European Defence Review
Air Power Projection Attack Submarines The LSAT Programme Maritime Piracy
Issue N째 20 March / April 2015
FORMATION - CONSEIL - ASSISTANCE
© Natcom - www.natcom.fr - 01 47 30 31 32 - Photos : Sirpa Terre, Mer et Air – DCI
LE LABEL DES FORCES ARMÉES FRANÇAISES
European Defence Review
Recovering France to Build a Better Europe Joseph Roukoz (Editorial)
Total Air-defence in the 21st Century ? Jean-Michel Guhl
Air Power Projection - David Oliver
Attack Submarines - Andrew White
Light Moves - FranĂ§ois Prins
The LSAT Programme : The New Ultra-light Machine Gun Jean-Pierre Husson
Maritime Piracy at the Forefront of International Security Goals MĂŠlanie Bernard-Crozat
Joseph Roukoz David Oliver
European Defence Review issue no.20
European Defence Review (EDR) is published by European Defence Publishing SAS Price per copy - r 18 EDR - March / April 2015
Recovering France to Build a Better Europe
he first few weeks of the year have been nothing but worrying, if we look at the successive events that have been occurring in France, Denmark, Belgium or other countries around the globe as the direct aftermath of the fight against the so called Islamic States (ISIS), in Syria and Iraq. If we push the line up to cynicism, we can also assert that these events are not really surprising, given the way we have been leading this war against ISIS. We first thought that the battle would be easy, because it would happen on a foreign soil. We thought that targeted air bombing and handing over weapons to the Kurds in northern Iraq or to the Iraqi armed forces would be enough. Little did we know that in fact, ISIS is not a new phenomenon. It is just a new name for a multi-headed monster. ISIS is an emanation from various radical Islamic groups linked to Al Qaida that have basically the same Wahhabi inspired radical interpretation of Islam, except that they aim to build a state based on this ideology. This is the main difference between ISIS and other radical groups; it is just the political dimension of its project: ISIS wants to reestablish the Islamic caliphate of the Abbasids, and have started implementing its project by occupying areas in Syria and Iraq that have fallen out of control. And like every new state with project, ISIS needs to populate its conquered land. Europe has been acting very surprised when it realized that neighboring ISIS, has been calling up on European citizens to join their fight and their territory. What has been more of a surprise is that a large proportion of the people who have joined them have neither a direct nor an indirect relation with Islam. Many young French people who have been educated by non-Muslim problem-free families in small quiet towns have ended up being jihadists fighting alongside ISIS. However, it was clear enough from the beginning that Europe was a proper breeding ground for such inexplicable deviances. The global economic crisis that have hit the continent in 2008, and the inevitable loss of values, identity, and belonging that has accompanied globalization in Europe have pushed many people – especially the young – to despair. The luckiest of them have left the country in search for a better life elsewhere. Others have turned xenophobic, putting the blame on foreigners for their unresolved problems. This can explain the growing support for populist parties in some European countries where they have been winning most of the local elections. Finally others unexpectedly found a new life project, a new sense into joining Jihadists. Why are we acting surprised? Aren’t we also responsible for the loss of value and identity among these young people? In a world where the technology of information and communication is in constant evolution, there was no doubt from the beginning that the Internet would be the preferred weapon of terrorists on our soil. Therefore, no, this battle is not easy. And most of all, this battle does not only happen on a foreign soil. This is a global battle, happening on our very soil. A battle for our values, a battle for our integrity, a battle for our relations with our neighbors, a battle for the protection of our youth, a battle against any form of extremism. How can our governments even think of waging a war without protecting the national soil first? This lack of imagination (or was it a shortsighted vision?) has led to the horrendous recent terrorist attacks against the French newspaper agency “Charlie Hebdo”, and against the Jewish community by attacking a Jewish market the next day in Paris. We have all been inflicted with pain after these horrible events. The French government certainly knew how to manage the aftermath of these events by talking to the people, asking them to avoid any form of simplistic conclusion that could mix Islam and radical Islamism, calling for a national unity. However, managing a crisis is one thing. Preventing it from happen is another thing. It requires a clear-sighted vision, a rational analysis and a sense of anticipation that we just don’t have.
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Editorial Life conditions of the young people should be the top priority of our actions. The President François Hollande has made of the young people one of the pillars of his campaign in 2012. Results however are still to be incremented. An effort should be made on the reinsertion after a student drops school. A huge progress should be implemented in schools. Killing off the educational aspect of school and penalizing any form of teacher’s authority is an utter failure. There are boundaries that should be set at an early age in a healthy, organized environment. The other important point, and we have already written many papers on this topic, is to unlock a state budget to restore the Military Service. The idea behind the cancellation of the military service under the presidency of Jacques Chirac was its cost in comparison with France’s military engagements at the time. But France’s action has increased and times have changed. It is true that such a service will cost too much to the country. But imagine, on the longer term, the budget we will save on education, prisons, counter terrorism measures if we give the young people the chance of belonging to such an important corporation. A recent poll realized by IFOP showed that 80% of the French people asked for the return of national service. This would help give France enough tools to “promote integration, mix young people of different social backgrounds and levels, and to instill Republican values and national cohesion” says the poll. The description says it all. Every tool put into service that could help increase integration and the sense of belonging among the people should be encouraged. We have to stop thinking about quick palliatives and short-term answers to problems and think on the longer term. Only then will we be able to overcome the crisis and set ground for building a compact and consistent nation. Other questions are left unanswered. In Mali, France engaged in a war against terrorism after being called to help by the local authorities. This is a noble act. However, why wasn’t the job finished? Was it just a lack of political vision or did our army lack the capacities? Is it due to an economic problem? The Malian army is not strong enough to face terrorists by itself. In some areas, the debacle was so important that soldiers were forced to leave their weapons behind, in the hands of terrorists and surrender. It is impossible to form and train an army in 3 years with the level of corruption there is in Mali. Our presence in this country cost our citizens billions of Euros and it is their right to know the truth of why we abandoned the battle. This taps into very deep things within the French mentality. It taps into the way we deal with our history as a colonial power. The French “African politics”, as we called it not so long ago was a continuation of this colonialism, during which we financed, supported and help corrupted elites to serve our interests in these countries against the will of the people and against every single democratic value we are sorely attached to at home. And this is the result. Africa remained poor, and it deeply relies on foreign help to survive. The identity of its people has been eroded. Many of them are migrating to Europe to build a better future before being marginalized by a system that does not encourage progress and a failed integration policy. Instead of keeping up with questionable relationships with leaders, why not help build structures to reinsert African immigrants on their own soil? The challenges of Europe have changed since the Second World War. We should learn how to change our own rules and adapt our decision-making process to our times, in the spirit of Europe’s History and philosophy. When we see how our American allies are managing their relations with Russia about the Ukrainian crisis, we get the feeling that there is a certain continuity in the naivety with which our allies manage their diplomatic relations. One of the main reasons to this is simply the fact that the US does not share any common history or direct heritage with most the countries they try to build diplomatic relations with. This is not the case of Europe that has been sharing a common history with neighboring Middle East for centuries. The same goes for Russia, and eastern European countries. France and Germany should continue positioning themselves as a pivotal duo in the management of the Ukrainian crisis as they timidly started to do. The future of Europe resides in this strong alliance between Germany and France, out of which a new impulse to Europe can be ignited. This is the best response that can be given to the increasing populism that let us falsely believe that patriotism is the opposite of being pro-Europe.
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The Arleigh-Burke class guided-missile destroyer USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) launches a Standard Missile 6 (SM-6) during a live-fire test of the ship’s aegis weapons system. Over the course of three days, the crew of John Paul Jones successfully engaged six targets, firing a total of five missiles that included four SM-6 models and one Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) model. © U.S. Navy photo
Total Air Defence in the 21st Century ? The cyclic and eternal battle between the sword and the shield has culminated over the years — at least in the aerospace field — in a momentary supremacy of the shield embodied by a few selected modern Integrated Air Defence Systems (IADS). At least so far… and this only if we leave aside modern tactical nuclear weapons which only proper and very costly multi-layer Anti-Ballistic Missile Defence system under development can hope perhaps to keep at bay.
his last point is of great importance because such weapons — never used in combat but now highly miniaturised and “MIRVed” for stealthy penetration — could tip the scale back to the side ot the sword in then course of the 21st Century, particularly for sea-denial operations like those envisioned by China to oppose US aircraft-carriers from intervening in the Taiwan Strait or a US amphibious group to approach the Chinese mainland. It is quite obvious that none of the ten operational US Navy giant carriers could survive the attack of an anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM) like the Dong Feng DF-21D as today fielded by China main artillery force. With a maximum range said to exceed 1,500 kilometres (or 900 miles), a single DF-21D (also known as CSS-5 Mod 4 in US parlance or “Carrier Killer”) could sink a giant carrier in a single nuclear blow. Deployed oper-
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ationally since the beginning of this decade —according to US intelligence sources — the DF-21D is regarded as the first ASBM weapon system capable of targeting from a great distance a moving ship at sea. Pentagon experts reckon that there exists at this hour in time no counter-measures capable of intercepting such a missile diving at Mach 10 from nowhere. As a matter of fact, at least in genuine wargame thinking, one of China’s top mid-term strategic objectives still is to push US naval forces out of what Beijing regards as its backyard. Taking into account that the situation between the United States and China is not at all a copy-and-paste replication of what existed during the 20th Century between the United States and the USSR, the possibility that Beijing could attack Taiwan in the coming years is not to exclude, especially if the Capitalo-communist regime becomes largely
In January 2011, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force destroyer JS Kurama (DDH 144) leads a formation with the Arleigh-Burke-class guided-missile destroyers USS Gridley (DDG 101) and USS Stockdale (DDG 106). Stockdale and Gridley were at that time underway with the Carl Vinson Carrier Strike Group on a deployment to the U.S. 7th Fleet area of responsibility. © U.S. Navy photo
able to inflict such losses to Americans interest. In turn, the US forces could do little in time of crisis to locate and destroy pre-emptively any deployed DF-21D launchers on the Chinese mainland. And retaliation would certianly follow… The Australian defence expert Dr Carlo Kopp said it right : « The expectation that the US could get by with a small “golden bullet” fleet of stealth aircraft [B-2 and F-22] to carve holes in enemy IADS to permit legacy aircraft to attack is no longer credible. The difficulty in locating and killing the new generation of self propelled and highly survivable IADS radars and launchers presents the prospect of a replay of the 1999 Operation Allied Force campaign, with highly lethal SAM systems waiting in ambush, and mostly evading SEAD/DEAD attacks. » A rather grim prospect for US Air Force commanders. Supremacy of the shield This supremacy in providing a deployed army with an impenetrable shield is embodied today in such integrated air defence systems (IADS) like the European SAMP/T, PAAMS, MEADS, and the US Patriot or the Russian S-300/S-400, to name a few of the most iconic. If hi-tech missiles constitute the pointed end of all these systems, great focus is and should be placed on the associated new generation advanced AESA radars, fire control and command & control (C2)
modules: they are the active brain of a modern IADS whose beyond belief reactivity is now largely computer-based. Today’s air defence systems can be classified in three « layers » : short range, medium range and long range ; this last with a true anti-ballistic capacity. Basic air defence systems address a number of threats, ranging from high and low-flying aircraft (capable of launching air to ground missiles or bombs), to national sovereign missile defence systems intended to shield a complete country against incoming threats, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles. The United States, Russia, France, India and Israel are all known to have developped true integrated missile defence systems, and Japan and Taiwan are known to be working as well on such protective shields.
