Consume Magazine #1

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consume A youth magazine promoting positive health, love, and acceptance.


The Eating Disorders Association (EDA) applied for funding to print a magazine for grade eight students in and around Brisbane, and for everyone else online, around the themes of positive body image, health, tolerance and personal responsibility. We created an online survey to gauge community interest on topics and then invited young people and youth workers to contribute articles. A competition took place for young people to come up with the title of the magazine and the cover design. Becki won the competition for both the name of the magazine, “Consume”, and for the front cover design. The word “consume” created lots of discussion amongst the judges. Given that we are all consumers and that we live in a capitalist culture that places a great deal of value on profits, we thought it was a great name through which to frame the youth concepts in the magazine. Given the impact of the media and advertising on body image, health, tolerance, and personal responsibility, we thought the name was apt for encouraging young people to think

critically about the social messages we consume, to be cool with who we are, to accept others as they are, and to have a more holistic approach to health. We would like to thank all the young people involved in the creation of this magazine and all the contributors who made this first edition so special. We are all consumers and we hope this magazine raises your awareness about consumer choice and the massive impact it can have on the environment, the community in which you live, and your sense of self. In a Western capitalist world what we choose to consume can in fact be the greatest power we have to make the world a better place. We hope this magazine helps to make you think and make choices toward a better future for yourself, your family, friends, and the environment. We also hope that you will gain an improved sense of body image, health, tolerance and personal responsibility. Desi Achilleos, Coordinator, EDA Editor Consume Magazine desi@eda.org.au

Acknowledgements

This publication has been produced as a project partly funded by the Youth Development and Support Program that is managed by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, with some funds from the Department of Communities, and the Mental Health Directorate of Queensland. The views and opinions expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australian Government or State and Territory Governments.

The Eating Disorders Association Inc Resource Centre contributed a significant amount of funds and energy into the magazine. The opinions expressed within are not necessarily those of the Association or the Resource Centre. All material herein is the intellectual property of the authors, and is presented here for educational purposes. The contents of this magazine may be reproduced freely (providing the source is acknowledged), except material which has come from other publications (and where an appropriate reference has been given). The EDA

Inc has made every effort to ensure the information in this magazine is accurate, however, we accept no responsibility for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in respect of the material provided. The EDA Inc is an educational institution for copyright purposes. Information presented in this publication is for educational purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for the advice of medical or health professionals. The EDA Inc accepts no responsibility to persons who may rely upon this information for whatever purpose.

Articles not credited or acknowledged ‘with others’ have been written by or adapted by the editor. © 2011 EDA Contributors: Students from Liveworm and LIVEimage at the Queensland College of Art, Griffith University. www.liveworm.com.au ISBN: 978-0-646-57048-8

www.consumemagazine.com


Where You From? National Indigenous Calendar What is Self Esteem and Body Image?

Me?? Puberty — What’s Happening To y! Join the Fight to Take Back Beaut If Beauty Hurts Then We’re Doing it Wrong Thin Does Not Equal Beautiful Getting Out of The Body Hatred Trap Body Image Activism Dress Me... I’m Your Mannequin You Are Capable of Much More Than Being Looked At Food Glorious Food Food Groups and Nutritional Information ing Farm Based Support Organic Local Healthy Options Nutritional Facts From Nutritional Students Tips for Healthy Eating Tips for Improving Your Body Image and Self Esteem Exercise — What a Buzz!

Let’s Talk About Sex... 34 Gender? What Is It? 37 You Facebook My YouTube I’ll Google Your Twitter 38 Sexual Health 40 What If I Am? 42 Homophobia, Sexism, Racism, Sexting! How Can We Stop Them? 43 Would you like a drink with that Luv? 44 Drugs: Get the Facts 46 We Are Water 50 Trashing Our Oceans 50 Keen To Be Green? 51 What Happens To My Recycling? 52 Say ‘No’ To Plastic Water Bottles 54 The Air We Breathe 56 I Want, I Want, I Want 58 Bullying Busta 60 Bullying: Sarah’s Story 62 Fitting In: Lizzy’s Story 64 Facing Hard Situations 66 Good Mental Health 68 Slam 70 Clean Up Your Act! 71 The Big Question 72 Meditation 74 A Thirst For Paranormal Romance 75 Politics 76 Myth Busing Legal Issues 78 Youth Services Listing 80

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We acknowledge the first peoples of thi s country— the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island er people of Australia.

one that we can all adopt, just like ack nowledging the traditional owne rs of the land on wh ich you stand every time you ma ke a public speech . These practices represent respect to the Australian Ab original and Islander culture. Ma ke it your business to find out how to say hello in the Indigenous languag e in your area. These small acts can be ways of connec ting migaloos (non-Indigenous pe ople) to Australia in a different, more holistic way.

In particular, we ack nowledge Jagera, Turrbal, Yugambeh, Quanda mooka, Gubbi Gubb i, Wakka Wakka and the oth er First Nations pe ople who continue to live in and around Brisban e. Indigenous people have lived successfully in south -east Queensland and in the rest of Australia for many many generations, and still do today, mostly in contemporary urban centres. Australian A common Western Aboriginal greeting often ask culture is the oldest s, ‘what do you continuous living cu do for a living?’, sig lture on the nalling the value We planet!! Although the stern culture re are many differen places on work and t $m Indigenous groups within Austr oney$. Just as we don’t have alia, with their own co ntr ol ov er wh at genetics we are customs and lore, the hallmark of born with, we traditional Indigeno often don’t have co us culture is ntrol over whether “oneness with natur we are born e”. The land, rivers into a poor or a ric , mountains, h family. Certainly animals, sun, moon factors such as and stars all have the being poor, being born a woman, be ir own creation stories, Dr ing born in a eaming, inter-conn particular culture or ectedness and country, or being illit sacredness. This de erate can ep spirituality, cultu lea d to dis ad van tage. In India a comm re and respect for nature meant Ind on greeting igenous people live and farewell is ‘Nam d in harmony aste’, which means with the land and an ‘the spirit in imals for at least 60 me respects the sp 000 years irit in you’. Some ha before the arrival of ve interpreted Captain Cook. it even more broad ly to mean ‘I honour the place in you, in which the en We would also like tire universe abide to acknowledge all s; I honour the the Indigenous place in you, which people who were sha is of love, of truth, mefully removed fro of light and of peace. When you are m their families by the Go in that place in you, vernment, to live in and I am I in mi tha ssions and t place in me, we are reserves around the one.’ Much nicer tha country. The Gove rnment wanted someone, ‘what do n asking to make Indigenous you do for a living?’ or First Nations pe ople into white people, but they fai led. Of course, rem So how about taking oving people on some of our Ind from their families, igenous land or Country cre traditions and when ated a huge meeting someone disruption to the pa new, ask ssing of traditional qu estions that aren’t wis dom from weighed down wit one generation to h judgements. the next. While some You can learn abou First Nations t who a person rea people are still in rec lly is by asking overy from colonisa questions like ‘how tion, others do you fill your days? have their culture ve ’, ‘what music ry strong today. do you like?’, ‘wha t book are you rea ding?’, ‘what are you downloadin A common greeting g from YouTube tha from Australian Ind t’s funny?’ or simply, ‘where you igenous people is to ask, ‘w from?’, and you ne here you from?’ Th ver know, you e person’s might find out some answer locates the thing about that pe m to their Country rson that you , to a Nation, a would never have community, a family, known if you had jud a food grown in the ged them on their looks or on the region, or to specific totems. ir job. This tradition has sur vived and is 2

with input from Melissa Lucashenko, a Yugambeh writer.


National Indigenous Calendar January

July

1 Native Title Act proclaimed (1993)

26 Invasion Day (Australia Day)

26 T ent Embassy established in front of Parliament House, Canberra (1972)

February

5 T ent Embassy Petition presented to Parliament (1972)

8 Woodward Land Rights Inquiry established (1972)

13 T he Australian Government formally apologises for the Stolen Generation (2008)

6–13 NAIDOC Week

19 U N finds Native Title amendments discriminatory (1999)

23 A boriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) abolished (2005)

April

8 D iscriminatory Native Title amendments passed (1998)

12 Aboriginal flag first flown (1971)

23 25,000 walk for reconciliation in Hobart (2000)

August

March

2 E vonne Goolangong Cawley wins Wimbledon (1971)

4 N ational Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Children’s Day 9 International Day of Indigenous Peoples

14 B ark Petition sent from Yirrkala to Parliament (1963)

16 Return of land to Gurindji, NT (1975)

16–30 Conniston Massacre, NT (1928)

18 Tiwi Land Council established (1978)

24 Gurindji walk-off, Wave Hill Station, NT (1966)

1 Resistance leader Jandamarra killed in WA (1897)

September

5 “ Bringing Them Home” Stolen Generations Report released (1997)

1 Sea of Hands for reconciliation, Uluru (1998)

2 Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation established (1991)

15 A boriginal Deaths in Custody Royal Commission Report released (1991)

May

1 Pilbara Aboriginal Stockmen’s strike, WA (1946)

October

3 ATSIC established (1990)

8 Wik “10-Point-Plan” announced (1997)

25 C athy Freeman wins gold in the 400m sprint the Sydney Olympic Games (2000)

12 F irst Sea of Hands for reconciliation, Canberra (1997)

26 Uluru returned to traditional owners (1985)

28 Battle of Pinjarra, WA (1834)

30 Racial Discrimination Act takes effect (1975)

26 National Sorry Day

27 Reconciliation Week

27 R eferendum to recognise Indigenous Australians in the census and in the constitution (1967)

27 National Reconciliation Convention (1997)

November

28 2 50,000 people walk for reconciliation in Sydney (2000)

29 Torres Strait Islander flag launched (1992)

30 The Tiwi receive the title to the Tiwi Islands (1980)

June 2 H igh Court recognises Native Title (1992) / Mabo Day

4 5 0,000 people walk for reconciliation in Brisbane (2000)

26 P ope John Paul II addresses Aboriginal people, Alice Springs (1986)

December

4 C ouncil for Aboriginal Reconciliation Final Report released (2000) 9 Aboriginal Land Rights (NT) Act passed (1976) 23 H igh Court Wik Native Title decision handed down (1996)

9 Myall Creek Massacre, NSW (1838)

10 Myall Creek Massacre Memorial Ceremony, NSW

11 B arunga Statement presented to PM Bob Hawke (1988) Source: http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-calendar.html consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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WEIGHT IS NOT THE ONLY INDICATOR OF GOOD HEALTH. WHAT’S ON THE INSIDE COUNTS.

Start a revolution. Love your body! Self-esteem is how much you like, accept and respect yourself as a person. Body image is the mental picture we have of our bodies and how we think and feel about the way we look. Body image continues to be ranked in the top three concerns for young people in Australia. We have an increase in the amount of people who are above their healthy weight range, an increase in the amount of people who are developing eating disorders, and a growing number of young people who are in a healthy weight range dieting because they feel overweight. Many are even having cosmetic surgery. In a world where an estimate of 75% of girls and 50% of boys experience body dissatisfaction, this magazine is one that wants to promote positive body image and to encourage young people to think critically about the mass media, to be cool with who you are, to have a more holistic approach to health and to accept others as they are. 4

There are many things that contribute to good health. Drinking plenty of water, getting a good night’s sleep, thinking good thoughts about yourself and others, doing things that are good for your brain (intellectually and emotionally), eating what you want from a variety of wellbalanced food groups when you are hungry (not starving) and stopping when you are satisfied (not full), doing some form of exercise daily and finding a practice that is good for the soul. The body is hollow without a soul and things that are good for the soul can include laughing, having fun, engaging in spiritual practice or acts of giving, keeping your space clean, having compassion, gardening, engaging in any form of creative practice or hobby, and treating your body well. BAN TOXIC TALK ABOUT YOURSELF AND OTHERS. No two people are the same. No one is perfect. By accepting ourselves, we also accept others as they are. If we want to feel good, we need to develop a good relationship with ourselves. Finding things you like about yourself and finding things that

you like doing can make you feel good, make someone else feel good and be good for the environment. We need to support each other and recognise the role we can play in not only improving our own self-esteem but also that of our friends and family. We can challenge negative comments we hear, and watch our language and what we say about ourselves and others. People can say really mean things, but you can make a difference by challenging toxic talk. How we think and feel can change from one moment to the next. We all have the power to change how we think and feel and so we can reverse negative thoughts. Changes are more likely to be lasting if they come from a place of positivity. DON’T BELIEVE THE HYPE. RIOT, DON’T DIET! Use your head and don’t believe everything that is written or said on the net or in the media. Did you know that most advertising is geared to make us feel bad and inadequate? The idea is that buying a product will make us feel complete, satisfied, adequate, or whatever else the advert/product is intending. It’s no wonder a lot of us feel bad when we are bombarded with advertising. The diet industry can also work by making us feel bad about our bodies, and the solution we are given is to go on a fad diet or buy a wonder-food, shake or pill to fix


YOU ARE UNIQUE.

it. A lot of fad diets are restrictive: you shouldn’t eat this or that. Heaps of research shows that most diets do not work in the long term because in the long term most people put the weight back on!! Dieting can create a lifetime of bad habits (where people spend their lives “on” or “off” diets) where the focus of someone’s health is on their weight alone. Weight is only one measure of health. Health is not just about energy in and energy out. Your nutrition, genetics, intuition and what you think and feel is also crucial to your health. You don’t need a product, a potion or a restrictive diet to become healthy. Your body shape is not an indicator of your talents, intellect, spirituality or personality, and it is certainly not a gauge of happiness or one’s mental health. Often it is not even an indicator of fitness! Some people in their healthy weight range may eat poorly, be depressed and not exercise, while someone who is above their healthy weight range may eat nutrient-rich food, exercise every day and be happy. So you can’t always judge a book by its cover!

Why are only very thin, tall, muscular, Western or whitelooking people saturating our media, telling us only one type of look is healthy and beautiful? We all eat differently, exercise differently and have unique appearances, thoughts and feelings. Health and beauty come in all shapes and sizes and if there were more representations of different people (like the diversity of people you see in your own community) in our media, perhaps we would feel better about ourselves, instead of having a growing number of people being unhappy about their bodies. Have you ever wondered where the Indigenous people are in our popular soap operas and current affair programs? What someone looks like gives you many clues about who they are, but that takes about one minute to sum up and can often be based on assumptions or stereotypes. Communicating with someone helps you find out what they like and don’t like, what they’re into and who they are: kind, funny, smart, generous, honest, reliable, trustworthy, sporty, fit, an artist, a good cook, a game wiz, etc. These qualities can be far more important in friendship or love, and even in what bosses look for in a quality worker.

EVERYONE IS VALUABLE, REGARDLESS OF THEIR SHAPE, SIZE, CULTURE, SEXUALITY, SPIRITUALITY OR ABILITY. Given genetics largely predicts what we look like, acceptance of that can play a role in developing healthy body image and selfesteem for ourselves, and a nonjudgmental approach towards others. Sometimes it is hard to see if someone is being healthy or if they are they starting to starve themselves or starting to fad diet, becoming obsessive about exercise or comparing themselves to others in a negative way? We all need to be mindful of this. Starvation can actually negatively affect the way you think and this is one reason why eating disorders are considered serious mental health problems. People who value, respect and like themselves are less likely to punish and hate their bodies and more likely to make healthy choices, including valuing what is on the inside.

Absolutely everybody is valuable, including you, just the way you are.

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OUR BODIES ARE AMAZING! The human body is made up of billions of cells. These cells are too small to see without a microscope (smaller than the top of a needle), and inside most of these cells are chromosomes that contain thousands of genes. Most people have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. 23 chromosomes come from your biological mother and 23 come from your biological father. Sex chromosomes are the ones that determine your sex. The two types of sex chromosomes are X and Y. If your paired sex chromosomes are XX, you will be female. If your paired sex chromosomes are XY, you will be male. Exceptions to this include a small percentage of people who are intersex, who may have biological characteristics that are both male and female.

Females are born with all of their human eggs already inside them. Each of these eggs carries one chromosome strand of 23, and the sex chromosome is always an X. Males grow to produce sperm, usually around puberty. The sex chromosome on their strand can be either X or Y. When a female and a male have sex, millions of sperm can travel from the male’s penis into the vagina of the female. It only takes one sperm to fuse with a female’s egg to create a fertilised egg—this means a baby could then potentially be born (after 9 months of pregnancy). So we are all literally one in a million! Some people choose to conceive by using artificial or DIY insemination and advancements in science mean that eggs and sperm can now be fused outside of the body, which is called IVF. If the sperm is carrying an X sex chromosome an XX pairing is formed and the baby’s sex will be female. If the sperm is carrying a Y chromosome it will be an XY pairing, resulting in a male baby. Given the female egg’s sex chromosome is always X, it is the male’s sperm that determines an individual’s sex.

It’s in your genes … The genes in your chromosomes determine a lot about your physical traits such as your hair and eye colour, height, body shape, and even

your vulnerability to some illnesses. Your genes determine almost all of your physical traits, making each person a completely unique individual. If you are an identical twin this means that the fused egg splits in two; each twin carries the same 46 chromosomes, which explains why identical twins look so alike! Your chromosomes and genes are also responsible for a lot of changes that happen to your body around puberty, guiding the way your body grows and develops. For example, when your baby teeth fall out and your adult teeth replace them, the size and shape of your teeth will be determined by your chromosomes and genes.

Puberty Puberty is the time in your life when your body stops being a kid and starts becoming an adult. This usually happens sometime between 8 and 15 years of age. Although everyone is different and develops at a different rate, becoming an adult is inevitable and most people will have caught up with each other by the time they leave school. The changes to your body during puberty happen gradually, so you will have time to get used to them. Here is a list of what to expect (this is not a complete list so don’t freak out—if in doubt, chat to someone or go see a doctor or health professional).

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Getting taller, more muscular, and heavier Getting taller is often a very early sign of puberty. Sometimes you can put on a bit of weight first, which is just your body getting ready for a growth spurt. Most people almost double their weight from the onset of puberty to the age of 18. This is because you are getting taller, your muscles are building up, your bones start to weigh more and so do your internal organs, like your liver and heart. With all of these body changes, it is really not a time to be overly concerned with your body weight and shape.

magazines like a fashion option, which is a cause for concern given the huge risks associated with cosmetic surgery, such as botched jobs, scarring, bruising, and for some even death, let alone the strange idea of inserting plastic into your body! It’s important to remember that every body is different and that we all develop differently, and that’s ok. We don’t have control over what genetics we inherit, but we can choose to accept these biological changes in ourselves and not judge others for the changes they are going through. Part of becoming an adult is being self aware and aware of the impact we have on others.

Sometimes, if you are not carrying enough weight, stretch marks will appear as you get taller. This is true for both males and females. It’s ok—it’s perfectly natural to have skin flaws. You often don’t see models in magazines with skin flaws because every flaw is digitally corrected, but looking perfect with no flaws is usually not natural!!

Pimples

A female body changes so that it is able to carry a baby. Hips may broaden as the bones of the pelvis widen. Most female-born people will develop breasts during puberty, and male-born people will get broader chests. Some will have large breasts and chests, while others will have smaller ones. Some will have one breast larger than the other. Nipples can change colour and be positioned differently on the breasts and chest. For some, particularly males, the expansion of the chest area allows for the development of internal organs like the lungs and heart. If you lined up 100 men and women and looked at their chests and breasts, you would see that everyone is different and that your body is just another body. A growing number of young women and men are undergoing cosmetic surgery to change their bodies. It is marketed in

• • • • •

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During puberty your skin and hair can get greasy, you start to sweat more and you can develop pimples. Tips to keep pimples at bay: •

• •

Make sure your skin is clean—warm water is great for this! Eat healthy food, including fruits and vegetables. Drink plenty of water. Get some exercise. Sleep well. Be selective about the skin and makeup products you use—chemicals and toxins are not good for your skin. Things like natural tea tree oil are great natural antiseptic alternatives. Try not to pick at pimples—this just moves bacteria around and can cause scarring. Regularly change your pillowcase.

Most people’s pimples will subside over time as your body gets used to the hormonal changes. If you feel that your pimples are a severe problem and it is causing you distress, you can talk to your parent or guardian, doctor, or your local chemist about options available to you.


Hormones and Moodiness During puberty your hormones start swirling around in your body. Hormones are special chemicals your body makes to help it grow and develop into an adult. The ones called sex hormones are oestrogen, androgen, progesterone and testosterone. We all have these sex hormones but usually girls have more oestrogen and progesterone and boys have more testosterone. The hormonal release during puberty can cause moodiness so if you feel yourself getting more upset by things, remember that your body is going through a lot of changes and that this too will pass. Moodiness and tiredness are common feelings during puberty. You can feel like an alien when puberty takes a hold, and sometimes your friends and family can seem like they’re from another planet too! If you find that you are feeling down most of the time, you might want to talk to family, friends, or other people you trust, like a school counsellor and/or your doctor. A community service like Kids Helpline can also be useful. Swirling hormones can mean swirling times for some, but your body does adjust and so too will your mood.

