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I would like to thanks my family for always supporting me. I would like to thank Chris Speed as my supervisor, but also for inspiring me with his interesting thoughts of how our future can evolve and therefore twisting my mind to create different perspectives. I would also like to thank all the people that made time to talk with me about this dissertation subject and reflect upon my thoughts. I am very grateful to have met the students within this Master. All, and some in particular, helped me create a new and exiting view on the world.

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INTRODUCTION

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CONTEXT DESIGN IN EVOLVING ECONOMIES

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FROM LINEAR TO EVERYWHERE

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ONTOLOGY

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CONNECTING

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CONCLUSION

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RESEARCH RESEARCH QUESTION

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STAKEHOLDERS

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Digital technology is entering our world with high speed and changing the way we live, communicate, and therefore interact. It shifts the way we perceive time, temporality and makes humankind ubiquitous. This asks for new means of engagement with our environment . In this dissertation I will examine the evolution of the economy and relating this to the future values of artists and designers within our (digitalized) economy. By delving into the evolution of our economy, and the simultaneous transformation of design in the past decades, this dissertations will build towards the contemporary and future position of the designer. It will take in account the changes design education has gone through, and will give insights on contemporary transitions to this field. This dissertion will primarily focus on the way designers should position themselves in the realm of our shifting environment. In this dissertation, I argue that the mindset of our future designer has to change. I present a variety of interviews and case studies in order to give indepth insights on parameters that designers need to bear in mind in light of our evolving future. The case studies address two distinct fields; One speaking primarily about the impact of digital technology, and the other on the new emercing field of biotechnology.

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DESIGN IN EVOLVING ECONOMIES Being successful in the twenty-first century demands a distinct approach in comparison to previous generations. The impact of digital technology has a profound effect on nature, form, scope, communication and therefore the worldwide economy. (Chabot, 2013) This transformation has been most profound for our ‘way of living’ and has impacted the emergence of ‘design’. The linearity of value adding chains has been a decisive property in what is described as a push economy. Within the push economy the market developed (best guessed) products for the mass consumer, produced on large scale to be assured of a place on the shelves of stores (Maxwell & Speed 2015). This desire for up-scaling was fed by people like Edward Bernay, Sigmund Freud’s nephew, “father of public-relations” using (or should I say abusing), advertising/ strategies ‘to make people ‘desire’ products over ‘needing’ them. “Some women regard cigarettes as symbols of freedom, smoking is a sublimation of oral eroticism; holding a cigarette in the mouth excites the oral zone. It is perfectly normal for women to want to smoke cigarettes… But today the emancipation of women has suppressed many of their feminine desires… Feminine traits are masked. Cigarettes, which are equated with men, become torches of freedom.” (Alexander & Roberts, 2003) Take this quote, Edward Bernay’s ‘Torches of Freedom’, connecting the smoking cigarettes with women’s fight for freedom. (Oxford, 2015) Bernay organized the Torches of Freedom event as persuasive campaign, bringing New York debutantes ‘influentials’ together to march. Becoming profitable in the nineteenth-century, required following up on ‘gurus’ like Bernay and Michael Porter. Companies taking guidance on methods Porter advocated for instance ‘generic competitive strategies’, validating them a well established spot on the ‘push-market’ which predominated in the early 19th century. Pushing presence on to the, so called, consumer. Pushing brands through newspapers, ads in 30-second spots. (Fertik, 2013) The paradigm intensified forceful promotion to convert leads. The industrial revolution set off organizing virtue with physical machines constructing physical products. Countries, first off, acquired a healthy economic status due to access to (scarce) resources relative to others. Profit therefore was built on geographical advantage. (Wolfgang, 2016) During the pre-industrial economy transformation of raw-materials mobilized the ‘extract & trade’ economy delivering large amounts in diversity from the raw materials. (Yoo, 2015), introducing the market to desire based production. Consumers grew to expect products of aesthetically high quality. 10


Source: https.truthscooper.wordpress.com/2014/10/07/makin-bacon/ The industrial revolution had great impact on business structures. Companies in the 19th and 20th century were built on up-scaling. Supply chains in a push-based system drove products through the channel, pushing the product through R&D to the market. (Michael & Martin, 1994) Production was set according to ordering patterns established on factual patterns from the retailers. This keeps focus on an algorithmic system. When mastering the process with correct insight on market demand and how to regulate competitors, it was possible to drive globalization and increase industrialization. However the economy then underwent a major change, creating economic value based on physical machines and products was no longer the standard. Michael Porter was an important man for business strategy in the nineteenth-century, preaching push-market driven models, but also one of the first (1985) informing the business-landscape IT would change ‘competitive advantage’. The economy transformed tremendously because of the digital revolution. The digital economy has had a impact on many levels. Firstly, it affected the way organizations are built up. Ones companies are eager to scale-up, creating impact from off centralized organizational structures. As Porter’s models prescribed, companies could only succeed when carrying the weight of scale. Scale helped dominate the market and triumph competitors. A crucial part of their success was mastering information flow. (Michael & Martin, 1994) Supply chain management involved coping with diverse information: accompanying product data, inventory levels, customer and order information, delivery scheduling, information on the distributor and supplier, current cash flow etc.

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This requires a great deal of communication. (Wessel,2017) Therefore it is an advantage to have many recourses building products under one roof. Porter supported companies to have a hierarchical system enjoying control over a large segments of the value chain.

FROM LINEAR TO EVERYWHERE As Porter predicted, information flow changed when the democratization of IT developed. The development made it feasible for organizations to communicate in high speed alongside the supply chain, increasing the pace of information flow. Because of the density of communication, benefits of scaling-up over decentralization diminishes. This is why many contemporary companies do not manufacture at scale anymore. Nowadays company’s do not scale up but rent scale, it is possible to rent compute capacity from Amazon and rent logistic capacity from Fedex. (Wessel,2017) And take for example Apple, outsourcing and renting manufacturing capacity from Foxconn. But not only are companies decentralizing on physical environments, value is also created, ephemeral, online. An example of a contradictory model relative to a centralized one is a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) this is an organization without a board, CEO or managers. The concept is built on ‘fair’ capitalism, enforced by unbiased technology. The organization drives on code, the machine obeys set rules instead of letting human-beings make the decisions. Human-beings tend to make decisions out of self-interest. (Dunn,2017) Many confuse DAO’s with smart contracts because it involves digital assets from two or more parties. In fact, the DAO is an autonomous entity that exists on the internet but does rely on individuals performing tasks that the ‘automaton’ cannot do itself. DAO’s are driven on ‘The Blockchain’. Blockchain is built on a shared database file with Bitcoin as digital currency. The file shows a list of the Bitcoin transactions, stored on every computer using bitcoin program. (Restern, 2016) The company is secured on blockchain elements, called ‘smart contracts’. Because of the rules on the smart contracts, the company itself is automated. Agreements are in that case self-fulfilling. This shift is about changing from a linear value adding perspective to a multidimensional co-productive value constellation. (Normann & Ramirez, 1998) The technical breakthrough revolutionized our economic activity freeing us from the time and space barriers we were dealing with. Normann & Ramirez

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explain this shift of space barriers as becoming more ‘dense’, density is created by the information and knowledge an actor in the value chain has at hand, and therefor able to leverage their value, creation. It densifies value and raises opportunities of value creation(16) Micheal Porter introduced us to the world of value chains. Ramirez and Normann argue that these value chains, are linear, with actors uni-directionally passing on offering to next actors in a predetermined order, eventually selling it to the customer. Technology densifies this process, and the relations of actors increase by engaging in sequential and simultaneous activities.(Wessel,2017) Linearity of chains is dissolving, Normann & Ramirez construe this transformation as value constellations rather then value chains. Once consumers were passive receivers at the end of the value chain, entailing a relationship between supplier towards consumer as a ‘relieving’ one. In contrast, in value constellations, made possible by digital technology, customers data is used as feedback-loop and therefore entangled into process as co-creators creating an ‘enabling’ relationship. The feedback-loop unlocks the capability to ‘produce for use’, this is the starting-point of the pull-economy. Digital technology allows business models as such to offer new services along with their product (more of this in the next chapter) (Norman, Ramirez, 1998) Another extreme example of a company now relying on their customer, turning them into co-producers of sorts is GitHub, This organization is a version control repository and internet hosting service. It offers a distributed revision control, meaning it takes a peer-to-peer approach on version control. GitHub offers private and free repositories, and they host open-source software projects enabling people decentralized development, encouraging open collaboration. Nowadays there are many software services unlocking code to open-source development. Take ‘Blender’, a 3D creation suite that shared the Blender source code for the public to build on. The way industrial businesses are built up is in decline. Relationships creating through value chains have a new meaning, because of customers bearing an embedded role. Along with this, decentralization ensures a disparate shift in relationship contrasting from a centralized one, especially now that digitalization we are not constrained to geographical boarders to be in another country, one might call this ubiquity. This requires us to think about what role designers take on within this fluid and complex system.