The MBDA Aster 30 missile is the key vector of the new Franco-Italian SAMP/T air defence system. Aster is manufactured by Eurosam, a European consortium consisting of MBDA France, MBDA Italy and Thales. The missile is designed to intercept and destroy a wide range of air threats, such as supersonic anti-ship missiles or sea skimming missiles flying at very low altitude and fast flying, high performance aircraft or medium range ballistic missiles. © MBDA EDR - March / April 2015
A single missile type to meet the needs of all three services, the Sea Ceptor (designed by the European company MBDA especially for the British Forces) is a next generation single tier, all weather air defence system due to replace both the Seawolf and Rapier missile systems. It is due to evolve into a future air-to-air weapon for the Royal Air Force. © MBDA
An old threat becoming deadlier The use of ground-based missiles to engage airplanes and defend air space is a recent phenomenon. First explored by Germany by the end of World War II — with the Rheintochter R1 surfaceto-air missile developed by Rheinmetall-Borsig — all the major powers quickly raced to develop them in the postwar period. The first confirmed kill by a surface-to-air missile occurred on 7 October 1959 when a trio of Soviet-made V-750 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) missiles shot down a RoCAF Martin RB-57D Canberra reconnaissance plane flying at a 20,000m altitude over the Chinese mainland. Something
which severely struck Western military experts, prompting the US industry to react with what was to become the MIM-23 Hawk developed by Raytheon and largely fielded by NATO forces during the 1960s, following in the track of the US designed MIM-3 Nike Ajax ; the world’s first operational SAM which had entered service in 1954. Designed to attack conventional bomber aircraft flying at high subsonic speeds and altitudes above 50,000 feet (15 km), this missile was initially deployed in the US to provide in priority defence against Soviet bomber attacks. It was later deployed overseas to protect US bases, as well as being sold to various allied forces. The size and scope of early surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems meant that their use was first restricted to conventional wars. As a result, SAM use has been generally infrequent, with the exception of the Arab-Israeli conflicts, the Vietnam war, and other clashes with conventional forces on both sides. Their size being a problem too. Thanks to major advances in electronics, new generation missiles are nowadays always getting more effective and can defend against many different air-based threats, if not all.
Powerful upgraded version of the baseline Aspide, the MBDA Aspide 2000 multi-role missile for use in surface-to-air systems is capable of engaging at-
The S-400 Triumf (also known by NATO as the SA-21 Growler), is a new
tacking aircraft before they even can release their airborne stand-off rocket
generation air defence weapon system developed by the Almaz OKB in Russia.
propelled missiles! Equipped with an enhanced single stage rocket motor to
An upgrade variant of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with
increase the missile speed, lateral acceleration and effective range by as much as
the Russian Armed Forces. It is a very powerful medium range air defence
40% compared to the earlier generation Aspide missile. © MBDA
system. © J. Roukoz
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The Mistral man-portable air defense missile designed by the European company MBDA is one of the most lethal infrared short-range system available today. It is pictured here in French Air Force use with a Sagem Mathis all-weather day/night viewing and aiming sight. © Ph. Wodka-Gallien
However, much recast with the rise of man-portable air defences (MANPADS or shoulder-fired systems capable of engaging at short range low-flying aircraft) —largely distributed to guerrillas, terrorists, and other nonstate actors around the world— SAMs became a real game changer less than four decades ago. These highly mobile, very concealable weapons have been used to target both military and civilian aircraft, in war and peacetime. The current proliferation of MANPADS in the hands of criminal interests has become a tangible problem, particularly as instability in countries like Syria and Iraq, and earlier Libya, has caused all governmental forces to lose control of their missile arsenals.
Strela : the Kalashnikov of MANPADS As a junior US journalist put it a while ago, the Soviet/Russian 9K32 Strela or SA-7 Grail is « the AK-47 of air defence missiles »: cheap, lightweight and prone to falling into the wrong hands like any Kalashnikov automatic rifle. The first generation of Soviet man-portable air defence missiles (MANPADS), the SA-7 is a 10kg missile contained in a launcher the length and width of a pair of skis. Supersonic, the SA-7 is capable of a maximum speed of 1,260 miles an hour with a range of 14,750 feet. The SA-7 was meant to provide air defence against low-flying NATO attack aircraft. It was liberally issued to frontline Soviet Army units: motor rifle (mechanized), air assault, naval infantry and engineer companies were all equipped with an SA-7 firing team. According to analysts, a NATO aircraft flying over a Soviet battalion would cross paths with as many as three SA-7s. That sort of battlefield saturation was necessary because, like all first generation MANPADS, the SA-7 was relatively primitive. Egyptian troops during the 1969-1970 War of Attrition scored 36 hits out of 99 launches, including possibly the first MANPADS intercept ever of an Israeli A-4 Skyhawk. The missile’s small warhead meant most planes were only damaged, not really knocked down, and training and aircraft modifications (like the “stove pipe exhaust”) dramatically lowered the missile’s effectiveness during the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
The Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) is a ground-mobile air and missile defense system intended to replace the US Patriot missile system through a NATO-managed development. This programme is a tri-national development of the USA, Germany and Italy. The UHF MEADS Surveillance Radar is a 360-degree active electronically steered array radar.
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The versatile VL Mica is a short range air defence system based on a proven advanced fire-and-forget missile. It has a 360-degree, omni-directional coverage, a modular and well distributed architecture built around a powerful radar. VL Mica is said to be capable of defeating all existing close proximity air threats. The system exists both in land and naval versions. © MBDA
Like other first generation MANPADS, a major downside of the SA-7 was the infrared guidance system, which needed to lock on mandatorily to the hot exhaust endpart of an aircraft. The SA-7 was only capable of locking onto the tail of an aircraft as it was departing the battlefield— generally after it had expended its ordnance. The Afghan mujahedeen fighting Soviet occupation forces during the 1980s disliked the SA-7, claiming it would rather lock onto the sun than the exhaust of a jet or helicopter. They were thus glad to receive from the USA better engineered Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger missiles which brought havoc against Soviet helicopters and low-flying fighter-bombers. Like the SA-7, the Stinger was designed for American ground forces to defend themselves from enemy ground attack aircraft. However unlike the SA-7, the Stinger has an “all-aspect” engagement capability—that is, it can detect and launch against aircraft at all angles, not just from the rear. This finally gave US air defence squads the ability to shoot down an enemy aircraft before it made an attack run, or force an aircraft to abort a run. This leading pair was later joined by heavier French and Swedish made MANPADS with the MBDA Mistral and Saab RBS 70, and many updated variants of the Stinger and Strela, including Chinese-made copies which nowadays thrive on four continents and which often fall in the hands of thugs. If truth be told, MANPADS will for long remain a sore issue, both for military forces and the people in charge of airport security, just to name these two… EDR - March / April 2015
Today’s most potent IADS As noted earlier, advanced air defence systems are principally developped and produced by first line countries with a sustained R&D basis in that field : the USA, Russia, Western Europe and China. To which leading group can be added Japan, Israel and Taiwan, partly using US technology, or countries like Iran, Pakistan or North Korea using diverted Soviet/Russian legacy systems. As such, an high-tech IADS, like a human, needs to stand on two legs, i.e. a powerful missile system on one side, and a comprehensive radar suite backed by a robust C2 on the other. However older generation or legacy air defence systems
The veA very lethal air defence system the S-300 (NATO SA-10 Grumble) was first deployed by the USSR in 1979. Designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft it has proven to be very effective in action. Most recent use was in Syria in 2014 where it was used to down a Turkish Air Force RF-4E Phamtom II. © J. Roukoz
The Boeing MIM-104 Patriot system is the US Army’s primary air defence system. Over one thousand launchers are in service with US forces, and it is also the main air defence system of several Nato armies. Some fifteen countries in the world field the Patriot system today. The AN/MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the “Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept On Target”, hence the name “Patriot. The latest iteration of the Patriot missile is the MIM-104F or Patriot PAC-3. © Boeing
still in wide use today in many countries of the world remain a real threat to many aircraft flying in open airspace. Something which was dramatically demonstrated when, on 17 July 2014, a Boeing 777 of Malaysia Airlines en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur, fell from the sky near the town of Torez in the Donetsk region of Ukraine on the battle edge of fighting government and rebel forces. There were 280 passengers and 15 crew members on board. The accident left no survivors. The Boeing 777 was flying at the height of 10,600 meters (33,000 feet). The crash was later attributed to a Buk missile system (or 9K37 Buk M1, aka SA-11 Gadfly) obviously captured from the Armed Forces of Ukraine by representatives of the breakaway and self-proclaimed People’s Republic of Donetsk. Using a combination of 9S35 Fire Dome engagement radar, 9S18 Tube Arm acquisition radar and 9K37 missile, the Buk system deployed in the area of Donetsk downed the wide body airliner. The firing range of the Buk missile system reaches 45 kilometers and up to stratospheric altitudes. The direct successor of the 9K37 Buk M1 system is the S-300 or SA-10 Grumble, Russia’s best selling IADS today in use by some fifteen countries. Not far from us in 22 June 2012, it proved its worth by downing a Turkish Air Force RF-4E Phantom II reconnaissance aircraft flying at an altitude of 21,000 feet over Syrian waters. The S-300 unit was said to be manned by Russian personnel detached in Syria, and that it had
only fired its 5V55U missile after repeated intrusions of the RF-4E in Syrian airspace. The S-300 or SA-10 Grumble is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded. Its combined radar suite has the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12, 24 or 36 targets simultaneously ! The S-300 is part of a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. It was developed for the Soviet Air Defence Forces to defend against NATO aircraft and cruise missiles. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The robust S-300 system was first deployed by the USSR in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The project-managing developer of the S-300 is the Russian Almaz corporation which is currently a part of the “Almaz-Antei” Air Defence Concern which uses missiles developed by the MKB “Fakel” design bureau. The typical S-300 battle unit deployment time does not exceed five minutes in well trained hands. The S-300 missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. Several evolved version of the S-300 system exist : the S-300V (SA-12 Gladiator), the S-300PMU (SA-20 Gargoyle) the S-400 (SA-21 Growler), which entered limited service in 2004 and which production has been revitalized thanks to Russian defence budget increases. A further improved « Antey 2500 » or S-300VM (SA-X-23) is in development thus keeping the Russian IADS in the leading trio, with the Boeing Patriot and MBDA PAAMS family. The realm of the Patriot One of the most famous air defence missiles in the world, the US Army’s Patriot missile rose to notoriety during the 1991 Gulf War, when it was used to protect Coalition forces and Israeli population centres from Saddam Hussein’s dreaded Scud missiles. Although lauded at the time as a great success, Patriot’s true success rate reportedly hovered in the single digits. Since then, the EDR - March / April 2015
Boeing-made Patriot has been almost continuously improved and the result is a mature missile system capable of intercepting targets flying highly divergent flight profiles. Originally designed to defend only against aircraft, Patriot is now capable of engaging helicopters, cruise missiles, ballistic missiles and drones. Against ballistic missiles, Patriot is employed to intercept warheads in the terminal descent phase. Patriot development has branched into two missiles. A patriot battery can control both types, in order to cover a spectrum of threats. PAC-2/GEM is capable of shooting down aircraft, cruise missiles and to a lesser extent, theater ballistic missiles. It is deployed four to a launcher. PAC-2/GEM has a range of 70 kilometers to a maximum altitude of 84,000 feet. The newer and sleeker PAC-3 MSE is designed strictly toward shooting down ballistic missiles. PAC-3 MSE is also smaller, and a launcher can carry twelve missiles instead of four. The missile has a range of 35 kilometers and a maximum altitude of 112,000 feet. Patriot was a product of the seventies and eighties, a period when battlefield missile defence was not seriously discussed, and was designed purely to intercept aircraft. Over time, Patriot has however proven surprisingly adaptable and has been selected by many NATO forces and selected allies of the USA. Derived from the Patriot philosophy the Medium Extended Air Defence System (MEADS) programme now underway is aimed to replace Patriot missiles in the United States, Germany and Italy. Competing with MBDA’s SAMP/T now deployed with army regiments both in France and Italy, MEADS is designed to kill enemy aircraft, cruise missiles and UAVs, while providing next-generation point defence capabilities against ballistic missiles. MEADS also aims to offer improved mobility and wider compatibility with other existing air defence systems. It was intended from its inception on the screen to match up against foreseeable enemy aircraft over the next 30 years, as well as stealthier and/ or supersonic cruise missiles, UAVs, and even ballistic missiles. The system will incorporate its EDR - March / April 2015
The Aster 15, along with the longer range Aster 30, is at the heart of the Principal Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS), a joint defence programme developed by France, Italy and the United Kingdom for an integrated anti-aircraft warfare system. Here an Aster 15 is seen being fired from a French Navy Aquitaine-class frigate. © MBDA