Increased Hair Where did all this hair come from? During puberty you will start to notice increased hair in your pubic area (around the vagina and penis), under your arms, on your legs, and on your face. Some males will get a lot of chest hair, and maybe even back hair. The amount of hair will vary from person to person, but it’s all perfectly natural. For some the increase of hair and sweat means an increase in body odour, so this is a time when washing your body becomes important. Many start using a deodorant for the first time. Read the content label of the products before you buy them. If the ingredients of a deodorant look like a string of chemicals, try and find a less toxic alternative. You can find deodorants that are aluminium and alcohol-free, and there are plenty of natural mineral alternatives to the mass-produced deodorants in

the supermarkets. Of course, some of you may not have a choice in what you use if your family are the ones that buy these products, but the more informed you are, the better you will be able to communicate what you’d like to use, or at least know what you want to use when you become more independent. Sweat glands are all over your skin, but they are more concentrated under your arms and around your genitals. Wash those areas every day to stop unpleasant smells developing. Washing genitals with just water will suffice, and is preferable to using soap products, especially for females. Soap can upset the natural PH balance and cause yeast infections, dryness or itching. There are many nonsoap-based body washes on the market, so again take an interest in what your family is using. Your skin is an organ and what you put on it is absorbed into the body. There is a lot of pressure, particularly on girls, to pluck or wax eyebrows and shave or wax underarms, legs and even pubic hair. You do not have to conform to these rituals if you don’t want to. Having hair in these places is perfectly natural. Hair, particularly in your pubic region, is there for protection. If you do choose to remove underarm hair by shaving or waxing, this can help with keeping body odour at bay. If you shave your legs, you usually shave against the grain of your hair for a closer shave. Your leg hair will grow back in a week or so and be very coarse and hard. If you wax your legs, hair will take longer to grow back and it will be softer. Nowadays, more boys are also removing their body hair. It’s a personal choice, but don’t feel like you have to. Boys, your first facial hair may be soft and fluffy and will eventually grow into a beard. Some boys will get much more facial hair than others. Boys are taught to shave their faces in most cultures. There are many shavers on the market and usually a better product has a sharper blade to make the shave easier. Shaving in the direction your hair grows is less harsh on your face … but you can always just let your hair grow!

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Boys: How to shave your face You will need: • • •

• •

water a facecloth facial lather and a shaving brush if you have one, otherwise you can just apply a lather to your face with your hands a razor natural oil, toner or moisturiser if you like

1. Wash your face before shaving. This will prevent infection if you nick yourself. You may wish to exfoliate to better prepare your skin. 2. Soak a facecloth in warm water and hold it to your face for 30 seconds. This will soften and loosen the hair follicles. 3. Release a ball of shaving cream or soap lather onto your palm (or shaving brush), and apply it evenly over your beard area, making sure to uniformly cover all sections that you wish to shave. For the closest shave make sure you use an unused or relatively new razor. 4. For the top section of your beard, shave from the top of the beard to the edge of your jawline in long, even strokes. 5. To shave under your chin and on your neck, shave from the bottom of your neck upwards (with the grain) to prevent razor burn and ingrown hairs. 6. You may wish to pull your skin taut with your free hand for a closer shave. 7. To shave your upper lip, stretch it over your front teeth to tighten the skin, and shave downwards. 8. Rinse your razor after each stroke to keep it from getting clogged up with hair. 9. Wash off excess shaving cream with warm water, and look for sections of beard you may have missed. Wet your razor to shave these remaining sections. 10. After shaving, splash your face with water. You can use natural oil, a toner or moisturiser afterwards rather than an alcohol-based aftershave. Alcohol will dry out your skin and possibly cause damage. Or you can simply pat your face dry. Source: MensXP.com

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Sex Organs During puberty the sex organs begin growing. Male-born people have two testicles (balls) that hang behind the penis in a pouch of wrinkled skin called the scrotum and during puberty they get slightly bigger. Sperm and the sex hormone called androgen are made in the testicles. Sperm travels through the penis and gets ejaculated, along with other fluids, as semen. Semen exits through the hole at the end of the penis, the same as urine does, but the two never come out at the same time. Males have a skin covering their penis called a foreskin. In some cultures male babies have their foreskins cut away in a process called circumcision. For those who have foreskins, a white creamy substance called smegma (who makes up these names?!) is made just under the foreskin to help the skin slide back smoothly. If smegma builds up it can become smelly and even get infected, so it’s important to wash your penis every day. Again, warm water is fine to cleanse with. The size and shape of your penis and testicles is unique to you. You may get more erections during puberty and this might happen at very embarrassing times, such as in public or in the middle of the day. The fact that you can now produce sperm also means that you could get someone pregnant. You may also start having “wet” dreams. This is where you ejaculate or “come” during the night. It’s completely normal, even though it can be messy, so it is a good idea to keep a box of tissues and a bin near your bed. Most males will also get a deeper voice during puberty. Sometimes a male’s voice will “crack” or seem unstable for a while before it settles down at a deeper tone. During puberty the vagina also gets larger, especially the clitoris and the labia. The size and shape of your vagina is unique to you. Girls will probably start their period (menstruation) for the first time as well. A period means having a few


days when blood is discharged from your vagina each month. The sex hormones make the lining of your uterus thicken up, ready for a potential baby, and an egg is then released from your ovaries into your womb. If the egg is not fertilised by a sperm, it comes out of your vagina with the lining of your uterus (as the hormone levels decrease) and looks like blood. This is your period starting. You will keep bleeding for anything from a few days to a little over a week. When you have your period, it’s common to wear something like a pad on the inside of your underpants, or to use tampons inserted into your vagina to absorb the blood. There are also more environmentally-conscious options such as rad-pads (soft material pads that you wash and reuse) and moon-cups, which are made of silicone and sit inside you much the same way a tampon does, but can be emptied and reused indefinitely. What is important is that you are comfortable and that you are using something that you find easy and convenient. Always follow the directions on the packaging of any sanitary product you use and get advice from your family, friends, doctor or other health care provider if you need to. You might experience physical pain (cramping, head ache, back ache) and/or extra moodiness, like crying easily or getting angry. These are all normal responses to your hormonal levels changing. Do not put your tampons or sanitary pads down the toilet as they block the pipes. Wrap used sanitary products in toilet paper and put them in a bin. Sometimes special bins are provided in public toilets for pad and tampon disposal. It’s always good to have a special kit inside your locker or school bag in case of an emergency (pad/ tampons/moon-cup, clean underwear). For many girls and women, periods can mean not feeling so well, which is very unlike the tampon ads we see where girls and women are expected to be out and active all the time! Believe it or not, having

fancy rainbow-coloured tampons or pad packaging makes no difference at all to how you feel. Have time out from swimming, sport or school when you have your period, if you don’t feel up to it. A lot of girls and women do not use tampons, so it is perfectly fine to not swim or do sport if you have your period, even if you don’t feel unwell. During puberty girls will also notice a discharge from the vagina. It is clear to milky white and it is healthy and cleansing. The amount of discharge you have can vary from being quite light on some days, to reasonably heavy on other days. It’s only a problem if you start to itch, burn or smell more unusual. These symptoms could mean you may have an infection or an allergic reaction (some girls can’t wear synthetic underwear for instance) and you need to go to a doctor. It is ok to see a female doctor if that makes you feel more comfortable. Again, if you lined up 100 men and women and looked at their genitals you would see that everybody is different and that you have just another unique body. There is a lot going on during this time for both boys and girls, and all the physical, sexual and emotional changes may make you feel a little self-conscious. You might start to become hyper aware of how you look because of the changes. As well as your body changing, you’re changing too. Different levels of hormones are going through your body and it’s changing the way you think and feel. Even your brain is changing. Recent studies have shown that for some, the brain doesn’t stop growing into an adult brain until they are in their mid-20s. In particular, the part of the brain that gauges risks continues to develop until the early to mid-20s. No wonder teenagers do crazy things sometimes! So it’s important to be gentle with yourself and others at this amazing time of development and realise that it is a phase, that this time will pass as you move into adulthood. With Julie Sarkozi and Catherine Doyle

consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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12


If you’ve glanced at a magazine or turned on the TV in the last decade, you’ve got a good idea of what the media’s definition of an attractive woman is: she’s tall, usually white, has long, flowing hair, has had a boob job or some other cosmetic surgery, is blemish-free and very thin. Studies show that the women we see in the media these days are thinner than ever and very often

Beauty Redefined is dedicated to taking back “beauty” for girls and women everywhere. Join us on our Facebook fan page to continue the conversation with a community of beautiful people! For more on our work and how you can join the battle, check out our website www.beautyredefined.net.

severely underweight. On top of that, cosmetic

Sourced and adapted from www.beautyredefined.net

surgery and digital enhancement has become

Boys and men are also being affected by one ideal

normal. In a world where a constant flow of media

beauty: attractive men are seen as tall, shaven, usually

images far outnumbers the amount of women we

white, thin and muscular, with short hair. Although the

could ever see face to face, this unrealistic ideal

beauty ideal pressure on boys and men is increasing,

has become what we think of as “normal” or “the

the rate of using male bodies to sell products is not

norm”. It is a false, dangerous and unattainable

as full-on as it is for girls and women … yet. Women

norm. When we only see a certain type of woman

are often only represented as “sexy” to sell products.

presented positively in the media, from fitness

Women in music video clips are often half naked when

magazines to TV dramas, it’s no wonder the media

men are fully clothed. News stories about female

is consistently linked to body hatred, disordered

politicians will often start with a comment on what

eating and an unhealthy focus on appearance.

they wear, which is just not done for male politicians.

Profit-driven media, hand in hand with the multi-

Yet men are starting to use more beauty products and

billion-dollar beauty and weight-loss industries,

one male beauty ideal is being used more and more to

relies on us believing a lie. The lie tells us beauty

sell products. Protein drink consumption and steroid

comes in only one form, that anyone can obtain

abuse is high as more men try to buff up to meet this

with enough money, dangerous surgery, time

one male beauty standard pushed at us by the media.

and effort. It tells us that women who don’t fit the

It’s no wonder that increasingly, more boys and men

ideal are doomed to be undesirable and unhappy.

are not happy with their bodies, going on extreme

This lie, that female worth is dependent upon

diets and exercise regimes and even undergoing

appearance, is so successful that heaps of healthy

cosmetic surgery.

girls are feeling bad about their bodies. So we’re in

You can stop this trend by changing how you see

a battle for women’s worth and well-being.

things, not how you look!

consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

13


beauty if

hurts,

g n o r w

then we’re doing it

Beauty shouldn’t hurt. If our pursuit of beauty hurts, we’re doing it wrong. Rest assured every image you see of a woman in media has been digitally manipulated, enhanced or photo shopped. Every year the diet and media industries spend hundreds of billions of dollars to convince you that you are not capable of much more than being looked at. Woman are viewed as ‘eye candy’ and valued for their parts rather than their whole selves. Therefore we learn to spend our time, money and energy enhancing the worth of our parts instead of understanding the infinite worth of our selves. Elena Rossini, director of ‘The Illustionist’ believes that the beauty, diet, and mass media industries create, shape and maintain our shared beliefs, values, and rules, by promoting aspirational ideals of female beauty that are very difficult — if not impossible — to achieve, in order to create new needs and apprehensions that fuel a 500 billion dollar industry. Did I hear that correctly? 500 billion dollars every year is devoted to you feeling like you must live up to an illusion or unrealistic expectation in order to be happy, loved, beautiful, and successful. Let’s think about how painful, yet normal, some of our pursuits towards beauty are. We are constantly being bombarded by advertising promoting the ideal, beautiful, glamorous woman. Skin products that decrease wrinkles, makeup that creates flawless skin, breast enlargements, cosmetic surgery, liposuction, botox, fashionable hair and nails, diet pills, detox shakes, tattooed makeup, tanning, teeth whitening, hair removal, you name it, there’s a product for it. Do we really need to depend on these products to enrich our beauty? Do we really need to change ourselves to meet an unattainable standard? Is it possible to accept that when we grasp the reality of our beauty, we begin to see ourselves for what our beauty really entails and not what industries would have us believe is normal, attainable, and the only pathway to acceptance, love and happiness? I believe that it’s time that we must fight against this illusion and grasp hold of our beautiful realities. We need to start to recognize and reject these harmful media messages. We need to start discovering the attainable, uplifting, realistic beauty and health that exists all around us, even if it doesn’t quite look like the images we’re force-fed from every other source. We need to walk away from the pain, and enjoy the beauty that does not hurt. 14

The dictionary defines beautiful as the following: beau•ti•ful (byoo-tuh-ful) –adjective 1. having beauty; having qualities that give great pleasure or satisfaction to see, hear, think about, etc.; delighting the senses or mind: a beautiful dress; a beautiful speech. 2. excellent of its kind: a beautiful putt on the seventh hole; The chef served us a beautiful roast of beef. 3. wonderful; very pleasing or satisfying. –noun 4. the concept of beauty (usually preceded by the ). 5. ( used with a plural verb ) beautiful things or people collectively (usually preceded by the ): the good and the beautiful. 6. the ideal of beauty (usually preceded by the ): to strive to attain the beautiful. –interjection 7. wonderful; fantastic: You got two front-row seats? Beautiful! 8. extraordinary; incredible: used ironically: Your car broke down in the middle of the freeway? Beautiful! Dictionary.com 2011, Beautiful, http://dictionary.reference. com/browse/beautiful [Accessed 11th July 2011].

Surprisingly, the word beautiful is not linked to or associated with body shape or size, or in fact your body in general. Weird. Who would have thought that beautiful does not mean liposuction, diets, cosmetic surgery and money expenses? Instead beautiful is about qualities. Being beautiful is about your kind spirit, caring nature, enthusiasm, dreams and purpose. Imagine what would happen if confident, happy, beautiful women decided to forego painful and expensive antiaging procedures, breast lifts and enhancements, liposuction, all over hair removal and tanning regimens? Would there be a need for these procedures? Would there still be a market? Imagine the impact that we could make. Not only would we become more comfortable in our own skin, but we would be setting an example for future generations, our sons and daughters and friends on how they perceive themselves. What would happen if we started treating kindly and speaking nicely about our so called ‘imperfect’ bodies? Is it possible to make a conscience effort to change the perspective of our ‘flaws’ from shame, hide and fix at any cost to something more acceptable, embraceable and loving? Is it possible to love ourselves for our qualities and partner as beloved allies with our bodies, rather than enemies? Can we embrace restoration and cherish the gift of womanhood as we find the ability to look within, push the boundaries of what we know and enlarge our hearts and minds? I believe so and I believe that it can start through positivity. It is well known that when we speak negatively about our bodies and appearance, it impacts negatively upon our self esteem. Therefore start today with a goal that you will decrease the amount of negative comments you make about your appearance aloud, and allow the negative self-talk that floats through your mind to become less prevalent. Embrace your beauty and imperfections without pain. Love yourself and be a person of acceptance, not conformity. Let’s start shining with positivity. ADAPTED BY NICOLE YARHAM, Sourced from If Beauty Hurts We’re Doing It Wrong www.beautyredefined.net


Think about the woman or man you admire the most. What qualities do they have? A strong woman works out every day to keep her body shape, but a woman of strength builds relationships to keep her soul in shape. It is important to look after yourself though, to eat a wide variety of nutritious foods, drink plenty of water and have fun while exercising. By doing these things and finding time to do the things you love most in life, then others will see your beauty shining through.

What is beauty? What do we judge others by the most? Are they too fat or too thin? How often do we seek to look like an image that is not our own? It can become our soul desire. Our one aim. Many hopes are focused on becoming different, yet the same. How can you define one image of beautiful, when there are over 6 billion people in the world?

A powerful mind and internal qualities last forever. There are so many great and wonderful things to experience in life! What will YOU accomplish? When you sit down to blow out the candles for your 80th birthday party, what will you conclude are the great things you have done in your life? Juanita Nantes, QUT Nutrition student

You are beautiful just the way you are. We have not all been given size 8 figures with flowing blonde hair, 2m heights with slim legs or six pack abs, large chests and arms, therefore we should not be spending our whole lives wanting what ‘she’s’ got or what ‘he’s’ got. When you focus on physical beauty, then nothing less than a perfectly shaped and made up body will have to be the standard. So what should we be aiming for? There are hundreds of advertisements and magazines printed every day, with images of models that have been airbrushed to perfection. Is this what we should aim to look like? consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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breath Ever tried to see how long you could hold your Our for, and ended up gasping for air afterwards? pretty bodies are actually pretty amazing and are what good at balancing things out and trying to get for our need we food the or air it’s er wheth we need— ut bodies to function—which is great, ‘cause witho ly we these basic needs we’d die, right? Unfor tunate us to look live in a crazy world that tends to pressure ges a certain way and gives us lots of mixed messa actually can we imes somet so y, health is what about ds be doing our bodies harm, or heading towar it. dangerous eating patterns without realising le, are The diet and weight-loss industries, for examp lly basica are and tips diet selling from s million making “selffrom profit to setting us up to fail in order risons improvement” marketing and unrealistic compa bute contri all that s, image ine magaz and with celebrities tive “fad” / to low self-esteem. Did you know that restric in weight “crash” diets actually contribute to increases g your holdin after air for g over time? Just like gaspin elves breath, people tend to overeat if they let thems h enoug g gettin been ’t haven they if get too hungr y or if someone nutrition from the food they are eating. Even to does lose weight quickly on a diet, they are likely This is put it back on, plus a little extra after the diet. goes because diets affect metabolism and the body nce differe the know ’t doesn it ; mode into hibernation er, it tends between a diet and a famine or natural disast ’t to hold on to a little extra weight because it doesn know when food will be reliably available again. ’t There is actually lots of evidence that “thin doesn one body equal health”, so why all the pressure to be , such type? Instead of focusing on our human rights on and as affordable access to quality forms of nutriti balance having the time to eat, sleep, exercise and find bodies our from d necte discon e in life, we have becom tune into and our health needs. We need to be able to and when y hungr are we when us tell that cues our body for. y hungr lly actua are we are full, and what we ms and We tend to blame individuals for weight proble can come fail to recognise diversity; health and beauty worrying in a range of shapes and sizes. Instead of just actually to need we BMI a or about a number on a scale know that measure whether a person is healthy. Did you

16

ht gain? Having a lack of sleep can contribute to weig through spor t and ity activ ical phys des inclu that lifestyle gh sleep, are enou ng getti s itise prior recreation and that g. just as important as healthy eatin moderation, a Overall the safest way to health is exercise, safe lar, regu tion, nutri good of balance ond to cues of resp to and body your learning to listen to as discerning well as hunger and fullness appropriately, , emotional food that be for, ry hung ally actu what you are . It is else g ethin som or t connection, empowermen tion and func es bodi our how ur hono to important be feeling powerless, address the reasons why we may r than focusing only tired or stressed in our lives, rathe up in dangerous ht caug ng getti and ce on appearan ing. r-eat unde patterns of either over- or By Amanda Dearden es Centre Inc. Coordinator, Isis—The Eating Issu www.isis.org.au info@isis.org.au ht: A resource manual Black. (2000) Setting the Table Straig g issues. Isis—Centre for for working with women with eatin p 40. www.isis.org.au Women’s Action on Eating Issues, (DAA). (2009) Knowing what alia Austr of iation Assoc Dieticians nutrition: http://www. and food to s come it to believe when geID=2145857411 p?pa ex.as u/ind om.a eek.c healthyweightw


Body Image 1.

Stop Negative Self-Talk: Think nice thoughts instead.

Too many people have negative thoughts about themselves running through their minds. Negativity is not motivational or inspirational. What we THINK about our bodies has a strong connection to how we TREAT our bodies. When you look in the mirror hone in on the things you like about yourself such as “my eyes have a sparkle today” rather than focusing on the things you don’t like. Try your hand at some self-affirmations and attach them to your mirror.

2. Unreal Ideals It is reasonable to assume no image we ever see of a woman or a man in the media has gone un-manipulated. Digital alteration, airbrushing, and retouching are industry standards now. Techniques include vertical film stretching to make women, in particular, appear taller and thinner, filtered lenses on cameras, soft lighting and digital alteration to disguise wrinkles, pores, pimples and other so-called “blemishes”. The changing of a person’s eye colour, hair colour, boob or chest size, eyebrow shape and jawline is used every day in most media. The next time you start comparing yourself to someone in a magazine, remember that even they don’t fit the ideal they’re made to represent!

3. Stop Watching Popular Media When we look eye to eye with the women and men we know and love, we can remind ourselves of what real beauty is. It is your best friend’s voice, your sister’s basketball skills, your brother’s homemade biscuits, the lines on your mum’s face from years of smiles and laughter or your dad’s hugs. Choose a day, a week, a month or even longer to get back to reality and steer clear of as much media as you can, and see if it makes a difference to how you feel about yourself and others. Research shows that women feel significantly worse about themselves after only three minutes of looking at women’s magazines! One group of male college students who stopped watching media for three months claimed they found the real women in their lives more attractive! Be critical of the media and the messages it sends, not of yourself.

4. Exercise for Fitness Choose any type of exercise you like. When you exercise for fitness, rather than weight loss, you spend less time thinking about the way your body LOOKS and more time focusing on what it can DO. Remind yourself and encourage others to engage in physical activity as a means for improving physical and mental health, rather than as a strategy for achieving unattainable beauty ideals. consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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5. The Power of Kindness

8. Be a Body Image Advocate

Kindness is a powerful force and everyone has kindness deep within them. By practicing kindness we develop a positive sense of self, as well as compassion for others. Choose to compliment yourself and the people in your life for their character traits, actions or talents. Receiving and giving compliments makes you and the other person feel good. Having manners and being polite is also is a good way to show kindness. Anything you do that shows someone you care for them, without having to receive something in return, is valuable.

Good health comes in a range of body shapes, weight and sizes and if we see a range of healthy bodies in the media, we are more likely to feel good about ourselves and make healthy decisions for ourselves.

6. Recognise pornography for what it is. It is natural to be curious about sex and to want to see naked bodies and sexual images, and it’s also perfectly fine if that doesn’t interest you at all. In Australia sending naked pictures of yourself is illegal if you are under 18, as it is considered child pornography. The law says you can’t have sex until you are 16 and you can’t watch pornography until you are 18, but that doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen! Pornography is an industry that is saturated with sexual images and dialogue, but most pornography is not a realistic representation of sex and intimacy between people. In fact, research is very clear that pornography can change the way men and women view each other; it can get in the way of us forming loving and healthy relationships, it can be highly addictive and it can skew our perceptions of attractiveness, self-worth, and sexuality.

Speak out against harmful beauty ideals and attract attention to dangerous and harmful messages. There are many ways you can do this Here are some suggestions: • Write or speak to local leaders and politicians about inappropriate or dangerous messages in media programming and local advertising. • Blog your disapproval about the inappropriate messages you see. • Post links to news stories that reveal harmful ideals on social networking sites. • Provide fashion students, designers, manufacturers, retailers, modelling agencies, advertisers and fashion magazine editors with education about healthy body image and the diversity of healthy body-shapes and sizes. • Talk to your friends and family about what is and isn’t appropriate – spread the word. • Consider a career in journalism.