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ONTOLOGY Our past linear models display a ‘dead’ object based ontology. This suggests that objects exist independently of humans. But since the digital economy, this is not as obvious. Enclosed in the digital economy we speak of the information economy. (Yoo, 2015) This brought us the ability to capture data as by-product of the physical product. With this information, companies can measure the use of the physical artifact and manage production. Such products are often described as Internet of Things devices (IoT). Physical items connected to the virtual world are controlled remotely through the cloud. (Meola, 2016) Cloud-computing and IoT increase efficiency in everyday life. IoT generates large amounts of data and the cloud equips pathways for data to travel. IoT enables machine-to-machine M2M ‘communication’, or exchanging data. Communication feasible without human interaction. ‘Smart’ products haul connectivity to the next level, connecting physical devices through the internet constructing ephemeral networks between tangible artifacts and, offering additional value alongside the main value chain. Professor Yoo studies how digital technology is changing the nature of products and the role of designers in creating products. Yoo refers to the ‘Generative economy’ when companies put ‘bits’ as primary product over an artifact (IoT) existing in our physical world. Within the ‘Information Economy’ companies are still reliant on the physical artifacts capturing information. In the generative economy, information takes the lead and is more important than e a physical artifact. (Yoo, 2015) Organizations as such are mushrooming over the globe. For example Uber, a ‘taxi’ service company not owning one car or store. Or Airbnb, the biggest hospitality service by location, not owning any hotels. The focus on data rather than a physical artifact has the benefit of effortless scalability and is reinforceable. Companies like Uber can scale up the dataflow whenever, against no cost. Data has the capacity to improve overtime, and neural networks are trained to learn and readjust when customer-data proceeds. Focussing on data over a tangible artifact makes it feasible for a product/service to adjust to feedback in a constant loop. The business model is not recognizable from the linear value chain, where an organization defines specific products, designating it ‘complete’. Whereas professor Yoo describes this as ‘early and temporary binding of form and function’. (Yoo, 2015) With

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digital technology the binding of form and function is ‘procrastinated’. The form and function are temporary and only complete when consumed. Because of Digital technology, in many cases, companies are no longer offering one and the same product or service but have an interrelated collection. The line between what is perceived to be a product and a service is blurring, products tend to answer many needs in the age of digitalization. Typical figures show us that the service economy is 73% of the economy in the EU and growing.(Euro Central Bank, 2017) Our relationship with services and products are changing because of data. Innovation is within the experience a company sells and secondly the recourses (the product or the service) they are able to mobilize and shape this experience Because products and services are no longer a temporary binding of form and function and are to be used as procrastinated forms rather then complete, our relationship of how we work with this ‘matter’ is changing. Jane Bennet raises volume on the ‘vitality of materiality’ in her book ‘Vibrant Matters’ focussing on nonhuman bodies. She wants people to rethink our perspective on nonhuman bodies, and identify them as actants rather then objects (Bennet,2010).

CONNECTING Traditional trajectories of value systems changes and develops a networked society. Consumers can challenge business value system. (Maxwell & Speed 2015) Our relationships alongside the value systems have to be rearranged as we are shifting from a market built on consumerism to a more human-centered economy. Because the value system is highly densified, and value is created on different parts of the chain, multidisciplinary work is necessary.. Speed of communication is key. This can only be done by opening up a neutral space so that conflict can be negotiated and accommodate a diversity of perspectives, concerns and interests. (Latour, 1991) “By all means, they seem to say, let us not mix up knowledge, interest, justice and power. Let us not mix up heaven and earth, the global stage and the local scene, the human and the non-human. ‘But these imbroglios do the mixing,’

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you’ll say, ‘they weave our world together!’ ‘Act as if they didn’t exist,’ the analysts reply. They have cut the Gordian knot with a well-honed sword. The shaft is broken: on the left, they have put knowledge of things; on the right, power and human politics.” (Latour, 1991) This quote written by Bruno Latour from his book ‘We have never been Modern’, he talks about our world as strictly categorized with the roles created in society. He argues this is not helpful when roles are ever evolving. We now more then ever rely on the network of interwoven stories and this is difficult when having a tight categorized environment. (Latour,1991) In this constellation of values that we are living in, services and products offering value can be personalized to individual use. This creates pressure on established relationships between actors along the value chains. Our business landscape is working full force to build an environment that keeps up with the changes that data is creating. Many workflow methods are popping up to harness the power of data in our push and pull economy. Examples of such methods are, for instance, Lean Six Sigma Synergiesed managerial concept for collaborative team effort, focusing on improvement of quality in process outputs by removing causes of defects. It aims to tighten linkages of process steps to achieve flow. (Latour,1991) Another well known methodology working with data in a software environment is ‘Scrum’. This is an agile framework used for multidisciplinaire teams. It welcomes collaboration and change and creates software products in sprints. Arguable with this much used method is that scrum is a ‘push-based’ pushing stories into a system, because it is based on a forecast of demand. A similar method but based on ‘pull’ is Kanban, in which developers ‘pull’ stories worked on based on actual demand. (Harvard Business Review, 2013) This begs the question: How will artists & designers shape a role in this densifying landscape and where can they add value to relationships? CHALLENGES FOR DESIGN EDUCATION IN THE 21CENTURY. Art and design have gone through many phases. Plato did not see place for visual arts and design in academia. Plato believed that painters offered mirrors, distracting from philosophical truth. He believed in separation between several ‘types of art’ . He separated arts in ‘liberal arts’, including artificial languages in mathematics, music, astronomy and natural languages. And on the other

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hand he consigned ‘lower’ disciplines now seen as vocational art and design craftsmanship. (Chabot,2013) Science and Arts cultures were integrated up until the Renaissance. After the Renaissance separation between Science and Art took place in the 17th century, unlocking the ‘nineteenth century science’ and ‘art school design’ that we are familiar with. (Wolfgang, 2014) What was known as ‘Liberal Arts’ transformed into humanities and science. (Cramer, 2013) It is said science produces the theoretical knowledge and design applies to be in practice. There was no place for artistic research in academia. In the 19th century during the industrial revolution, that arts and design responded to the revolution in movements such as Arts & Crafts, as an antiindustrial reaction towards the revolution. Arts and Crafts moved towards fundamental ontology, creating an object-oriented practice. Bauhaus applied Arts and Crafts to modern industrial design. The boundaries between fine art and design blurred. Theo Doesburg (Neoclassicist) suggested in his manifesto; ‘the painter, architect, sculptor as well as carpenter’, as the visual designers of every aspect of life. Design education shifted more towards Arts craftsmanship, working with composition, interesting colors and new materials. (Cramer, 2013) During the industrial revolution, machines were added to the process in which mechanics and engineers started to play an important role in the production phase. Producing fast and on large scale making the algorithmic part of the process more important. Design-research became a small part in the beginning of the production line and without or on small level iterative in process. Instead of using design as research towards the need of the individual it was used to serve communities. Consumerism grew, and needs were no longer the driver of design. “We must shift America from a needs, to a desires culture, People must be trained to desire, to want new things even before the old had been entirely consumed. We must shape a new mentality in America. Man’s desires must overshadow his needs.” - Paul Mazur of Lehman brothers (Lubin, 2013) A gap started to show in the relationship between culture and economy, still problematic until this day. Apprehension has built-up within the art world against the market forces of the economic power developed throughout the 20th century. (Cramer,2013) Labour grew on cultural production within

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industrial distribution on large scale media and entertainment industry. All was built on the push-economy in which ‘mass culture’ was served letting go of the individual and unique, an essential part of arts. Marxist philosophers Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer expressed this gap of culture and economy in their work ‘Dialectic Enlightenment’. Talking about culture industry as an assistant of capitalism, it promoted the cultural shallowness by putting emphasis on financial standardization. (Cramer, 2013) CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES Western art has shifted from ‘mechanical vs liberal arts’, in the 19th and 20th centuries from design versus fine arts. In the 21st century design and arts is divided in ‘creative industries’ and ‘artistic industries’. (Cramer, 2013) Design/ art students these particular fields are seen as the two different career options. But questionable is, are these the only two options? Within the digital economy designers are coping with the legacy of our past in which the push-economy and the categories of Plato have had impact on how our (western) society perceives the role of designers/artists as beautifiers. Accordingly, the role the designer should change now that, value is created in constellations and products/services no longer come in ‘just’ tangible objects. Design studios in the 21st century have been picking up on the need for a shifting role and started generating value in offering strategies. The creative strategies are referring to the point of engagement with the customer, building towards an experience of the encounter with the product. This leads to a more human, social science type of thinking. Designers opened up towards different disciplines within design such as User Experience design, Service design and Interaction design, making use of the capabilities of artistic research in such processes. But next to the these evolving disciplines, design created fields where design and arts research touches on scientific research such as open design, social design, meta-design & participatory design. Design has been picked up during digitalization by companies. And methods like ‘design thinking’, using artistic processes to address innovation, and understanding the need of iterative and prototyping skills. Design education is catching up on the necessity towards a role of a designer described in the following quote; “To design is to “devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones” (Telier et al. 2013) this commonality is ‘serving’ 18


and therefore meeting the needs of humans. This type of serving needs is not to be excluded solely to design professions. It includes not only the field of design but also engineering, computer science and architecture. Even though the fields have different connotations of design with different subjects or specific traditions methods and vocabulary all work towards the goal of serving human needs. (Telier et al. 2013) CONCLUSION Design schools are awaiting an important task whilst educating our future artists and designers. Fields of disciplines overlap drastically nowadays, creating ‘things’ enabling to address several (personal) needs at the same time. The way value is created is changing and designers have to rethink their value in the line of business. Designers are masters in mediating value and understanding how they can manipulate materials, images and actions (Speed & Maxwell 2015). These skills are very valuable in reshaping landscape, and this is something design picked up on by creating new disciplines such, as service design, interaction design, and user experience design. But as Don Norman claims, many designers are good with traditional craft skills in which they model, render, prototype etc. Designers have skills, but it is questionable if their skills are up to date with our digitalizing landscape. Are they keeping up with the breakthroughs in the technological field? Norman believes many designers have little understanding of true complexity and the problems they are dealing with now. Where design was based on creating physical artifacts, today designers are challenged to work on organizational structures and complex social problems, interaction, services and experiences. This includes addressing political and social issues, making designers more like behavioral scientists. For this reason, they need to be educated to understand such complexity of issues. Many designers have not been taught the depth of knowledge already known around them. So design is facing a few challenges. Designers should still be able to keep a fresh-eye on a situation using artistic research because it does indeed increase insightful results. But it is in the hands of design education to deliver a fundament of knowledge, ‘because the eyes must be educated knowledgeable’. (Normann, 2010)

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RESEARCH QUESTION Several opportunities have risen for design and arts in our contemporary and future environment. The fact that our landscape asks for new approaches, and that design is being acknowledged as important whilst doing so. These opportunities not only call for designers to understand their new roles, but to identify what actually is important to understand their specific added value. MY QUESTION IS: How are we able to harness design students with a 21st century mindset? STAKEHOLDERS I am aiming to create insights for designers and design educators to understand the importance of a shifting mindset akin to the digitalizing and ever altering economy.