own 3-radar set, along with networked communications for use as either a stand-alone system, or a component of larger air defence clusters that include other missiles. The core vehicle for the US MEADS programme will be the US-made FMTV 6×6 trucks. These vehicles, which can be carried in C-130 or C-17 airlifters, will carry the radars, containerized Tactical Operations Center (TOC), launcher, and reload packs. MEADS International has already tested some of the prototype systems to fit as well the A400M. Italian and German test vehicles have used their own national truck brands (Iveco or MAN), and the Germans in particular appear to be leaning to larger vehicles. The European PAAMS and land derivatives Using both the Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles as killers, the aim of the PAAMS programme (Principal Anti-Air MissileSystem), launched exactly 15 years ago, was to design and manufacture the principal naval anti-air weapon system for new generation of air defence destroyers & frigates. Mainly for the Royal Navy’s T45 destroyers (where it is named Sea Viper), and for France and Italy Horizon/Orizzonte frigates, as well as all FREMM models, although not operated literally as part of a PAAMS air-defence suite. Cur-
Toting four Mistral missiles and a heavy machine gun, the first MPCV (Multi-Purpose Combat Vehicle) associates MBDA to Rheinmetall Defence Electronics (RDE) in order to provide short-range air defence protection on the move. © MBDA
rently in service in France, Italy and the United Kingdon, the PAAMS system provides the navies of the three countries with a very potent IADS. It is now well known and covered in details in many publications. Developed by major European missile company producers (MBDA, TAD, Selex and BAe) gathered inside the EUROPAAMS GIE, acting on behalf of the three nations, it is an air defence system able to fulfil three tasks simultaneously: self defence of the frigate/destroyer, local area defence for a warship group at sea, and medium range air defence for a warship group. From a technical viewpoint, the PAAMS system shares numerous items with MBDA’s FSAF systems (Future Surface-to-Air Family of missiles), especially the Aster 30 missile which is also the main armament of the SAMP/T (Sol-Air Moyenne Portée/Terrestre or Ground-to-Air Medium Range Missile System), a launch package again built around the Thales-designed Arabel X-band multi-function acquisition and tracking radar. Eurosam’s air-defence systems are based on a modular architecture, with specific modules or « building blocks » which can be combined to precisely tailor each system. A basic system consists of one multi-function radar, a command and control post with Mara computers and Magics operator consoles, and a vertical launch system. Additional sub-systems can be added to optimize the basic system’s capabilities for specific missions, such as naval extended area defence or anti-ballistic missile defence. IADS at sea, one example Very recently, on behalf of the French Defence Procurement Agency (DGA), the European Joint
Armaments Cooperation Organisation (OCCAR) awarded Thales a contract to upgrade the fire control system for the anti-air missiles deployed by the FS Charles-de-Gaulle, the only aircraft carrier of the French Navy. The new equipment will be installed as part of the scheduled refit planned for 2018. Work will then be completed when the Charles-de-Gaulle returns to active service. Under the terms of this contract, Thales will upgrade the ship’s Aster surface-to-air anti-missile system, which protects the carrier from all types of air threats, and which was developed and installed in the 1990s. The upgrade will include a state-of-the-art open IT architecture and will facilitate subsequent maintenance work on the system and extend its service life. The Thales solution is an opportunity to apply the latest software architecture concepts developed for the ControlView command and control system. ControlView performs threat evaluation, weapon assignment and coordination of very short, short and medium-range engagements, enabling commanders to make complex, critical decisions more quickly and with greater precision and security. It is a mature, derisked missile fire control solution for naval operations adding more brain to an already very lethal naval IADS. Air defence on the move, two examples As a true IADS cannot be afforded everywhere, very short range weapons or VSHORAD still are the minimum a deployed army nowadays can afford in operation. They can fill the whole gammut of protective functions, like the urshin-like Russian Pantsir or the compact and recent European-made Multi Purpose Combat Vehicle. The EDR - March / April 2015
MPCV is an MBDA self-funded programmefor a flexible very short range air defence system. It combines the proven Mistral short range surface-to-air missile, a machine gun and advanced sensors and fire control system. The Renault Sherpa 3A is the basic platform for this VSHORAD system but can be integrated onto many platforms upon customer request. The system relies on VHF PR4G-F@stnet communications supplied by Thales. The system is highly flexible and network-centric operations capable and can be operated remotely at a distance of up to 50 meters with the crew in sheltered positions. The MCPV air defence system has been ordered by the French Armed Forces. In February 2011, MBDA also announced the first export order from an undisclosed customer in the Middle East with the first series production vehicles delivered in 2013. This programme was launched in 2006. Final qualification of the MPCV system was carried out by the French Defence Procurement Agency (DGA) in June 2010 after a series of test firings at the missile test firing centre at Biscarosse in the Landes region of France. These tests culminated with a firing demonstration against a number of targets representing a saturating air attack. The MPCV can be integrated within a command and coordination network via the MCP (Mistral Coordination Post) command and control system (C2). The MPCV’s turret is fitted with four ready-to-fire Mistral missiles with another four stored inside the vehicle, a 12.7mm self-defence machine gun, and EOSS (Electro-Optic Surveillance Sensor) enabling the passive surveillance, detection and tracking of the target even when the vehicle is in motion. On the other hand, the Russian Pantsir S1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound, is a combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula. The system is a further development of SA-19/SA-N-11 and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased-array radars (Phazotron PESA) for both target acquisition and tracking. It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three EDR - March / April 2015
Using a mix of 12 short-range ground to air missiles and 2 rapid firing guns, the Russian Pantsir S1 (NATO SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined short to medium range weapon system produced by KPB. The system is a further development of the SA-19 ensemble and represents the latest air defence technology by using a set of EHF phased-array radars for both target acquisition and tracking. It has been acquired by some ten countries. © J. Roukoz
operators. Its air defence consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air-missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance. Its purpose is protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like the S-300/S-400. Aerial targets for the SA-22 include everything with a minimum radar-cross-section of 1 cm2 and speeds up to a maximum of 1000 metre/second within a maximum range of 20,000 metres and heights up to 15,000 metres—including all types of aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and air-to-ground precision guided weapons. The system is able to defend against stealth aircraft, and has capability for anti-munitions missions. It can operate in fully automatic mode and has ability to work in a completely passive mode. The probability of hitting a target for one missile is not less than 0.7 and the reaction time of 4–6 seconds. It is able to fire missiles and gun armament in motion, what allegedly no other anti-aircraft system in the world can do for the moment. It is now in service with some ten countries, and entering service in Syria’s Damascus government army and expected to be fielded in Brazil by the Exército Brasilei, ro in 2016.
An image of the Airbus A330 MRTT in French Air Force markings. (Airbus)
Air Power Projection David Oliver
Air-to-air refuelling (AAR) is a critical enabler for air power projection and is required to enable sustained air combat operations. As a unique force multiplier, it is a fundamental technical characteristic embedded in modern aircraft design, not just in combat aircraft, but also across the full spectrum of air platforms – including in the near future Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS).
n the past, European armed forces have relied systematically on American assets. This was clearly demonstrated in the Kosovo campaign in 1999 and confirmed during the operations over Libya in 2011. Today Europe is able to field only 42 tanker aircraft of 12 different types, which when compared with the US resources of over 550 tankers of three types, is a clear indication of the European challenges in this field. This is being addressed by the European Defence Agency (EDA) which has developed a global approach to increase overall AAR capacity, standardize the European fleet, and optimizing the use of existing assets and organizations. This initiative involves EDA working with the Organisation Conjointe de Coopération en matière d’ARmement (OCCAR), the Movement Co-ordination Center Europe (MCCE) and the European Air Transport Command (EATC). To address these issues, in November 2012, Defence Ministers from Belgium, France,
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Greece, Spain, Hungary, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Norway agreed to consider acquiring new multi-role transport tanker (MRTT) aircraft together. The initiative, led by the Netherlands that is looking to replace its two KDC-10 tanker transports that are converted commercial airliners, had the objective to acquire and operate an MRTT fleet to contribute to reducing the shortfalls in the field of AAR and strategic transport in the European inventories. In December 2014 the Netherlands, Poland and Norway decided to prepare negotiations with Airbus Defence & Space for the acquisition of a fleet of four A330 MRTT aircraft. This initiative, facilitated by EDA, involves the pooled acquisition and operation of a common fleet of aircraft by the three nations. Other nations will also be able to contribute to the overall programme through joining the acquisition phase and or in the in-service phase. An initial operating capability (IOC) is expected for 2019. The
The A330 MRTT illustrating its three-point air refuelling capability using under-wing pods and a centerline FRU. (Airbus)
nations agreed to create a NATO Support Agency (NSPA) partnership which tasked OCCAR to prepare negotiations with Airbus Defence and Space for a possible acquisition of a fleet of A330 MRTT aircraft. A single configuration has been selected for this common fleet of MRTT aircraft, which should be equipped with a rigid boom as well as underwing pods, thus allowing it to refuel a variety of receivers. They will also meet the usersâ€™ requirements in terms of passenger transport, strategic airlift, and medical evacuation. By developing synergies with similar fleets, the nations will further contribute to a reduced fragmentation and increased interoperability of AAR aircraft in Europe. However, the AirTanker consortium comprising EADS, Rolls-Royce, Thales and FRA, which is providing a comprehensive service for the UK Royal Air Force with 14 A330 MRTT aircraft designated Voyager KC.2/3s through a Private Finance Initiative (PFI) contract worth ÂŁ13 billion over a 27-year period, is projecting an over capacity. Already one of them has been leased to Thomas Cook Airlines, and the projected over capacity may provide a solution to the EDA requirement. The Airbus A330 MRTT is to carry up to 111 tonnes (245,000 lb) of fuel in its wings, the basic fuel capacity of the successful A330-200 airliner from which it is derived, enabling it to refuel any kind of receiver, without the need for additional fuel tanks, hereby avoiding any reduction in its ability to carry passengers or cargo. As a pure transport aircraft it is able to carry up to 300 troops, or a payload of up to 45
tonnes (99,000 lb) and can also easily be converted to accommodate up to 130 stretchers for Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) missions. The existing 80 percent commonality with the civil A330-200 allows the A330 MRTT to be easily integrated into the established global support Airbus Group network for maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) and logistics. To refuel receptacle-equipped aircraft such as the F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-35A Lightning II, or even the A330 MRTT itself when fitted with an UARRSI, the A330 MRTT is equipped with the Airbus Defence & Space Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS). Its fast fuel flow rate of up to a maximum of 3600 kg/min (1200 US gal/ min) makes the ARBS the most capable new generation flight proven boom available. Under-wing pods provide simultaneous hose and drogue refuelling at high fuel offload rate of 1300 kg/min (420 US gal/min), allowing receivers to minimise refuelling time and increase operation efficiency. The Cobham 905E under-wing pods, currently in service and proven in operation, enable the A330 MRTT to refuel any NATO or allied probeequipped receivers such as the Eurofighter, Tornado, the F/A18 Hornet or the Sukhoi Su-30. The 900 series wing-pods incorporate a digitally controlled and electrically operated hose drum unit, optimizing reliability and maintainability. Large probe-equipped aircraft such as the Airbus A400M or C295, can be refuelled, at a
The glass cockpit of the RAF Voyager K.2 tanker-transport. (David Oliver) EDR - March / April 2015
The Airbus A400M tactical transport has recently flight-tested its AAR equipment with an F/A-18 Super Hornet as a receiver. (Airbus)
high fuel offload rate of 1800 kg/min (600 US gal/min) via the Cobham 805E Fuselage Refuelling Unit (FRU) which is a removable Hose and Drogue unit that allows refuelling receivers with a different fuel type. This option assures NATO fuel type to be transferred from under-wing pods, while an alternative fuel type is dispensed from the FRU. These AAR systems are controlled from an advanced Fuel Operator Console positioned in the cockpit, increasing the safety of the AAR operation by ensuring a timely and synchronized reaction of the flight crew to unexpected events. It also features an Enhanced Vision System, a high definition 2D/3D digital system for performing day and night refuelling and provide high-resolution video recording of the refuelling operations. On a towline mission, the A330 MRTT can be on station at about 1,000 nm (1,600 km) from its base for some 4 hours 30 minutes, with the capability to provide 50 tonnes (110,000 lb) of fuel to receivers. Or it can provide 60 tonnes (132,000 lb) of fuel while remaining on station for five hours at 500 nm (930 km) from base. Airbus Defence & Space has been selected by the French Ministry of Defence to supply 12 A330 MRTT for the French Air Force, the first in EDR - March / April 2015
2018, followed by the second in 2019, and then at a rate of one or two per year. Franceâ€™s choice of the A330 MRTT makes it the sixth nation to order the type following Australia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom which have ordered a total of 34 aircraft. In addition, India and Qatar have selected the MRTT and are in the final stages of contractual negotiations for six and two aircraft respectively. A total of 22 aircraft are currently in service and the aircraft has been battle-proven in recent coalition actions.