9. Redefining Healthy and Appreciating Your Body

Usually behind every pornographic image is a sex industry where the makers and distributors make bucket-loads of money and the people in the images are often not treated well, get paid poorly and are exposed to harmful practices like unsafe sex. Pornography has taken something like sex, which is often an enjoyable, private and intimate experience, and made it public in a way that can cause harm, particularly for women who are often portrayed in ways that many would find degrading. So if you are exposed to pornography, remember it is an exploration of adult fantasies and meant for adult audiences, and is often not a real representation of intimacy between people.

There are lots of pieces to your health puzzle—body, mind and soul. Drinking lots of water, getting a good night’s sleep, thinking positively, eating a variety of foods from the range of food groups, stopping eating when satisfied and not full, exercising, socialising, having time alone, your biology, your genetics, your thoughts, personality and mind, how much you read, how much you listen to music and for many even their spirituality are all part of the health puzzle. Everyone, no matter what age, size or body shape, can make improvements to their overall health. You have your body for life. Treat it well and it will treat you well. Learn what each body organ does and how important it is to your body’s functioning. Pamper your body. Improve your mind and nurture your soul. Act, talk and behave with compassion for yourself and others and focus on how amazing your body really is.

7. Object to Objectification

10. Forget Yourself and Help Others

Your value as a person is not based on your appearance. When we judge people only by how they appear, we blind ourselves to the person’s heart, mind and soul. Viewing and valuing yourself and others purely on their outward appearance only can reduce people to objects. When someone becomes obsessive or preoccupied with their physical appearance, it can lead to body hatred, yo-yo dieting, eating disorders, steroid abuse and poor performance in school. Everybody is valuable.

One of the best ways to improve our self-esteem is to forget about ourselves for a while. Get out and volunteer to help someone else. Join a community service group, be there for a friend who needs a hand, make someone laugh, tell someone you love them or just offer a smile to someone who needs to see it. Doing something for others, fills us with compassion, love and light that radiates from within.

11. Check What You Hear Music can be an important part of life. It provides us with a great deal of joy and also can make us cry. It’s good to be aware of the lyrics in songs and music video clips, and the messages they send about bodies, love, sex and relationships. If the lyrics you’re singing along to are positive and empowering ones, chances are you’ll feel good about yourself when you sing them. Compare how men and women are represented in the music industry and question the values being promoted. For example, why are so many female singers dressed in next to nothing, while males are fully clothed?

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Fight back against a fashio the idea that fashion is onlyn industry that supports for a certain type of body.

12. Be a Positive Example Speak positively about your body and stop all negative self-talk. Don’t degrade yourself or others. Don’t make jokes about your own or someone else’s appearance—it can come across as being quite shallow. If someone tells you a joke that degrades another, challenge them by saying you don’t find it funny. Become a positive example to those around you.

13. Avoid Diets and Talking About Diets Most diets are harmful and do not work in the long term because the goal is often about weight loss rather than healthy behaviour change, or food restriction rather than regular eating. Steer conversations in more positive and constructive paths. If you want to get healthier, you can talk to the adults in your life and to health professionals to get wholistic support.

15. Fashion Fun for EveryBODY It can be hard when you’re a teenager and don’t have the money to buy the things you want for yourself. Some teenagers have to rely on their parents to buy their clothes, and sometimes that’s ok, while other times it can be a nightmare! Fashion can make you feel good about yourself, but if it doesn’t, change your clothes, not your body. Fashion can express something about who you are, but it can also show who someone else wants you to be (like your parents or the fashion industry). The fashion industry promotes a certain body type and a certain style every season, for everyone to follow. If we all looked and dressed the same, how boring would that be? Fashion and models should reflect a diversity of size, shape, culture, age and sex.

If clothes were made to last from season to season we wouldn’t be encouraged to purchase new styles all the time. This is bad for the environment and bad for our bank accounts. Compliment stores that are body image friendly and boycott the ones that aren’t. Fight back against a fashion industry that supports the idea that fashion is only for a certain type of body. It’s fine to have fashion fun and to take care in your appearance, as long as you realise your selfworth and value isn’t defined by it. It’s also fine not to care at all and to wear clothes just for comfort.

16. Say No to Cosmetic Surgery It is quite a tragic statistic that the highest group of people getting plastic surgery in Australia these days is young women getting boob jobs and vaginoplasty! There are two things you should be very wary of with plastic surgery—PLASTIC, and SURGERY!! What bizarre times we live in, where mainstream magazines promote cosmetic surgery advertising like it’s a fashion choice! How is putting plastic into one’s body ever a good choice? Sadly, even more men are now also prone to get the nip and tuck, and famous politicians are being quite frank about their use of botox. It makes a lot of movie stars look like fish, literally unable to have expressive facial features. Cosmetic surgery costs thousands of dollars. Selfacceptance is free. Maybe if we saw lots of different bodies, we would feel more ok with our own. You don’t often hear the horror stories of people dying in surgery or the botched jobs. Think about your choices. And be very very wary about PLASTIC and SURGERY!! With sources and adaptations from: www.beautyredefined.net and Naomi Crafti, Eating Disorders Foundation of Victoria

consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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DRESS ME... ⋆ I’M YOUR MANNEQUIN (lady GAGA) Your CHOICE of FASHION says more about what you want to communicate about yourself than it does about good taste, style or weather conditions. If fashion was just about keeping us warm or cool, people wouldn’t wear ugh boots in summer or singlet tops in winter, and they do. If fashion was simply about covering our bodies in a tasteful and stylish way, Hawaiian print shirts wouldn’t exist and they do! Fashion is about communicating a message, if it wasn’t, there would be no need for logo’s on t-shirts and bling on our shoes. Different logos, even if they are just brand names, say something about the wearer and the message they are wanting to communicate. What we wear and the way we choose to wear it all say something about who we are and the life we live. A Hawaiian shirt on one person might scream ‘nightmare‘ or ‘chaos’, but on someone else it might say ‘I’m an individual’, ‘I love retro’, ‘I am creative’ or ‘I like the beach’. Those amongst us who don’t give a rats about fashion are still communicating something about themselves with their clothing — it could be: ‘I’m someone who has better things to do than worry about fashion trends’, or ‘my mum still buys my clothes’, ‘I’m someone who doesn’t like to conform’ or even ‘I hate commercialism’. In fact, there could be any number of messages. Fashion as a way of communicating a message has been around since the year dot, and has often been linked to social issues. For example, in the 1970’s many women burned their bra’s in the second wave feminism as a symbol of women’s liberation. So fashion can also take on the role of communicating a person’s values. With an increasing green movement, people are becoming more aware of the details involved in producing fashion and they make choices that reflect their value systems. For example, fur is out and hemp is in. Making such a choice can take into account not only how they look and feel 20

in an item of clothing, but also the fabric used, how it is produced and even how it is transported to the store. Some people won’t by clothes manufactured in China, because they don’t want to support an industry that relies on cheap labor, where workers get hardly any money for their work and the big bosses make the bucks. Some people wear certain clothing or jewellery for religious reasons. For example, the wearing of a cross might represent Christianity, whilst a scarf covering the head, known as a hijab, is often worn by Muslim women. It is important to always respect everyone’s choices, even if they are not your own. It’s all about fitting in with certain groups and certain lifestyles. Someone who is really into surfing probably isn’t going to hit the beach in skinny black jeans and a singlet, just as a musician probably isn’t going to play a gig wearing nothing but boardies and a towel. Sometimes, because we want to fit in, we want to dress in a similar way to our friends. Remember though, just because your friend looks fab in a boob tube, fluoro jeans or a muscle shirt, doesn’t mean you will! Fitting in is really all about being yourself. If someone copies your style, take it as a compliment, but don’t be afraid to be different. When you chose something to wear, don’t worry about the size, as sizes change from one designer to another. Go with whether something fits you well and you feel comfortable in it. Fashion trends change all the time, and if we had to keep up with them all we’d probably find ourselves forever stuck in a change room. As catchy as Lady GaGa’s lyric’s might be, you’re not a mannequin, you’re you. Dress like you and communicate messages about who you are. Make FASHION CHOICES that enhance who you are, rather than dictate who you are. And it’s completely fine to dress just for the weather. By Catherine Doyle


are AREN’T BEING LOOKED AT, WE ARE TOO OFTEN ENVISIONING OURSELVES BEING LOOKED AT, AS IF AN OUTSIDER’S PERSPECTIVE HAS BECOME OUR OWN. PART OF GROWING UP FEMALE TODAY MEANS LEARNING TO VIEW ONESELF

OF

e H r C U o M m g

This insightful man was referring to the idea of “objectification”. Sometimes when people use the term objectification they are referring to sexualised female bodies or the pressure on women and girls to be sexy (like that’s their only value) … which isn’t the whole idea here. When we understand the whole of objectification we can better understand the role it plays in our daily lives, and the ways it may keep girls and women in particular, from fulfilling all that they can be. Objectification takes on many roles: say you’re walking down the street on a beautiful day. Someone who cares about how others see them will often spend

LOO

FROM ANOTHER’S GAZE.

Ever heard this quote? “Men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves. The surveyor of woman in herself is male: the surveyed female. Thus she turns herself into an object— and most particularly an object of vision: a sight.” (John Berger, Ways of Seeing, 1977).

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than

at

LOOKED AT. AND WHEN WE

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WOMEN ARE ALWAYS BEING

YOU

more time adjusting their clothing or hair, wondering what other people are thinking of them, or judging the shape of their shadow or reflection in a window. They will picture themselves walking—turning themselves into an object of vision—instead of enjoying the sunny weather, looking around, or thinking about anything else. If you find yourself doing this you aren’t alone. In fact, you are just one of millions of females growing up in a world that teaches us to survey ourselves every waking moment. A lot of women’s magazines will have headings like ‘Look Hotter From Behind!’, ‘Look Wow Now!’ or ‘Look 10 Years Younger!’ Notice the emphasis on looking. Too often, we travel through life with an outsider’s vision of ourselves. We are to be looked at. We watch ourselves being looked at. We become objects of vision: sights. But isn’t there so much more to life than watching ourselves self-consciously stroll through it? Life is beautiful when

you live it—really experience it—not when you are more concerned about appearing beautiful as you try to live. When you think of your happiest times, were they in front of the mirror? Happiness and beauty often come from doing, acting, and being, outside the confines of being looked at. So, today, what will you do spend less time with your reflection and more time doing, acting, and being? Will you enjoy the world around you instead of hoping others are enjoying their view of you? Today is the day to remember you are capable of much more than being looked at. And when you begin to realize that, you can start realizing the power of your abilities and the good you can do in a world so desperately in need of you. NOT a vision of you, but ALL of you. What will you find you are capable of? Sourced and adapted from: www.beautyredefined.net

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People need food to survive. We are very lucky in Australia to have a wide variety of food and arguably the best quality of produce in the world. Maybe the adults in your family have been looking after your food needs so far, but as you are getting older it might be a good time to start to cook for yourself (if you haven’t started already). Even if you start cooking one meal a week, it will be a skill you will have forever. Start off by learning how to cook something simple like steaming vegetables, making eggs on toast or a homemade pizza. There are lots of shows on TV and on the web now, offering great easy recipes ideas for young people in particular. As we saw from Junior MasterChef, there are some kids who are already brilliant in the kitchen, even better cooks than some adults! Nutrition and intuition! Balance, health and self-esteem! It’s good to find out about nutritional information and the right portion size of food to eat. But the common sense approach is this—the more food that comes in its raw form, the more nutritious it is. The government recommends two pieces of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables a day as a great way to get good nutrition, because a lot of young people aren’t eating enough fruit and veg. Learning how to cook vegetables using oils, herbs and spices can be lots of fun. Everyone can grow their own herbs and there’s nothing like adding fresh herbs to your meals from your own garden. If you don’t have a backyard you can always grow your own in a pot, on the patio or balcony, or even the front step.

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Other wholefoods that are really nutritious are nuts, seeds, beans (or legumes) and grains—wholefoods that come naturally from the earth. You can pick an apple or a nut from a tree and eat it. Many processed or packaged foods have chemicals added to keep them edible. Check out the nutritional listing on a package; if it looks like a chemical list with lots of numbers and complicated-sounding words, you know is not as good for you as wholefoods like fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans and grains. Grains are often refined from the natural plant into a form that we can use to cook with, and the more refined, the less nutritious it usually is. For example, bread can be made from a range of grains such as rye, spelt, or wheat. When grains are processed they lose their husks and hulls, which often give us essential fibre to make sure food moves smoothly through our bodies. White bread is more refined than brown bread and white rice is more refined than brown rice. So the closer a food is to its natural source the better, which is why wholemeal bread is a healthier option than white. The highest proportion of food we eat should be fruit, vegetables, beans, legumes and grains, as well as a range of oils, sauces, herbs and spices to cook them in. In fact many people eat only these food groups (vegans). Vegetarians eat food that has been produced by animals like eggs, milk, cheese, yoghurt, and honey, so long as the animal has not been killed. The rest of the population also eat meat or animals and products from animals. The answer to healthy eating is to eat a range of nutritious, filling and yummy foods which make you feel good, and to listen to your own body to tell you when you are satisfied. You don’t have to starve yourself to get healthy, in fact regular eating is a good foundation for your on-going health. So much of the diet industry promotes misinformation to make money. Diet drinks, for instance, have low calories, but they have an artificial sweetener that is far from healthy for your body. Many diet foods claim to be low in fat, but in fact are really high in sugar or artificial sweeteners, that can’t be registered by the body and can often leave you feeling hungry! Diet yoghurts, for instance, are low in fat but have artificial sweeteners, artificial flavours or are really high in sugar! So be very mindful of the claims made by the diet industry. Fat, sugar and salt are not enemies; they are needed for healthy eating. But certainly over the last 50 years the amount of sugar, fat and salt found in processed foods has increased dramatically, as have portion sizes. Fast food chains in particular, and even a lot of local take-away food outlets, serve food in massive sizes and laden it with lots of sugar, fat and salt. So physically making what you eat yourself, so that you know exactly what is in your food, or being informed about the nutritional content of food you buy and listening to your body’s needs, can be very useful. You can eat what you want in moderation. If you eat a muffin for morning tea, it may fill you up until lunch. If you eat a carrot stick for morning tea you may be hungry again after an hour and eat something again then. Both choices are fine and should be balanced with what we eat for the rest of the day. Eating regularly, when you are hungry (not starving), is important. Our body fluctuates in weight all the time, depending on what we eat, what we drink, when we go to the toilet, how much we sweat, exercise, and how much energy our body uses just to stay alive. We need energy to breath and for organs, like the liver and the kidneys, to work properly and of course for the heart to beat! For girls our weight also fluctuates in relation to our monthly period. As mentioned previously, teenagers go through massive body changes and sometimes you put on weight in preparation for getting taller. If you don’t feel the healthiest you can be then the good news is that eating well is the answer. Eat when you are hungry and stop when you are satisfied. Your body is amazing, and if we just tune into it more it will give us signals about what foods we need, how much food we need to eat, when we are hungry and when we are satisfied. Nutrition and intuition are the keys to healthy eating! consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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TO GIVE OUR BODIES GOOD NUTRITION THE FOOD WE EAT MUST CONTAIN VITAMINS, MINERALS, FATS, CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS AND FIBRE. THE MAIN SOURCES OF ENERGY WE NEED COMES FROM FOOD CONTAINING CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEIN AND FATS. MOST FOODS CONTAIN CARBOHYDRATES, WHICH ARE THE MAJOR SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE BODY.

Minerals are elements that originate in soil. They are absorbed by plants, by the animals that eat the plants, and by the animals that eat the animals that eat the plants. Minerals your body needs include: calcium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc.

TWO TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

Vitamins your body needs: A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B12, C, D, E, and K. Here are some examples of the benefits of vitamins:

Simple carbohydrates: these are also called simple sugars. A simple sugar is the sugar you find in a sugar bowl, which is in things made of sugar, like sweets and lollies, and also in more nutritious foods, such as fruit. It’s better to get your simple sugars from food like fruit because they also contain vitamins, minerals and fibre that are good for your body. Sweets and lollies do not have any other nutritional value and this is why it is advised to only eat these foods sometimes. Complex carbohydrates: these are also called starches. Starches include grain products such as oats, wheat, rice, rye, barley, millet and corn, and can be eaten whole or ground up to make bread, pasta, noodles or breakfast cereals. Refined grains have been processed, which removes most of the nutrients and fibre. Unrefined grains contain vitamins and minerals, and are also rich in fibre, which helps your digestive system work well. Fibre helps you feel full and explains why a bowl of oatmeal fills you up better than the same amount of calories in sugary foods. Protein gives us energy and serves as the main building blocks of the body. Muscle, skin, cartilage and hair are all made up mostly of proteins.

Vitamins are food substances found in plants and animals and are essential for our well-being, for growth and for energy.

VITAMIN C Fruit and vegetables are virtually the only sources of vitamin C. Vitamin C helps the body fight against infection and plays a vital role in bones, blood capillaries, cartilage, teeth and gums. It also functions as an antioxidant (which protects the cells in your body from damage caused by oxygen use) and helps the absorption of iron from plant sources. All fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, but red capsicum, guava, brussel sprouts, broccoli, citrus fruits, papaw, cauliflower, strawberries, mango, melon and cabbage are particularly rich in vitamin C.

VITAMIN E This antioxidant vitamin protects the cells throughout the body, especially in the membranes around cells.

VITAMIN B There are eight different vitamins in this complex group, and fruit and vegetables contribute to seven of them. The B-vitamins play many roles in the repair of tissues, maintaining healthy blood, and the body’s ability to produce energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

FOOD GROUPS AND NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION 24 2


FRUIT AND NUTS Fruits form from the flower of a plant and are really good for you because they provide lots of vitamins and minerals that your body needs, as well as fibre. Fibre is the indigestible part of plant food and is very important because it helps move food through the stomach and out of your body. Its main role is to keep the digestive system healthy. Everybody needs fibre in their diet. Fibre is not found in dairy or meat, but rather in fruit, vegetables and wholegrains. Nuts are a specific type of fruit but are sometimes classed with meat because they are a good source of protein. Fruit is a great snack and the government recommends adolescents (aged 1218 years) eat 2 serves a day. Serving sizes are a guide only and the amount of food we need to eat can vary from individual to individual based on things like your sex, age, height, body mass composition (like how much muscle and fat mass you have) and how much you exercise.

LEGUMES ARE THE SEEDS FROM SOME PLANTS AND INCLUDE: Peas, lentils, chickpeas, kidney beans, black-eyed beans, borlotti beans, broad beans, cannellini beans, haricot beans, lima beans, mung beans, and pinto beans. A sample serve of vegetables and legumes: 1/2 cup (75g) cooked vegetables 1/2 cup (75g) cooked dried beans, peas or lentils 1 cup salad vegetable 1 small potato GRAINS (ALSO CALLED CEREALS)

Apples, apricots, avocadoes, bananas, blueberries, coconut, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, honeydew, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, lychees, mandarins, mangoes, nashi, nectarines, oranges, passionfruit, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, pumpkins (although they are used like vegetables), raspberries, rockmelon, tomatoes, strawberries, watermelon.

Grains are the seeds of grasses like oats, wheat, rice, rye, barley, millet and corn, and can be eaten whole or ground up to make bread, pasta, noodles or breakfast cereals. These foods provide vitamins, minerals, protein and carbohydrates, and are an important source of energy and dietary fibre. Wholegrain or wholemeal varieties give you more fibre. Adolescent recommendations are to eat between 4-7 servings from this group every day.

TYPES OF NUTS INCLUDE:

One serving is:

Almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, macadamias, peanuts, bunya nuts, pine nuts, pistachio, walnuts.

1 slice of wholemeal bread

A sample serve of fruit:

1 cup or 180 grams of cooked rice, pasta or noodles

1 medium piece (150g) of fruit (an apple, banana, orange, or pear)

1/3 cup breakfast cereal flakes

THE TYPES OF FRUIT YOU CAN EAT INCLUDE:

2 pieces (150g) of fruit (apricots, kiwifruit, plums)

1 medium bread roll

1 cup or 230 grams of porridge

1 cup (150g) diced pieces or canned fruit

MEAT, FISH, POULTRY, EGGS, NUTS, LEGUMES, SEEDS

1 and 1/2 tablespoons sultanas or 4 dried apricot halves

Foods in this group are good sources of protein, iron, niacin and vitamin B12. Adolescent recommendations are 1-2 serves a day. Meat can have a lot of saturated fat, so it is recommended to trim off the fat or choose lean meats like kangaroo, chicken, or fish, and have some meals with legumes, nuts or seeds.

1/2 cup (125 mL) fruit juice VEGETABLES, SEEDS AND LEGUMES Vegetables are the leaves, roots, tubers, flowers, stems, seeds and shoots of a plant. Legumes are the seeds of plants in the legume family. They also provide great vitamins, minerals and fibre. Sometimes legumes are included in the meat food group because they are such a good source of protein and iron, and people who don’t eat meat should eat legumes as an alternative to eating animal products. Usually different coloured vegetables give you different nutrients and so it is always good to have a colourful plate of food to eat, to make sure you are getting the range of vitamins and minerals you need. The government recommends adolescents eat 5 serves of vegetables a day.

TYPES OF VEGIES YOU CAN EAT INCLUDE: Alfalfa sprouts, artichoke, asparagus, beans, bok choy, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, capsicum, carrot, cauliflower, celery, corn, cucumber, eggplant, fennel, garlic, leek, lettuce, mushrooms, olives, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, pumpkin, rhubarb, shallots, spinach, squash, sweet potato, turnips, swedes and zucchini.