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INTRODUCTION DESIGN APPROACH DESIGN PROCESS DESIGN METHODOLOGIES

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RESEARCH PART 1 : CONSULTING THE EDUCATIONAL & BUSINESS COMMUNITY’S PART 2 : BIODESIGN CHALLENGE CASE STUDY DESIGN INFORMATICS CASE STUDY

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MAKE MANIFESTO

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INTRODUCTION Whilst exploring the digital economy, the (business) landscape and how design is positioning itself into new roles, I found some interesting facets that I wish to further investigate. Designers have for a long time been valued as craftsman but not for their artistic research or design process. Nowadays this is a valuable asset: creating innovation because of its exploratory framework and lateral thinking. Disciplines are emerging within the creative industry to meet the needs of society. For example Service Design, Interaction Design, User Experience Design. But what I am mainly interested in, is the shift in mindset a designer should have for to equip for changes in the 21st century like decentralization, IoT devices and data (in its broadest sense). The goal of my further research is to investigate how design is emerging in the 21st century, to question and analyze the contemporary and future role of a designer and what should be explored with design students before entering the field.

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LYZE DESIGN APPROACH I built up my research on the method also used during Service Design processes. (Dubberly & Evenson,2010) It provides an overview of my process. The framework shows that the route has been reflective of data, analyzed using a variety of methods and iterated to create a particular outcome.

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CASE STUDIES FUTURE EDU

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TRIANGULAR DESIGN APPROACH Because my research topic consists of ‘what’, ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions, it requires a collection of qualitative data rather than quantitative data. Qualitative studies generally rely on the integration of data from a variety of methods and sources of information, a general principle known as triangulation (Maxwell, 2015). To be precise I am using the ‘Triptych method’ because this aims to address three different stakeholders, (Curedale, 2013) unlocking broad and (possibly) diverse perspectives on the question. This strategy reduces the risk of chance associations and of systematic biases due to a specific method allowing a better assessment of the generality of the explanations that one develops. (Maxwell, 2015)

DESIGN RESEARCH FIELD I separated the research in two parts. Firstly I consulted the educational & future business community, addressing three stakeholders after gaining insights I drew connections to two fields I have been studying over the past year. The two case studies I conducted refer to the Master ‘Design Informatics’ & ‘BioDesign’.

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IN-DEPTH, NON-DIRECTED INTERVIEWS. I conducted one-on-one, in-depth, non-directed interviews. I collected “rich” data detailed and varied providing and revealing a picture of what is going on in the field to answer on my research questions (Maxwell,2015) I used this method because I am taking an interpretive approach to understand the human experiences at a holistic level. (Maxwell,2015) To keep the interviews open to interpretation I created rough guidelines around my main topic. Resonating on the contemporary and future roles and challenges of a designer. I was allowed to record every interview I conducted. I used this same method on Part 1 ‘Consulting the educational & future business community’ and Part 2 ‘ Case Studies on future education’ . FOCUS GROUP Within research phase part 2, I attended a Focus Group to get a broader perspective on design education in future oriented fields. ANALYZING METHODS As Marshall and Rossman (1999:150) suggest in their introduction of ‘thematic analysis of qualitative data’ the process of data analysis is; ‘…bringing order, structure and interpretation to the mass of collected data. … It is the search for general statements about relationships among categories of data … it is the search among data to identify content.’ (Marshall et al. cited in Erlandson et al. 1993) I organized the data of the interviews by transcribing the interviews and analyzing the transcript literally. (Maxwell,2015) I sorted the main topics by creating post-it notes to categorize. I used this method for all interviews. After analyzing the separate interviews, I created concept-maps to find overlapping or contrary topics between the interviews. You can find the concept maps in the chapter ‘Key-findings’. ACTOR-NETWORK Within the case study’s I added two constellation maps reveiling the agendas of the variety of stakeholders in constellations of the fields. 32


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CONSULTING THE EDUCATIONAL & BUSINESS COMMUNITY’S I interviewed Erik Roscam Abbing. As director of a Service Design firm, with a background in industrial design, design management and lecturer at the TU Delft, therefor he has a good take on the contemporary landscape designers will enter. I interviewed a business designer and art academy lecturer Mark Bode for he acquires a good perspective on the contemporary art-academy designer/ artist entering the (business) landscape. It is interesting to probe his take on what skills are essential to possess as (graduating) designers. Finally, I conducted an interview with the head of the Willem de Kooning Art Academy in Rotterdam Jeroen Chabot too get a sense of changes design education is making to prepare the students for the design landscape.

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DESIGN BUSINESS LANDSCAPE “Do not judge before you ask why” Erik Roscam Abbing spoke about a set of skills designers are able to use in our contemporary landscape. Skills like: craftsmanship, owning a deep design expertise referring to the vertical of the T-shape model (David Guest,1991), communication skills and design thinking process. The skills are important but categorized in a variety of design disciplines. Product designers make products and service designers are able to build services both using design-thinking. The design-thinking process is the ‘sweet-spot’ for meeting people from the potential actor-network the designers are working with. The challenges he observes are diverse. Within his field he identifies students or young designers to be judgmental towards the way organizations or businesses cope with certain problems. Therefore he believes it is important for designers to empathize with their surroundings in order to understand the value system. He also recognizes that art-academy designers or/ and artists tend to think far in the future and, to quote him, ‘Should not interfere too much with changing the world as designer’. He states we need designers that want change to happen now, in the present, because we are living now and today is where everything happens. ART ACADEMY DESIGN STUDENT & THE CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPE “Understand what your true talent incorporates to build your skill-set and then open up to strengthen this with new skills” Mark Bode encounters a high demand for creativity in disciplines with strong linear systems. The digital-economy brings an open and more multidisciplinary field. He works with designers and many other disciplines and states that many designers that are in the field today have a traditional skillset based on their craft using the ‘waterfall-method’ without the drive to strengthen this with new knowledge. He detects two types of designers, that are entering the field; the strategic designers from, for instance, TU Delft with a strong affinity towards strategy and design thinking methods. and designers from the art academy. The latter are, in his perspective, more 36


creative and could bring an interesting value to the table when reshaping value. The challenges he detects are that art-academy students tend to be good at coming up with interesting concepts but are not able to bring it to life. He identifies a need for designers who are able to work cross-functionally to fit our contemporary landscape. This is because, often, designers work in a sensitive way but are not trained to convert this to value for their future job. DESIGN EDUCATION “Design Educators should be able to help design students develop and build on their own fascination” Jeroen Chabot has changed the WDKA Art-Academy to an open collaboration space in which designers can work cross-disciplinary with other designers. Designers are able to choose a project delivered by the art-academy. The designers have a group of lecturers that helps and provides them from feedback and knowledge. Chabot wants to create an environment in which designers learn to address and solve problems in social or commercial context. Chabot is interested in a future without borders between education. The challenges he finds are mainly based on internal cultural change within the academy. Lecturers are not able to shift towards new types of learning and do not believe in a borderless system within the academy. He says working interdisciplinary between different education institutions is not possible because institutes are afraid to lose students to other disciplines. OVERAL ANALYSIS The concept maps driven on the information collected from the three interviews gave me insight on three themes that are important for design students to gain experience in. The three insights were all drawn back to the themes ‘Incomplete Knowledge’, ‘Sociality in Communities’, ‘Constellations’.

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BIODESIGN “Will Synthetic Biology simply feed into existing systems of use, consumption, and waste or could we design more from it?� (Calvert et al. 2014) Predictions are made that bio-technology is the next big revolutionary switch for our twenty-first century. (Calvert et al. 2014) Synthetic biology is a young field and has a global growing power. The field invites engineers, biologists, chemists, physicists, and computer scientists to collaboratively wield life matter. (Calvert et al. 2014) Because the field is working with designers and has a strong connection to a possible future revolutionary shift in our economy, BioDesign is an interesting field to explore. How will a designer take place in such a socially mixed group of people/disciplines, and what new challenges will they face in this environment? The BioDesign case study was conducted partially during the BioDesign Summit, taking place in New York. The summit is organized by a team that is interested in creating a field around bioDesign, collaborating with different design schools or universities interested to work with BioDesign or/and creating a course on this subject. 24 universities took place in a BioDesign challenge organized by the summit. There was a jury of 25 judges from different fields of discipline. The BioDesign course and summit are establishing a field based on new technology, multidisciplinary teams, and opening up to new knowledge. This created a fruitful environment to research the insights I collected as important themes for design students to be made aware of. It was also interesting for me to research the actor-network to understand the intrinsic drive of all stakeholders working with designers.