The Cobham centerline FRUâ€™s refuelling drogue recessed under the belly of the Voyager K.2. (David Oliver)
Refuelling Aircraft Airbus Defence & Space is also producing the A400M tactical airlifter that can also be easily and quickly adapted to become an AAR tanker, if required. AAR can be done either through two wing-mounted hose and drogue under-wing refuelling pods or through a centre-line FRU. With hard points, fuel lines and electrical connections already built into the wings, it takes under two hours to convert the A400M from an airlifter into a two-point tanker aircraft. The two hose and drogue under-wing refuelling pods can provide a fuel flow of up to 1,500 litres/min (400 US gal/min) to receiver aircraft. Refuelling can also be done through a centre-line hose and drum Unit (HDU) to provides a higher fuel flow of some 2,250 litres/min (600 US gal/ min). Three video cameras can also be installed, to monitor the refuelling from the wing pods and the centre-line unit. The A400M is the only tanker which can refuel the entire range of probe-equipped military aircraft at their preferred speeds and altitudes. It can fly both at the low speeds and low altitudes
typically used to refuel helicopters, roughly 110 knots and 5000 ft, as well as at higher speeds and altitudes of about 290 knots and altitudes around 25,000 ft which are typically used for refuelling fast jets, such as fighters or large aircraft, or even another A400M for buddy-buddy refuelling. To do so, the A400M receiver is equipped with a refuelling probe mounted above the cockpit. This increases the range and endurance of the A400M. The probe can easily be removed when it is not needed. In August 2014 the Airbus A400M performed successfully AAR tests with a F/A-18 Hornet fighter. The tanker test campaign was developed in five flights inÂ which the A400M performed 33 dry contacts and dispensed 18.6 tonnes of fuel to the F/A-18 in 35 wet contacts. Its basic fuel capacity of 50.8 tonnes can be increased by the use of extra cargo hold tanks. The only competitor to the A300 MRTT is the KC-46A Pegasus that is being developed for the US Air Force. Boeing won the USAF KC-X competition for 197 MRTT from Airbus in 2009
A computer image of the Boeing KC-46A Pegasus MRTT refueling Eurofighter Typhoons. (Boeing)
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Refuelling Aircraft with an aircraft based on its commercial B7672C commercial freighter. The Pegasus will have a total of 94,200 kg (207.672 lb) of transferrable fuel available but development is behind schedule and export aircraft will not be available until the end of the decade. The basic KC-767A is already in service with the Italian Air Force which operates four tanker transport aircraft, although their introduction into service was delayed by a number of development issues including buffet problems with the under-wing pods of the MRTT. The Boeing KC-767A was also offered for the UK’s Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft (FSTA) requirement to replace the RAF VC10 and TriStar fleets but the A330 MRTT was selected in January 2004. Boeing also has a commercial interest in a smaller MRTT being developed in Brazil by Embraer. The new twin-jet KC-390 tactical tanker-transport is aimed at the lucrative Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules market, made a successful first flight on 3 February, 2015. In its tanker configuration which will incorporate Cobham’s under-wing air refuelling pods, refuelling probes and removable hold tanks for the AAR role which add an additional 17,435 litres (4,600 US gal) will be incorporated. The KC-390 has already attracted orders from European air forces, six from Portugal and two from the Czech Republic. Both of these countries are also involved in the production of the Embraer tanker-transport with the Czech company Aero Vodochody manufacturing the rear fuselage section, crew and parachute doors,
The Italian Air Force operates four Boeing KC-767 MRTTs. (Boeing) EDR - March / April 2015
The latest MRTT to take to the air is the Brazilian Embraer KC-390 ordered by Portugal and the Czech Republic. (Embraer)
emergency doors and hatches, cargo ramp and fixed leading edge. Portugal’s OGMA company, in which Embraer is a shareholder, will produce the central fuselage panels, elevators, fairings and landing-gear doors, and will support Embraer during the KC-390’s certification phase. Boeing has an agreement with Embraer to lead sales, sustainment and training for the KC-390 in the USA, UK and Middle East markets. Another small tactical tanker-transport is the projected A2A, which BAE Systems launched in 2013, which is a variant of the BAe 146/Avro RJ series of regional jetliners, Having carried out proximity flight trials with a BAe 146-200 aircraft and a Hawk jet trainer, the high-wing, T-tail aircraft proved to be an ideal platform for a tactical or training AAR. With standard tankage of the BAe 146/Avro RJ family, some 7,000 kg of fuel available for transfer and fitted with auxiliary tanks in the cabin this could be increased to 18,000 kg. The aircraft’s wide airspeed range, between 150 and 300 knots at 11,000 m, gives it the flexibility to refuel a variety of fixed and rotary-wing aircraft currently in service. The standard fit would include auxiliary fuels tanks, a centreline hose and drogue unit (HDU), external guide lights, camera and control systems on the flight deck with optional dual HDU installation. With a plentiful supply of pre-owned BAe 146 and Avro RJs on the market, the price of a basic converted aircraft would be in the $7.5-15 million range and be delivered within two years. The aircraft type could also be configured for other roles including passenger/cargo transport. ,
The Russian submarine Kilo class type 636 INS Sindhurakshak
Following the demise of the Cold War, international navies have witnessed increasing doubts in the utility of the attack submarine. However, recent decisions and trends, especially across Europe, appear to be in the process of reversing such thoughts, with multiple state actors electing to pursue next-generation developments in order to strategically secure their home waters and provide outreach across the world’s oceans and seas.
uch a capability was reinforced between October and January, when Swedish armed forces confirmed the conduct of two search operations for suspected Russian submarines which were understood to have infiltrated Swedish home waters off the Stockholm Archipelago. Sweden’s military spokesman confirmed on 11 January that the country had carried out a second search for a suspected Russian submarine just shortly after a high-profile sub hunt concluded in late October. Similarly, a joint UK/US anti-submarine operation was conducted off the coast of Scotland, again chasing a suspected Russian submarine early in 2015. Any suspected demise in the use of submarines in the contemporary operating environ-
ment was realised in 2006 when industry spectators expressed concern regarding the Danish government’s decision to retire its fleet of three submarines as part of the 2005-2009 Defence Agreement. This saw its entire submarine fleet decommissioned and cancelled any future participation in the Viking Submarine Programme, a joint effort between ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (formerly Kockums) in Sweden, Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace in Norway and the Odense Steel Shipyard in Denmark. Finland was also involved in this effort as an observer. The main effort of the Viking programme was to develop a next-generation alternative to the Swedish Gotland-class boat, at a reduced cost in comparison to Germany’s Type 214 platform. However, when the Danish Navy made its EDR - March / April 2015
Submarines decision to stop using submarines, the concept was scrapped. Conversely, Sweden and Norway have renewed their interest in this capability with both state actors actively advancing development for the next-generation of submarine technology. Following on from the cancelled Viking programme, Sweden started pursuing its Next-Generation U-Boat (NGU)/A26 submarine programme in collaboration with TKMS. However, following expenditure issues, this programme was cancelled in February 2014 by the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration due to a lack of international cooperation. However in July, Saab acquired TKMS in a SEK340 million deal, designed to allow the Swedish giant to deliver the submarine of the future with the blessing of the Swedish government. This decision has taken on particular importance following Russian interference in Ukraine with the Swedish Navy now paying close attention to the Baltic Sea as far as protection of national security interests goes. In September, Saab also proposed a 4,000 ton submarine variant of the aforementioned A26 to be called the Type-612 for the Royal Aus-
tralian Navy. This was closely followed in December by a joint effort with Damen Shipyard to build a Type-612 variant to replace the Walrus-class submarines in service with the Royal Netherlands Navy. Remaining in Sweden, it emerged in June that Saab had been awarded a SEK467 million contract from the FMV to design a new A26 submarine as well as a mid-life update of two Type A19 Gotland-class submarines. A letter of intent was released to guarantee an underwater capability to the Swedish Armed Forces to the late 2020s. A spokesperson for the company told EDR: “In addition, the parties have signed a Letter of Intent regarding the Swedish armed forces’ underwater capability. The Letter of Intent refers to the period 2015-2024 and includes potential orders of approximately SEK 11.2 billion.” This, the spokesperson continued, would include support, development, design and production of submarines and other underwater systems. “With [these] orders and the Letter of Intent we take the next step towards becoming a full-service provider of submarines for Sweden.”
The Los Angeles Class Submarine USS San Juan arrives at its homeport of New London, Connecticut. (US Navy)
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The Type 206 is a class of diesel submarines (U-boats) developped by HDW-Germany (Ulrich Wrede)
Additionally, Saab has also received a contract worth SEK240 million to provide sensor systems for two A26-type submarines and the two Gotland-class submarines. “A submarine’s sensor systems detect threats, identify other submarines and surface vessels, and provide support for navigation. These systems will be provided to Saab by other suppliers and there are lengthy lead-times for their delivery. Therefore, the sensors are being ordered in a timely fashion to allow the FMV to move forward on schedule with its plans for the A26 next-generation submarine programme,” Saab explained. Manufacturing of the first hull is due to be initiated in 2017 with an initial operating capability expected by 2023 with a subsequent three or four boats due to be rolled out every year or two. Additionally, Saab and the FMV are keen to secure long-term strategic partnerships with international allies although details are yet to be confirmed. Initial plans for the A26 design focused on a modular and affordable system with particular focus on low signatures, increased endurance and a concentration on state-of-the-art ISR technology as well as special forces insertion capabilities. It is envisaged that the boat will have a water displacement of approximately 2,100 tons while measuring some 65m in length. Staying in Scandinavia, Norway has elected to procure a new fleet of submarines after a lengthy consultation process decided against upgrades to its existing fleet of six Ula-class diesel-electric boats. The decision was revealed in December with the Norwegian MoD describing how it expected to kick off with a definition
phase to focus on specific requirements. Similar to Swedish efforts, the Norwegian government is keen to consider forms of international collaboration moving forward. The new boats are expected to enter service in the mid-2020s. This process will replace the previous Project 6346 although it will retain the name, with continued input from the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation and Norwegian Defence Research Establishment which have been involved in various iterations since 2007 and onwards. The decision to opt for a new platform followed consideration of expenditure and risk associated with the Ula-class service life extension programme (SLEP) with information garnered in collaboration with shipbuilders across Europe, including DCNS in France; Fincantieri in Italy; Navantia in Spain, TKMS in Germany and now Sweden and Daewoo in South Korea, following a request for information released in 2012. The six Ula-class boats will have been in service for 35 years by the time they are replaced by the next-generation solutions. Commenting on the latest decision, a Norwegian government spokesperson referred to the vital and improved ability for submarines to perform covert tasks in comparison to the existing platforms, thanks in part to lower acoustic signatures and improved design. Industry sources confirmed to EDR that the definition phase of the next-generation programme is expected to run through to the end of 2016, with particular emphasis being paid to procurement, maintenance and logistics and training. A proposal will then be presented to the government in the same year. EDR - March / April 2015
Two of the Swedish Navy’s Gotland-class boats will be upgraded as well as the introduction of the new A26 platform (Jo A. Wilbourn Sims)
Elsewhere, the Royal Norwegian Navy is in the final stages of conducting a test fire of Diehl Defence and TKMS’s Interactive Defence and Attack System for Submarines (IDASS). The munition will be launched from a Type 210 Ula-class boat and comes on the back of simliar evaluation launches with the German Navy between 2008 and 2011. The German government is expected to decide whether to equip its force with the munition this year. That this weapon system will provide a self-defence capability against rotary wing and fixed wing aircraft operating in anti-submarine warfare (ASW) roles particularly, with a maximum range of some 25km, according to Diehl Defence. IDASS will be of particular interest to state actors operating submarines in littoral environments where they are most vulnerable. In France, shipbuilding giant DCNS recently unveiled its SMX-Ocean diesel-electric attack submarine at the Euronaval exhibition in Paris last year. Measuring 100m in length, the SMX-Ocean will have an top speed of 20kts underwater and will benefit from cross decking of technology from the company’s SSN Barracuda boat. EDR - March / April 2015
With displacement up to 3000 tons, the SMX-Ocean will be one of the larger attack submarines available in the market, with the additional payload capability to carry an additional array of weapons, comprising cruise missiles, anti-aircraft munitions, vertical launchers, anti-ship munitions and torpedoes. According to DCNS officials, the company is now considering potential growth in the larger end of the submarine market, in relation to diesel-electric boats, in order to satisfy requirements for increased weapons payload and sensor carriage. The company is also targeting the Australian market which is considering replacing its six Collins-class boats with up to a dozen attack submarines as part of its SEA1000 effort. However, there are very few options offering up a boat with a water displacement of 3000tons and substantial range requirements to operate for up to three weeks underwater. This compares to an average period of two weeks submerged for an attack submarine. Furthermore, DCNS is looking at introducing elements of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) technology into its series of submarines
An artistic impression of Saab’s next-generation A26 boat (Saab)
with company executives explaining to EDR how such a move world prove a natural evolution to the future development of submarines. Highlighting future requirements for the generation of ISR information, DCNS has already operated the Astor-X UUV from a saddle container fixed to the hull of the boat. Additionally, DCNS is designed a special fixed-wing UAV which could be launched from a missile hatch or torpedo tube allowing increased situation awareness in the littoral environment especially. In 2013, the Netherlands published its intent to maintain its submarine force in the future, asserting the platform’s importance in strategic and operational environments and again, echoing its importance in supporting ISR and Special Forces operations. Currently, the Royal Netherlands Navy’s submarine force includes four Walrus-class boats which will reach the end of their original 25year shelf life in 2015. The submarines are due to begin an upgrade programme to extend their life, known as the Instandhoudingsprogramma Walrusklass or IP-W, with this particular effort seeking to extend their capability out to 2030. Speaking at the 2014 UDT Europe conference in Liverpool, UK, Captain Hugo Ammerlaan, commander of the Submarine Service Netherlands explained his aspirations for a requirement four-boat force in order to keep the country’s “critical mass” within this specialist sector and identified future capabilities for submarines including SOF support, maritime interdiction, ISR operations and support and influence tasks. In January, Dutch shipbuilder Damen Shipyards Group signed a teaming agreement with Saab to explore “future opportunities” in the in-
ternational submarine market, and announced their intention to pursue a potential Walrus-class replacement programme in the Netherlands. The pair also revealed intentions to jointly bid on other procurement programmes, should they arise. Hein van Ameijden, managing director of Damen Schelde Naval Shipbuilding, said: “We are convinced that with Saab we have found the ideal partner to realise a successor to the present Walrus class; a vessel that will set a new standard for non-nuclear submarines. The complementarity of both our companies opens up the potential for a successful cooperation in more submarine programmes worldwide.” Meanwhile, the Polish Armament Inspectorate has also launched an effort to replace its existing fleet of three submarines with new boats. Initial plans had expected to see a tender process launched towards the end of 2014 with plans to begin replacing its existing fleet of four Norwegian Type 207 Sokol-class boats and single Project 877E ‘Kilo’-class boat with three new submarines from 2017 onwards. The Polish replacement programme, known as the ‘Orka’, is understood to be worth approximately PLN9 billion and falls under the country’s wider modernisation plan which was initiated in 2013 and is due to run through to 2022. Original options included off-the-shelf designs from TKMS and DCMS. However, in December, sources within the Polish Navy highlighted the urgency required to provide a timely solution, fearing a substantial capability gap when in-service boats are retired in 2017. Initial projections, following a Request for Information in late 2014/early 2015, estimated delivery of new boats between 2019 and 2030. EDR - March / April 2015
DCNS’s SMX-Ocean attack submarine concept has benefited from technology derived from the company’s Barracuda boat. (DCNS) Technical requirements for a new platform include displacement up to 2,400 tons and also the incorporation an air independent propulsion system, SATCOM capability as well as ability to support SOF mission and strike operations. Spain is progressing with plans to fund the S 80A submarine acquisition, with an additional EUR759 million allocated to the effort in October. The first boat, which will replace the S 70 boats, is expected to be delivered by Navantia in 2020, five years behind schedule. The delay has been blamed on design problems. The S 80A comprises a 2,200 ton platform, measuring over 70m in length. The S 80A includes a combat management system designed by Navantia FABA Systems and Lockheed Martin which includes a Command and Control module, multi-array sonar suite, weapon control system and processor. The boat will also be equipped with Atlas Elektronik DM2A4 dual-purpose torpedoes as well as dry dock for SOF insertions.