Examples of one serving: 65–100g cooked meat or chicken or 1/2 cup lean mince, 2 small chops or 2 slices roast meat 1/2 cup cooked (dried) beans, lentils, chickpeas, split peas or canned beans 80–120g cooked fish fillet 2 small eggs 1/3 cup peanuts or almonds 1/4 cup sunflower seeds or sesame seeds DAIRY— MILK, CREAM, CHEESE AND YOGHURT Dairy food comes from milk or milk products and is an excellent source of calcium. Adolescents need 3-5 serves a day. A sample serve of milk, yoghurt or cheese: 1 cup (250ml) fresh, long-life or reconstituted dried milk 1 cup (250ml) soy milk 2 slices (40g) cheese 1 small carton (200g) yoghurt consume magazine magazine  issue one one  september 2011

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FATS AND OILS Fats are an essential part of healthy eating, because we need them in order to absorb certain vitamins for good brain function and to keep body parts like your hair and nails healthy. Fat adds flavour to food and helps us to feel satisfied after a meal. There are different kinds of fats and some are better for you than others. As a rule of thumb, liquid fats (like the oil we use in cooking) are better for you than solid fats (the fat found on meat). The recommendation is to eat fats and oils sometimes, or in small amounts, like you do when you use oils for cooking. Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and are found in meat or butter and from some plant food like coconut. Too much saturated fat is not good for your health. Unsaturated fats come from vegetables and plants. There are two types: Monounsaturated fats can be found in olives, olive oil, nuts, peanut oil, canola oil and avocados. Studies have shown that these kinds of fats are good for your health when eaten moderately. Polyunsaturated fats are found in safflower, sesame, corn, cottonseed and soybean oils. This type of fat has also been shown to be good for you, but too much can be harmful.

TRANS FATS OR HYDROGENATED FATS Trans fats are actually unsaturated fats and are used to extend the shelf life of processed foods, typically cookies, cakes, fries and donuts. Again, this kind of fat can be harmful to your body and we should limit how much processed foods and trans fats we eat.

A sample serve of sweet foods: 1 (40g) doughnut

SWEETS, DESSERTS, OR JUNK FOOD.

4 (35g) plain sweet biscuits

These foods usually do not have very much nutritional value and so should only be eaten occasionally. It is always better to eat home-cooked sweet things, because you know exactly what is going into the food and usually trans fats will not be used at home. Sometimes home-cooked sweet foods will also contain healthy ingredients like wholemeal flour and carrots or nuts— yum! The recommendation for adolescents is no more than 1-3 serves a day if you are healthy and active, although some dietitians would have the serving size as only one a day.

1 slice (40g) plain cake 1/2 small bar (25g) chocolate 2 tablespoons (40g) cream or mayonnaise 1 tablespoon (20g) butter, margarine or oil 1 can (375ml) soft drink 1/3 (60g) meat pie or pastie (a whole pie would be 3 serves!!) 12 (60g) hot chips (a whole cup would be about 4 serves!!) 1 1/2 scoops (50g scoop) ice-cream Generally we should be eating plenty of vegetables, legumes, fruit and cereals (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles, preferably wholegrain). We should also include lean meat, fish, poultry for meat eaters and everyone should eat non-animal alternatives like nuts, seeds and legumes. Include also milks, yoghurts, cheese and/or non-animal alternatives like soy or bean milk, yoghurt, and cheese. Portion sizes and some information sourced and adapted from: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating with feedback provided by dietitian Shane Jeffrey

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support organic local based farming There are certain practices in the food industry that are not good for the environment or our health. Farmers are so important to our survival that they should be encouraged and supported to practice ethical farming. If we want to preserve and restore our environment in Australia we can: • Eat less meat. • Support locally-based farming, where animal waste is actually used to fertilise the land for food crops so that food systems complement each other. • Support permaculture practices. • Buy organic food, free range meat, eggs and dairy. • Buy food from ethical farmers. For example, Elgaar farm in Tasmania is an organic, 300 herd dairy farm where the cows range freely, are not separated from their calves, are not sent to abbatoirs to be killed, where mastitis is virtually non-existent and they die of old age. Check them out: http://www.elgaarfarm. com.au/ • Support food cooperatives and community gardens. • Volunteer your time, donate money or support local animal shelters. Animals can’t defend themselves, they need us to defend their rights! • Grow your own garden and keep your own chooks! Compost all your food scraps and this can be used to fertilize your garden. • Think about a career in ethical farming and sustainable eco practices.

Dodgy Practices: • Farmers are under a lot of pressure to produce a lot of food and this often involves the use of chemical fertilisers, insecticides and herbicides on our fruit, vegetable, beans, legume, nuts and grains. These chemicals often end up being washed off the land into rivers and the water supply, changing the flora and fauna of intensively farmed areas and creating more weeds, algae and nitrate levels in the water. • Large scale animal farming can contribute to water shortage, global warming, land degradation, deforestation, ocean degradation, food shortages and species extinction. Humans eat about 230m tonnes of animals a year, twice as much as we did 30 years ago. The UN calculated that the 18% of climate change emissions from animals bred for their meat is more than the emissions from cars, planes and all other forms of transport put together! Australia’s livestock alone will produce more warming over the next 20 years than all of our coal-fired power stations. • It takes between 50 000 and 100 000 litres of water to produce 1 kg of beef, compared with only 2 500 litres to produce 1 kg of white rice, and even less for fruit and vegies. In Australia, nearly 60% of our land is grazed by animals raised for human consumption. A Bangladeshi family living off rice, beans, vegetables and fruit may live on an acre of land or less, while the average Australian, who consumes around 126kgs of meat a year, needs around 30 times that amount. While one billion people go hungry every day, the world’s cattle alone consume enough food to feed 8.7 billion people! • The breeding of animals requires vast amounts of food and water, resulting in the emission of methane and other greenhouse gases, and the production of mountains of physical waste. A single farm can now generate as much waste as a city. Massive waste lagoons, sometimes holding as much as 40m gallons of manure and urine, often break, leak or overflow, polluting underground water supplies and rivers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrates.

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Healthy Options Healthy breaky options: 1. Scrambled eggs with grilled tomato & wholemeal bread 2. Oats with honey & berries 3. Fruit salad with yoghurt & muesli (or turn it into a smoothie) 4. Wholemeal toast with honey and sliced banana 5. Wholegrain cereal with yoghurt and a glass of orange juice

Healthy lunch options: 1. Tuna on rice crackers with cheese, avocado and salsa 2. Ham and salad sandwich with avocado on wholemeal bread 3. Warm beef salad with crunchy Asian noodles and Italian dressing 4. Minestrone soup with toasted pita bread 5. Pita bread wrap with left-over meat and salad 6. A salad with any type of pea or bean tossed through 7. Sushi rolls filled with egg, avocado or tofu, and carrot, lettuce or cucumber

Healthy dinner options: 1. Homemade pizza on pita bread with ham, tomatoes, pineapple, olives, capsicum and cheese

Healthy snacks include: 1. Tuna and crackers

2. Burritos with grilled chicken pieces and salad

2. Fruit and/or yoghurt, or fruit and milk blended into a milkshake

3. Tuna pasta-bake with ricotta cheese

3. Carrots and celery with hummus

4. Vegetable stir-fry noodles with nuts, sesame seeds and Asian vegetables

5. A handful of dried fruit, nuts and seeds

5. Grilled fish topped with salsa, over steamed vegetables

7. A piece of bread or toast, a crumpet, pikelet, or crispbread with a spread

4. A bowl of wholegrain cereal

6. Crackers with ricotta and tomato

8. A piece of fruit. In summer you can freeze oranges, strawberries and grapes and then eat them like a healthy icy-pole

Adapted from Leanne Ward, Nutritional student QUT 28


NUTRITIONAL FACTS FROM NUTRITIONAL STUDENTS Juanita’s Facts

Kristen’s Facts

• Essential fatty acids are critical for our health because they can’t be manufactured by our bodies. Fish, flax seed, soy and walnuts are great sources of essential fatty acids such as omega 3 and omega 6. These nutrients help prevent cancer, cardiovascular disease, and are really good for your brain and immune system. Eat 3 serves a week to maintain optimum health.

• Tofu has a soybean base. This makes it very rich in protein, minerals and isoflavones (plant components), which act as a form of oestrogen hormone in the body.

• Whether you exercise every day or not at all, water is essential for optimal health. Water is fat free, sugar free and preservative free! It keeps you hydrated and ensures your body uses all the nutrients from the food you eat. • Complex carbohydrates are found in grain foods such as breads, rice and pasta, and are digested more slowly by your body, causing you to maintain your blood sugar levels.

• It is a very versatile product and can be cooked in many ways, such as baking, sautéing, barbequing, or stir- frying. • Whether or not you are at your optimum weight, the benefits of good nutrition can be felt. When we make the conscious choice to eat a variety of foods throughout the day, working on the basis that “no food is bad” we can begin to feel better about ourselves. • Breakfast can be the most important meal of the day. Eating breakfast can improve concentration, memory, test scores and school attendance.

Cara’s Facts

Leanne’s Facts

• Fruit is a good source of nutrients for your diet. It is packed full of natural sugars, fibre, vitamins and antioxidants, and by focusing on a variety of fruits you will gain different benefits from each.

• Saturated fat is solid at room temperature and consists of triglycerides, which contain saturated fatty acid radicals

• For example apples contain fibre, which keeps the digestive system healthy, and oranges contain vitamin C, which aids in fighting the common cold. • Fats are an essential part of a healthy diet and are required for nourishment of your brain, heart, nerves, hormones, cells, and also your hair, skin, nails and metabolism. Fat helps absorb vitamins (A, D, E and K). A moderate intake is needed in any healthy diet. • Eating regularly throughout the day can improve your metabolism, aid with digestion, and assist with long term weight management.

• Saturated fat is found in dairy products, fatty meat cuts, coconut oil and chocolate. Unsaturated fat is a fatty acid derived from vegetables and plants, in which there is one (mono) or more double bonds (poly) in the fatty acid chain. • Foods that are high in unsaturated fat include olives, nuts, avocado, and fish. • Green leafy vegetables are a source of iron, foliate, calcium and vitamins A, C & K. • Calcium is important for strong, healthy bones. It plays a critical role in nerve transmission, heart function, bloodpressure regulation and blood clotting. It can be found in milk, cheese, yoghurt, tofu, fish and nuts.

Carolene’s Facts • Yoghurt contains good bacteria in the form of active cultures.

• Protein can be found in meats, poultry and fish, beans, lentils and nuts.

• If you keep the levels of good bacteria (found in yoghurt) high by eating it every day, then you are more likely to maintain a healthy immune system.

• Pumpkin, sunflower seeds and dried fruits are great snacks and provide a good source of iron, but you need to eat loads of them to get all your required iron intake for the day.

• Protein is very important in protecting the cells in our bodies. It also boosts our nervous and immune systems.

• The best source of iron is red meat.

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Eating well often involves enjoying the food you eat, eating regularly and eating a variety of foods in moderation. Our more sedentary computer lifestyles and our fast food take away culture has added more salt, fat and sugar to our diets, as well as providing massive serving sizes, which contributes to more people becoming heavier that their healthy weight range. Our diet industry has created a culture of restriction, dieting, and low-fat / high sugar or artificially sweetened foods, contributing to eating disorders and a harmful dieting culture. These tips are simply sensible guidelines to healthy eating. EAT SLOWLY. EAT WHEN YOU ARE HUNGRY, NOT STARVING. It takes about 20 minutes for your food to fully digest and for your body to send you messages that you are satisfied. If you are above your healthy weight range you may want to start practicing pausing throughout your meal to see how satisfied you are. Your body is amazing and it will tell you when you are hungry and when you are satisfied or full, and it is better to stop when satisfied. You can always eat again a couple of hours later! Eating when really hungry means we tend to eat more quickly, not taste our food and eat more than we need because our satisfaction cues haven’t had a chance to respond to the digested food. Eating slowly is a positive behaviour change for the rest of your life!

EAT MODERATELY. Eat until you are satisfied, not full! Food tastes better when we are hungry, not starving. Generally, the more we eat, the less tasty food becomes. If we stop when we are satisfied, we can put the rest of the food away and finish it when we are hungry again, which will make the food taste better than if we had continued to eat it until we were full! Eating until we are full can also make us feel uncomfortable and not feel so good about ourselves. Eat slowly and enjoy every mouthful. Eating well makes you feel good. How much you should eat depends on your body’s energy needs and how

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your body produces things like cholesterol, which is different from one person to the next. Recommended serving sizes are a good guide, so knowing that a serving of cooked meat should be about the size of your palm, a medium piece of fruit is 1 serving and a cup of pasta is one serve, can be useful as a guide. Read the recommended serving size on the packets of food you eat to get a good guide for moderate portions.

EAT A VARIETY OF NUTRIENTRICH FOODS. No single food supplies all the 40 or so nutrients you need for good health. Your daily food selection should include a combination of fruit and vegetables, nuts, seeds, beans or legumes, whole grains and cereals like bread, rice and pasta, dairy products, meat, poultry, fish and / or other protein alternatives like eggs, mushrooms, seaweed, tofu, or vegetable protein food combinations, and small amounts of oils, fat and sugars, including honey. Nutritious food gives you nutrients and minerals for your growing body, helps you stay alert and concentrate and gives you lasting energy. Most Australians don’t eat enough wholegrains, fruits and vegetables. The government recommendation is at least 2 serves of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables a day. Look through cookbooks for tasty ways to prepare healthy foods. Nutritious food tastes great!


EAT REGULAR MEALS. Skipping meals can lead to incredible hunger or starvation, which often results in overeating or binging. Eating snacks in between three main meals helps to keep your nutrition regular, curb hunger and keep your metabolism up. If you are not hungry at meal time, having had a snack earlier, then you probably ate too much as a snack. So wait until you feel hungry again, rather than eating a meal when you are not hungry. The key is to listen to your body’s hunger and satisfaction cues. Sometimes if you are above or below your healthy weight range you can lose touch of your body’s cues, so seek professional support until you can again respond to your body’s hunger and satisfaction messages. Ideally, eat three main moderate meals and 2-3 snacks throughout the day.

LEARN ABOUT NUTRITION You have to know about nutrition to improve your eating habits. Make changes gradually; don’t expect to completely change your eating habits overnight. Remedy excess or deficiencies with small realistic changes that can add up to positive, lifelong eating habits. Remember, foods are not good or bad. Select foods based on your total eating patterns, not whether any individual food is “good” or “bad”. Don’t feel guilty if you love food such as apple pie, potato chips, chocolate bars or ice-cream. Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide nutritional balance and variety that are vital to good health. There is a lot of mis-information about good nutrition, so if you or your family would like more advice and information on good nutrition, consider seeing a health professional like a dietitian, nutritionist, your doctor or school based nurse.

DRINK PLENTY OF WATER! The amount of high sugary drinks in supermarkets is mind boggling! The best thing for you to drink when you are thirsty is water.

GET IN TOUCH WITH HOW FOOD GROWS. Whether you live in a house or an apartment, you can grow a herb garden and use fresh herbs from your garden everyday!

Instead of eliminating, simply reduce certain foods and balance your food choices over time. If you love eating chocolate, cake, ice-cream, meat, dairy, bread or other high energy foods, you don’t have to give them up to be healthy. Most people eat for pleasure and cooking desserts as well as savoury food is a real talent, and a great skill or career path! The key is moderating how much and how often you eat high salt, fat and sugary foods. Listen to your body. When eating a food high in fat, salt or sugar, compliment it with other foods that are low in these ingredients during the day or week. If you miss out on any food group one day, make up for it the next. If you eat too much fat one day, eat foods lower in fat the next day. Food choices over several days should fit together into a healthy pattern.

Maintaining a healthy weight range No one has a perfectly fixed weight and so thinking about your weight in a healthy weight range is better. The range that’s right for you depends on many factors, including your sex, height, age and inherited genes. Be very careful of a measurement known as BMI as it places many healthy people into the “overweight” category. Ironically, some research has shown that this category has the better health outcomes! BMI certainly doesn’t take body mass compositions or health into account. Weight is only one indicator of health, in the context of various other factors. For example three people could have the same BMI and one could be healthy, one could be malnourished and one could be unhealthy due to the amount of fat in and around their internal organs. Being way above your healthy weight range or being under your healthy weight range increases your chances for blood pressure problems, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer, osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, loss of libido and other health problems. Constantly losing and regaining weight is also harmful to your body. Don’t judge your or someone else’s health by their size. Some people will genetically be taller, thicker, wider, short-legged, big-bottomed or rake-thin. Accept yourself and others as they are. If you don’t feel comfortable in your own body, consult a friend or family member, your doctor or a dietician, to help you develop sensible eating habits, a good healthy mind-set, fun exercise activities and other intuitive behaviours for good mental health, sound sleep and successful weight management.

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‘The key to feeling better about yourself is not to change your body, as the diet industry would have you believe, but rather to change the way you feel about your body. You are not what you eat. Your body takes what it needs from nutrition, and the rest passes through. What last are the messages you take in from your environment, day in and day out. You are what you see, what you read, what you hear, what you say and do.’ Maddie Ruud, Hub Pages

♥♥ Self-acceptance

♥♥ Design your dream home

♥♥ Embrace diversity and difference

♥♥ Watch a sad movie if you feel like a cry

♥♥ Everyone, no matter what their size or shape can improve their health, because your health is not just a weight measurement

♥♥ Spend a rainy day at the library

♥♥ Find something you like about yourself and nurture it

♥♥ Read, read, read, read, read, read

♥♥ Consider what products you are purchasing and get media savvy. Be analytical—don’t believe the hype. ♥♥ Be around people who make you feel good about yourself ♥♥ Care for your whole self: your physical self, intellectual self and spiritual self ♥♥ Remember it’s what’s on the inside that really counts ♥♥ Challenge toxic talk ♥♥ Stop buying trash magazines ♥♥ If you have nothing nice to say, then say nothing at all ♥♥ Think about how a blind person assesses whether someone is worthy of being a friend ♥♥ Accept genetics predicts how and what we look like ♥♥ Think about one positive thing your friends or family would say about you ♥♥ Think about things you enjoy doing ♥♥ What is a good word to best describe yourself or someone else? Use that word daily! ♥♥ Take a nap ♥♥ Go for a walk somewhere you like: a park, the bush, a beach, to look at old houses or gardens ♥♥ Spend time with a pet

♥♥ Read poetry ♥♥ Meditate ♥♥ Watch some team sport ♥♥ Learn to play an instrument ♥♥ Go to a skate park ♥♥ Build something nice for your home or bedroom: a new letterbox or shoe rack ♥♥ Go somewhere peaceful and just look: at the water, at the clouds, at the birds, or star gaze ♥♥ Find a recipe and cook a yummy meal ♥♥ Watch an uplifting or fun film / TV show ♥♥ Drink a cup of herbal tea ♥♥ Dance to some music ♥♥ Eat a meal outside ♥♥ Express yourself through arts: create stories through words, drawings, paintings, sculpture, song, music, film, digital media ♥♥ Stand outside in the rain ♥♥ Give yourself a facial or foot massage ♥♥ Read a joke book ♥♥ Float on your back somewhere calm and safe ♥♥ Unplug the phone for an hour or two ♥♥ Relive your favourite childhood memory

♥♥ Call a friend, take a bike ride or roller-skate

♥♥ Sit and soak up the early morning sun

♥♥ Visit a museum or gallery, find an artist’s work you like and go home and Google them or look them up at a library to find out more information about them

♥♥ Talk to the higher power of your choice ♥♥ Make a gift for a friend or family member

♥♥ Listen to a favourite album

♥♥ Play “dress-ups”—try on different clothes or try new hair styles or do silly things to your hair

♥♥ Buy some art materials and create a work of art

♥♥ Go for a swim or do any form of activity or exercise you enjoy

♥♥ Spend time with some children you like

♥♥ Look at photos that make you smile

♥♥ Sing along to some music you love

♥♥ Draw a picture of your feelings

♥♥ Buy or pick a flower or do some hard-core garden work

♥♥ Read a biography of someone you respect

♥♥ Take time off from the computer

♥♥ Schedule a massage

♥♥ Volunteer at the local hospital or animal shelter

♥♥ Take a relaxing bath

♥♥ Look up a new word each day and use it in a sentence with someone

♥♥ Stretch like a cat; slowly, all over

♥♥ Find a campaign you would like to be involved with and offer to help out

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Did you know that exercise makes you feel good? It helps improve your health, your fitness, your brain function and even your sleep patterns.

There are plenty of ways to exercise without even realising it. You don’t have to spend money, hit the gym at 5am or do 500 crunches before maths class. It’s all about fitting it in to your current lifestyle.

Here are some cheap ways to exercise and have fun: • Walk to school/the shop/the DVD store … even the letterbox at the end of your driveway. It’s a great time to listen to music on your I-pod or just be with your own thoughts. You’ll be there and back before you can even say the word ‘exercise’, and you’ll feel good about yourself afterwards. • Run around with the dog—dogs need exercise too, and they love games. Get outside and chase the dog around for a while. Play fetch. You’ll be laughing in no time and that always makes you feel good.

heart rate up and your mood up too. If you feel inclined to sing along make sure you do it at the top of your voice … um ... just as long as you don’t upset the neighbours. Swim. Swimming is great fun. You don’t have to do laps, you just need to move your arms and legs around in the water. Try some water polo with your friends. Most suburbs have a local pool if you or your mates don’t have a backyard one. It’s a great chance to cool off and clear your head of all its chatter. Shoot hoops. Head to the local park and shoot some hoops. You can do this with friends or on your own. Excellent for hand-eye coordination and a great form of exercise. Skateboard. Grab a skateboard and make your mark at the skate park. Great way to meet likeminded people, show off your skills and have a laugh.

• Mop/vacuum the floor. Yeah ok. I know you’re probably not really keen on this one, but if you crank up your I-pod and give your hips a little jiggle now and then, you’ll not only be in the good books at home but you’ll have clean floors to dance on.

Absolutely everyone needs to do exercise for good physical AND mental health. You don’t have to climb mountains, bungee-jump or go to the gym every day, although for some this would be heaps of fun! At the very least we can all walk for 30 minutes a day. The list of activities one can do for exercise is endless: exercising alone, with friends or as a team, walking, running, bicycling, rowing, push-ups and sit-ups, yoga, dancing, surfing, tennis, paragliding, tennis, soccer, football and basketball, to name a few. Some of you may choose to take up being a professional athlete as a career. No matter who you are, we should all do some form of exercise. It is really important for our physical well-being, but also is really good for our mental health.

