Community ]


[ Walmart Research ]

Walmart data around the country

As the suburban population grows and spreads,its center of gravity shifts as well,altering the basic formulas of where major retailers want their primary location. Thus, it comes as no surprise that there are 167 current vacancies in the walmarts, with their associated access ways

and expensive parking lots provides an opportunity to research and design a higher order of infill development to address the problems of living. The average vacant walmart lot covers twelve acres.

[ Walmart Logistical Location Strategies ]

Walmart Map in Auburn

5mile to walmart


US Walmart store locations and vacancies. (Photomontage by Alan Berger; see Figure Source List)

Big box retailers want cost efficient and convenient access to transportation, distribution, and sales of their goods. Retailers also want to be near population growth areas where land is less expensive and

20 mile to walmart


60% of the U.S population is within a five-mile radius of a Wal-Mart store, and 96% are within a twenty-mile radius.

moving goods from international ports to distribution centers to large big box stores can occur unencumbered by outmoded infrastructure of older, dense city centers. Be near population growth areas

where land is less expensive and moving goods from international ports to distribution centers to large big box stores.


[ Concrete and Asphalt ]

[ Auburn Town Development Research ]

Au Students Enrollment 30000 25000 20000 15000

Series 1

10000 5000 0 1960









1 People will not increase a lot in the future. 2 Only all the graduate will find off-campus

Based on above data: I suppose nearby communities population will not increase in the future. 57

Design as Research

Design and research are similar even codependent. The two should be carried out together so as to give each projects its own voice. Every aspect of a origin site must be researched and assessed. A synthesis of the results will then be expressed in my design. Trying to express the knowledge acquired through research in our design. Research and design both discoveries. In the thesis process, I am discovering new ideas though the research for the design as well as discover new ways of seeing things through research.


[ Original Site Plan ]

Site Perspectives

[ Bird View of Walmart in Auburn ]


Site Analysis Angry map is the reason for me to choose this thesis topic.

When pedestrian walk from the nearby community to walmart, they would feel very angry on some point in this map based on following reasons. 1 Lack of pedestrian road 2 Do not have crossroad for pedestrian 3 Transportation systems are designed for car. This is a car oriented area. So even residents live nearby walmart, they cannot enjoy the convenience of the short distance. They have to drive there.

Angry Map

Main animal

Car park density

Green system

Pedestrian density

Stormwater management


Based on site observation: only 1/3 of the parking lot is frequently used, in peak time 1/2 of the parking lot are being used. So decrease the parking lot

Parking lots should be designed efficiently so that spaces are used frequently and not left empty a majority of the time.

[ Parking Lot Map in Auburn ] 65

[ Precipitation ]

This map show Auburn have the highest precipitation on Feb and summer. Summer, the weather would be very hot and sun are shinning. So when comes to design, more trees are needed to provide shade for residents.

[ Topograph ]

Edge is higher than the center.


[ Community Data Map ]

2000 people communities need a common community center. Even though they each have their own sports area, they are simple and low qualities. People need better commute space, public space with sustainable environment.

[ Parking Day Activities ]

Possible activities in walmart


Design Initiate 1

Concentrate on possible activities can happened there, which make the most use of the parking lot. Carefully thinking how to design public space to support the processes that reinforce city life. Because city life is a potentially self-reinforcing process.


Timeline for activities




Figure out

1 Public space must be multifunctional. The lively public space needs varied and complex city life; where recreational and social activities are mixed with room for necessary pedestrian traffic as well as the opportunity to participate in urban life. What need to figure out ?

1 Ecology system of the site 2 what need to repair in order to have a better ecosystem for people to enjoy.


Design Initiate 2

Concentrate on find out the nearby ecosystem and find the relationship of my site with the ecosystem.

Typical animal in different habitate

Ecosystem Map Divide the nearby ecosystem into 8 types of habitats.


Increase the Accessibility in Nearby Ecosystem


Way to Attract Birds

1. Use native plants: The most important thing to do is to incorporate as many native planting in your yard as possible. Only native plants host the insect biomass required by our migrating and nesting birds. Many birds survive either largely or exclusively on insects, and virtually all nesting birds must have insects for their young. These insects provide necessary protein for nestling development. Nonnative plants host a fraction of the insects that area supported by native plants. 2 Plant large trees: Large trees,

such as oaks, maples and conifers, provide stopover sites for warblers, vireos and orioles. Orioles may stay to nest, even in relatively urban areas. 3 Create a assemblage: Dense planting of cedars, serviceberries, dogwoods, viburnums, blackberries and other shrubs and brambles native to your area provide cover, food and nesting sites for a wide variety of birds like buntings, some sparrows and some warblers. 4 Provide a water feature: Birds need water and you can meet that

need with something as simple as a birdbath made from a shallow planter saucer or as complex as an elaborate waterfall, stream and pond setup. The essential element is to keep the water clean for your feathered visitors. Birds, like humans, pass diseases through unclean feeding and watering places. 5 Nest boxes: When people began mounting nest boxes for this beautiful and popular bird, their numbers improved. This is an example of how people can make a positive difference for our nesting bird population.