Finally, European shipbuilding companies continue to push out beyond the home market with a series of firms lobbing to build Australia’s next-generation of submarines. TKMS, DCNS and Saab have also approached Australia regarding development of the 4,000 ton Type 216 boat. However, the Australian government is understood to also be considering Japan’s Soryu class as part of its Sea 1000 Future Submarine programme, expected to replace the navy’s six 3,400 ton Collins class submarines. Saab’s solution would include design and construction of 12 boats, based on the company’s A26 design, while the DCNS offering will be based on the SMX Ocean concept, providing an average speed of 14kts with 5,000nm operational range. Other European countries interested in participating in the programme include Navantia. In line with this bid, DCNS opened a subsidiary office in Australia in November in order to concentrate on new market areas in Asia Pacific. Despite dangerous warning signs post-Cold War, it appears the international submarine market is in the midst of a resurgence with the European market taking the lead. This will be cemented as and when companies including Saab and DCNs, amongst others, confirm contracts in the Asia Pacific market. Such a capability will be critical in alliance with growing trends in maritime patrol aircraft and other vessels, as state actors seek to secure domestic waters and extend their reach out of area with the submarine providing tactical, operational and strategic benefits those operating them. ,
The Royal Australian Navy is seeking to replace its fleet of Collins-class submarines (Australian Defence) EDR - March / April 2015
Currently in service with various NATO armed forces the successful BAE Systems RG33 is not likely to be replaced in the near future. The vehicle is cost-effective, robust and easy to maintain in the field. (BAE Systems)
New light wheeled vehicles are required across the board to replace worn-out and out-dated examples that have seen action in theatre
hen the coalition forces deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan they took with them the existing armoured tracked and wheeled vehicles which were standard in their inventory. As the years unfolded some of the lighter-skinned vehicles were shown to be quite unsuitable and replacement types, which could do the task, were urgently sourced. Some were bought straight off the shelf and put into service with minimum modification. Other more specialised types were designed, built and tested in quick time to be deployed overseas. Many European countries already had a replacement vehicle programme underway and this was, in many instances, adapted to suit the requirements of the harsh environments in the Middle
East. However, some programmes for new vehicles were stalled or simply cancelled as events unfolded in Iraq and later Afghanistan. With the withdrawal of most of the coalition forces these programmes have been under review once again. However, the lessons learned over the past fifteen or more years have highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of various types. Highlighted early in the Iraq and Afghan conflicts was the vulnerability of the standard, lightly-armoured vehicles that were in widespread use by the allies. For example, the UK Land Rover, US High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV ‘Humvee’) and German MercedesBenz G-Wagen, among others, come to mind immediately. These and similar types fell prey to EDR - March / April 2015
a new threat in the form of the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) that were used to effect by the enemy. It was in Iraq that the allies suffered the most casualties from roadside IEDs, these could not be easily detected and were detonated by the vehicle passing over or, in some instances, by remote control. Soft-skin military vehicles were simply ripped apart by the explosive and a solution was urgently required. Manufacturers quickly came up with a design that carried heavier armour and the V-shaped hull passenger compartment that would defect an under-vehicle explosive, saving lives and keeping the vehicle mobile. Several designs were submitted and many were adopted by the various peace-keeping forces. As the requirement was urgent work was concentrated on the need for vehicles that were needed for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. This meant that designs that had been under way before the conflict started were slowed down or put to one side.
Before the outbreak of the conflicts mentioned above the quest was on for new wheeled vehicles to be added to the inventory of many armed forces. In the United States, this was the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) programme developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the HMMWV, which has been in service since 1985. In October 2008, awards were made for the JLTV Technology Development Phase to three industry teams: BAE Systems, Lockheed Martin and General Tactical Vehicle and AM General and General Dynamics Land Systems. With such a major programme and with events taking place in theatre, the work on the JLTV was delayed, further the US Army changed its requirements for the vehicle. There will be two JLTV variants: a Combat Tactical Vehicle (CTV) that could transport four passengers and carry 3,500 pounds and a Combat Support Vehicle (CSV) that could transport two passengers and carry 5,100 pounds.
The Foxhound was produced for the LPPV programme and was an immediate success. With over 100 examples deing delivered to the British Army, it has seen service in Afghanistan and will remain with the UK for many years to come. (Franรงois Prins)
The most expensive and comprehensive tactical vehicle programme now underway is in the United States where several types are being reviewed. This shows one of the contenders that was not selected for the final test programme. (US DoD)
On January 26, 2012, the Army issued the Request for Proposal (RFP) for the JLTVâ€™s Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase. Up to three EMD contracts could be awarded, and the contract award was scheduled for June 2012, with the overall EMD phase scheduled to last 33 months. Participants were required to provide 22 JLTV prototypes for testing 12 months after contract award. The target cost for the base vehicle is $250,000 excluding add-on armour and other fittings. Allied to JLTV was the Future Tactical Truck Systems concept which fed information into the JLTV programme but was quite separate. On August 22, 2012, the Army announced the award of three firmfixed price JLTV EMD contracts totaling approximately $185 million. The three companies awarded the EMD contracts were AM General; Lockheed Martin Corporation and Oshkosh Defence. Planned orders were for 50,000 vehicles for the U.S. Army and 5,000 for the Marines. Australia and India showed an interest in the US JLTV programme though they have also gone their own way with internally-sourced de-
signs from Thales-Australia and Tata Defence respectively. A year after the EMD contracts were awarded, Lockheed Martin and Oshkosh delivered their various prototype EMDs for testing by the Army and Marine Corps. Testing has been something of a stop-and-go programme dictated by budget constraints, with gaps when
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle programme underway in the United States will see over 50,000 vehicles being purchased for use by the US Army and US Marine Corps. The Oshkosh Defence JLTV is one of the types under consideration. (Oshkosh Defence) EDR - March / April 2015
Light Vehicles nothing has been going on, but testing is expected to be completed by FY 2015. A June 2013 report by the Congressional Research Service estimated the programme cost at $23 billion, or $400,000 per vehicle, whereas military leaders insist the unit cost will be $250,000. With fiscal pressures, programme efforts are being challenged and discrepancies in unit cost have been attributed to different methods for analysing cost. The JLTV programme, like every other weapons programme, is in danger of cuts with the return of sequestration in 2016. The President’s FY2015 budget request calls for $229.3 million for Army and Marine RDT&E and Procurement funding for the JLTV. The House and Senate versions of the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act recommended fully funding the Administration’s FY2015 JLTV budget request, as does the FY2015 Department of Defense appropriations bill. A potential issue for Congress is how decreasing Army and Marine force structure affects the JLTV programme. In the event, one vendor will be selected by July 2015 to produce 2,000 vehicles for three years of additional testing to fine-tune the assembly line and with a production contract. The Army is to begin receiving JLTVs by FY 2018, and have all their vehicles planned to be delivered by 2040;
The BAE 21 was announced in 2014 and will be offered in the MRAP role as well as for other uses by the military and law enforcement. Currently it is being trialled by interested parties. (BAE Systems) EDR - March / April 2015
Lockheed Martin Land Systems is one of those who provided prototypes for testing in the US JLTV programme, which is on-going. (LMLS)
the Marines will receive their last example by 2022. This programme is nowhere near cutand-dried and the months ahead will tell if JLTV will become a reality in 2015. In reality it cannot be cancelled, as there is an urgent requirement for new vehicles for the US Army and US Marine Corps, but there is always the threat of political sniping to derail the programme. The United Kingdom Army has no plans as comprehensive as the JLTV; with the demise from front-line service of the Land Rover in various guises, the role has been taken over largely by the Foxhound which has proved exceptional in theatre. Vehicles sourced from Oshkosh, International, BAE Systems and others for the UK military will also continue in service. In February 2015, the UK MoD announced that it would spend £15.4 billion on Land Equipment over the next decade, compared with £13.1 billion spent by the end of the previous planning cycle. This new figure covers delivery and support of armoured, protected and support vehicles, operational infrastructure, soldier fighting systems and training solutions. Vehicles purchased as Urgent Operational Requirements (UOR) for Afghanistan will be modified in order to optimise their continued use. That the UK armed forces will continue to operate existing equipment does not preclude the possibility of new types being added to the inventory as testing of prototypes in on-going at any given time. New vehicles are always being designed and built as prototypes for the world’s armed and
Light Vehicles law enforcement forces; we have seen new and innovative types from manufacturers in Israel, South Africa and Korea in the past few years. For example, Paramount in South Africa have shown a range of vehicles from four- to eightwheel drive that would cover most requirements of the armed forces of major powers or for the modernisation of units in smaller countries. BAE Systems in South Africa has also designed and tested several types with some, such as the RG 21 and RG 41 being considered for purchase by NATO members. The RG series has already proved itself in theatre and comes with the added attraction that the various models have all been developed from a commercial vehicle which results in a cost-effective vehicle with enhanced maintainability and reliability. Designed for cost, ease of manufacture and support, many of the new breed of vehicles provide the optimum level of off-the-shelf capabilities of proven mine protected vehicles. They incorporate a high level of design maturity due
to the large amount of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) items used in the driveline and powertrain. Incorporating COTS equipment also allows for the use of a wide range of commercial service centres around the globe. As has been seen in Afghanistan in the past decade the saving in service costs of such vehicles has been noteworthy. Rafael Advanced Defence Systems in Israel developed the Golan vehicle jointly with American Protected Vehicles and typically it followed the accepted design of a V-shaped hull to withstand mines and IEDs and was also designed to carry various armour fits in the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) role. Although used in Iraq by the US Marines the Golan has not been adopted by the US but examples are in Israeli service and the type is being further developed in the MRAP role. The Golan platform has been adapted to serve as an armored personnel carrier, command vehicle, ambulance or intelligence collection vehicle.