Speaking of dancing, there’s nothing like dancing around the house to some great music to get your

Sourced and Adapted from Selena Ewing, from Faking It: The Female Image in Young Women’s Magazines,

• Ride a bike. If you have a bike sitting in the garage covered in cobwebs, give it a clean and take it for a spin. Remember to always wear a helmet and stay on the bike tracks. It’s great exercise and I guarantee you’ll have a smile on your face in no time.

2007, Women’s Forum Australia, p. 34. consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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Intimacy is when two people become physically, sexually and/or emotionally close. Intimate sex can be a controversial topic and sometimes an uncomfortable one because it is about the private parts of our bodies. But it’s good to talk about sex because sex is part of being human, it can lead to things that change our lives, like diseases and babies, and it’s a multi-billion dollar industry. In our 21st century digital world, sex is in front of us all the time, hyped up in movies, music clips, billboards, advertising, on the net, in magazines and even on our mobile phones. So let’s talk about it. During puberty you may start to think about having your first kiss or having sex for the first time. You may start to notice people that you are attracted to, and it could be people of the same or of the opposite sex. You may start to think about how to go about asking someone on a date, or holding their hand. Or you may have absolutely no interest and that is also completely fine. We are all different and what we think about intimacy can differ due to family, culture, religion, and personal experiences. A lot of kids go through school not even having kissed anyone, let alone having sex. It’s important to remember that having sex is an individual choice and an adult choice, and with that comes adult responsibilities. So the choice to wait until you are an adult is really fine. In fact, the law says that it is illegal to have sex under the age of 16, but it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen. For many people early sexual experiences don’t turn out well. The hype about sex can lead to massive disappointment, and inexperience can bring with it fear and anxiety. Some can be vulnerable to thinking that if they have sex with someone it will lead to having a relationship, whereas it can sometimes actually lead to them being taken advantage of. When you’re young you often don’t have your own private living space and this can also lead to taking risks. First time sexual experiences can be awkward and even painful, because it takes a lot of practice and really knowing yourself to be sexually empowered and to ensure you have a pleasurable interaction. Others may find the experience good, and really care for the person they are with. While at high school some teenagers are sexually active, others will wait until they are older and out of school, some people wait until they are married, and of course for others the thought of sex is just not important to them. 34

Try to resist the pressure to do sexual things with your body just because “everyone else is doing it” or because you are being teased, feel like you should or because you think that someone will like you more if you engage in sexual acts with them. When it comes to sex you should never feel pressured and you should never pressure anyone else. It makes sense to do new things with your body slowly and when you are ready. People are ready at different times and ages. Sometimes it is good to discover what makes you feel good by yourself before you share your body with someone else.

Masturbation Masturbation is touching your own body for sexual pleasure. It is usually done alone, in private, and is perfectly normal and natural. Touching ourselves in a pleasurable way and rubbing our sex bits is a very private thing and is something people don’t really talk about, but it is fine to do. It can help you to know yourself and your body well before you even think about sharing an intimate space with someone else. On the other hand, it may be something that does not interest you and that is fine too. During puberty, a lot of boys can have “wet dreams”, which means you ejaculate or “come” in your sleep. It can be good to have tissues and a bin beside your bed! Some boys will masturbate once or twice a day, once or twice a week and some not at all. The more you masturbate in a day, the less semen will be ejaculated. Semen replenishes itself every day. If you find that you are masturbating so frequently that it is starting to interfere in your life, like not doing your homework or meeting friends when you said you would, you may want to think about reducing the frequency and talking with an adult you trust or a youth support service.


Girls who choose to masturbate need to know that it is ok and like boys it is a perfectly natural thing to do, however often you do it. Girls also need to know to be careful not to cross contaminate between their bottoms and their vagina, a bit like being careful about this when you go to the toilet. It is more difficult to discuss girls and masturbation because on the one hand you have society over sexualising girls and a movement to teach girls that their worth lay outside their bodies and their sexuality. On the other hand, women’s sexuality has been denied for so long (so many women have gone through their lives with never having masturbated or even had an orgasm) and so girls need to know it is ok to be sexual without feeling their whole worth is based on their sexuality and to also be ok with not being sexual. .

Intimacy Holding hands, writing love notes, sitting arm in arm to watch a sunset, kissing, hugging, massaging, texting love messages, talking intimately and actually having sex are all types of intimacy. Different people are comfortable with different intimate acts, and are willing to try different things. You might enjoy kissing but not feel ready to have sex. Or you might have had sex before and not feel like it every time you kiss. Kissing and getting intimate doesn’t have to lead to sex. That’s why it’s important to communicate how you are feeling. Every time you engage in an intimate or sexual activity it is really important that you and the person you are with are both comfortable with what’s happening.

Consent How do you know if a person has given you consent? ASK THEM … it’s the only way to know for sure. It is important to know if the person you’re with wants to be more intimate with you or not and that they consent to the level of intimacy you have with them. Non-consensual sexual activity (anything from touching and kissing to more full-on sex like penetration) is against the law. The punishments for sexual assault are severe. Not only is it a crime, but also the emotional consequences of rape and sexual assault can last a lifetime. Making sure that the person you’re with is happy and comfortable is important. Always ensure that you are not overstepping a person’s emotional or physical boundaries. There are many legal issues around sex and consent. If you would like to find out more information about Queensland laws regarding this you can visit www. lawstuff.org.au

Here are some questions you might ask to get a conversation started about consent: • Are you comfortable? • Is there anything that you don’t want to do? • Are you happy with this? • Do you want to stop? • Do you want to go further? You can begin practicing getting consent from people by asking someone you like on a date or asking them whether you can hold their hand or kiss them. Remember if someone rejects your invitations, it may have nothing to do with you and more about how ready they are to engage in intimacy.

If someone is attracted to you and has asked you out, but you don’t feel the same way about them, it can sometimes be really difficult to say ‘I’m flattered, but no thanks,’ with care. It’s important to consider the other person’s feelings whilst being assertive enough to say no. It is good to have an honest response. Never lead a person to believe you are interested in them if you really aren’t, otherwise the person will think that it means it’s ok to ask again another time. It takes a great deal of courage to approach someone and express an interest in them. Don’t say you’d rather be friends if you don’t really mean it. Be honest and be polite. The other person may choose to be upset that you are not interested. They may even choose to try and manipulate you into changing your mind. Remember, you have a right to say no and a responsibility to say it with care, honesty and assertiveness. If you handle the situation with honesty and kindness you will come away feeling good about the way you handled the experience. Good intimate spaces are always based around concern and care for the other person. Being aware of body language and asking questions can help you figure out if the person you’re with is consenting and feeling comfortable or not consenting and feeling uncomfortable.

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For example, the look on someone’s face and their body language can often tell us more than the words that come out of their mouth. If the person you’re with is not responding to your touch and is • pushing you away, • holding their arms tightly around their body, • turning away from you or hiding their face, or • stiffening their muscles, it is probably a sign that they are uncomfortable, even if they haven’t said the words. This would be a good opportunity to stop what you are doing and check in with them. Trust and honesty are the foundations of any good relationship. Everyone has the right to say no, and everyone has the right to change their mind at any time about their comfort in an intimate space. Take your time, make sure that you are both comfortable and talk about how far you want to go or what you don’t want to do. This will make the time you spend together a lot more satisfying and enjoyable for both of you.

Sometimes things move very quickly. Here are some things you can say to slow things down if you feel that things are going too quickly: • I don’t want to go any further than kissing, hugging or touching. • Can we stay like this for a while? • I would like to slow down. Here are some things you can say or do if you are not comfortable and you want to stop: • No. • I want to stop. • I need to go to the toilet. • In a situation where the other person isn’t listening to you and you feel unsafe, you could pretend you are going to vomit (it’s amazing how quickly someone moves away from you if they think you are going to be sick).

Your decisions and experiences are what shape you. Your actions can have either a positive or negative impact on your life and the lives of others. If you do have a bad experience, it can help you to know what to do differently next time. Sex during puberty is a learning experience. Be kind to yourself and to others. If someone in your life is forcing you to have sex when you don’t want to, you can call the police or sexual assault services to help stop the situation. If you have an adult you trust, perhaps you can tell them and get them to help you to make things better.

Safer Sex Safer sex is a way to have sex that stops sexually transmitted diseases or infections passing from one person to another. Semen and vaginal fluids can carry infections. Condoms can help stop infections because they fit like a glove over the penis and stop the penis from touching the other person’s sex bits. They catch the semen and stop fluid exchange. When you make the choice to share your body with another person, make sure it is someone you like and trust. If you do choose to become sexually active always practice safer sex (use a condom, latex gloves, or dental dams). Contraception is what people use to stop pregnancy happening during sex. Condoms are a form of contraception because they stop the semen being able to travel into the vagina and joining with the egg. It is always good to discuss contraception and safe sex with the person you want to have sex with to protect you both from sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Having sex can feel different for different people. Sometimes it can feel great, sometimes it can be boring or sometimes it can hurt. When a person feels ready, safe, happy and old enough, it is more likely to feel good. If you are confused about sex and about some of the feelings you are having, you can try talking with a friend or an adult who you trust, or call a youth service for information and support to help you to understand things a little better.

You can ring most services anonymously to get the information you need. You can also check out some useful websites like: www.reachout.com.au www.likeitis.org.au/puberty

It’s also good to talk about your experiences afterwards to let the other person know what you liked, didn’t like, don’t want to do again, or would like to do more of. Drugs and alcohol can affect people’s ability to make decisions, including whether or not they want to be sexual with someone else. If someone is really out of it, they cannot give consent. Being with them in a sexual way when they don’t know what’s going on is the same as rape. So if you see a friend who is out of it and being intimate with someone, try your best to make sure the person is safe and knows what they are doing, or intervene to stop them from getting in trouble.

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www.iwannaknow.org www.puberty101.com www.notsostraight.com.au/ (gay/lesbian/bi-sexual) www.completelygorgeous.com.au (mostly for girls) www.somazone.com.au (a fabulous site where you can ask questions and get answers). With Julie Sarkozi


Gender? What is it?

Your “gender” is different to your “sex”. “Sex” refers to the biological characteristics that define you as female, male or intersex. “Gender” refers to the different behaviours that society considers appropriate for males and females. Intersex people have been pressured to behave as either male or female and so we will be looking at this male / female binary. Sometimes behaviours considered appropriate for boys and men are called “masculine” and behaviours considered appropriate for girls and women are called “feminine”, and this can cause stereotypes and confusion. To put it another way, “male” and “female” are sex categories, while “masculine” and “feminine” are gender categories. Some examples of sex characteristics: • • • •

most women have a monthly period, while men do not; most men have testicles, while women do not; women have breasts that are usually capable of producing milk for babies, while men do not; and men are usually capable of growing beards, while women generally do not.

Some examples of gender characteristics: • • • • • • • • •

Girls cry; boys don’t. Girls wear make-up; boys fix cars. Girls are sweet, passive and weak; boys are tough, aggressive, and loud. Girls wear dresses and boys wear pants. In many countries women earn significantly less money than men, for doing similar work. In Vietnam, many more men than women smoke, as female smoking is not considered appropriate. In Saudi Arabia men are allowed to drive cars, women are not, In most of the world, women do more housework than men. Women do the majority of the world’s work (when you consider things like cooking, child care and housework), while men have most of the world’s wealth. In some countries girls are still not allowed to get an education!

What is considered appropriate will differ from culture to culture. As you can see by the examples, girls and women don’t always get treated equally to boys and men. These behaviours (or expectations) are called gender stereotypes and are usually referred to as sexist, because a person’s behaviour is not always linked to their sex. Of course men cry, look after children, can be softly spoken, can be good communicators and can be humble, and women can do things that are traditionally seen as men’s work. There have been feminist movements to try and change things for women and men who are often disempowered by gender stereotypes. Certainly in Australia, women had to fight to be able to vote, get an education, wear pants and do the same things boys and men could do. These days boys and men are resuming more active roles in child care, housework and things that usually women have done. However, only recently did laws start to get passed to make sure women and men got equal pay for equal work, and to ensure that both men and women can get some paid leave to look after their children. And there is still more change that needs to happen!

Have you ever wondered why in Christian marriage ceremonies the bride wears white and is “given away” by her father to the groom? It comes from the tradition of wearing white to represent she is a virgin, and that like chattel (property or possessions), she is given from one man (the father) to another (the husband). Men are not treated the same way. Have you ever wondered why women have the choice in title between being a Miss, Ms or Mrs, when men and boys are simply Mr? Why is it that women are defined in their title by their relationship to men? These things are known as “structural” sexism, or things that have been endorsed by society, but of course we can change them. In fact a lot of women now choose to be defined as Ms, which indicates you don’t want to be defined by your marital status. Males, females, and intersex people have far more similarities than differences and yet the behaviours we expect from them are often binary or gendered opposites. We mostly all have two eyes, a nose, mouth, two ears, two arms, two legs, blood, a heart, lungs, a skeleton, teeth and a powerful brain. Of course, bodies also come in a variety of other combinations, variations, and abilities, but on a base level we have many similarities. And we all have other human needs like the need to breathe, drink water and eat food, as well as emotional needs, like the need to feel needed, heard, touched, seen and loved. When certain behaviours are ascribed to a sex and have nothing to do with our biology, it is usually what we call a stereotype. Different societies and cultures have different stereotypes. For example in Western society, behaviours such as girls wearing dresses, shaving their legs and fussing about how they look are behaviours that society deems appropriate for girls. Society also suggests to us that boys should shave their faces, play sport and shouldn’t cry or show emotions. It even impacts on things like job roles, fashion, sport and even the subjects we study at school. Traditionally, information technology and science have been seen as subjects for boys, and languages and social sciences as more appropriate for girls. This is just another example of gender stereotyping, because of course boys and girls are fully capable of similar learning, and of having similar interests. Women and men can fly to the moon. Women and men can clean a house. Women and men can be mechanics and scientists. Women and men can rock out, dance, cry, look after children, wear make-up, have long hair and be lifesavers. These behaviours shouldn’t be defined as masculine and feminine; they are just a range of things we can all do! Stereotypes can also exist for individuals where there is an assumption made about them based on their sexuality, culture, religion, age, ability or even their occupation. Some examples of incorrect assumptions: old people can’t climb mountains, Australians are racist drunks, refugees are queue jumpers, and all gay men love fashion and keeping a clean house.You can’t know an individual based on assumptions about them. People are like diamonds: we have many facets that make us who we are. If you are treated differently based on your age, sex, sexuality, race or physical ability, at work or in society, you can make complaints to the Anti-Discrimination Commission, because under law we all have the same rights to be treated equally. We are all human; treat yourself and everyone else with respect and kindness. And don’t judge a book by its cover, age, colour or sex! By Desi Achilleos consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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What are you if you’ve got a mobile, a Facebook page, a myspace account, an email account, access to YouTube, Google, texting, iTunes, webcam, Skype, IM and facetime?

It’s hard to survive without technology in a teenager’s world. Being connected is great; you can see the person you’re calling, find out amazing information by typing in a couple of words, post photos and videos of you and your friends on your Facebook page, and text, email or IM each other. It’s quick, it’s fun, it constantly changes, and that makes it exciting. Being connected is one thing, but being incorrectly connected is another. Let’s talk porn. Pornography is only supposed to be viewed by people over the age of 18. Pornography used to be something that arrived in an unidentified brown envelope. It was hidden and shameful. It isn’t wrapped up in brown paper anymore—it’s everywhere—on the net, in films, on DVDs, in magazines and even music clips. It has become mainstream, a part of popular culture. But being mainstream doesn’t necessarily mean it portrays sex as it is in the real world. Pornography can present false and twisted ideas about men, women, and sex, such as: • Girls always want it, and guys always want it. • All penises are huge, and all breasts are huge. • Girls are there for men to look at. • Girls should always dress like they want sex. • Violence and sex at the same time is ok. • It’s ok to force girls to do it. • Girls like it no matter what a guy does to them. • No one has pubic hair! • It’s ok to not use a condom. It’s natural to be curious about sex, but it’s important to remember that a lot of pornography is not a true picture of what sex is or should be like. All that grinding and grunting and looking at the camera is not necessarily a great sexual experience, it’s an act. A lot of boys and men particularly (but of course some girls and woman too) end up masturbating by Catherine Doyle

to pornography in secret. Some get addicted to it, and can lose their ability to be intimate with others. Pornography can actually distort ideas about sex and interfere with positive intimate spaces and relationships. Sex is often about sharing an intimate space with someone in private. Some pornography is just people uploading their sexual experiences, making their intimate experiences public. Some people think pornography can be educational, stimulating and validating. Others think it is humiliating, degrading and exploitative. Some feel that all pornography is violence against women. If you come across pornography, legally you should not view it until you are 18 years of age. Sometimes you may even come across completely illegal material such as child pornography; the owner of the computer that downloaded this kind of material can be charged by the police, as computers do hold the memory of what has been viewed. You will have plenty of time as an adult to really evaluate the arguments behind the difference of opinions about pornography, and to make up your mind as to whether you think it is useful or harmful.

serious legal consequences for those who create the images as well as for those who forward them. You can be charged with child pornography. Unlike viewing pornography in magazines, sexting is not anonymous. Images can be shared with a large audience very quickly. They can be put online and then they are hard to remove. These images become a part of your digital footprint and remain in the public domain. They can “go viral” and be emailed to friends, friends of friends, and then to people you don’t even know! Posting explicit photographs on your Facebook site is similar to sexting, only you reach a wider audience straight away and people can leave comments about it. Before you know it, that picture is everywhere, and can be looked at by creepy people you don’t know. It is NOT the way to make your boyfriend / girlfriend jealous and can in fact lead to problems in your relationship with your partner, friends and family. Social networking sites are great for … well …. social networking, but they do come with risks. • Be wary of “unknown” friends and make your page accessible to only those people that you physically know.

Let’s talk sexting.

• Customise your privacy.

Sexting is when you:

• Keep private information, including plans and activities, off your wall.

• Use a mobile phone to create or download sexually explicit material, • Pose for or take sexually explicit photos of naked people or body parts, using a mobile phone, • Put strong, sexually explicit images on a mobile phone, or • Send sexual or provocative text messages. It can start off as a bit of fun or a bit of flirting, but before you know it, it’s been put on the internet, and a naked picture of you is being seen by everyone at school, including your parents and the Principal. Sending and possessing sexually explicit images or videos of people under 18 is a criminal offence. It can have pretty

• Don’t accept invitations to events. Tell the person your intent through a private message or in person. • Don’t put explicit photographs in your albums. • Don’t use the site to bully, harass, spread rumours, challenge fights, stalk or incite violence. Being connected means participating in a social network, not an anti-social network. Have fun with it, learn new things from it, use it to communicate with your friends, play games, watch cool stuff, share goods news and listen to great music through it. For more information on being cybersmart see: www.cybersmart.gov.au

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Infections can be passed from one person to another by touching each other’s sex bits (that is, the penis, vagina, anus and the mouth), or through sexual intercourse. No matter who you are, if you are sexually active you are at risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Make sure you talk about safe sex and contraception with your sex partner. The only sure way of not getting a sex infection is to not have sex! Some STIs, like herpes or genital warts, are contracted through skin-to-skin contact with an infected area or sore. Other viruses or bacteria can enter the body through tiny cuts or tears in the mouth or on your sex bits, so you can contract an infection through oral sex. That’s why they invented dental dams, to help prevent infections contracted through oral sex. Sometimes you can’t tell whether someone has an infection, and some people don’t even know that they have one themselves. These people are in danger of passing an infection on to their sex partners without even realising it. Because the most common STIs are invisible, you can’t always tell if you’ve got one or if the person you are with has one, so it’s important to take note of your body and the way it functions, smells and feels (both inside and out), so that you call tell if something isn’t quite right. If your sex bits start to get itchy, get sore or smell funny, you should go and see a doctor. If untreated, some STIs can cause permanent damage such as infertility (the inability to have a baby) and even life-threatening illness (in the case of HIV/AIDS).

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Things that increase a person’s chances of getting an STI: • Unprotected sex. Condoms are the only form of birth

control that reduce your risk of getting an STI. Other birth control methods like spermicides, diaphragms and taking the pill may help prevent pregnancy, but they don’t protect you from contracting an infection.

• Lots of sex partners. People who have sexual contact

including any form of intimate activity with many different partners are more at risk than those who only have one, monogamous, partner.

• Sexual activity at a young age. The younger a person

starts having sex, the greater their chance of becoming infected with an STI.

If you have sex on your mind, make sure you are not taking risks with your sexual health. Understand your body, be safe with it, and always get checked out if you feel that things “just aren’t right”. If you have any questions regarding your sexual health you can talk to your doctor, school nurse, or visit a community health centre. You can find further information on the STIs listed, along with other STIs by logging on to www.thefacts.com.au, www.scarleteen.com, or www.qahc.org.au.