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FOCUS GROUP INSIGHTS “Do you want to talk about ethics of space traveling or do you want to build a rocketship ”

The discussion within the focus group was mainly about how to create an environment where designers and scientists can communicate. Therefore many lecturers were discussing how and where to bring in knowledge towards designers but also towards scientists. One topic strongly addressed was the question of whether BioDesign should be taught as new form of ‘product’ design or as a form of social science where a critical evaluation on ethics will be taken in account. As response to this, biologists sought a misinterpretation of the living organism worked with as ‘product’. The lecturers were discussing the linear process the students were taking and finding ways to make the students more knowledgeable of the actual representation the organisms have. They did this by making the students take care of organisms in order to understand the limitations and opportunities the organism will bring. In-depth interviews:lecturers on biodesign challenge BIOLOGIST PERSPECTIVE NAOMIE NAKAYAMA Professor Nakayama is a Biologist and lecturer at the course BioDesign. She has been teaching a multidisciplinary group of students. The group contained students with engineering, design, computer science and biology backgrounds. Nakayama thinks BioDesign is an important platform for biology students and engineering students to learn from the design and art students how to communicate but most importantly learn to redefine or find important questions. She identifies the importance of “Understanding that we are not looking for solutions, but new questions to open up new questions.”

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DESIGN LECTURER LARISSA PSCHEZ “When designing, think about a broader field than only human-centered; think world-centered� Pschetz is a designer, leading and lecturing the course BioDesign. She believes that BioDesign can help designers broaden system thinking and help us understand that we should not be only human-centered but also take nature in account during our thinking process. It is important for designers to be able and contextualize a field, to think critically. Designers should understand the scientific agenda but also understand the matter/ material. This will reshape the way we think and work. Pschetz hopes for a future of design education integrating different materials/ matter such as living organism so designers can create a sensibility towards a material and field. This engagement is important with different types of matter is very important for designers to create a broader mindset. SOCIAL SCIENTIST WORKING ON SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY Szymanski is a research fellow investigating synthetic biology in broadly interdisciplinary ways. She said that engineers and biologists should work more closely together with social scientists, designers and artists so they they can have new conversations. Design for her is more like a communication platform of ethically reshaping and rethinking the way our production system works. She believes artists and designers should learn to think beyond the artifact. OVERAL ANALYSIS Many had a strong belief in inter-disciplinarily and on the need to create a better collaborative space, investing in understanding the agendas of different stakeholders. Stakeholders in the broadest sence, including nonhuman actants.

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DESIGN APPROACHES OF STUDENTS An interesting topic evolving from the focus group in particular was the divide of the way design students articulated the living organism; or should I say ‘actant’, as Latour defines ‘something that acts or to which activity is granted by others. (Latour,1996)The divide is best shown with examples of work that is created by students for the BioDesign challenge. The work presented on this page is from “OCAD” Art Academy Toronto. The design students displayed a future solution to fast fashion. The bio-furniture drawer, was meant to, consume and produces biofuel from clothes. The design was meant to be satirical towards consumerism. But during the focus group, many questions were raised on the knowledge of designers on working with biology. Some noted the lack of knowledge towards the science or the science process but especially the approach they took towards the living entity. Many teams worked with the living entity as if a ‘static/dead’ object. Lecturers with a science background found it highly inappropriate to think of such actants as products of use without being aware of the care that has to be taken of the entity or the way they are in some cases non predictable. It is clear that within BioDesign it is largely important for the designers to understand the disparity between the ‘dead’ products they are used to, and taught to, work with and the living entity that (ostensibly) taking this place. As Szemanski said, is the entity a product, a user or a co-producer in our story?

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DESIGN APPROACHES OF STUDENTS Other groups approached the field with a critical and more speculative view on the evolution of Synthetic Biology. The work we presented was showing a speculative future of the UK landscape from 2015 to 2029. A speculative future timeline set within a post-Brexit United Kingdom, detailing how different communities become empowered through ubiquitous biotechnologies. The exhibition curates a series of images and artifacts that depict grassroots movements exploiting the hackable potential of different biotechnologies, as they begin to address challenging societal issues. By framing the enhancement of the synthetic biology field with a speculative approach we were able to gain broad insights on the social impact it could possibly have. As Naomi Nakayama framed in the interview, we tried to understand that we are not looking for solutions but new questions to open up new questions.’ The Focus Group had mixed feelings towards projects as such. Many found great value in the approach of designers opening up ethical questions on the topic, whereas others sought more value in ‘innovative’ ideas from designers. This tension-field was especially interesting to me, thinking of the urge towards immediate change or notions to build possible futures on. Both are important for different actors in the network (see the actor network on the next page)

ACTOR NETWORK To understand the complicated network biodesign challenge is entangled into I created an actor-network of stakeholders. The arrows pointing from one actor to the other shows simplified agenda’s of actors within the field. The arrows point from one actor to the other showing preferable relationship wishes to draw from or the other way around.

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Learn/ Play with Bio

Government

FBI

Biolo

DIY BioEngineers

Policy makers

Innovation Inspiration

Designers

GenSpace

Artists

Social Impact Research

Doctors

Biodesign Summit

Social Scientists

U Ar Biologists

Engineers

Open conversation about ethics

Biod Co

Lecturers

Synergy

Bio/Science Students

Learn storytelling/ Communicating Play with knowledge Learn to redefine /question

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Synergy


Engineers

Biologists

Engineers

Agri Culture company’s

ogists

Health Care Company’s

Scientists

Scientist

Intrexon

Engineers

Biofuel industry Biologists

Synthetic Biology Industry

Scientists

Industrial chemicals

University rt Academy

Engineers Biologists

design ourse

Artist Students Inspiration

Question the conventional

Design Students

Meta View Learn to communicate with other disciplines

Learn working with different actants Learn Scientific methods

Inspiration Find value to answer needs

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DESIGN INFORMATICS This Case Study provides insight in a Masters degree that translates education molded to harness for future change within the economy. “We can harness massive connectivity, analytic power and industrial-strength simulation to design tangible products and intangible services to transform the ways we work, live at home, care for each other, and play.� Design Informatics is a Masters focuses on designing with data (Design Informatics, 2017). In a world where value is not only being generated by physical artifacts, design is shifting. The Masters educates a mix of students ranging from design to engineers to computer scientists to harness for connectivity in the twenty-first century. I interviewed a variety of lecturers and founders of this Masters course. I have gathered the information in the interviews that build up on valuable assets for a 21st century mindset of a designer.human-beings but also the matter/ material we are working with. Our relationship and therefore constellation should change when taking in account the value/ agenda of the matter we are working with. This case study opened up the discussion around my insights on value constellations and materials.

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ANAYZING DATA DESIGN INFORMATICS CASE STUDY LECTURER ON MASTER ARNO VERHOEVEN “Make students understand that creating value in the way we make ‘things’ now has consequences.” Arno Verhoeven believes society seems to be detached from their natural environment entirely. Serving technology has become prevailing. But technology is not positivist, it is owned by someone and therefore there are on the other side of the balance people that do not own this technology. Technology can be used against us. And unfortunately we live in a world where the competitive need to consume is ‘business as usual’. Verhoeven hopes for a future in which designers will understand that creating value in the way we have done over the past centuries will have consequences on our environment. This is built up by the way engineers and scientists are able to make ‘things’ but often this is restricted to one or two ways. Therefore he thinks it is important to teach designers to understand more than just how to make but also why to make. He believes designers can be anarchists, structuralists and post-structuralists. He hopes for value systems to have a more diverse group of people to explore a wider and broader sense of what is needed, and have more democratic systems. And Verhoeven states participation should be founded on co-operating instead of collaboration. LECTURER ON MASTER DAVE MURRAY-RUST “Design is sometimes about developing particular positions to critique them rather then adopt them” Dave Murray-Rust argues that design is not about solving problems but reframing the brief. Murray-Rust perceives design as a possibility for reflection and contextualization of the area you want to act in. Design hands the tools to be able and look at a landscape with a birds-eye-view. He thinks of design as the conscience of a company. To work as a designer and to understand the environment we live in we have to understand (digital) technology because it is highly embedded into our society. Murray-Rust thinks that with design we are able to create a theoretical framework (such as causal layered analysis) to talk about future scenarios. And to understand technology, in the broader sense, can help our participatory working.