Not as successful as had been hoped but adopted into service in Israel is the Golan 2 which is manufactured by Rafael Advanced Defence Systems. Other armed forces have also shown an interest in the vehicle. (Rafael)
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The Sherpa can be deployed in any theatre and urban areas
We have noted that other countries are developing types for addition to their armed forces in the coming decade, with the US leading in terms of vehicle numbers to replace the ageing Humvee. France has being trialling types from Panhard and Renault Trucks Defence, with the latter fielding a new variant of their Sherpa fourwheel drive, all-terrain vehicle. Renault has developed two variants, Sherpa 3 and Sherpa 3 Special Forces, to suit various mission requirements. While the former is the standard version of the tactical vehicle, the Sherpa 3 Special Forces is designed for intervention and special forces units. The vehicle features an armoured cabin and has low silhouette. The lightweight vehicle meets the air-transport and air-drop requirements. The Sherpa 3 Special Forces is armed with a 12.7mm machine gun mounted on the roof and is armoured for protection from diversified threats including kinetic projectiles, splinters, mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The design of the vehicleâ€™s structure provides for ballistic protection and floor protection kits as EDR - March / April 2015
per STANAG level 1 and 2. It can also be fitted with retractable armour panels and add-on armour kits to provide additional protection. Sherpa can achieve a maximum speed of 120km/h on flat road surface. The cruising range of the vehicle is 850km at 70km/h with a 200l fuel tank capacity. The engine is coupled to an automatic transmission Allison S2500 with six forward gears and one reverse gear. Sherpa 3 allows the users to deploy the vehicle in any theatre and urban areas. The vehicle can be transported in C-130, Chinook and A400M Atlas aircraft. Unlike some of the other types in the frame for the future, Sherpa is more conventional but still has a role to play in the uncertain world we live in. Political situations move quickly, as we have seen in the past year with the situation in Ukraine and the rise of Islamic State, but military requirements do not always keep pace. However, the various programmes now underway for the acquisition of new tactical vehicles will have to take note of what is best suited for use in diverse , situations and move accordingly.
Compact version LSAT Light Machine Gun. (Textron)
The LSAT Programme : The New Ultra-light Machine Gun
Since World War One, the LMG (Light Machine Gun) has allowed small infantry units to have a portable primary weapon for providing fire support for the squad. These weapons are belted or magazine fed and normally use the same cartridge as the assault rifle. In combat, the machine gun forms the defensive or offensive backbone of any operation, by providing a large volume of covering fire.
y the time the Vietnam War was underway, the light machine gun had become a fully integrated element in infantry combat. Weapons like the American M60 and the Russian PK were pitted against each other in the dense hot jungles of Southeast Asia. While both survived the war, problems were noticed, namely the weight of the gun itself and its ammunition. This led firearm makers to design LMGs around smaller rounds, such as the 5.56mm or 5.45mm, and the standard assault rifles, with weapons like the HK 23E and the RPK-74. By the 1970’s, armed forces were starting to field these new lighter LMGs, and were calling them SAWs (Squad Automatic Weapon), which were often belt-feed lighter machine guns that fired the same cartridge as their standard assault
rifle. In addition to these LMGs, others appeared based around assault rifles and designed in the family concept, like the Steyr AUG LMG, and the Stoner 63 (Knight Armament upgrade version) used by the Navy Seals in Vietnam. Thereafter, the standard US LMG, the SAW, had been cut down to compact variants like the para, which is now close in size to an assault rifle, finally becoming a truly portable all-condition soldier’s machine gun. Early in 2000’s, the US Army initiated the LSAT (Lightweight Small Arms Technology) programme as an attempt to significantly reduce the combat load of infantrymen, especially those carrying the LMG, such as M249 SAW, the American adaptation of the Minimi developed by the Belgian company FN Herstal. EDR - March / April 2015
Machine Guns LSAT Light Machine Gun. (Textron)
In around 2004 ATK was selected as a prime contractor to develop an appropriate small arms system, which would include new, lighter ammunition and a gun (guns) to fire it. Initial intent was to develop a caseless ammunition (which provides maximum savings in the weight and size), with a fall-back option for polymer cased ammunition with a telescoped design (in this design the bullet is fully ‘buried’ inside the powder charge within a simple cylindrical case). Background Programme and Technologies The LSAT programme is funded by the US Joint Service Small Arms Program (JSSAP) with the goal of significantly reducing the weight of small arms and their ammunition. Following a series of military programmes to investigate advances in small arms – the SPIW/Special Purpose Individual Weapon program, the ACR/ Advanced Combat Rifle program and the OICW/ Objective Individual Combat Weapon program – the LSAT programme is the US Military’s latest project to replace existing US small arms. Tactical concepts and the research from previous small arms programmes indicates that lightening small arms is only the first significant step in towards increasing soldiers’ lethality and survivability. Begun in 2004 (then called the Lightweight Machine Gun and Ammunition program), development is now made by a team of eight companies led by AAI Corporation. Development began with the two types of weight-reducing ammunition, and an LMG to serve as a testbed and technology demonstrator. EDR - March / April 2015
Minimization of programme risk is illustrated by the development of the lower-performing but less risky polymer-cased ammunition alongside the caseless ammunition – which rates higher in both criteria – by the use of extensive computer simulations before prototyping, and by the use of proven technologies, such as the HITP (High Ignition Temperature Propellant) developed for German HK G11, the only service-capable assault rifle firing caseless ammunition. The G11’s unique ammunition, designed by Dynamit Nobel, introduced several important innovations, such as improved internal ballistics through the use of a primer, and the prevention of cook-off through the use of the less sensitive hexogen/octogen as the explosive component. The ACR experimental programme gave the US Army access to the ammunition and marked this ammunition as a viable option. With the high efficiency and lethality of the ammunition, the vast expenditure such a concept required for development and the reduced risk of using an already proven ammunition design, the LSAT programme chose a licensed version of Dynamit Nobel’s caseless ammunition as a route towards its goal of weight reduction. The LSAT programme also uses the same concept of a rotating chamber as the HK G11 (albeit, the LSAT LMG chamber swings around a longitudinal pivot, whereas the HK G11 chamber rotated around a horizontal axis at its very centre). A polymer casing for the ammunition had already been produced and it provided the second route for achieving weight reduction. While a polymer case could never be quite as light as ‘no case’, the risks involved in the use of polymer ammunition were less, due to its similarity to present ammunition and the reduced heat load on both the weapon and the ammunition’s propellant. Further budding technologies, such as alternative barrel materials (ceramics, for example), and the increased efficiency and size reduction of telescoped ammunition (used by the HK G11 and other developmental weapons), also formed the basis for the LSAT programme.
LSAT being fired for the first time by Picatinny Senior Commander and PEO Ammunition Brig. Gen. Jonathan A. Maddux. (US Army)
In 2004, the JSSAP created the Lightweight Machine Gun and Ammunition programme to compare conceptual, lightweight machine guns and ammunition designs by two teams of companies. The team of eight, led by AAI Corporation, had their design chosen over the design of the General Dynamics-led team. In 2005, the project was replaced with the LSAT programme to place the emphasis on developing technologies for a wide range of small arms. The AAI team was combined with government support to ensure success. In accordance with the programâ€™s name, the focus is on creating lightweight technologies for all small arms, and the LMG it began with was an entry point for a family of lightweight small arms and ammunition. Beginning with an LMG is unusual for an effort to develop a new family of weapons, although the increased engineering difficulty of a machine gun over a rifle is balanced against decreased attention and antagonistic scrutiny. The programme minimised development risk by using HK G11 technology that had been on the verge of deployment;. The parallel development of the composite-cased and caseless ammunition meant that, if the caseless ammunition effort succeeded, much of the development work gained with the composite cased weapon could be applied to it, and, if it failed, the compositecased version was likely to succeed on its own.
This parallel development involves using what is essentially the same weapon for both types of ammunition, with the same action (having only marginal differences, such as added chamber-sealing technologies required for the caseless firing version) and the same weightlowering technologies.The programme uses extensive computer simulation and modelling, particularly of the weapon action, and also uses a spiral development approach, whereby the weapon and ammunition is rolled out in stages or spirals, each stage producing a new version that is an improvement on the previous. The LSAT programme uses a clean-slate design and had no requirements to abide by contemporary ammunition and weapon standards. Despite this, the programme is using the M855 5.56 x 45mm round to provide comparison with existing weapons. The programme directives listed scalability of the ammunition calibre as a requirement, and its pursuit of a very light company machine gun would require a larger round. Therefore, the programme seems geared towards a more accurate, harder-hitting round, such as the 6.5mm Grendel or 6.8mm Remington SPC. The programme has set itself weight reduction goals over the existing M249 SAW and its ammunition of 35% for the weapon and 40% for the ammunition. Further goals to improve battlefield effectiveness have also been set, EDR - March / April 2015
US Army soldier performs a test shooting of a prototype cased telescoped LMG. (US Army)
including improving lethality, controllability (through recoil reduction, etc.), ergonomics, reliability and maintainability, integration of electronics and equivalent cost and producibility to the existing weapon and ammunition. Ammunition and Weapons The result was a 44% and 43% reduction of weight (for the cased telescoped and the caseless weapons, respectively). Secondary goals have also been met. The LMG has the potential to improve battlefield effectiveness (due to its simpler and more consistent weapon action, its light weight and low recoil, and its stiffer barrel). Its use of recoil compensation (with a longstroke gas-system, for example) has produced
positive feedback regarding controllability, namely; the simpler mechanism of the LMG is both more reliable and easier to maintain, a round counter has been integrated to improve maintainability and the weapon is capable of accepting other electronic devices, improved materials used in the chamber and barrel have reduced heat load on the weapon and weapon cost is equivalent to the existing M249 SAW. The standard LSAT machine gun weighs 9.4 lb (4.2 kg) empty, compared to 17.6 lb (7.5 kg) for a standard SAW. The ammunition for the LSAT is made in the form of simple cylinder. Case telescoped (CT) ammunition uses cylindrical cases made from plastic. Caseless (CL) ammunition is made from formed propellant, with the bullet located inside and the primer glued to the rear. The cased ammunition is more advanced in development, partially due to the fewer technical difficulties and the fewer differences with standard ammunition. As of 2008, the cased ammunition had been tested for a wide range of operating temperatures, and it has had over 9000 rounds fired (approximately 6500 rounds of Spiral 1 ammunition and more than 2000 of Spiral 2). The second spiral version of the cased
US Army soldier engages a close range target with the LSAT/LMG during a military unit assessment at Fort Benning. (US Army) EDR - March / April 2015
An LMG using CT ammunition with an estimated 47% reduction in weight and 40% in volume. (Textron)
ammunition produced a 33% weight reduction (falling just short of the programme goal), while the ongoing development of the third spiral of cased ammunition has achieved a roughly 40% reduction. The third spiral is also 30% smaller than standard ammunition. The improvement by the third spiral of cased ammunition over the second spiral was achieved partially by compacting and consolidating the propellant (thereby allowing a smaller cartridge case and round). The cased ammunition has proven itself as a virtually risk-free option, with present and potential ability grounded in success. In addition, development of the cased ammunition firing weapon has significantly improved understanding of the weapon action and requirements. Cased telescoped ammunition for the LSAT light machine gun reached Technology Readiness Level 7 after 25,000 rounds were fired in trials in 2011. Having replicated Dynamit Nobel’s ACR ammunition, the HITP-based ammunition was modified to a 5.56mm round. Tests proved the ammunition’s usability, and development of the weapon was advanced using knowledge gained from the cased ammunition version. The Alliant Techsystems ammunition production team has reduced the production time and costs by reducing from fourteen to two the number of steps used to complete processing.