Understanding STI’s: Herpes is a virus that is usually found around the mouth and is commonly called a cold sore. A second type of herpes is usually found around the anal or genital areas. Both can cause an infection anywhere on the body. It can be transmitted or contracted by coming into contact with the blisters or sores it causes. It can also be transmitted when there are no symptoms. This could be through skin-to-skin contact (including kissing), oral sex, or having sex without a condom. Symptoms often show up 2 to 30 days after exposure, and include small, red, painful blisters or erosions where the blisters have been, which can last for 1 to 3 weeks. An itching or burning feeling can occur before a blister appears. Sometimes there are no symptoms. Herpes cannot be cured but is not fatal and treatments are available to reduce outbreaks. Chlamydia (pronounced clam-mid-ee-yar) is cause by a bacterium and is one of the most common infections in Australia. For guys it is called non-specific-urethritis (NSU). You can get it by having vaginal, oral or anal sex with someone who already has it. There are no signs or symptoms although sometimes girls will notice unusual vaginal fluid and a burning sensation when weeing. It’s fairly impossible to tell if a guy has it. If you think you may have it go and see a doctor, who will be able make a diagnosis by sending off a wee sample or swab of the cervix to a lab. It can be treated with a single dose of an antibiotic pill. If it is not treated it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, and can result in infertility. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) or genital warts, is a virus that causes visible or invisible warts on your genitals. It is a very common STI which is caused by skin contact during sex. You can carry the virus, and consequently pass it on, without even knowing. Ointments can generally remove any visible warts and this can be prescribed by a doctor. It is important that girls who are sexually active have regular pap smear tests, as some types of HPV don’t produce visible warts but can turn into cancer of the cervix. Girls can now receive the HPV vaccination, which protects against some forms of HPV; however pap smears are still necessary every two years. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes AIDS which weakens and eventually destroys the body’s immune system. It can be transmitted through semen, blood, vaginal fluid and breast milk. There are no known cases of HIV being transmitted through saliva. It can be passed on through vaginal, oral and anal sex or through sharing needles. If a person has HIV they can pass it on even if they are having treatment. This is not a disease that affects only gay men—straight men and women can contract it too. Common symptoms are flu-like symptoms, tiredness and fever. A blood test can confirm diagnosis. Although there are drugs which can slow progression, there is no vaccine or cure. It is safe to kiss, hug, and hold hands with a person who has HIV or AIDS. It is safe to live with a person who has HIV or AIDS. It is safe to go to school or work with a person who has HIV or AIDS.

Gonorrhea (pronounced gon-ar-rear) is a bacterium that infects the throat, anus or vagina. Although you may not notice any symptoms, there is sometimes an unusual discharge or pain when weeing. It can be contracted through vaginal, anal or oral sex. A doctor can confirm diagnosis by taking a swab and it can be treated with an antibiotic pill. Hepatitis B, commonly known as Hep B can damage your liver. It can be passed on through bodily fluids, although there are no known cases of it being passed on through saliva. Most people who have it don’t realise they can still pass it on. Symptoms can include a lack of energy and hunger, nausea and vomiting, yellow skin and eyes, and a sore enlarged liver. A blood test will ensure correct diagnosis. There is no treatment for Hep B, however extreme cases may need hospitalisation. If left, it can result in liver cancer later in life. Syphilis (pronounced siff-ill-iss) is caused by a type of bacteria known as a spirochete, and can live almost anywhere in the body. The spirochetes that cause syphilis can be passed from one person to another through direct contact with a syphilis sore, through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. The infection can also be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy. In the 1990s there was a decrease in the number of people infected with syphilis. However more recently there has been a steady increase in reported cases of syphilis, especially in young adults and in men who have male sexual partners. In its early stages, syphilis is easily treatable. However, if left untreated, it can cause serious problems—even death. In order to avoid contracting HIV, chlamydia, genital warts, gonorrhea, Hep B and syphilis, never share drug or medical needles and always wear a condom. Latex gloves and dental dams can be also helpful for preventing STIs. Pubic lice or crabs are an infestation of tiny creatures that live in your pubic or underarm hair and lay eggs, like nits. Sexual or close body contact as well as sharing sheets, towels or clothes can have these critters jumping from one body to another. You’ll know if you’ve got them, as you won’t be able to stop itching. They can be killed with lice shampoo, but they need to be combed out and all clothes, bedding and towels need to be washed in hot water. Treatment needs to be repeated a week later. Condoms won’t do anything to protect you this time, just make sure the person you are sharing your moments with isn’t itching in their nether regions. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries. Most girls develop PID as a result of sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Most of those infected will be teenagers and young women. If PID goes untreated, it can lead to internal scarring that can result in chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or an ectopic pregnancy. Symptoms include: body pain including back ache or pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, smelly or abnormally coloured discharge, pain during sex, spotting between periods, chills or fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and painful or more frequent urination. PID can be treated with antibiotics. It’s a good idea to make note of your symptoms so you can share them with your doctor. Some information sourced from Cooke, K. (2007). Girl Stuff. Penguin Group, Victoria. Australia. consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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Between 9% and 11% of the population are same-sex attracted. We often give these feelings labels such as gay, lesbian or bisexual, but they are just names we call ourselves and we don’t always have to use them if we don’t feel like they fit us. The most important thing to remember is that YOU ARE NOT ALONE. Regardless of what we call it, there are a lot of people out there who are attracted to the same sex. There are even more same-sex attracted people in the world than there are left-handers or red-heads! And that’s in every suburb, every town, every state, and in every country across the world … AND in every school. People often realise that they are gay around their teenage years, with 30% knowing before the age of 12 and a further 55% knowing by the age of 16. Unfortunately, we live in a world that sometimes isn’t very nice to gay people. Discrimination, prejudice and homophobia can sometimes mean that being gay can be a bit tough. Because of this, a lot of gay young people, especially those in school, choose to hide themselves away because they are scared of what might happen if they come out. Despite what some people might say, experiencing same-sex attraction is completely normal and there is nothing wrong with you, guaranteed. Sometimes the journey can be a little tough, but we know that there is a bright future ahead of you full of love, relationships, friendships and family. Most of all there is a future where you can be proud of whom you are. If you are confused about your sexuality, there are places you can go where you don’t have to hide and where you can talk to people who understand. Open Doors Youth Service is a place like that. At Open Doors, young people who are same-sex attracted, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, or not sure, can be themselves (no matter what that is), meet other young people and talk to youth workers about concerns. Everything is confidential. The most important thing you will learn by contacting or visiting Open Doors is that you aren’t alone. For more information, please visit www.opendoors.net.au or telephone (07) 3257 7660, or similar friendly spaces in your state. 42


In her song “Caught in the Crowd”, Queensland song writer Kate Miller Heidke sings about letting a friend down when she was at school. In the song Kate recalls a time when she walked away from a friend who was being physically bullied. Kate very bravely sings about how she would be different if she could go back to school; she says that she would be someone that you could call “friend”. We’ve all heard it at school or read it on Facebook … ‘John is such a GAY FAG’, or ‘OMG Emily you’re such a slut’, or maybe ‘Those Islander girls are all such bitches!’ Sometimes we ignore homophobic, sexist or racist comments, even when we know they are really hurtful. There are also times when we join in or say or do something that actually makes things worse. You might be thinking, ‘how can what I say or how I react make any difference?’ Well give yourself more credit, because what you say or do in everyday situations always matters! When we speak up in a way that helps friends or others we are also helping the whole community. When abusive words go unchallenged they become the fuel for future violence. To recognise abuse, try to imagine yourself as the person being spoken about. If you do recognise abuse, the next thing is to check if you can safely challenge what is being said. You may not think of something to say the first time you recognise abuse, but next time you could give it a go. Remember, if you see something really abusive and it is unsafe for you to stop it, then it is best to get the help of someone older, who you can trust. Challenging abusive language and behaviour is actually catching, and if you do it then someone else might get the courage to do the same as you. For instance you could challenge the racist comment

about Islander girls by saying you don’t think all Islander girls are the same, or just by saying ‘hey, that’s racist’. Other friends might then find it easier to recognise racism. If John heard you had stuck up for him, he might feel better able to stick up for himself the next time. When we practice speaking out against abusive words we are saying no to violence! Sexting is another issue that also needs to be challenged if it is ever going to stop. The safest thing is not to join in! Always delete a sext image and never pass them on. You can refuse to join in when others are laughing about someone who has been photographed in a sext image. Even if someone said they wanted a sexual photo or video to be taken of them in the first place, it is not OK for it to then be sent around to many people; this is sexual abuse. Remember you are worth so much more than any sexual image that is taken of you. Parts of this article are informed by the work of: Carmody, M. (2009) Sex and Ethics, Palgrave MacMillan Australia. By Katrina Weeks, counsellor and educator for young women, Centre Against Sexual Violence, Logan. (07) 38083299 consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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While at high school, some teenagers start to go out to parties without adult supervision, while others are not allowed to attend parties or even have sleepovers while they are still living with their parents. If you aren’t allowed out, don’t worry. Things will not change significantly in the few years it will take until you are 18 and can make your own decisions for yourself about where you go and who with. A lot of people have fun together without the need to take drugs or alcohol, especially when someone in the group is entertaining, smart, funny or creative! Some people take drugs or alcohol for fun, while for others drugs and alcohol can ruin their lives and even result in death. Although it is illegal to drink alcohol until you are 18 years old, some teenagers will try alcohol before that age. More than 15% of young people aged 16-17 years old drink alcohol weekly. 1 in 2 Australians aged 15-17 who get drunk do something they regret. Drugs and alcohol can be really toxic for our bodies, especially when taken in excess. As a teenager your body is still growing and your brain is still developing, and taking drugs and drinking alcohol can actually impede your development. Remember girls, your body is already carrying all the eggs that may be your potential babies in the future. If you believe that everything you eat and drink effects all the cells in your body, then you need to be mindful of this if you want to have babies in the future.

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Reduce the risks to your safety by making responsible and thoughtful choices. Alcohol affects people differently, depending on a range of factors including what you drink, how much you drink and what your values and personality are. Some people who drink alcohol might become more affectionate, silly or giggly, some can feel sick, confused, and have trouble expressing themselves, while others get loud, aggressive and violent. Drinking makes it harder to make decisions and stay in control. Binge drinking, getting smashed or drinking to “get drunk” means drinking a lot on one night or drinking constantly over days or weeks. Sometimes drinking too much can cause you to black out, which means you don’t remember several minutes or hours of the night. This can place you in a really unsafe position. In the book “Teenagers, Alcohol and Drugs”, author Paul Dillon tells the story of Libby. Libby experienced a blackout at a party after drinking too much. The following week at school she discovered that not only had she lost her virginity to her boyfriend at the party but that someone had recorded it on their phone and uploaded it to the internet. Once in cyberspace she had no control over where her image or video went and who saw it.

Here are some safe partying tips: • Eat before you go out and if you can, also eat while you’re out, particularly if you are consuming drugs or alcohol. • If you drink alcohol don’t mix your drinks, and drink a glass of water or a non-alcoholic drink in between alcoholic drinks. • Don’t participate in drinking games because they work on group pressure to drink quickly, and to drink way more than you should! • Set a drink limit for yourself and stick to it. Don’t let people “top up” your drink, and don’t leave your drink unattended or accept a drink from someone you don’t know. Drink spiking does happen! • Know where you are and put the address into your phone. Let an adult know what your plans are for the night, such as where you are planning to go, the address, who you will be with, and contact numbers of the house and of your friends. • Plan your night. Always have a plan to get home, whether it’s sharing a taxi, getting picked up by an adult, or keeping enough money on you for catching public transport or a taxi home. Stick to the plan!

• If you go out in a group, stick together. If one of you wants to go off with someone you are not familiar with, suss them out and get their details or at least make sure your friend lets you know where they are going. Look after yourself and your friends. Tell your friends where you’re going and why, and when appropriate, ask them to come get you if you’re not back in 10 minutes. • Stay in control. If you start to feel out of control then stop drinking and drink water instead, or talk to a friend and have them stay with you until you feel better. • If a friend has a bad reaction to a drug or alcohol and seems really frightened or sick, stay with them. Talk to them calmly and reassure them that everything is going to be all right, while you call 000. Don’t worry about getting into trouble for drinking alcohol or taking drugs, just get help. Ring for help if you see anyone alone at a party, looking unwell. Part of becoming a teenager means learning how to be responsible by making informed and thoughtful choices for yourself and for those around you.

• Don’t get into a car with someone you don’t know. • Don’t get into a car with someone who’s been drinking. If you’re not sure, then don’t get in the car. • Make someone the delegated carer for the night—they make sure everyone is ok and accounted for. In adult circles the delegated carer is usually the one who doesn’t take drugs or alcohol and is usually the driver for the night. It is always useful to have at least someone in your crew being responsible. • Carry condoms. If you do decide to have sex, reduce your chances of unwanted pregnancy or catching an STI by always carrying condoms (and using them). If you have unsafe sex, see your GP within 72 hours for a sexual health check-up / morningafter pill. • If you or someone you know has been sexually assaulted call the Brisbane Sexual Assault Crisis Line on 07 3636 5206, the Brisbane Rape and Incest Centre on 07 33910004, the Queensland Sexual Assault Hotline on 1800 010 120, or similar rape crisis numbers in your state.

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s g u r D If drugs enter your world at some point, it’s important you know what they are and how they might affect you. Remember that information is knowledge and knowledge equals making wise choices. Drugs are substances, solids, liquids or gases which affect the processes of the mind and body. There are legal and illegal drugs. Legal drugs include things like coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, herbal medicines and medicine you buy from the chemist. Illegal drugs include pot, LSD, cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, speed and other chemical compounds like ice or crystal meth.

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It’s no news that getting caught using, carrying or selling illegal drugs can have serious consequences. Every state in Australia has laws governing the manufacture, possession, distribution and use of drugs, both legal and illegal. Drug laws in Australia distinguish between those who use drugs and those who supply or traffic drugs. If you are convicted of a drug offence it will be on your record for the rest of your life, and will affect things like future employment opportunities and travel plans. For example, travel to the United States is very difficult if you have a drug conviction. You can never really be sure how your body and mind will react to drugs. Just because your friends have tried a particular drug and were fine doesn’t mean that you will be. There is always the chance that you might have a bad reaction, so be responsible. A lot of illegal drugs come from plants, but dodgy dealers can cut drugs with other chemicals that can be really harmful to your body. Some teenagers have died from taking pills they thought were ecstasy, when in fact it was another chemical compound. If you are going to take something, take a small amount first to see how your body reacts and make sure someone (someone sober and straight—the delegated carer) is with you and knows what you have taken. You don’t have to bow to peer pressure. A lot of people don’t take drugs or drink alcohol. If you’re not comfortable, say no, and never try to force anyone else into trying something just because you are. The only person you can control is you. Make thoughtful and wise choices when it comes to drug use. Every drug has risks and side effects. Drugs are highly addictive, which means that sometimes people can find it very hard to stop using a particular drug, even when they really want to. Some drugs, their effects and their side effects are listed below. Drugs rarely go by one name; they have street or nicknames. There are heaps of drugs out there and we haven’t covered them all but there is plenty of information on the internet that will help you understand what they are.

CAFFEINE is probably the world’s most popular drug. It is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of coffee plants. It’s also produced artificially and added to certain foods. Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system, causing increased alertness, gives a temporary energy boost and elevates mood. Caffeine is in tea, coffee, chocolate, many soft drinks, energy drinks, pain relievers and other over-the-counter medications. Caffeine is not stored in the body, but you may feel its effects for up to 6 hours. Higher doses of caffeine can cause anxiety, dizziness, headaches and the jitters, and can also interfere with normal sleep patterns and cause the body to lose calcium, which can lead to bone loss over time. TOBACCO is not an illegal drug, but if you are younger than 18 it is illegal to smoke. Back in the 50s smoking was big business. Cigarette advertising was everywhere: movies and TV shows showed people smoking and you could light up anywhere— at work, the hairdressers, the movie theatre, even on planes! That’s because big companies wanted to make big money. Now we know smoking causes serious health problems and advertising cigarettes is no longer allowed in Australia. In fact, Australia has been very proactive in banning smoking in office buildings, restaurants, planes, public transport and even cars. The nicotine in tobacco is HIGHLY ADDICTIVE and smokers can die from a range of tobacco-related diseases such as lung cancer and heart disease. Cigarettes and the smoke they produce are filled with tons of other TOXIC CHEMICALS. Smoking stinks. It makes your clothes, your hair and your breath smell gross and costs a fortune. The smartest thing you can do for your health is to never try a cigarette!

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ALCOHOL (booze, grog, drink, tinnies, liquor) is the most widely used recreational drug in Australia. It is illegal to be served alcohol if you are under the age of 18. For some people, drinking alcohol in moderation is accepted and considered sociable. But for others, drinking can cause great harm to themselves and others. Drinking to excess can put you at risk of serious health problems now and in the future and can impair your ability to make smart choices about things such as driving, sex and drugs. An alcohol overdose or severe alcohol poisoning can lead to death. Binge drinking increases the risk of alcohol poisoning. Alcohol is a depressant. This means that it will slow down your coordination, your judgement and your response time, but it will not necessarily make you feel depressed. However alcohol can exaggerate the mood you’re in prior to starting to drink. So if you have mental health issues, for example if you’re feeling depressed, alcohol can make these feelings stronger. The effects of alcohol vary from person to person. There are a number of factors that can influence how you might be affected by alcohol including your age, sex and body weight, how regularly you drink, what you drink, how quickly you drink, whether you have eaten, whether you have mixed your drinks and drugs, your mood prior to drinking, your general health and the environment you are in. The effects of drinking alcohol can include headaches, feeling sick / vomiting, dizziness, passing out, dehydration, clumsiness and a lack of control, and can result in making wrong decisions, and for some, getting violent and getting into fights. It’s not good to drink if you’re under 18, pregnant, taking other drugs or medicine, driving, feeling depressed, anxious or angry, or when you’re going swimming or participating in risk-taking activities like rock climbing.

CANNABIS, also known as marijuana, dope, aunt mary, boom, bud, chronic, ganja, skunk, grass, hashish, herb, mary jane, pot or weed is the most often commonly used illegal drug in this country. It is a naturally occurring drug that comes from the cannabis plant and people usually smoke it, with or without tobacco, in a pipe, bong or cigarette paper (which is called a joint, reefer or spliff). It can also be made into tea, cookies or cakes. If you are caught with cannabis, even with a small amount, you can be arrested and it could lead to a criminal record. Each Australian state has different laws and penalties in relation to cannabis use, possession, and supply. The main active chemical in marijuana is THC, a psychoactive substance which can have sedative and hallucinogenic effects. Some people may feel chilled out, relaxed, sleepy and happy. Others will see reality in a distorted way, including an affected perception of colours, sound and other sensations. Some may feel nauseous, anxious, panicky and suspicious, and have a loss of concentration and reduction in coordination which is why driving is so dangerous and illegal when under the influence of cannabis. Most people become overly talkative, laugh excessively and get the munchies (i.e. hunger or cravings for food). If inhaled as smoke, ill health effects can include lung cancer and respiratory illnesses. Effects will be dependent on how strong the cannabis is, the sort and the amount taken, a person’s body size and health, mood prior to taking the drug, how the drug is taken, whether anything else has been taken, and a person’s susceptibility to mental health conditions like depression, paranoia, psychosis and schizophrenia. Cannabis can also make symptoms of a mental illness worse and there also appears to be a link between regular cannabis use and depression later in life. You can become dependent on cannabis and for some it can contribute to reductions in memory, concentration and ability to learn, and decrease your energy and motivation, which can all impact on school or work performance.

If you, a friend or a family member need help with drug-related problems, or just need someone to talk to, you can contact: Kids Help Line 1800 250 1800 Alcohol and Drug Information Service (07) 3837 5989 Lifeline 13 11 14 48


ECSTASY or MDMA is a synthetic drug (that means it’s not plant-based and is made in a chemical lab) but what is often sold as “ecstasy” contains little or no MDMA. It is also known as Adam, bean, E, Ex, E and C, eccy, roll, love drug, egs, pills, brownies, Mitsubishis and hugs. Ecstasy usually comes in the form of pills or powder. The pills come in all different colours and can have pictures or logos stamped into them. They’re usually swallowed, although some people do snort them. Ecstasy is an illegal drug and the strength, safety and purity of the drug is rarely known. This makes it hard to know what you are taking. This increases the chances of overdosing, being poisoned or having bad reactions after taking the drug. The effects of ecstasy include getting tingling feelings or a “rush”, seeing reality in a distorted way, including affected perception of colours, sound and other sensations, dilated pupils, tightening of the jaw muscles (grinding teeth & / or jaw clenching), a raised body temperature, increased sweating, increased heart beat / pulse, tremors, insomnia (unable to sleep) and a loss of appetite. Some get more touchy, feely, talkative and closer to others, although conversations may not always make sense to people who aren’t taking the drug. Others can get overwhelmed by the effects and may not be able to communicate very well and get quite nauseous. There’s no way of telling what’s in a pill that you buy and there may be other harmful sideeffects as a consequence. Ecstasy can cause death, usually due to dehydration and overheating, but often deaths associated with ecstasy occur because other substances are mixed with the drug or because what has actually been taken is not pure ecstasy. If someone is feeling hot, confused, not sweating, has a headache, is unable to urinate, is vomiting, fainting, collapsing, having “fits”, or their heart / pulse is not slowing down even when resting, call 000 for medical help. As yet there has been no conclusive research on the long-term effects of ecstasy use, but there seems to be an emerging causal link to depression.