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HEAD OF MASTER CHRIS SPEED Design is defined during the twenty-first century. He argues design cannot be extracted from globalization. He distinguishes two types of design. The first wants to participate to harness for the 20th century changes. By creating methods and structures providing an open space. On the other hand, art-academy design responds against globalization by not participating with the digitalization. He considers designers should adjust their processes to be fit for the contemporary smart and non-tangible artifacts. Designers are traditional educated to work in linear value chains. Being used to temporality constructed by boundaries the “dead” artifact carries. Value chains change from linear systems with one type of value to a chain with value on variable starting points. The digital makes it possible to co-create value and a sharing gig-economy. Therefore designers are entangled in economic value. By using data as a starting-point instead of a static product, there is no end to the value chain and therefore Speed hopes for a future in which designers understand data as non-linear. This ubiquitous approach makes design more fit for our future digital environment. The Masters degree tries to create an infrastructure of diversity for students to enlarge their ability to make and jump between communities of knowledge. The communities are diverse; discipline wise, ethnical diversity and cultural differences. Speed believes contestations between people created by the diversity triggers them to become a better self. This will broaden their field and make them able to be more critical. ANALYSIS The insights I gathered were based on the importance of change from linear value chain thinking to thinking in constellations. We can add to this Murray-Rust’s idea of value to be updated in an ongoing process and Speed’s debate for designers to challenge their linear- thought process from start middle to end to a more non-temporal framework. Therefore the Masters is a space in which designers are opened towards a new form of open representation. Murray-Rust talked about the new knowledge designers should be able to acquire to understand digital systemthinking. Insights are based on the topics ‘Representation of the designer and ‘Technological infrastructure’

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DESIGNING WITH DATA The Masters stimulates students to explore the capability of data and how it can add value. This project started with capturing any type of data with a self-created probe. Throughout this project we explored careless behavior towards personal data on the web. We explored the personal aspect of ephemeral data, and the ghost it carries of time and space. The creator of this memory is the only one understanding the ‘Genius Loci’ within the artifact. When comparing this with a tangible host, such as a photograph, the relationship with the Genius Loci can be cut off. This can be a painful experience, and an invasion of the personal space. But when taking an impalpable artifact carrying a ghost as such, this should feel as invasive as ‘stealing’ a tangible artifact. However this is not the case. Data can be copied and passed on whilst browsing the web, using IoT devices or anything that can capture data. During this project I cooperated with a computer scientist opening up new perspectives on the capabilities of IoT devices. This crossdisciplinary cooperation succeeded to widely explore the capability of digital technology using ideation and storytelling skills of a designer. Verhoeven mentioned how our society is being led by technology. Teaching students the positive, negative and overall capabilities of data creates new knowledge and unlocks opportunities of working with technologies s not yet explored. It also raises critical questions in variable fields. More information on the project: https://evafabi.hotglue.me/?GeniusLoci

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OVERALL KEY FINDINGS Important themes emerged useful for design education. The interviews and case studies facilitated new insights on the perception of experienced lecturers within the field of future design. I summarize the key insights in the categories: ‘Sociality in community’s’, ‘Theoretical infrastructure’, ‘Dynamic time’, ‘Incomplete knowledge’ and ‘Representation of the designer’. The parameters give us interesting insights how to test if design school curriculum is comprehensive to the contemporary and future landscape. This section displays all five insights referring back to the interviews of consulting the educational & business community’s, and the BioDesign & Design Informatics Case studies. I have visualized this in 5 concept maps containing literal quotations of the interviewees.

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VALUE CREATION HAS CHANGED

TEMPORALITY VS NON-TEMPORALITY

HOW TO GET A GREATER PERSPECTIVE OF A NEW FIELD

Object Mindset

DON’T INTERFERE TO MUCH WITH CHANGING THE WORLD AS A DESIGNER

DESIGNERS ARE CRAFTSMAN

Process

USE ‘COMMUNICATION’ & CREATE ‘STORY TELLING’ SKILLS EMPATHY TO MAKE PEOPLE GOOD IN FOR THE WHOLE COMFORTABLE VALUE ACTORDESIGNERS WITH CHANGE CAPTURING NETWORK HIGH DEMAND ARE GOOD WITH FOR CREATIVITY IN PROCESSES STRONGLY LINEAIR SHIFT FROM SYSTEMS OBJECT TO MAKING & FINDING HUMAN SOLUTIONS FOR CENTERED PROBLEMS IN THINK ABOUT A SOCIETY BROADER FIELD THAN HUMAN-CENTERED, WORKING THINK WORLDWITH LIVING CENTERED. ENTITY’S

Demand Chain

Supply chain

Channel

Technological partners

Channel

Suppliers

Employees contractors

Strategic partners

Customers

Suppliers

Value Eric Roscam Abbing Mark Bode Jeroen Chabot Biodesign Case Study 56 Design Informatics Case Study

Customers

Employees contractors Strategic partners

Technological partners


DYNAMICS OF TIME Our value creation processes in our digital economy is slowly but surely shifting from object to open interpretation. Designers add value with their ability to craft, communicate thoughts, storytelling and prototyping skills, helping people get comfortable with the reshaped values. But they also have the ability to step outside of ‘reality’. Speed, Nakayama and Murray-Rust spoke about the shift from object to data oriented approach. Data can come in different shapes and sizes, from living entity to digital data. Pschetz talks about value chains tending to be linear, because they were built around a temporal framework. But digital data has unlocked non-temporal frameworks allowing co-production of valueconstellations in which many stakeholders can add value. This non-temporal framework, is an evolving process in which improvements can be made whilst it is already out on the market, making the process iterative. This adds value to the circular-economy. Designers should be aware of this value constellation. This requires understanding what happens when they reshape a product or service, and what impact this might have on others in the ‘actor-network’ and how to work together on the recreation of or even with ‘things’. Murray-Rust, Speed, Bode stated that the designers from the art-academy should open up to the changes within other disciplines, exploding the ‘arts’ rather than introverting it from ‘data’. Another perspective, coming from Pschetz, is that students should not only focus on ‘human-centered’ but ‘world-centered’ design. Making our environment an important part of how designers create value. Instead of shutting out important questions whilst designing. Szymanski believes designers should understand this network when working with different ‘nonhumans’ because unlocks different connections and networks.

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BIOLOGY STUDENTS SHE SPOKE WITH, FELT A GAP BETWEEN WHAT DESIGNERS WANTED AND WHAT THEY WERE ABLE TO PROVIDE.

BASIC SHARED KNOWLEDGE

FIND SKILLS TO EXPLORE TRADITIONAL DESIGNER IS A CRAFTSMAN

WORK EMPATHETIC INTUITIVE BUT IS NOT TRAINED TO BE USED

DESIGNER CAN BROADEN SKILL-SET

HELP WORKING DEVELOP TOGETHER WITH DESIGNERS FACINATION OTHER DISCIPLINES IS DIFFICULT

LECTURERS MUST STIMULATE MAKER SKILLS ART ACADEMY MORE DESIGNERS MORE ‘MAKER SKILLS’

NEXT ECONOMY ISSUES

Eric Roscam Abbing Mark Bode Jeroen Chabot Biodesign Case Study 58 Design Informatics Case Study

UNDERSTANDING WHAT YOUR SKILLS ARE AND WHAT ARE NEW SKILLS TO EXPLORE

SHOULD STICK WITH THEIR CRAFT

STUDENTS SHOULD BE BROUGHT IN CONTACT WITH NEW TECH MORE

PROJECT BASED EDUCATION INSTEAD OF CLASSES

TEACHERS SHOULD LECTURE MORE IN NEW KNOWLEDGE AND MATERIALS

BUILD ON PERSONAL TALENT WITH NEW KNOWLEDGE


INCOMPLETE KNOWLEDGE

Murray-Rust speaks about ‘basic’ shared knowledge when working interdisciplinarily. Contributing to an in-depth cross-disciplinary conversation inquires a specific understanding of the subject. Murray-Rust refers to software representing a distinct process, releasing products to the customer when representable enough to make it public. Software can be updated and therefore is readjustable over time, whilst getting feedback from users. Designers should understand this fastpaced process and create while being aware of new technologies, but also gaining knowledge of processes. During the case study on the BioDesign challenge, it was clear that biologists expected more knowledge from the designers towards the capability’s of synthetic biology. Don Normann shares a strong opinion on this subject “Service design, interaction design, and experience design are not about the design of physical objects: they require minimal skills in drawing, knowledge of materials, or manufacturing. In their place, they require knowledge of the social sciences, of story construction, of back-stage operations, and of interaction.” (Normann, 2010) He believes that in today’ s world of ubiquitous sensors, we need a new breed of designers. “We need new kinds of designers, people who can work across disciplines, who understand human beings, business, and technology and the appropriate means of validating claims.” Designers do need to know more about science and engineering, but without becoming scientists or engineers.

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Necessity of a 21st century designer T-SHAPED DESIGNER

The foundation of a designer

MAKE DESIGN STUDENTS MORE RELEVENT TOWARDS THE BUSINESS LANDSCAPE MAKE CONNECTION WITH WHAT HAPPENS AFTER CANNOT MAKE CONNECTIONS ART ACADEMY WITH OTHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES ENHANCE THE VERTICAL OF THE T-SHAPE FOR ART ACADEMY DESIGNERS

DESIGN THINKERS

UNDERSTAND COLLABORATION IS KEY

WORKING TOGETHER WITH OTHER DESIGN DISCIPLINES

AS SERVICE ‘BUILDER’ YOU ARE IN NEED OF A NETWORK

DO NOT JUDGE BEFORE ASKING ‘WHY’

Eric Roscam Abbing Mark Bode Jeroen Chabot Biodesign Case Study 60 Design Informatics Case Study

LACK OF UNDERSTANDING TRUE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE HAPPENS

NOT GOOD AT VALUE CREATION

ART ACADEMY DESIGNER: “WE ‘GET’ THE USER AND BUSINESSES DO NOT”

CANNOT WORK TOGETHER WITH BUSINESS LANDSCAPE


THEORETICAL / POLITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Many interviews referred to a certain level of naivety amongst students regarding the ‘real world’ . Speed shares his thoughts on a theoretical framework of; Educational, theoretical and academic advocacy. As Roscam-Abbing mentioned, design students tend to be judgmental towards other disciplines, or businesses, that have the inclination of being ‘human-centered’ in their approach. He considers students lacking knowledge towards the business-landscape and feels that they should not make assumptions before knowing their traits. Verhoeven has a different approach towards this framework and believes in the importance for designers to be aware of the choices they have. Making them receptive on the challenges our current state of the (business) landscape brings us and how they are able to work around or in some regards, against the current state of business. When Verhoeven speaks about ‘choices’ he wants designers to think about their view on the world and state of being. Speed believes opening up a solar system for the students instead of preaching the conveyer-belt. It helps them being able to make it their own way. To open up the theoretical infrastructure it opens up possibilities. University’s and Art Academy’s can open up a theoretical infrastructure that is accessible to students to build a critical view without constraining them to a framework.