Habitate for Animal

Old field •Typical sparrow: Field Sparrow •Typical warbler: Blue-winged Warbler •Typical wren: House Wren •Typical hawk: Red-tailed Hawk

Mix forest •Typical sparrow: White-throated Sparrow •Typical warbler: Black-throated Green Warbler •Typical wren: Winter Wren •Typical hawk: Northern Goshawk

Fresh water •Typical sparrow: Swamp Sparrow •Typical warbler: Common Yellowthroat •Typical wren: Marsh Wren •Typical hawk: Northern Harrier 79

Grass Root Power

Tree Root Power


Smooth crabgrass



Design Initiate 2


Figure out

1 research on the current ecosystem and historical situation of ecosystem to find out the existing ecosystem condition. What need to figure out ?

1 Combine Social + Ecol and coenvolving with nearby community.


Design Initiate 3 Detail Design

Concentrated on Combine Social + Eco and coevolving with nearby community. And do the Detail design which help the final design concept.

Storm Water Infrastructure


Drainage System

Typical facilities include retention basins, infiltration basins and percolation trenches.


Map of Disturbance


Wild seeds

More native plants

Modify+planting trees

Road disturbance


Road disturbance

Road disturbance


Plant wildweeds


Native plants





Water plants



ore native plants

Pine trees


Road disturbance

To show small initiatives that happen in different phrases.



transfor to raingarden

ad disturbance




Final Design



Impervious surface

Terrain garden Rock garden Plant recognition garden swale Filtration area Grass public square Sports area wetland Stormwater


Parking lot


Birdsview from sky in 2010

Section in 2010


2030 2030

Impervious surface

Terrain garden Rock garden Plant recognition garden swale Filtration area Trees

Grass public square Sports area wetland



Parking lot

Master plan

Birdsview from sky in 2030

Section in 2030


2100 Impervious surface

Terrain garden Rock garden Plant recognition garden swale


Filtration area Grass public square Sports area wetland



Parking lot

Master plan

Birdsview from sky in 2100

Section in 2100


Parking Lot Transform

1080 parking

1065 parking



130 385


950 parking


100 300








490 parking



340 parking





100 120

140 parking






Existing condition

Impervious Surface

Operation in

Operation in

Operation in

Plan in


Existing condi-

Ecosystem Transformation

Operation in

Operation in

Operation in

plan in

plan in


Existing condi-


Operation in

Operation in

Operation in

plan in

plan in


Existing condi-


Operation in

Operation in

Operation in

plan in

plan in


Transportation 2012

We rely too much on cars because our public transit systems are ofIn 2012 this area is a caroriented place. There are no crossroad from community to walmart. And there are no pedestrian

Transportation 2030

In 2030 the design promotes the public transportation and pedestrian road for walk into. Let residents accustom to a healthier life style. Promote walking,


Transportation 2100

After 2030, there will not be many c h a n g e s around this area. Keep on encouraging walking, bicycle and public transporta tion. Increase

Studies have shown that sprawl is damaging to both physical and social health, isolating people in car dominated environments where they are deprived not only of the physiological benefits of walking, but also of the natural human interactions typical


Section Change






Perspective at the Entrance 2030

Perspective of Night Parking Lot Film from 2012-2030


2028 Perspective in front of Wal



Masterplan Transformation of Terrain Garden

Different Views 2030 Blowup

2100 Blowup

Perspective of the Terrain Garden


Blowup of the Wetland Garden

Wetland Masterplan

Wetland Section

Wetland Plants

Perspective at the Wetland Garden


Blowup of the central area

2012 of Main Parking Lot

2030 of Main Parking Lot

2100 Perspective in Grove


Central Area Transformation and Plant Strategy







1 Time is the most important power to transform the parking lot into community public space. Using the time as a tool to break the parking lot paving in long time. Considering about the initial condition first, do small design at the very beginning towards the final result. As time went by, these initial conditions will have big change in the future. 2 Transform parking lot need to consider both ecosystem and social system together. Considering the activities already there and people’s local cultural. Most of previous projects consider a lot about the ecosystem but not many think about the relation of nearby residents with the parking lot. What the parking lot can bring to their life? What the benefit of parking lot can be used for their daily life? Can parking lots be multifunction? Are there any great parking lots that can in-


1 Need a long time, and during this period it is not car friendly place. 2 Need negotiation with walmart .Because of the zoning problems. In the long time even walmart gone, the site still be private property . How to use it for pub-



Ben-Joseph, E. (2012). Rethinking a lot. The MIT Press. Dunham-Jones, E. (1997). “Temporary Contractes�On the Economy of the Post-industrial Landscape. Harvard Design Magazine. EPA. (2008). Green Parking Lot Resource Guide. United state environmental protection agency. Gehl, J. (2010). Cities for people. Washington: ISLAND PRESS. KIMMELMAN, M. (2012, 01 06). Paved, but Still Alive. Retrieved from NY times: design/taking-parking-lots-seriously-as-public-spaces.html?_r=1 LeCavalier, J. (2010, 05 24). All Those Numbers: Logistics, Territory and Walmart. Retrieved from designobserver: (http:// Litman, T. (2002). Pavement Busters guide, Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Office, M. G. (2005). Driving Urban Environments: Smart Growth Parking Best Practices. Smiley, D. J. (2002). Sprawl and public space redressing the mall. Washington, DC: Princeton Architectural Press. Tachieva, G. (2010). Sprawl Repair Manual.

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