Websites to check out: Headspace www.headspace.org.au National Institute of Drug Abuse www.nida.nih.gov

AMPHETAMINES, also known as speed, crystal meth, ice, shabu, phet, billy, whizz, sulph, base, paste, dexies and meth are stimulants. This means they speed up the messages going to and from the brain, assisting a person in staying alert, awake and sometimes providing an energy burst. Amphetamines come in different forms including powder, tablets, liquid, crystal or a paste. There are a few prescription drugs that have amphetamines as an ingredient. Excluding these, the possession, use, supply and manufacture of amphetamines is illegal in Australia. Amphetamines are a synthetic (i.e. not plant-based) substance, and like E, the ingredients used to make the drugs can be variable and unknown, leading to different purities of the drug which in turn increases the risk of overdose and the risk of negative effects. Amphetamines can be swallowed, injected, smoked, inhaled (as a vapour) or snorted. Amphetamine effects include feeling alert, having more energy, increased confidence, being more talkative, excited and happy, nausea, stomach cramps and dizziness, tremors in hands and fingers, increased heart rate and body temperature, sweating a lot, not being able to sleep, lack of appetite, having a dry mouth, headaches, blurred vision, nervousness, panic attacks, anxiety, paranoia and irritability leading to aggression, hostility and possible psychosis, which includes hallucinations, delusions and bizarre behaviour. The effects someone will experience will be dependent on the strength, purity, type and amount taken, a person’s body size and health, mood prior to taking the drug, as well as how the drug is taken and whether anything else has been taken. Again, you can never be sure of what is in the drug you buy. Long term use of amphetamines can cause some serious health issues. These health issues can include high blood pressure leading to increased risk of heart attack, sleeping problems, increased risk of infections, brain damage, dental problems, lung damage, damage to the lining of the nose, scarring, vein damage and the contracting of blood-borne viruses such as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV. Amphetamine use can cause psychosis, which can include symptoms of paranoia, delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behaviour. Heavy use of amphetamines can trigger acute paranoid psychosis. Amphetamine use can also lead to delirium, which is a state of mental confusion and disorganisation. Thanks to Headspace for providing the drug information in this article. Headspace has centres throughout Queensland where young people from 12–25 years can access a range of services. Check their website, listed here, for details. consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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• Our bodies are made up of 60-70% water. • The Earth’s surface is two-thirds covered in water. • 80% of the human brain is water. • There would be no life on Earth if we did not have water. • Life first started in water. • We lose approximately 1-2 litres of water just from breathing. • The evaporation of sweat from the skin accounts for 90% of our cooling ability. • The average person loses about 3-4 litres (about 1015 cups) of fluid a day through breathing, sweating and going to the toilet. What is lost must be replaced by the water/ fluid we drink and the food we eat. • Water is made up of a mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen, H2O which represents two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom. • Humans can survive only a few days without water. Did you know that the glass of water you drink today has been around for billions of years? Pretty much as long as the earth has. A puddle stepped in by a dinosaur, the sea when the first sea life leapt out onto land or the water streams drunk by traditional Aboriginal people ten of thousands of years ago, maybe the same water recycled in your glass!! The earth has a finite or limited amount of water that keeps on going round and round in what’s called the Water Cycle. Temperature constantly changes water from liquid to gas to solid form, like ice. Water vapour or steam rises through the air from the sun heating the earth’s water sources like oceans, rivers, lakes. When people heat up we sweat, excreting water. When plants heat up they transpire, which adds to getting steam into the air, and of course hot air rises.

So the hot air rises and gets cooler changing it back to liquid water by forming clouds in the sky, which is called condensation. The same thing happens when you pour a cold glass of cold water on a hot day. Water forms on the outside of the glass. The water actually comes from the air. Water vapour in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass. When clouds get too heavy, the water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow. This is a called precipitation. It may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land, where it will soak into the earth for plants and animals to drink or it might run into the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts all over again. So the same water gets recycled again and again. There are satellites orbiting the earth to monitor evaporation, clouds, precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice levels. The data helps scientists learn how the water cycle affects global climate. What a cool job!

WHEN THIRSTY DRINK WATER …YOUR BODY NEEDS IT.

Knowing the types of rubbish that are making their way to the ocean is one way of helping to reduce the trash at the source. The most common types of debris found worldwide include:

As part of Clean Up Australia more than 3,000,000 cigarettes and filters were picked up, more than 1,000,000 plastic bags and nearly 1,000,000 food wrappers and containers.

2. plastic bags

The best way you and your family can stop trash getting to our oceans is to never litter — always put your rubbish in bins.

1. cigarettes and filters

3. food wrappers and containers 4. caps and lids 50

5. plastic bottles


Top Recycling tips • Never put plastic bags in your recycling bin. Take plastic bags to local shopping centre recycling bins. • Put different bins in the kitchen — one for general garbage and one for recyclables. It makes it easy and more likely that everyone in your household will separate the different types of garbage. • Try to buy items with little or no packaging. Avoid buying things that have many layers of packaging — like a big bag of something that has lots of separate packages within it. It is better to buy in bulk — when you get home you can divide the item up and store in things you already have at home. • Buy products that are recycled and/or use recycled packaging. • Remove tops and lids from all bottles and jars. The best way to recycle them is to collect them in a recyclable container, which when full can go into recycling bin. • Take your own bags that can be used again and again instead of using the plastic shopping bags. • Buy refills instead of the same product with its original packaging again and again. • Reuse glass jars, plastic take away containers, plastic plates, paper and plastic shopping bags. • Squash all plastic bottles, containers and cardboard boxes to make more space in your bin and the collection vehicle • Pizza boxes — Remove any food scraps before it is put in the yellow-lid bin.

• You don’t have to use plastic bags for rubbish! Put some old newspaper on the bottom of your bin and empty your kitchen bin straight into the wheelie bin. After collection — hose it out and line again with paper. • Keep a reusable bag in your car or bag for unexpected purchases. • Refuse plastic bags when you buy something that you will eat soon or straight away. • Use old newspaper or reuse a paper bag to collect dog poo. • If you do throw plastic bags away — tie them in a knot. This limits the chance that the bag will blow out of the bin or blow away in landfill. • Approximately 30% of all material put in the general waste wheelie bins is recyclable — most of which is paper. This can be changed by simply making sure you put newspapers and magazines in the YELLOW-LID RECYCLING BIN. • Green waste, like vegetable scrapes, makes up approximately 30% of waste going to landfill. Green waste cannot be put in the recycling bin. Throw your vegetable waste into a composte bin, worm farm or bokashi bucket. This will reduce your household waste, as well as improve your garden. If you don’t have any of these things — maybe someone who lives close to you does, and you might be able to use theirs. • Glass, cans and plastic with recycling symbols can be recyclced. Rinse out containers, jars and bottles before putting them in your recycling bin. They don’t have to be spotless, just give them a quick clean.

Check out the list of things you can and can’t recycle from your local council. In Brisbane you can recycle: newspaper, junk mail, brochures, office paper, wrapping paper, unbleached paper, packaging paper, glossy paper, magazines, envelopes (window), phone books, greetings cards, coloured paper, paper bags, cardboard boxes, milk / juice cartons (tetra-packs), pizza boxes, tissue boxes, bottles and jars, steel food tins, paint tins (must not contain paint), pie trays, aluminium cans, empty aerosol cans, clean kitchen foil, soft drink bottles, takeaway containers, margarine containers, moulded plastic, milk bottles, juice bottles, yoghurt tubs. What you can not recycle is: padded envelopes, tissue paper, thermal fax paper, wax-coated paper, waxed cardboard, drinking glasses, ceramics, window glass, light bulbs, mirror glass, heat proof glass, glass cookware, wire, scrap iron, cutlery, white goods, plastic bags, styrofoam products, elastic bands, straws, plastic film, plastic packaging with no recycle code, disposable nappies, bubble wrap. These items need to go in your general waste bin or to the household waste depots. Anything dirty should not go into the recycling bin!

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The most productive items to recycle are Glass, Paper/ Packaging, Aluminum, Plastic and Batteries.

Recycling Glass Glass is 100% recycled to make more glass bottles! Glass can be recycled virtually forever. It never wears out because it can be recycled again and again with no loss in quality or purity. Recycled glass reduces air pollution and water pollution by 50 % and saves almost 70% of the energy and 50 % of water used in the original manufacturing. For every 2,000 pounds of glass that is recycled, we save more than 2,000 pounds of other resources (1,330 pounds of sand, 433 pounds of soda ash, 433 pounds of limestone, and 151 pounds of feldspar) •

Most bottles and jars that you use contain at least 25% recycled material.

The energy saved by recycling just one bottle could light a 100-watt bulb for 4 hours

In the 1950’s a lot of our supermarket products were contained in glass. There were milk bottles, glass condiment jars like jam, peanut butter, honey and even glass soft drink bottles — and all wonderfully recycled. Now, because of the 21st centuries profits before people and the environment’s health, plastic is containing our food and drinks even though manufacturers know that small amounts of toxic chemicals from plastic actually leak into our food this way! You can make a difference by only buying products in glass containers. If everyone did this the manufacturers would have no choice but to meet consumer demand.

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Printer Cartridge Recycling Printer cartridges are made up of a complex combination of plastics, metals, foam, ink and toner. Throwing them into landfill represents a waste of resources and contributes to the growing problem of electronic waste. By recycling your cartridges you are helping to reduce this waste. Planet Ark has joined with our retail collection partners to make recycling the cartridges you use at home as easy as possible. They can be taken to all Officeworks and JB Hi-Fi stores and participating Australia Post, Dick Smith, Tandy, Harvey Norman, and The Good Guys stores. To find your nearest drop off point, visit RecyclingNearYou.com. au/Cartridges or call the Cartridges Hotline on 1300 24 24 73.

Cork Recycling

Recycling Paper Paper made from recycled paper uses 70% less energy. Newspaper can be made back into newsprint but most of your waste paper ends up as packaging cardboard. Other uses include insulation, plasterboard or moulded products.

Recycling Aluminium and Steel Aluminium is ideally suited to recycling. Recycling an aluminium can saves 95% of the energy needed to make aluminium from bauxite ore. Recycled steel is manufactured into cars, planes, railway tracks and tools. Steel has been produced in various forms for 3,500 years. Modern steel is manufactured from iron ore with ingredients such as coke, limestone, manganese, aluminium and nickel added, depending upon the alloy required. Steel is 100% recyclable and can be recycled an infinite amount of times, saving energy and raw materials each time it is re-processed. In the United States, the amount of steel that is discarded and not recycled every year is enough to build all the new Americanmade cars.

Recycling Batteries Nearly 90 percent of all lead-acid auto batteries are recycled. If it’s rechargeable, it’s recyclable! Household batteries contain toxic metals which can be harmful to the environment when disposed of to landfill. Used rechargeable batteries are classified as a hazardous waste under the Hazardous Waste Act 1989. This means that they should not be disposed of with general household waste. Check your local council to find out how to dispose of batteries with other toxic household waste.

Cork is one of the few forms of packaging that is environmentally friendly. Unlike plastic corks, natural cork is renewable, fully recyclable, biodegradable and totally natural. None of the cork bark is wasted during the cork production process - the cork residue is granulated for other cork products and even the cork dust is used for fuel. The most important thing with cork, being a recyclable and valuable resource, is that it doesn’t end up in landfill. Wine and champagne corks are collected from various drop-off points across Australia by community groups such as Girl Guides Australia and Friends of the Zoos.

Recycling Plastic Plastic can be difficult to recycle. The many different types of plastic must be separated for recycling. Only “10 percent of plastic containers and packaging were recycled, mostly from soft drink, milk, and water bottles”, according to the EPA’s 2006 statistics on solid waste and recycling. There are a number of different plastics, each with a different chemical composition and set of properties. To help differentiate them, manufacturers stamp a Plastics Identification Code on their products. This code is a number inside a triangle of chasing arrows. Most plastics can be recycled, however, it is only economically viable to recycle three types of plastic from domestic sources: PET (code 1), HDPE (code 2) and V (code 3). These three plastics can be recycled through your curb-side recycle bin. Most consumers recognize that recycling has environmental benefits, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and conserving valuable natural resources, but their ability to recycle is highly dependent on the types of recycling programs available to them

All recycling info sourced from: the Brisbane City Council, Clean Up Australia, Planet Ark, and Suite101: Materials Best Suited to Recycling: Environmental Benefits of Household Waste Recycling http://www.suite101.com/content/ materials-best-suited-to-recycling-a64182#ixzz1Cs8kCFO3 consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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SAY “NO” TO

7L

=

It takes seven litres of water to make a one litre plastic water bottle.

PLASTIC

WATER

BOTTLES Water is the best drink you can have, and it’s great that we can pop into the local store and choose to buy water rather than soft drink. The downside is that water is sold in plastic bottles…

Water Wise Facts: 54

= 1

4

The total amount of energy required for every bottle of water is the same as filling a quarter of a plastic bottle with crude oil. Driving a car for one kilometre uses about four megajoules of energy, while producing a 600-millilitre plastic bottle of water uses about 1.5 megajoules!


x 314,000

In 2007, 314 000 barrels of oil were used in Australia for the production of plastic water bottles (Australian Bureau of Statistics).

Water Consumption (1999-2004)

A report by the Earth Policy Institute said global consumption of bottled water rose 57 per cent from 1999 to 2004 to 154 billion liters! Countries like Australia, whose tap water is of a good quality, are contributing too much of the growth, which requires packaging worldwide of 2.7 million tonnes of plastic each year. And this doesn’t even include the plastic bottle use from milk and soft drinks. Crikey!

Bottles that end up in land fill contribute to piles of toxic waste, which then seeps into the soil, our rivers and oceans and into the air through methane gas! Plastic water bottles can be found in our parks, our creeks and our streams and can trap small wildlife.

Bundanoon The Australian town Bundanoon, was the first town to ban bottled water! Way to go people of Bundanoon. Instead of having plastic water bottles they have installed water bubblers and bottle fill stations.

65-70% of plastic bottles end up in landfil

100% recyclable Roughly 65-70% of plastic water bottles end up in landfill. 118 000 tonnes are consumed every year.

Glass bottles are 100% recyclable and aluminium cans are practically 100% recyclable.

If you think the government should ban water bottles or have plastic bottle schemes that encourage people to at least recycle them, you can campaign in your local area to make it happen. Lobby your local council to install more drinking fountains. Or you could work on boycotting bottled water at your school, community centre and other venues.

Fossil fuels are used to make plastic bottles. Fossil fuels are a finite resource and adults need to stop using them up so quickly because when they are gone, they are gone. We need to start harnessing energy from renewable sources like the sun and the wind. consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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the air we breathe How lucky we are to live on a planet with beautiful landscapes, animals, oceans and rivers. This is only made possible by having the right conditions to hold an atmosphere. After the big bang at the beginning of the universe, gravity pulled atoms together to make stars and planets. The bigger the planet, the stronger the gravitational pull. Not all planets have atmospheres. A planet has to have enough mass and therefore enough gravity to hold onto gases in the air like oxygen, nitrogen and argon. Gravity draws atoms towards the earth’s surface and keeps them from floating away into space. Gravity is stronger near the planet and gets weaker as you get further away. The troposphere, which is the layer of atmosphere closest to the earth’s surface, extends out about 17 kilometres. In the troposphere warm air rises to form clouds, rain falls, and winds blow. Today the Earth’s troposhpere, is about 78 % nitrogen (mostly from the ammonia shot out by volcanoes), 21% oxygen (from photosynthesizing cells, mainly one-celled algae in the ocean), and less than 1% of argon, carbon dioxide, and water. Carbon dioxide has the unique ability of absorbing infrared radiation sent to Earth by the Sun, insulating the Earth enough for life to exist. Each time you breathe out, your body releases small amounts of carbon dioxide. Over the last hundred years or so humans have been artificially adding a significantly higher amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the burning of oil and coal and the percentage of carbon dioxide is going up. Right now the percentage of carbon dioxide is higher than it has been any time in the last 650,000 years.

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What does this mean? The increase in carbon dioxide in the air causes the Earth to get warmer. Many scientists believe that if carbon dioxide levels become too high there is a possibility that the Earth’s temperature will rise causing many unpredictable effects. The stratosphere extends to about 50 kilometers above the earth and includes the ozone layer, which blocks much of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays by ozone molecules, made up of three oxygen atoms. The temperature drops in this layer. This gas absorbs the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation, protecting animals and plants from getting too much of the brutal ultraviolet rays, which would otherwise be very hazardous to all life forms. The mesosphere, extends 85 kilometers up. In this layer, the air temperature drops again. Meteors generally burn up in the mesosphere.


Many scientists believe that if carbon dioxide levels become too high there is a possibility that the Earth’s temperature will rise causing many unpredictable effects. Above the mesosphere is the ionosphere, extending 690 kilometers and is so thin it is generally considered part of outer space. The International Space Station and many satellites orbit within the ionosphere. The ionosphere is named for the ions created within this layer by energetic particles from sunlight and outer space. These ions create an electrical layer that reflects radio waves, allowing radio messages to be sent across oceans in the days before communication satellites. Beyond the ionosphere lies the exosphere, 1,000 kilometers — 10,000 kilometers above the surface, where it merges with interplanetary space. The earth’s atmosphere is a protective buffer that blocks harmful radiation from the sun, stops us from being showered by meteorites and lets us send radio waves. When the Earth was first formed, about four and a half billion years ago, its atmosphere was almost entirely made up of hydrogen and helium atoms. But the Earth was so hot, that most of these atoms ended up drifting off into space. Soon after, about 4.4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled down a lot, but there were still a lot of volcanoes shooting out steam, carbon dioxide and ammonia, creating a new atmosphere. Then about three billion years ago, early prokaryotic cells, one of the earliest forms of life on Earth, began to photosynthesis. They made their food out of sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water and they excreted (pooped out) what they didn’t need — mainly oxygen.

Trees and plants photosynthesize by taking in carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. No human could survive without algae, plants, trees and forests to create the air we breathe. They are so important to our survival, some would say an intrinsic part of us, and yet acres of forests are being destroyed every day to make way for industries like palm trees, which provide bio fuels for cars that are a leading cause of pollution. People have done some crazy things over the last few hundred years to make money, without much concern for the harm it creates for the environment. If the environment is harmed, so are people, as we are intrinsically connected. This generation, your generation, can be the one that finds the solutions to the greed of past generations! Be the love generation! A generation that will create industries that are sustainable for a better future and it all starts with you. Make environmentally friendly decisions.

Information for this article was sourced from: 1. http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0041introduction-to-our-atmosphere-part-II.php 2. http://www.historyforkids.org/scienceforkids/physics/weather/ atmosphere.htm 3. http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/earthsatmosphere/climate-article/

After a billion years of millions of cells shooting out oxygen, by 2.2 billion years ago, the atmosphere was about 20% oxygen. We can see this early oxygen in three billion year old rocks where the iron within the rocks has turned red from combining with the oxygen in the air (rusting).

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te u in m y r e v e ie d n e r d il h Ten c . n io it tr u ln a m f o lt u as a res Indian girl who weighs a Roshni is a six month old in size of children her age mere 2.9 kg. The average , who hni Ros kg. 4.5 tely ima rox western countries is app ned defi is on, acute malnutriti is suffering from severe than s les ing igh we as ion anisat by the World Health Org hni Ros . ght weight for her hei 60% of the ideal median child of surviving. Roshni is one nce cha all sm y has a ver throughout India. out of the 57 million others children in developing More than a quarter of the ause ht and suffer disease bec countries are underweig ost alm as are poverty. In some of their poor diet due to hed uris lno ma are five of the age half of all children under lion mil 146 Report found that (Frith, M., 2006). A Unicef fering developing world are suf the in five er children und ge and sta wa e scl mu es, eas dis from repeated infectious Three insufficient food intake. vitamin deficiencies from n in ldre chi ed ish our ern und quarters of the 146 million ts oun acc ia Ind t 10 countries. the world come from jus that ble dou rly nea is this and for 57 million of the total Bank th, M., 2006). The World of Sub-Saharan Africa (Fri n in ldre chi and n me wo cts states that malnutrition affe hin wit tus sta e of women’s low India particularly, becaus d, foo go fore n ofte sisters that culture. Mothers and sons. give to their husbands and sacrificing their share to

d food on the planet to fee Like water, there is enough you ybe Ma n. utio trib dis the everyone. It is just about to someone’s life and join can help make a difference History”. It is not fair erty a campaign to “Make Pov w so enough food that we thro that some are born with o are wh s lion mil are re the ile much away as scraps, wh ter bet a rld To make the wo starving literally to death. ro cialize in agriculture, mic spe to ose cho can you place, s. ion zat ani org or working in aid financing poor countries . ing ard rew y ver is tice ial jus Working in the area of soc , says 10 children every minute Frith, M Malnutrition kills s/ litic /po orld s/w nt.co.uk/new UN http://www.independe ays te-s inu ry-m eve enmalnutrition-kills-10-childr un-476571.html 2006. By Kristen

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K E PO Vseptember consume magazine  issue one  2011 ERTY HISTORY

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g n i y l y l u BBBBuuussstttaaa Bullying can happen anywhere; at school, on line (cyber bullying), at work and even at home. Bullying is behaviour that is designed to make a person feel scared, bad about themselves, and very uncomfortable. It can include name calling, being left out, physical abuse, or even setting up a fake nasty profile page about someone. If you are being bullied you might feel lonely and anxious, and it can mean that simple things like going to school, having lunch breaks, going to the toilet, walking home, answering the phone or checking your email can be frightening. It can make you feel really bad about yourself. 60


There are lots of different things you can do if you are feeling frightened, anxious and trapped by the behaviour of others. The first thing to remember is that you are not alone, there are heaps of kids who’ve gone through what you’re going through, and yes, you will get through this too (even though it might feel like it’s the only thing that matters right now). Most importantly, talk to someone about what is going on and how you feel. Bullying is just not cool. Bullying in any form is unacceptable. Everyone has the right to feel safe. Some of the things that may be happening to you if you are being bullied include physical threats, physical attacks, being excluded and being called names. A lot of what is said to you and about you will be targeted toward the way you look in a negative way; for example you might be called fat and ugly, or some other physical feature maybe picked on. You may be called a girl or gay if you’re a guy, or a bloke or a lesbian if you’re a girl. Bullies are so boring! You may feel like everyone’s talking about you, nobody likes you, and everyone thinks you’re fat/ ugly/ gay/ an idiot etc. Bullies use these terms to make you feel crappy about yourself—they would say that you were an orang-utan if being called an orang-utan could make you feel really bad about yourself.

So ... what to do?

• Do some research about how your school views and deals with bullying and harassment. If they don’t have anything formal written about it, then maybe it’s time that something was written and said about it so that everyone knows that it is not on, and that when it does happen it will be dealt with in a fair way. Your school is supposed to protect you and provide a safe environment for you to be in. Tell a teacher or counsellor if you can not handle the bully on your own. Remember— things will change! You will get older, they will move on, things will not always be like this ... in a couple of years (maybe less) these people will not be a part of your life at all!!! YAY!

Cyber-Bullying Bullying isn’t something that is just done in person.

It can also happen through Facebook, chat rooms, texting, emailing and other forms of technology. It is very important that you make sure your private information like passwords, phone numbers and where you live is not given out to people you do not know and do not recognise. For example, don’t post on your Wall that you are going to a party at a particular address, or that your parents won’t be home that night. It’s easy to forget sometimes, so look out for yourself and your friends.