The second spiral of caseless ammunition was rolled out in 2008, with the necessary facilities completed to produce the ammunition in bulk. It has vastly reduced the weight and volume of standard ammunition (by 51% and 40%, respectively), and it has reached the verge of achieving Technology Readiness Level 5. The development of the third spiral was also launched, with the goal of replacing the propellant binder with one more environmentally and cost friendly. It also aims to reduce the heat ablation on the inside of the weapon by modifying the burn rate of the propellant, and by giving the round an exterior coating to absorb or prevent transferred heat. Benefits the system has gained from using the caseless ammunition go beyond the unparalleled weight and volume reduction to, for example, the lack of ejected shells (which both improves the weapon’s protection from dirt and removes any need to ‘police’ cases after firing). Ammunition now weighs 8.3gm (CT) and 6.3gm (CL) compared with 12.2gm for 5.56mm M855. Plastic machine gun links weigh 0.5gm instead of 2.0gm for steel. This results in combat load of 600 linked rounds weighting 9.4kg with standard M855 ammunition, and just 5.8kg with CT and 4.6kg with CL ammunition. Ballistics of both CL and CT ammunition is similar to the 5.56mm M855, and similar bullets are used. The LSAT machine gun, whose design is a traditionally (non-bullpup) laid-out machinegun, uses a gas operated action with gas piston located below the barrel. It operates an oscillating chamber, which swings sideways to eject the spent case and load a fresh one, and then swings back in line with the barrel to fire the round. Feed is from specially-designed disintegrating belts with plastic links. It has a quick-change barrel and fires from open bolt, in full automatic and semi-automatic modes. Basic design of the weapon remains the same for CT and CL versions, although special measures are taken to provide a gas seal between barrel and chamber in the caseless version of the gun. The LSAT/LMGs built made a 47% and 43% reduction of weight for the caseless weapon and EDR - March / April 2015
US Army soldier demonstrates firing the LSAT light machine gun from the kneeling position. (US Army)
cased telescoped weapons, respectively. The more complex chamber-sealing mechanism of the caseless weapon somewhat increases its weight compared to the composite-cased weapon. For CT ammunition, the insulating characteristics of the polymer cartridge case and its isolation from the barrel combine to keep the maximum chamber temperature well below the softening point of the cartridge material. This eliminates the second significant technology barrier experienced in the application of polymer cases with conventional cartridges. For CL ammunition, use of a separate chamber greatly simplifies the implementation of chamber insulating technologies which, historically, have been difficult to employ in a conventional chamber arrangement. The LSAT light machine gun has several features conducive to a SAW/LMG, such as a quick-change barrel, a vented fore-grip, a belt feeding mechanism, provisions for the use of an ammunition pouch and a rate of fire of approximately 600 rds/min. Testing and Future Improvements In September 2011, 19 soldiers participated in a two-week assessment of the LSAT light machine gun at Fort Bennin, Georgia, to demonstrate its capabilities against the M249 SAW. In one test, the soldiers, half armed with SAWs and half with LSATs, marched six miles in full combat gear then fired at targets to measure stress and EDR - March / April 2015
muscle fatigue. Another test had the soldiers sprint 200 yards wearing body armor and a basic load of ammunition, then rapidly engage close-range targets. A third week involved soldiers of the 75th Ranger Regiment (US Army Special Operations Command) performing a squad maneuver livefire exercise in an urban setting. Feedback from participants favored the LSAT for its lighter weight and decreased recoil. Soldiers remarked the LSAT had better accuracy than the M249 SAW. The semi-automatic option made it more viable for room clearing. One Ranger even said the LSAT performed better than the Mk 46 machine gun used by Special Operations Forces. 15 out of 19 soldiers that participated in the assessment said they would prefer using the LSAT in combat rather than the M248 (41% lighter than SAW and its ammunition volume is 12% less, enabling all the soldiers that maneuvered the woodland obstacle course to complete it faster when carrying it). Participants also took less time to zero their machine guns when using the LSAT – one soldier failed repeatedly to accurately zero the SAW but successfully zeroed the LSAT on the first try. The LMG users completed the course, on average, one minute and eleven seconds faster than SAW users due to increased mobility given by its shorter length, adjustable stock and lighter ammo. When firing, gunners felt virtually no recoil from the LSAT/LMG. The eight prototype weapons fired a combined 25,000 rounds, moving its cased telescoped ammunition to Technology Readness Level 7. The LSAT light machine gun was assessed in the Army’s Dismounted Non-Networked Experiment (DNNE) in August 2013 at Fort Benning. It was among several items showcased at an event at Fort Benning through 24 September 2013 featuring the army’s latest individual and squad kit developments. Seven LSAT LMGs and 9,700 rounds were provided to three rifle squads and one weapon squad at a series of range events. They increased lethality at all ranges with faster speed of engagement and better shot placement, increased the gunner’s
US Army soldier fires the LSAT LMG at a 100-meter target at Fort Benning, Georgia. (US Army)
mobility due to its reduced size and weight and led to more precision fires in standing and kneeling positions. The designers project further improvements. These include improved projectile technologies such as environmentally-friendly bullets and a change in bullet size in order to increase combat effectiveness, as well as the integration of electronics such as ammunition count readouts, lasers, optical sights, rangefinders and bullet drop compensation. The US Army is pursuing cased telescoped ammunition. This development is far along, and they say a new LMG could be fielded in the 20152016 timeframe. The US Marine Corps is focused on caseless ammunition, which is less developed and will take several more years to refine. A compact version is also being developed with a four-inch-shorter barrel and folding, telescoping buttstock for close-quarters applications. In August 2013, AAI Corporation was awarded a $2.05 million contract to continue developing parts of the LSAT programme. Part of the contract is to refine 5.56mm caseless ammunition prototypes for testing. The caseless ammunition effort will focus on improving propellant and ignition formulations in a 5.56mm configuration.
On 14 May 2014, Textron Systems was awarded a two-year $5.7 million contract for work that included development of 7.62 Nato cased-telescoped ammunition and an operating mechanism to incorporate into the LSAT machine gun to create a lightweight 7.62 mm version. The LSAT programme has made significant progress in developing lightweightweapon and ammunition technologies that will increase the effectiveness and mobility of ground forces, and reduce the overall logistics footprint of small, caliber weapons and ammunition.
LSAT program has made significant progress in developing lightweight weapon and ammunition technologies. (Picatinny Arsenal) EDR - March / April 2015
Indian Ocean pirate groups are still active in the region
Maritime piracy at the forefront Mélanie Benard-Crozat of international security goals Modern maritime piracy targets are not only commercial and fishing vessels, but also pleasure craft. It generally involves violent acts led by pirates who do not hesitate to use assault rifles or lance-rockets and who exert pressure on the ship’s crew to get what they want. Though this is far from being a new phenomenon, it now calls for new forms of response in order to strengthen the efficiency of current methods. Through international cooperation and innovative thinking, solutions are now being brought to the fore.
iracy is not a new phenomenon. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of attacks on vessels by pirates, in particular in the Gulf of Aden, Somali Basin, the Indian Ocean and Asia. Vast areas of waters are affected making it a challenge to prevent maritime piracy incidents. Millions of dollars in ransom payments are paid to pirates. It is believed that these payments are divided between the pirates, their leaders and those who finance them. For example, intelligence indicates that part of the “african” maritime piracy money is reinvested abroad through Somali emigrants. Tracing the financial flows of ransom money is one of the main challenges faced by law enforcement agencies.
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An African problem Whereas piracy is currently on the wane in the Indian Ocean, pirate groups are still active in the region and the risk of renewed pirate activity will remain strongly present until the economic and political situation in Somalia is resolved. Indeed, in the northern sectors of the Indian Ocean, the breakdown of the Somali government has to be dealt with, and the efforts made by the international community have not succeeded in restoring order in the region with piracy continuing to flourish. At the same time, there has been a rise in pirating activities in the Gulf of Guinea, mainly in Nigeria, with a more aggressive form and broader range of action. Eric Banel, deputy CEO of the
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of attacks on vessels by pirates, in particular in the Gulf of Aden, Somali Basin, the Indian Ocean and Asia.
French Shipowners’ Association, pointed out that “the situation in the Gulf of Guinea is different because there are many States that exist, that are established, but here we are seeing more cases of corruption, cases in which regulations are circumvented, or cases of abuse of power by certain local military or paramilitary forces. And this means we particularly need full cooperation from the local governments and military forces.” It its annual report, the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) explains that there were 245 acts of piracy in 2014, of which 141 took place in Southeast Asia and 51 in West Africa. In comparison, there were 264 acts of piracy the previous year and 445 in 2010 when sea crime was rampant off the Somali coast. This rate decreased due to the increased international patrols in the Indian Ocean as well as to the measures undertaken to protect commercial buildings with armed guards, barbed wire, and night vision equipment, etc. For this problem, which is nonetheless well known, a more systematic and operational international response still seems to be lacking. In particular, it is limited by the complex nature of the stakes in the highly specific physical and political maritime arena. However, some responses do exist and the situation is beginning to show some improvement. Due to the extent and nature of maritime piracy, international
and cross-sector partnerships are vital in order to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes. “We work with numbers of international organizations as United Nations; International Maritime Organization; European Union; Europol... In addition, we work closely with various military organizations and companies in the private sector.” adds Interpol. Due to the unique nature of the high seas - falling outside the jurisdiction of any single State, but within the collective responsibility of all - a coordinated and comprehensive approach must be taken to tackle crimes both occurring at sea and being carried out through the maritime domain. This includes interrupting criminal activities at sea, strengthening domestic maritime law-enforcement capacity, and addressing the root causes of maritime crime on land. Interpol’s Actions: a worldwide cooperation The Interpol Maritime Piracy Task Force focuses on three main areas to counter maritime piracy, working closely with the international community. The maritime environment poses unique difficulties for collecting evidence. “We provide advice, training and equipment to our member countries worldwide in order to improve the quality and quantity of data collected, and to make sure it is properly preserved and analysed.” With the creation of a Global Database on Maritime Piracy currently in progress, Interpol will be soon in the position to better analyse piracy networks. “This will enable us to help our member countries identify and arrest high-value individuals involved in Somali maritime piracy – such as piracy leaders and financiers – and to identify their assets.” says Interpol. A single piracy case will often affect several different nations. Vessels may be flagged, owned and operated by different countries and manned by multinational crews. The pirates, the navy which captures them and the nation willing to investigate and prosecute them, are also likely to be diverse. This makes it crucial to share information between military, law enforcement and judicial bodies in multiple countries. “Our EDR - March / April 2015
Maritime Piracy secure global police communications system, known as I-24/7, and our system of Notices are key to the sharing of data and the detention of suspected pirates.” says the organisation. The majority of prosecutions for maritime piracy are conducted in African or Asian countries. “We are working to develop the capabilities of police investigation units on a regional level. By providing specialized training and equipment prior to trial we can increase the likelihood of successful prosecutions in the future.” concludes Interpol. UNODC Maritime Crime Programme: novel approaches to combating a wide range of maritime crimes The MCP was formed in 2009 as the UNODC “Counter Piracy Programme” (CPP), which was established in response to Security Council resolutions calling for a concerted international response to the scourge of piracy off the Horn of Africa. The CPP, as it then was, was at the forefront of regional efforts to provide a criminal justice response to piracy in the Indian Ocean. The CPP played a central role in the establishment of a regional ‘piracy prosecution model’. This involved coordination between international naval fleets that apprehended alleged pirates on the high seas and States in the Indian Ocean region, which received them for prosecution. This model continues to run successfully today. In the counter-piracy realm, the MCP has provided coordination and leadership at the strategic and regional levels, sustained capacity-building assistance to prosecuting States, and direct assistance to piracy trials. The first States identified for assistance under this model were Kenya, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania. The assistance provided to these States has included training Judges, prosecutors, prison staff, police and coast guard officers; building court-houses and prison facilities; the provision of equipment and material for law enforcement agencies; and criminal justice legislative reform. The MCP also recognises that a truly sustainable solution to combating piracy requires addressing its root causes, and building Somali maritime law enforcement institutions from EDR - March / April 2015
The arrest of pirates off the Somali coast.