DESIGN/ART

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UNDERSTAND THE BIGGER PICTURE OF VALUESYSTEMS MORE VARIATY OF DISCIPLINES/PEOPLE IN THE FRONT PART OF A VALUE SYSTEM

HELPS THEM FIND COMMON GROUND WITH ENGINEERS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IS A POWERFULL FORCE BUT WHO KEEPS LINEARITY IN TREK

MAKING CROSS-OVERS WITH DISCIPLINES ARE VERY IMPOTANT ESPECIALLY NOW

CANNOT MAKE CONNECTIONS WITH OTHER HAVING AN EDUCATIONAL UNETHICAL ETHICAL INSTITUTES DISCUSSION ACKNOWLEDGING CRITICAL AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS. HOW TO GET A GREATER PERSPECTIVEOF A NEW FIELD

Eric Roscam Abbing Mark Bode Jeroen Chabot Biodesign Case Study 62 Design Informatics Case Study

WORK MORE FLEXIBE

BIOLOGISTS WORK IN SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGIES AND ARE TAUGHT TO VALIDATE RATHER THEN QUESTION

THROW DIFFERENT DOTS IN TERMS OF THE MOST RECENT INNOVATION ON BIO , SOCIAL ISSUES AND DESIGN


SOCIALITY IN COMMUNITY’S Chris Speed argued the importance of diversity in communities. It is interesting to create connection with different disciplines outside of the ‘classes’, as this provides students a diverse environment. Speed believes this can create contestations between people, making them better or others around them work harder. Mixing people is important for the learning process and learning how to cooperate after education. Bode valued interdisciplinary teamwork when crossing over to other educational institutes. During the case studies, students communicated that working cross-disciplinarily was very challenging, and that their communication skills are challenged. Student scientists within the BioDesign teams felt like connoisseur while designers ideated around the topic. Nakayama believed this was very important for both science students as for the design students. The actor-network within the BioDesign case study shows this as learning curve for both fields. both fields.

BUILDING ECOLOGIES

HOW INTERDISCIPLINARITY

PARTICIPATION WHAT

CULTURAL

DISCIPLINES

TYPES

CULTURAL

DISCIPLINES

WHY BUILD CRITICALLITY

CONTESTATION

BUILD CRITICALLITY

BUILD CRITICALLITY

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DATA IS DIFFERENT THEN A PRODUCT

DATA AS A DESIGNERS STARTING-POINT ITS FORM IS UBIQUITOUS

DESIGNING WITH LIVING ENTITY’S ASKS FOR DIFFERENT APPROACH

DESIGNERS WORKING ON THEIR FASCINATION

ART ACADEMY’S USP IS DESIGNING PRODUCT

SKILLS TO LEARN NEW SKILLS

STILL MANY DATA AS A TRADIOTIONAL MACGUFFIN DESIGNERS WITH WATERFALL METHOD

DESIGNING SERVICES INSTEAD OF PRODUCTS OPENS UP THE OPTIONS

DESIGNERS SHOULD BECOME LESS ATTACHED TO OBJECTS

Eric Roscam Abbing Mark Bode Jeroen Chabot Biodesign Case Study 64 Design Informatics Case Study

DATA IS DIFFERENT THEN A PRODUCT

DESIGN FROM A STATIC ‘THING’ BEING NON-STATIC AND RE-SHAPABLE

IS A LIVING ENTITY TO BE RECEIVED AS OBJECT, USER OR COCREATOR, DESIGNERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THESE QUESTIONS


REPRESENTATION OF THE DESIGNER

Broadening the skillset of the designer was a topic broadly discussed by Bode and Chabot. Both believed designers should be able to communicate by using several skillsets. Speed speaks about design as built on a linear and temporal process, with a beginning, middle and end. Data has a nonrepresentational perspective. Speed continues that using data as startingpoint is very different from a tangible artifact because of the ubiquity it creates, and its high speed, and contested values. It unlocks an open field when thinking about the outcome. Speed talks about data to be a MacGuffin from a Hitchcock movie, the specific nature of a MacGuffin is typically unimportant to the overall plot Pschetz, refers to different representations regarding designers, rethinking the way they design from a static ‘thing’ to being non-static and re-shapable. The way Speed and Pschetz mention the non-temporality of data, Nakayama approaches this by the shift of problem solving to moving from one question to a new question. Stating research, analysis and prototyping an iterative process. Overall, designers in the 21st century should be able to gain understanding of how to deal with nonhuman entity’s different from ‘dead’ artifacts. They should be able to reframe the roles of humans versus non-humans.

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CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY DESIGN ON THE FOUND INSIGHTS In my research, I established that space and boundaries have changed. Designers can now operate without boundaries. Therefore they will add value in a different way in the 21st century. This chapter explores contemporary movements that draw parallels with the insights I have gained to underline the fields. DYNAMICS OF TIME I argue that we have problems living in a time where time can be speculated about. Linear time is no longer the norm. Up to the 20th century we have experienced time in an order of “the past is followed up by the present and then the future”. (Avanessian & Malik,n.d.) because of digitalization, the future is able to happen before the present. This ‘speculative time-complex’ (..) is interwoven in everyday experiences. For instance, in Amazon, the company’s algorithm bears knowledge on ones desires. It knows a customer’s needs, sending item that is more likely to be your need. This phenomenon is new in the 21st century, “that what happens in the present is based on a preemption of the future.” (Avanessian & Malik,n.d.) The changing direction of time is based on the dance between machine and human, or should I say non-human and human. Artificial intelligence or rather ‘intelligent agents’ redesigning itself with an increasing rate (..) Hawkings states; “AI would take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete, and would be superseded” (Hawkin cited by Zhenqi, 2017) Dealing with time-complex and our relationship towards non-human digital data is very important. As example of designers/artists working within this reshaped timeframe and the new relationship between nonhuman and human entities’s, I refer to the work of Pinar Yoldas.

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Source for both: http://www.pinaryoldas.info/The-Kitty-AI-Artificial-Intelligence-for-Governance-2016

With her work “Artificial Intelligence for Governance, Kitty AI, 2016” imagining an AI taking over the world. (Yoldas, 2017) The 3D animated video presents a cat talking about its work as ruler of a megalopolis in the year 2039 (Yoldas, 2017) It talks about the unsolvable problems like the refugee crisis, climate change. The kitty AI forms a non-human government. This speculative future shows the power AI could potentially take on. Yoldas makes crossovers between science, real world-issues and creates a speculative but not unthinkable future. It questions the relationship between human and nonhuman and criticality assesses our position towards AI. As Verhoeven referred to in our conversation, when we understand our relationship with technology we are able to distribute value through it instead of making it the subject of matter. When taking in account DAO’s and smart contracts, it rules out positions of central power for human entities and places control in hands of nonhumans. This shows the urgency of developing a mindset that works with something as ephemeral and liquid as data.

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REPRESENTATION OF THE DESIGNER Data can take on any type of value or form. Data can be used as something to travel through, carrying different forms of temporality, without moving linear ways. Take for example an application, existing in a non-temporal shape with the ability to be updated any place, any time. The channels it travels through are limitless. The value of the app towards human-beings creates a sense of ubiquity challenging our ideas on time and sense of connection. Data is also information our bodies carry around - for instance, in the form of DNA. Synthetic biology becomes increasingly more accessible to work with and this opens up many questions on what is and will be possible. Artist Dewey-Hagbord opens up the discussion around the possibilities of data in the form of DNA. Her exhibit showcased “emerging technologies of genomic identity construction and our societal moment”, using cheek swabs and hair clippings of Chelsea Manning, who was imprisoned and sentenced in violation of Espionage-Act classified disclosing government documents to WikiLeaks in 2013 (Nevins, 2017) Dewey-Hagbod used the DNA-samples and created 3D printed portraits of her face. Manning’s face was concealed from the public view. She uses the data, DNA, to represent something other than the data. She evokes emotions regarding to our current policies. She travels through the data to create an experience of possible futures based on science. The use of the DNA in art provides in this case post-modern analysis of thought, identity, and expression. It combines chemistry, biology, information, and our ideas of beauty and identity.” (Nevins, 2017)Dewey-Hagbod used the DNA-samples and created 3D printed portraits of her face. Mannings face was concealed from the public view. Source: http://deweyhagborg.com/projects/radical-love

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Source: http://deweyhagborg.com/projects/radical-love

I am refering to her work because she uses the data, that is the DNA, represent something else then the data. She evokes emotions regarding to our current policies. She travels through the data to create an experience of possible futures based on science. “The use of the DNA in art provides in this case post-modern analysis of thought, identity, and expression. It combines chemistry, biology, information, and our ideas of beauty and identity.” (Nevins, 2017) INCOMPLETE KNOWLEDGE Labs are opening and working in a mix of DIY-Scientists and scientists on organisms. Labs are becoming an important space to work cross-disciplinarily, and this is not restricted to the field of biology Bureau D’Etude refers to this as “Laboratory Planet”, installing infrastructures of power and technology’s and the laboratorization of knowledge (Parikka, 2017). They talk about the “world as a lab” as hyperbole of the contemporary smart cities, university institutes and the ‘hack labs’ opening up.(Parikka, 2017) Philosopher Whitehead had a different perspective on a lab than as a cognitive reflection of ideas, thinking of labs as mines or geological investigations of ideas. Labs should deal with more than scientific statements. He highlights the importance of intensive moments of imaginative design. (Parikka, 2017) The “Lab” can be very helpful for innovation when crossfunctionality is at hand, not only amongst cultures or personalities but also pure difference in disciplines, this is speaking to Plato’s split between humanities/ science and design practice wide and the importance of collaboration between both sides. 69