the ground up. The MCP has implemented a number of successful maritime and criminal justice capacity-building initiatives South Central Somalia, Somaliland and Puntland. This important work is laying the foundations for a long-term vision would see piracy and other organized crime addressed domestically by Somali authorities. Today, the MCP’s activities include ongoing counter-piracy and maritime capacity-building in the Horn of Africa and Indian Ocean regions. New programming has also commenced in 2014 to address the emerging threat of piracy and other maritime crimes in West Africa and the Gulf of Guinea. The MCP is continuing to expand its activities and is engaging with stakeholders in the Indian Ocean region to discuss novel approaches to combating a wide range of maritime crimes, including the trafficking of illicit substances by sea. European project for the prevention of maritime piracy Within the framework of the Expert Support Facility (ESF), which derived from the Instrument for Stability – an EU Commission tool used in the prevention of trans-regional threats, FEI, with its know-how acquired in the field of maritime security, won the bid for a project aimed at prevention of maritime piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Indeed, as the leader of a consortium dedicated to this issue (ESF lot #7 – Critical
Operation Atalanta against piracy in the Indian Ocean
Maritime Routes) the FEI, with the support of the Spanish operator FIIAPP as a junior partner, won the call for bids seeking to identify projects for the prevention of maritime piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, with a total of €400,000. FEI, due to its supporting network of recognized maritime experts and its strong background references (BMM, Marsic, ESF lot #7 – Gulf of Aden), has brought together a team of high-level European experts with the support of their home institutions including MAEE, UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Portuguese and Spanish navies. This team, which is scheduled to meet for the first time in Brussels at the end of August, will be called upon to define the framework of the European action carried out under the IFS in view of the prevention of maritime piracy in Ghana and the Congo, and will fully benefit from the experience shared with the Marsic project, which was also the result of a previous ESF call for bids that was won by FEI. Threats boost the rise in private security activities To counter the pirate attacks, there is prevention and there is the precautionary principle. But these are not enough. The economic consequences of piracy for the ship owners have been estimated at between 5.1 and 8.7 billion Euros per year, at the international level, and stem from the extra fuel expense due to the necessity of higher speeds in the risk zones, the cost of insurance, the cost of security measures, and the bonuses
paid to crews. It is thus necessary to invest in greater safety measures for the vessels, including guards, either military or private. Moreover, given the current reduction in public budgets, private security activities are gaining ground, a fact which is reinforced by the June 2014 law relative to maritime piracy, which allows ship owners to call upon private security firms. This illustrates the French government’s intention to establish stronger public or private partnerships and to alleviate, among other issues, the many problems caused by maritime piracy. The six decrees implementing the law were published last December in the Official Journal and list the precise zones covered by this authorization, the agencies that may be entrusted with these missions, the types of weapons authorized and conditions for implementing the law on board for the security agents. The list of vessels for which the presence of private security agents is not authorized has also been drawn up: “pleasure craft and passenger ships.” One decree mentions that certain derogatory circumstances, which shall be defined in the decrees, may nevertheless allow security agents to board the craft. The text adopted in June by the parliament provides for the signature of commercial contracts between the ship owners, who demanded such protection, and the security firms. As for the State, it is responsible for ensuring that the candidate agencies are capable of carrying out this type of activity and for performing the verifications necessary to ensure the full respect for the law. EDR - March / April 2015
An escorted trip off the Somali coast
A decision published in the Official Journal on January 20 covers the professional capacities of the direction and employees of private shipping protection agencies. It stipulates the skills and knowledge that are required for this activity. It also defines the approval procedures for the institutions that provide professional training. This text completes the legal framework authorizing the presence of armed guards on board ships in zones where piracy is a risk. This will clean up a profession that sorely needed it and will allow France to move forward in parallel with its European counterparts. Among the fifteen EU countries that have large commercial fleets, eleven already authorize the presence of armed personnel from private agencies on board their ships. Costs for a team of private guards on board a ship are currently estimated at between 3,000 to 5000 dollars a day. In all, the cost of protection for the ship owners be it private or military, comes to about 800 million dollars per year. Innovative industrial solutions On December 10, 2014, teams from DCNS, a French group specialized in naval defense, experimented with a demonstration edition of a new system for the prevention of maritime piracy and terrorism. The French Navy provided its technical and operational support to this live test that included simulated pirate or terrorist attacks. The DCNS system of prevention allowed for the rapid implementation of an efficient defense in the coastal zones, where anti-piracy missions are carried out most frequently. Consisting of a network of ultra high-definition, 360-degree cameras, the tool developed by EDR - March / April 2015
DCNS ensures surveillance over several kilometers around the ship. Information captured by the cameras is superposed over blown up normal images in order to facilitate the analysis of the various nearby moving objects, either pleasure craft, fishing boats… or pirates. If suspicious movement is detected, an operator can activate a powerful zoom to confirm the threat. A response can then be implemented, ranging from a simple warning via horn or light, to warning or halting shots. Through a camera attached to the weapon, the ship’s commander is able to verify beforehand that there will be no collateral damage. The 360-degree position is constantly displayed in real time, on a screen on the bridge of the ship, and can be easily consulted by the captain and all the security agents. Each one shares the same information at the same time, in a collaborative approach, which is also found in the DCNS’s concept of the bridge of future combat ships, which the group presented at the 2014 Euronaval trade fair. This system is compatible with a large number of ships and can function alone or be integrated into a combat management system (CMS) to take advantage of the data supplied by the other ship’s captors, notably those carried by air-sea drones. In October 2014, a contract was signed between the company Piriou and Mr. Ernest Mphouho Epigat, the Gabonese minister of national defense, in the presence of French defense minister Jean Yves le Drian, covering the sale of two offshore patrol ships for the Gabonese navy. In May 2015, Piriou will deliver a very modern 54-meter, P400 type patrol boat, and the second boat, to be delivered in mid-2016, is a
The OPV 50 is a 58-meter offshore patrol boat of the Kership line produced by Piriou for the Gabonese army. (DCNS)
58-meter (OPV.50) offshore patrol boat of the Kership line. This contract also includes training for the crews running of the ships, and will be carried out by DCI / NAVFCO. Asia is the object of great envy Maritime piracy has waned throughout the world over the last few years, but the seas of Southeast Asia have become a new hotspot, according to the International Maritime Office (IMO), especially in the region of the Malacca Straits, the strategic corridor between Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. One third of the world’s trade transits through this corridor. “The global increase in hijacking is due to the increase in attacks against oil tankers navigating offshore in Southeast Asia,” said Imo director Pottengal Mukudan. The incidents reported in the South China Sea are falling in numbers but are nevertheless becoming of greater concern. The terrorist group Abbu Sayyaf operates in the Sulu, Jolo and Tawi-Tawi archpelagos as well out of Basilan Island, and is active in the Sulu and Celebes seas, on the south coasts of Palawans, and in the west of Mindanao to the coasts of Sabah in Malaysia. The regions islands have been the scene of kidnappings by Filipino terrorist groups or Malaysian criminal groups that may associate with them. Asia is also an Eldorado for French industrialists. Jean-Marie Carnet, general delegate for the GICAN, explained last year at a trade fair in Malaysia that “where the seas are concerned, the most important consideration of the maritime issue by the States has a significant leverage effect for the countries that export specific
equipment. This market is especially active in the ASEAN zone where the nations involved are obtaining more and more equipment to be able to exercise their sovereign rights on their EEZ. This Asian dynamism causes the entire shipping industry to grow, thus the importance for our French industrialists to be present in Malaysia, at the heart of this dynamic market.” Interpol Basic Training on Maritime Security held in Malaysia The first in a series of Interpol training programmes to assist member countries build capacity in maritime piracy and armed robbery investigations has been held in Malaysia. The Interpol Basic Training on Maritime Security course held at the Akademi Maritim Sultan Ahmad Shah (AMSAS) Training Academy in Kuantan, brought together officers from the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency, Marine Operations Force, Royal Malaysian Police, the National Central Bureau in Kuala Lumpur, Royal Malaysian Navy, and Marine and Immigration departments. During the five-day (26 – 30 January) course, Interpol officials and experts from national prosecution offices, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combatting Piracy and Armed Robbery against ships in Asia (ReCAAP) provided training on a range of maritime security issues including legal frameworks, border management and Interpol’s tools and services. The training is part of the Interpol Capacity Building Programme to Foster Maritime Security in Malaysia funded by the Department of Foreign EDR - March / April 2015
Affairs Trade and Development (DFATD) Canada. Jointly coordinated by the Interpol Capacity Building and Training and Counter-Terrorism, Public Safety and Maritime Security units, one of the programme’s aims is to increase investigative resources, specialized forensic capabilities and information-sharing amongst national law enforcement agencies. FOCUS - Indonesia’s Maritime Security: Problems and Strategic Implications Indonesia faces many problems in maintaining and providing security in its sea territory. Indonesia seeks for international assistance in the provision of aid, equipment and training, or in organising and coordinating cooperative efforts and linkages with other interested parties. The states in the region, including Indonesia, appreciate cooperation with extra-regional states. However, the direct involvement of an external actor in establishing cooperation is not desired, but the idea of closer cooperation and the components needed to create such cooperation on a security issue, are there to be adopted and implemented. Indonesia and Southeast Asia welcomes external assistance, particularly in the framework of financial and technical assistance, as long as such assistance is neutral, limited, and non-military. But challenges remain. In fact, more challenges are to come, along with the trend of ever increasing transnational crime. Structural, normative, and economic changes to the regional system facilitate greater maritime security cooperation. Given the strengthening of regional cooperation norms, higher priority is to be given to maritime security, and the need to press for enhanced maritime security cooperation. Strengthening regional maritime security cooperation, both bilateral and multilateral, should remain on the agenda. EDR - March / April 2015
FOCUS - Indonesia takes an enlightened approach to maritime security More countries around the world should strengthen their approach to maritime security and follow in the steps of Indonesia, which in last December launched a new coastguard service according to the leading maritime security company Mast. “Indonesia and its President Joko Widodo have rightly recognized that maritime crime, including piracy and smuggling, can be hugely disruptive of commerce and wealth generation” said Phil Cable, Chief Executive Officer at Mast (Maritime Asset Security and Training Ltd).The development of the coastguard is part of President Widodo’s push to reassure investors that Indonesia is taking maritime security seriously. Before he was elected, he stressed Indonesia’s strategic position on the world’s maritime axis and her potential as a regional maritime hub. A statement he made recognised Indonesia as the world’s largest archipelago and linked the country’s future development and prosperity with making sure that the surrounding shipping lanes are secure. He has followed this up with the announcement of the new coastguard service. Cable said “Responsible governments, like the Indonesians, are taking their responsibilities under UNCLOS (The United Nations Convention on the Law of the sea) increasingly seriously because they recognise that national wealth is intrinsically linked to good management of their Territorial Waters (TTW) and Economic Zones. It is becoming increasingly apparent to all governmental actors that meeting UNCLOS obligations and being able to protect and develop TTW and Economic Zones is a complex and expensive business. It is one thing to declare ownership of TTW and an Economic Zone. It is quite another to be able to exploit and protect the economic resources and wealth contained in and derived from the maritime sector.” Gerry Northwood OBE, Chief Operating Officer at Mast, said “We now have a situation where the most far sighted countries are investing in maritime security as a means to underpin national wealth and economic development. The challenge they are facing is that
Maritime Piracy Combined maritime forces. (US Navy)
maritime infrastructure is expensive and there is a relatively long lead time to put in place resources. Early upfront investment is required and this is what the Indonesians are doing through creating a more capable maritime police force. Sailors are not like soldiers. They cannot be trained in a heartbeat. Sailors and maritime police have to become competent in the marine environment before they can actually start to provide value as law enforcement officers. The same principle applies to personnel involved in environmental protection. We must also not forget that maritime operations are very often served by air operations. The ability to coordinate and link the two, means that vast swathes of ocean and littoral can be more efficiently monitored.” Northwood added “The fact that the Indonesians are taking this seriously means that they have recognized the importance of their ‘Maritime Flank’ -in their case, it is actually all round them-, and the realities of their geography, to the future wealth of their nation and the well being of their people. To secure and exploit this, whether it is port security, port operations, lights and buoyage, fishery protection, offshore protection, routine policing, it is all about sustainable training programmes.”
The Maritime Security Market is estimated to grow from $13.94 billion in 2014 to $20.87 billion in 2019. This represents a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8.4% from 2014 to 2019. MarketsandMarkets has segmented the maritime security market by type of technologies and systems: screening and scanning, access control, detectors, Geographic Information System (GIS), surveillance and tracking, weather monitoring, smart containers, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), communication, and others; by type of services: training, risk assessment and investigation, maintenance and support, consulting, and others; by categories: port and critical infrastructure security, vessel security, and coastal surveillance; and by regions: North America (NA), Asia Pacific (APAC), Europe (EU), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and Latin America (LA). The major forces driving this market are awareness of maritime security, maritime threats, regulations and standards, and international trade by sea. The significance of the maritime security has increased, due to globalization. Also, the increase in maritime threat in some regions of the world has been noted as one of the major factors affecting international trade. The companies in this industry must take advantage of the growing awareness of maritime security in markets such as Middle East and Africa (MEA) as well as Asia-Pacific (APAC). The surveillance and tracking systems and solutions, smart container systems as well as scanning and screening systems have a high growth rate , in the market.
The US Navy arrests pirates. (US Navy)
EDR - March / April 2015
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