This cross-functionality increases spreading knowledge amongst disciplines. Designers work within a variety of fields, and this raises questions about incomplete knowledge. With this I am not only referring to the scientific knowledge but especially respect for scientific processes and methods within the actor-network. THEORETICAL / POLITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES Cooperation is increasing because of the densifying value-systems we are working in, with complex actor-networks This densifying value-system, in which customer acts more as a cocreator, shifts roles and makes it important for designers to bear greater understanding of scientific knowledge. Bureau D’Études is a design research group producing political, social and economic maps of contemporary systems. Informing, repositioning and empowering people about the agendas of the variety of stakeholders in constellations. (Bureau d’Etudes, 2015) It reveals the unknown and reshaping roles in the constellations. (Bureau d’Etudes, 2015) This asks for a theoretical framework for design students to build on criticality’s. Because the network will differ in every challenge, designers should draw from knowledge that is able to touch-point on any of these disciplines. Therefor the framework should touch on academic, theoretical (business landscape) and educational knowledge. A movement within the field of design is Meta-Design this is an example of a reflexive ‘superset’ of a variety in fields (Bureau d’Etudes, 2015). Meta-Design advocates for an open conversation in which the many stakeholders, within information technologies, are being added and researched. It promotes collaborative practices and it supports human interaction to expand the creative process : an enhancement of the creative process at the convergence of “art” and “science.”(Inns,2007).

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Source both pictures:https://bureaudetudes.org/

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SOCIALITY IN COMMUNITY’S As Chris Speed mentioned, a mixture of cultures, backgrounds and skills is important for group-dynamics. Not only within design community’s but also combining the group with a variety of disciplines. This last seems to be a difficult task for design education. Whereas this cross collaboration is highly important when referring to our densified value chains. Understanding and listening to one another seems to be the key to harness against technology. A reference I wish to make is the participatory design mailboat. Mailboats are messages that traditionally are sent to remote islands, carrying words from one beach to another, sending questions and receiving replies. The Design Mailboat was a project sending such messages. From Orkey (island in Scotland), Denmark and Silicon Valley. All places were inhabited with people with different backgrounds, discipline, cultural and ethnical wise. (Pelle Ehn et al., 2014) 2The people were ask to send and respond to one another view on design. And their glance of what design was in one another’s country/ place. It is an interesting project because it speaks to multidisciplinary work around the same topic. But also asks all of the candidates to intrinsically listen to one another perspective and when needed add a criticality’s. THE DESIGNER After the exploration addressing a broad spectrum of design, my insights were based on the five parameters drawn from the interview. But analyzing the parameters and making references towards designers and artists that addressed the fields, it came to my understanding the parameters corresponded closely to one another. The relations are to be made within a triangulation of what I find to be the meta- view towards the shift between the 20th and 21st century: human intelligents versus nonhuman intelligents dynamic versus temporal frameworks and the ubiquity of communication.

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Source https://designmailboat.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/message-from-the-anthropologist-of-technoscience-2/


Sociality in community’s Y UIT

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Representation of the designer

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Incomplete knowledge


SUMMARY The five concepts, dynamics of time, representation of the designer, incomplete knowledge, sociality in community’s and theoretical infrastructures, correspond to three bigger ; human intelligence versus nonhuman intelligence, dynamic versus temporal frameworks and the ubiquity of communication. These notions are interconnected to all insights gained within my earlier research. Concretely speaking the shape of the nonhuman, the time-dynamics it unlocks and ubiquity it creates is broadly explored but not yet challenged enough by designers and education. Nonhumans in the shape of digital technology seems to play a leading and sometimes independent role. Humans are driven by the technology but not yet intrinsically aware of the change in mindset it requests. Nowadays we treat technology as if a ‘dead’ objects, a legacy of our industrial revolution. If we do not take in account that the nonhuman is demanding for a new approach, this can cause an effect and our world can end up being ruled by nonhuman leaving the human to serve the machine. Essential is to create sociality amongst the actors within this network, humans versus humans but also humans versus nonhumans and challenge their one classified terminology’s to shape our thoughts and structures around; objects, users, producers and designer. In such a densifying environment communication is key. The dynamic timeframe has assembled a shift from linear to infinite. Non-linear approach asks not to problem solve but think in constellations, traveling from question to the next question. This constellation is intertwined with the decentralized landscape disputing the categories we valued for a long time, hierarchical systems should be examined and potentially reframed. Designers should act to gain knowledge on the five insights imposing to rethink their value in this liquid environment. A designer as beautifiers adding value to the push-economy or as a change-maker, a hacker of sorts or even an avantgardist creating innovations and exploring new fields, unlocking value for independent needs in society. By addressing the three themes mentioned above I wish to preserve the deeper understandings on the true transformations the digital economy has brought to us. Stepping away from the legacy our ancestors created for us and reshaping an environment best fit for new technologies to enter.

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Sociality in community’s Y UIT

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DYNAMIC VS TEMPORAL FRAMEWORKS

Representation of the designer

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Incomplete knowledge


DESIGN MANIFESTO OF 21ST CENTURY Starting off with my dissertation I detected a problematic notion. Art academy’s stagnate at the legacy of our industrial revolution. After an indepth conversation with the Jeroen Chabot, head of the Willem de Kooning Art academy in Rotterdam with an adjusted curriculum in 2013 speaking to the changes in our digital economy, it came to my attention the complication for him is based on the fact that lecturers do not identify the urgency of this shift. With this information in mind I continued the research and detected the aspects bearing the key points that are contrasting towards the 20th century mindset. I identified designers should haul a clear perspective regarding the expansions of new technologies the landscape is gradually affected by. The research manifested the resilience art academies are coping with as legacy of traditional craftsmanships design educators are cultivating. The utility of the Manifesto is not restricting designers to a framework rather creating a transformative space to reflect their positioning in the 21st century dynamics.

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WHY AN OPEN SOURCE MANIFESTO? The ‘designer’, having played a background role as beautifier in the value chain of products, demand and users, is being called to the fore. To address this notion from off the core, I am addressing design educators as stakeholders for my insights in the form of an open manifesto. “It is in the dramatic atmosphere induced by Cameron’s opera that I want to write a draft of my manifesto”- Latour Although the time of manifesto’s has past and as Latour sketches, “manifesto’s seem to be a cry to move further and faster ahead towards the future but in the same way.” But in this case, I want to use this manifesto to manifest designers to adjust their mindset. Analyzing variable methodologies, card deck games and frameworks to open a discussion making designers and design educators aware of the motions, it came to my attention this was not the way to go. Whilst researching I determined a gap between different ‘types’ of design. Design perceived by the contemporary business landscape is following a framework, built on a set of rules based on variable methods (for example the scrum and lean six sigma approach) . Framework as such are reflections of the artistic/design research art academy designers work with. Design/artistic research conducted by art academy students seem to be widely intuitive and explorative. Perceived as an internal and ‘messy’ process. It is in my interest to make designers/artists more adaptable to the current shifts we are undergoing. And not to restrict them in a framework. Therefore I ideated to open up this transformative space reflecting upon the insights I have collected. The manifesto presents straightforward concepts for designers to build on. The manifesto is open-source creating an online ‘lab’. Everyone interested is encouraged to contribute ideas, methods, workshops articles etc. to any of the insights. The research in the past chapter amongst the variety of artists and designers is an interesting reflection and visualization towards the insights. As inspiring this worked on me can also be in great value to draw from for other designers. From the research it became clear that knowledge is liquid and co-operation is key for our vast changing environment.

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MANIFESTO Reflective of the extensive research I collected five individual fields that require attention shaping a critical view on our contemporary and future changes. When addressing the fields, one should be aware of the interconnectedness with the themes ‘dynamics versus temporal frameworks’ ‘human intelligence versus nonhuman intelligence’ and ubiquity of communication. I divided the manifesto in two components, one showing the three themes that address all five insights. The insights that draw upon the way designers position themselves in the landscape. The three themes and the five insights are explained below. ONLINE MANIFESTO I created a website of the manifesto. When ‘clicking’ on the icons accompanying the ‘habit’ one can probe methods, workshops and or articles that communicate ways to work with or around the habits. The manifesto is an online website and can be visited in the following URL: https://d21-17.hotglue.me/ DYNAMIC VERSUS TEMPORAL FRAMEWORKS The dynamic timeframe has assembled a shift from linear to infinite. Nonlinear approach asks not to problem solve but think in constellations, traveling from question to the next question. This constellation is intertwined with the decentralized landscape disputing the categories we valued for a long time, hierarchical systems should be examined and potentially reframed. HUMAN VERSUS NONHUMAN INTELLIGENCE The relationship between humans versus nonhumans is challenged. Once we have created classified terminology’s to shape our thoughts and structures around them, take for example; objects, users, producers and designer. But in the 21st century we should understand the shift of our relationship towards nonhumans and question how we use or even co-create or cooperate with them. UBIQUITY OF COMMUNICATION

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Essential is to create sociality amongst the actors within this network, roles challenged because of the ways we are able to communicate. Being aware of the difference in cultures within variable disciplines is utterly important within the 21st century. Communication is key.


REPRESENTATION OF THE DESIGNER Artifacts or the ‘nonhuman’ are no longer static in form. New forms of technology reshapes the way a designer can create value. Nonhumans can also be ‘data’ taking on ephemeral shapes or even living entity’s. The artifacts carry different forms of temporality. Designers should shift the mindset from solely crafts on static product to more data driven. Data is able to distribute value through it instead of making it the final subject of matter. When being aware of the value, designers will be able to build criticality. This is an important part for the representation of the designer. DYNAMICS OF TIME The digital environment creates a dynamic time. Formerly time was exclusively linear with a beginning and an end. Nowadays this temporality has become non-temporal. The future is able to happen before the present. This speculative time-complex asks a drastic shift in mindset. This helps to reshape timeframes and speculate of (nearby) futures based on events happening. THE WORLD AS A LAB Cross-functionality increases spreading knowledge amongst disciplines. The design profession is spreading out, new disciplines are emerging and designers not only beautifiers in the value chain but operate on strategic or human centered levels. But this raises criticality’s about incomplete knowledge. Scientists are sceptic about designers and if they bear respect for complexity towards the scientific processes and methods. Designers should have a fundament of scientific understanding to interact with various stakeholders alongside of an actor-network. This value can be gained by updating knowledge on innovations and trends within the scientific fields. EAT FRAMEWORK A stable triangle to build up a critical perspective on the world as we know it. Designers should be able to switch in mindset and create a meta-critical view on contemporary and future changes within our world. This can help by feeding of the -EAT- framework, Educational, Academic and theoretical back up provided by an institute or by exploring the environment for this type of knowledge SOCIALITY IN COMMUNITIES Participation can open up new perspectives. Not only within design community’s but also combining the group with a variety of disciplines. This last seems to be a 81 difficult task for design education.


THE PRACTICES CREATED WITHIN THE CURRICULUM ARE THE MOST BASIC AND CUMBERSOME TO WORK WITH IN THE FUTURE HOW CAN WE IF WE WOULD START REALM MAKE THIS PART A NEW AND MORE OF THEIR WAY RADICAL WAY OF INDEPTH AND OF WORKING EDUCATING FOR THE WELL ON POINT 21ST CENTURY, THIS MANIFESTO MANIFESTO COULD BE SHOULD FIT IN THE FUNDAMENT EDUCATION HOW CHANGE THE WAY TRADITIONAL DESIGNER TO OPEN UP TO SUCH NOTIONS

REPRESENTATION OF THE DESIGNER SHOULD BE THE STARTINGPOINT AS THE WAY THEY SPEACK FOR THEMSELVES

BUT CULTURE IS VERY DIFFICULT TO CHANGE

WORK SHOPS ON THE DIFFERENT TOPICS

COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT OF HOW TO SPEAK TO STAKEHOLDERS IN THE METROPOLIS

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DESIGN EDUCATORS FALL BACK IN OLD ROUTINES

IMPORTANT TO FOCUS ON THE EDUCATORS BEFORE STUDENTS FREE ACADEMY

POSITIONING OF THE DESIGNER INSTEAD OF HABITS

STUDENTS CREATING SOCIALITY IN COMMUNICATION BY SHARING KNOWLEDGE OUTSIDE OF THE ACADEMY

CREATING SOCIALITY IN DIFFERENT FRAGMENTS OVER THE WORLD


REFLECTION ON THE MANIFESTO By reason of my focus towards the development of Art Academy education. It was in my interest to gain in-depth reflection upon the findings I gathered during the research and the open manifesto as end result. Thus I had an interview with Jeroen Chabot, head of the Art Academy in Rotterdam. I split the interview in two section. Firstly I presented my findings and the outcome in form of the open manifesto. I asked him to reflect on these findings. My main questions were what value and challenges he perceived for the art academy in reference to the manifesto. Secondly a dialogue/ discussion how the insights could play a role in shifting the culture amongst design educators within the art academy. Jeroen Chabot was pleased to see the end result of my research. He was impressed by the depth the insights touched upon. I will refer to aspects that have been interesting reflections towards the process of my manifesto. Insights I have gained during the conversation.

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REFLECTION ON MANIFESTO WITH JEROEN CHABOT PART 1 Starting off I presented the Manifesto that incorporates themes and subjects drawing upon the outcomes of my research. After this I gave him a more detailed glance on my process to show how I collected the information. Chabot was interested in my finding and sought value in the variation of my topics. Whilst discussing ‘Human versus Nonhuman’ Chabot argued that the title was not reflecting my explanation of this theme. He referred to human intelligence versus nonhuman intelligence. We discussed the fact that nonhumans are improving intelligence and this can lead to a conversation or cooperation between both entity’s. Intelligence in this talk played a big role and also referred back to the intelligence a living organism is carrying. Before nonhuman starts to bear the intelligence to create sense of self we should understand the relationship we are in. He shared his ideas on the theme ‘Ubiquity in communities’. He sought value in this theme when referring to citizens in city’s like Rotterdam with a large network of different ethnicity’s. Creating a sense of empathy and being able to reflect upon the variety of people living in the same place could help create resolutions that in some way can create an environment pleasing the individuals. Next to this he also found this topic touched upon themes as the problem the financial system is coping with. He believed that it was from imminent importance to understand the metropolis before we are able to understand how to resolve such complex problems. Chabot argued that ‘representation of the designer’ was the most important topic. He sought value in this topic because it reflects upon the core and personal story of the individual designer. The representation inherence the personal view of a designer, the criticality’s he or she builds and therefor the way they design. He felt more to call this the ‘arrangement of the designer’. The first part of the interview has made me improve parts of the manifesto. Creating more clear messages and reframing some of the insights to communicate the message more. Chabot was not keen on the word ‘habits’ he perceived the insights to be topics to reflect the positioning of the designer on.

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PART 2 The second part of the interview was the potential added value of the manifesto towards the art academy. Chabot mentioned that if he would recreate the art academy in current state, the manifesto would be an interesting fundament for the curriculum to build on. “A fundament for radical change” within education. He agreed that the manifesto should be presented to the educators before it starts to take on a big role within the curriculum for students. Working on the cultural dis-balance in the academy. Putting the manifesto alongside of the contemporary curriculum can be interesting, but he also sought challenges. He is trying to shift the culture towards a 21st century mindset for the past six years and stumbled upon problems mainly because of ‘traditional’ design educators that seem to value their profession as it was before. Many problems lie within the crafts based disciplines like illustration, photography and fashion. All of the disciplines carry the fear of loosing their profession. The disciplines are built up on creating one sort of product what makes the shift towards data not very natural. Chabot seeks value in the platforms like the manifesto for Willem de Kooning Art academy because of of its close connection to a wider University network. The first steps are already taken towards other disciplines, but Chabot not only finds resistance towards change within the art academy. Reaching out towards other disciplines is a journey with many hazards to undertake. Disciplines are closed hubs and scared to loose students to the other disciplines. Chabot is however interested to find a way to use this within his program and would like to talk about creating workshops around the manifesto to open up the platform towards the educators. The challenges Chabot is facing are (unfortunately) well known topics when referring to organizational change. Big organizations seem to adapt very slowly. But I argue that the form of the manifesto is open for own interpretation. Criticality’s can be built from off their own stance point without being pushed in to a framework. I do however understand the struggle, and when using the platform as a way to help (traditional) designers build a new perspective towards their own craft or even their own representation, the manifesto will have to carry workshops more research towards cultural change. 85


DISCUSSION The transition of design is in full swing. Adjusting the field of design by including professions such as UX, Service and Interaction design is a consequential step. The switch to value constellations is advancing towards a vibrant space asking for fresh insights and ‘different’ perspectives. Companies are adopting design research processes and are building methodologies accompanying the practices. UX and Service design are good examples of disciplines that cross the bridge between the business landscape and the creative industry. Although many seek value in design, others question their true capability’s in their new roles. My intention with the research was to explore what designers should be aware of in the 21st century, to create a critical perspective on the densifying constellations (which are explained in my thesis). After research I had to conclude that there is quite some reluctance on the level of art academy’s towards the, in my view necessary adaptations in the current curriculum as a result of the changing landscape of the digital economy. My aim was to use the manifesto to explain in relatively simple words which steps should be undertaken to make sure that the position of the designers will be prevented from erosion. The Manifesto can be used as a tool to catch up with the strongly igniting digital economy. We as designers should be in the forefront of change instead of lapsing behind the high-speed changes in the real world. I shared the insights of the manifesto with Chabot to explain my views and to further sharpen them. It was good to see that my main conclusions were more than shared by the experienced leader of one of the prominent art academy’s in the Netherlands. Although I got full support of the academic and theoretical conclusions of my thesis, I also had to recognize, as so often is the case, that the challenge doesn’t only lie in building the right theory, but also in convincing the designers society that changes and/or adaptations on the curriculum should be executed fast, to strengthen the position of designers in the changing world. To put it plain and simple, we have to cope with a cultural issue!

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Although I am preaching to create recognition around the insights that can serve a long-term mindset for the designer, I am fully aware of the fact it is not enough to make people act upon this train of thought. The manifesto is a first iteration on the knowledge a designer has to incorporate to create a critical perspective and solid representation as designer. The potential of creating workshops for design educators around the subject which I discussed with Chabot are a good next step to create awareness towards the insights. But then again, a few workshops will not do the trick either and we will have to keep on pushing to just add minor impact on to truly adapt to the 21st century mindset.

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So you want to be a designer  

Dissertation Eva Auer

So you want to be a designer  

Dissertation Eva Auer

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