Try these tips:

Tips if you are being cyber-bullied or harassed:

• Talk, talk, talk ... find someone to talk to about what is happening. Find someone you can trust, preferably an adult like a parent / school counsellor / teacher or other friend.

• Ignore and don’t answer or respond to harassment online—just leave or block the sender’s message.

• Avoid the bully—actually try and stay away from them. Walk away from them if you can. • Think of something to say to them next time you see them—this is about preparing one short statement to repeat to them when you see them next. It would be good if you could think of something funny. That’s often hard to do when you are scared, so preparing a funny comeback can be gold. • Having the courage and confidence to deal with a bully can be really hard, especially when you are feeling bad about yourself. When you do talk to the bully try to stand up tall, look them in the eye and be assertive. This shows them that you are not going to accept their uncool behaviour. • If they have threatened you, you might need to tell the police what has happened. • Try focussing on relationships that you have that do not involve the bully. You might have a great family or be involved in something outside of school, like a team sport or choir, where the bully has no influence. • Knowing someone is being bullied and not doing anything about it is NOT cool. Knowing someone is being bullied and letting it continue without doing anything just makes the problem worse AND makes it look like you agree with it even if you don’t. If you don’t do anything about it then you are part of it. You may be scared of getting involved or of being called a dobber, but everyone should make an effort to create an environment that supports all kinds of people without discrimination or harassment.

• Don’t delete the messages—keep them in case you need to tell police, your on-line service provider or someone else. • If you discover that the bullies have set up phoney profile pages, report them to the service provider. • If the bully is harassing you through your phone, report the problem to your phone service provider. • De-friend them. • Go off line for a while ... really. It will be ok!

Workplace Bullying A lot of teenagers get their first part-time jobs while

still at school and sometimes bullying can happen in the workplace. There are laws to protect you from this type of harassment. If you have a part time job and think you are being bullied you should: • •

Write down as much as you remember of what happened as soon as it happens—the date, the time, the conversation, and who else was there. Check out the organisation’s policy on workplace harassment and bullying. They might already have nominated someone you can talk with as a way of dealing with bullying in the workplace. Talk about it with your direct supervisor, a human resources officer, or someone outside of the organisation like a union representative or the Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission. Someone from these groups might also be able to act on your behalf if you are too frightened or uncomfortable.

by Julie Sarkozi

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“”

a e v a h ve a a t h e ’ b n’t n’t be n d i t ’ it did Id ld f n e u o t k o i i d l lt l ike I c s sicke I f e u f o I o e, l d I wta lik k c c i c I i vo f. An el s e l f s k e i s I a l my , w e I c i d o n v A . f l e s my

“ I felt l voi ike my ” ce, l I did ike sel n ’ t f. I

cou dI l wa dn s si c

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ments Adolescence is hard enough with all the assign even an be can it g bullyin with and pressure, but 15, and I tougher experience. My name is Sarah, I am 13. I have was I when l schoo us was bullied at my previo side—it’s right my s affect that ility disab al physic mild a picture slightly smaller and weaker. (To understand and bullied was I :D) fish clown the Nemo like I’m , it better one, because of this, because I was different to every else one every things most do still can I h even thoug me off can. At one glance the other kids had written g to gettin even ut witho s) glasse wear as a nerd (I also know me.

62

It wasn’t like anything in primary school: the finger pointing and the name-calling were much easier to bear than the covert bullying I experienced when I got to high school. It was the eye-rolling, the gossipy whispers behind my back, the exclusion. It was all about appearances and who had the hottes t boyfriend. Bear in mind this was year 8. Who needs a boyfriend in year 8 anyway?

I felt like I didn’t have a voice, like I couldn’t be myself. And I was sick of it.


So I changed to be like them, a materialistic, superficial bitch. I changed my clothes, my tastes in music, even my personality, and they still didn’t like me. I was rude to others, and I was uncomfortable because I didn’t like who I had become. But I couldn’t think of anything else I could do. The fact that I was so desperate to fit in a clique that I actually changed who I was is not okay. No one should have that kind of power over you. Eventually I found a best friend, a new girl, Ann. We were like two peas in pod, glued at the hip. And after a while things at school started to look up. But I found the days she wasn’t at school were hell. I didn’t want to be there, but having her with me eased the suffering. The bullying was hell, but I learnt a lot about myself. I learnt to be more open-minded when I went to my new school. I wasn’t insecure anymore because I had learnt to accept myself and not care what other people thought about me.

hav ea n’t be ck of it

Because it’s not about what they think of me, it’s about what I think of myself. It took me a while to find the right group, but I didn’t put all of my eggs in the one basket. I said hello to everyone and I have found a wonderful group of friends who are supportive and accepting. My friendship with Ann I now understand was co-dependent, but it’s what we needed to do to survive. And that’s a whole other story. This bullying experience, even though it was hell, actually helped shape me to become who I am today, much more accepting of myself and of others. Note: this story is written by a young woman about her experience of bullying and what she did to cope with it. Bullying is never OK, and it’s really difficult to handle. The strategies used by this young woman are her strategies and worked for her. If you are being bullied you can contact a whole lot of organisations, either online or by telephone, to get some help. Don’t let the bullying get you down!!!

Here’s some links that are very useful if you need to look into this topic furt her: http://www.bullyingnoway.com.

au

http://www.lawstuff.org.au http://reachout.com.au http://www.cybersmart.gov.au http://www.youthbeyondblue.co

m

http://www.theline.gov.au/

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Youth Support Services As a Youth Support Coordinator (YSC) for the Picabeen Community Association, I provide services and support to young people, families, schools and the local community. My primary role is to support young people still connected to education but who may be at risk of disengaging, and our service can be accessed during school or before and after school, which is the great part of a YSC’s flexibility and accessibility. 64

Another significant and important part of my YSC role is to facilitate group work in high school settings, which is tailored to suit the needs of the identified group. Something that I do regularly is a Young Women’s Group which provides an opportunity for young women to come together to explore a range of issues, develop new skills and share ideas (other services and workers run mixed groups or boys-only groups). These types of group connections can be a good source of on-going support within the school context between the students and school support staff, and also between the group participants as peers. Young Women’s Group is where I met Lizzy, a secondary student who I have supported and who is brave enough to share some of her experiences about the early years of her high school story.


Starting high school was good but I moved around a lot of groups until I found the one that suited me. Mostly the people I was hanging around with were making things not work out for me. It all started after the third week of high school when I got together with a boy at school and we started dating. I got into his group, and then we broke up, but remained friends. Something happened and I took a bad turn and started being a bitch to everyone and being rude. I got into trouble a lot and had heaps of detention. When I was getting into trouble I had a bad attitude and it was mostly toward teachers. I did things like talking back, making loud noises and disrupting as much of the class as I could. I always thought it was funny and the class would laugh at me too. I would do other things like scream in the oval area and not wear my hat, which is breaking a school rule. The group that I was in influenced the way I was because they were doing the same things. When we were together that’s just what we did. When we were around each other, we just caused chaos! By the end of the year I went to another group and that worked well for me until some girls bullied me. I always felt that I wasn’t up to their standards. I didn’t feel good enough, but that’s different for me now. I didn’t like the end of grade 8 very much, or the start of grade 9, ‘cause I got bullied and I didn’t enjoy that, so I stayed away from school a bit. I also ran away from school because I couldn’t take anymore of one girl’s crap. I changed role class because of the bullying, which made it a bit better. Then I met someone who was really nice to me and I was tired of the things that were happening to me, so I joined another group where I felt more comfortable and fit in better—we just get each other. I am happy with this group because I am away from other girls that bullied me.

I found help when someone in year 10 noticed that I was unhappy at school and that I wasn’t doing well. Because he knew me he was someone I could talk to about things. A girl in year 9 suggested that I go and talk to the school Guidance Officer or the Youth Worker (YSC). That’s when I started changing as an individual and not being controlled by a group, because they listened to me. When I first met Tracey the YSC I thought it was good ‘cause she was relaxed and laid back. The year 9 Coordinator suggested that I should do the Young Women’s Group and I said ‘yeah cool, I’ll do it,’ because I thought it would be something interesting. I really looked at my so-called friends while in the group, and the insight for me was that I could find out who my friends really were through the stuff Tracey taught us to do. The thing we did in group that stood out for me was learning how to stand up for myself, but not in an aggressive way, and also how to not be too passive. We have fun games but when we are in a group and talking it helps me to see things through other people’s eyes. I mostly liked group because it gave me something else to do other than my normal lessons. It was different, we did interesting stuff and I think it was really good. I met people that I wouldn’t have talked to before. I thought that Tracey talked to us and connected with us really well. If we need someone to talk to, we know we can go to her. It’s good to have Tracey ‘cause she is different and not from our school, so we can talk to her more freely. If there is any advice I would give myself, looking back, it would be to tell myself to start off with another group, because sometimes I think, what would have happened if I had gone to another group first? I would have told myself to make other friends so that I could stay out of trouble and not do the things I have done. Trust your instincts and go on gut reaction ‘cause if you feel that you don’t want to be with someone you should trust your decision. Things happen because of decisions we make—you either make the right decision or the wrong one. By Lizzy and Tracey Wrigley, Youth Support Coordinator, Picabeen Community Association, Mitchelton consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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new As an adolescent you are or are no doubt about to face new challenges, as well as s opportunities. There are lots of different things to be learnt and exciting experience new and do can you things new for ideas and energy of loads have may You ahead. people you will get to know. But sometimes you might feel a bit confused or even overwhelmed by things. Changes can be scary and you may not always feel sure about in a what to do. You, or someone you know, may not know how to get through things . themselves to hurtful are that ways in things with cope people young Some safe way. with Sometimes we can put ourselves in harm’s way, perhaps with the hope it will help our feelings, change how we feel or be a distraction from something else. There are lots of ways that people can deliberately hurt themselves. Self-harm is often a very private and hidden behaviour and can be very hard to talk about. What is central to a way self-harming is having difficulty coping with a painful situation, and trying to find the on depending varies g self-harmin themselves find people reason The to manage. individual. However, some young people have identified the following: to get a sense of control; to distract from painful thoughts and feelings (like anxiety, panic, or isolation); to express overwhelming emotions when they cannot find any other way to do this; to manage / respond to being upset or sad; to find a physical release for very scary feelings; to stop feeling “out of it” or “disconnected”. Sometimes, too, people are just not sure why they are self-harming. It is normal to have intense emotions when something is difficult, and we all have difficult times. You or a friend may feel like no-one else has gone through what you are feeling, but lots of people struggle with similar things to you. We all find different ways of coping and self-harm is one way that some people try. Hurting yourself probably doesn’t fix the underlying problem, so the important thing is finding ways to cope that don’t add to the hurt in the long-term. You may need help from people you trust. If there is no one is your community you trust you can contact youth support services. If you suspect a friend is self-harming, it can help to try “putting yourself in their shoes” in order to get a better idea of what is going on for them. Maybe they don’t have anyone who can listen or understand. Maybe they don’t know how to talk about difficult things. When you think of things from their point of view, maybe how they act will make a lot more sense. They are just trying to cope and it is not their fault that there are such difficult things going on in their life. There are certainly risks associated with self-harming, such as ongoing damage to the body. Most people say that self-harm is not something they really want in their lives and if they had other ways to help them cope, they would choose these other ways. Each person may be helped in different ways—some people like to talk, others like to journal, go for a walk or simply be distracted. Some like to keep busy, some people find pets helpful, and some may like you to support them to talk with an adult. It is important to understand what each individual person’s reason for self-harming is.

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How do you care for yourself? You probably already do this in lots of ways. Here are some questions to help you and your friends remember how you already look after yourselves. Think about these four questions and record the answers in whatever way you like. You could draw them, make a list, write a song, create a poem … whatever works for you. What do you already do daily that makes you happy and keeps you healthy? (eg: eating breakfast, showering, laughing with friends, choosing clothes you love to wear, going to the movies) What do the people you like tell you about yourself that helps you feel good? (eg: they love you, you are good at something, they enjoy being with you, you are caring) What do you know about yourself that you are proud of? (eg: you are good at music, you have a calm nature, you are good at helping out at home, you are great with animals, you care about others, you are really good at sport) What beliefs or ideas do you have inside yourself that help you get through the day? (eg: nothing can keep me down, I am important, I am okay!) By Zig Zag Young Women’s Resource Centre Inc., which is a community organisation that provides a number of services to young women and the wider community. Our services include counselling and support to young women who have experienced sexual assault, and medium-term supported housing to young women who are homeless. Zig Zag produces a number of information resources for young women and people in the community. We also go out into the community and do education sessions at schools, youth services and other places where young people gather. Young women we work with are generally between 12 and 25 years of age. Although we mostly meet with young women we hope and believe that the ideas in this article will be useful to the boys who read it too. If you would like to talk more about self-harm or other issues mentioned here, then Zig Zag workers would love to talk with you. Feel free to contact us at any time. We are at 575 Old Cleveland Road Camp Hill, Brisbane, 4152. Ph: 3843 1823. E-mail: info@zigzag.org.au. Website: www.zigzag.org.au. Some info was sourced and adapted from: Brisbane Rape and Incest Survivors Support Centre’s March 2006—CRUISE Project. Their number is 33910004, or http://www.brissc.org.au/

Mental health and self-harm support services for boys and girls include: Kids Helpline: www.kidshelp.com.au/teens/ where you can get web or email support, or you can call them on 1800 55 1800 Headspace: www.headspace.org.au to find the nearest Headspace service near you Reach Out: www.reachout.com

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Having good mental health means being able to cope with the normal stresses of life. pressures Everyone copes with d feeling in different ways an wn’ from sad or anxious or ‘do al. But, if time-to-time is norm rsistent pe e these feelings ar g life, in and you stop enjoy and lose become withdrawn you interest in the things you may used to like doing, ness. develop a mental ill

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Mental illness refers to a wide variety of disorders, ranging from those that cause mild distress to those that impair a person’s ability to function in daily life. Mental illnesses can alter how someone may think, feel and relate to other people and the world around them.


I know what it’s like to feel anxious, worthless or guilty. I know what it’s like to worry about what people think of you and to constantly doubt yourself. Being shy and nervous made it impossible for me to tell someone how I was feeling. I wish I had. Keeping it to myself just made things worse. r tioning you Ideally, men or friend feelings to a nsellor is a u parent or co g wards gettin great start to h it struggle w help. If you g. ggest writin talking I su and n emotions Writing dow ly n be incredib thoughts ca letter a g n ti d wri satisfying an are ne how you to tell someo to ay w d so a goo feeling is al p. el h ek e and se communicat

Don’t forget, if you can’t communicate how you’re feeling to your friends or family, you can contact youth mental health services.

Kid Helpline www.kidshelp.com.au/teens/ where you can get web support or email support or you can s=call them on 1800 55 1800 Headspace go to www.headspace.org.au to find the nearest head space service near you Reach Out www.reachout.com Sane www.sane.org Sane help line 1800 18 7263 or 1800 18 SANE

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My name is EZB and I am a poet. (Phew, I said it!) I’ve performed my poetry all over the world and I’m currently the National Education Officer at Australian Poetry, and the Victorian coordinator for the Australian Poetry Slam. I’m also a member of the Super Poets (a team of poets that go into schools and teach new and exciting ways to experience words). I also do a lot of slam. Traditionally, slam is a live poetry / hip hop / rap competition where participants perform a timed piece (generally under three minutes) to a live audience. A panel of judges chosen at random from the audience score performers out of 10. It’s instant, fun, energetic, and just starting to take off in Australia. It’s massive overseas—in the US they fill stadiums for the national team slams, with teams representing their state. Last year as part of the Melbourne Writers Festival we put on Out Loud, Victoria’s first-ever teen team slam. It was an amazing day with over 400 kids attending. Teams from five schools battled it out in two categories: Recycled (cover versions of a classic or contemporary poem) and Fresh (original work fresh from the pen). It was fantastic and the schools involved had a ball. Slam can be anything —you can write a poem about your friend, your enemy, or your frenemy. You can make up words, write a crush poem or a story poem, rap, yell or whisper your piece. It’s totally up to 70

you. You just get the stuff from your head onto a page and then onto a stage or skip the bit about the page—it’s up to you. What makes you mad, or what makes you silly with bliss? What’s your passion? Maybe you wanna be a chef? Then write an ingredient poem, full of flavour and bite; make it bittersweet so it rolls off the tongue. Maybe you wanna be a dancer? Then perform something full of movement, stretch language into new shapes, make it jump, shimmy and writhe, let the words become lycra. Maybe you wanna be a lawyer? Write a poem full of lingo and allusion, judges and hammers, piles of crisp white paper full of innocence and guilt, life and death. Or maybe, just maybe, you wanna be a poet—then give up your heart, serve it hot

and steaming with metaphors and meaning, peel open your soul like a tub of yoghurt, drown in it, roll with it, tell a story, open minds, unlock dreams … change the world. (Easy!) Emilie Zoey Baker is a published, award-winning poet and slam champion. She has performed poetry all around the world and is a state coordinator for the Australian Poetry Slam. In September she was the first ever Australian to compete in Slam Review as part of the 2010 Berlin International Literature Festival, and the first ever Australian to win! Emilie is also the State coordinator for the National Australian Poetry Slam, Education Officer at the Australian Poetry Centre and coordinator of the first ever teen team slam, Out Loud.

Here’s some links to check out: All things poetry and all about education programs emerging in Australia (and the Super poets!): www.australianpoetry.org Apples and Snakes, the premier site for youth poetry in the UK: www.applesandsnakes.org Taylor Mali with a damn fine poem: What teachers make: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0xuFnP5N2uA&feature=related Poetopia! A website for youth, all about poetry: www.poetopia.com A performance by a teen team in Denver, so amazing! http:a //www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ptwo7S6xqE


SO AFTER AIR, WATER AND FOOD, HUMANS NEED SHELTER TO SURVIVE THE OFTEN HARSH CLIMATE. The housing industry is huge and there are lots and lots of jobs in the housing area from trades like being an electrician, plumber and carpenter, green jobs like the installation of solar panels or water tanks, to the design of houses and buildings … even the design of towns and cities. What’s really important about the shelter we live in, is the people we live with. Families can be warm and supportive or sites for abuse and violence. No matter who we live with, now as teenagers or later as adults, what is really really important — CLEANING and COMMUNICATION!! Who does the cleaning in your household? Is it mainly one person or two, an adult, or do you all contribute? If you are not contributing to the cleaning in your homes, then you need to start today! The habits you develop now can stay with you your whole life and we all need to look after ourselves. Cleaning is one of the biggest things that couples and housemates argue about. So being able to communicate with each other about what needs to be done when and by whom should be worked out between all the people you live with. Every family and household is different — in some families mums do most of the work (a hangover from the sexist gender roles of the past), in some the kids get pocket money for chores, in others it’s dads who do the housework, in some there’s a paid cleaner, and in others kids contribute without any pocket money. In some cultures cleaning is considered a sacred ritual, where you sacrifice your time for God. This is where the phrase ‘cleanliness is close to godliness’ may come from. Whatever your family make-up is, you personally as a teenager need to be contributing to the household cleaning. A great way to start is to talk to the adults you live with so you can all decide on how to delegate housework

equitably. Some families have a rule that whoever cooks doesn’t wash the dishes. In others certain jobs like taking out the bin is the responsibility of one particular person. However your family operates, work out how you can contribute and learn about all the household chores that need to be done so that when you leave home and share your space with friends or potential partners, you know what chores need to be done around the house!

Here’s a list of things you can think about doing: • washing, wiping and/or putting away dishes • sweeping floors • mopping floors • cleaning the toilet • taking out the bins • making beds • washing clothes, hanging out clothes and putting clothes away • ironing • dusting • wiping counters • cleaning the shower • setting the table, clearing the table • doing gardening • cleaning the car • looking after the pets • cleaning windows • tidying your room or other communal rooms • cleaning out your school bag • making your own lunch • cooking dinner

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By the time we hit our teens we may start questioning our place in the world and start to ask some pretty ‘big questions such as “why am I here”, “is there a God?” and “what is the meaning of life?” These philosophical questions can sometimes be very confusing and challenging, but they can also bring a great deal of satisfaction to one’s life. Often, in order to find the answers, we have to give some thought to our religious or spiritual beliefs, and our decisions about how to live a “good” or moral life. If someone asks you about your beliefs and / or religion and you are unsure what they are, it’s perfectly ok to tell them that you are still figuring it all out or are not sure! Perhaps you still identify with the religion of your family or culture. You certainly don’t have to change what you currently believe in, nor do you have to disclose your religion/beliefs. It’s your own personal journey. The world is a pretty big place, made up of billions of people who identify with various religions or spiritualties, and also many who do not believe in a god or an afterlife. Not everyone has the same 72

belief system so it’s really important to acknowledge and respect a person’s beliefs even if they are not the same as yours. This is called tolerance, and practicing it helps create peace and harmony. Often, learning about another person’s understanding of their religion and belief system can help you understand your own. In Australia it is a criminal offence (in the Anti-discrimination Act) to persecute someone for their religious views, or to treat people differently through abuse, bullying, or exclusion. There are some religions you may not be familiar with or others that have not been mentioned. Examples include: Rastafarianism, Scientology and Wicca. Most religions provide thoughts on some of the big questions you may be asking and suggest guidelines on how to live a good and moral life. Some religions may require particular styles of dress or have rules about the preparation and eating of food. Others may have set times of the day when prayers are to be offered. For many of you, your family’s religious traditions may become your own. Ask questions about your religious traditions if you are unsure what they mean for you. Some people look to a different set of beliefs to help the find answers to the big questions. Astrology, fortune tellers, mediums, and clairvoyants all stem from ancient traditional ideas, but are now classed as being “new age”.


There are also people who don’t subscribe to any one set of beliefs about the afterlife, and others who believe that the answers to the “big questions” come from inside themselves rather than from an external religion or doctrine.

Although the ideas range from a heaven or nirvana to the idea that your soul is reincarnated, a common theme is to live with kindness and to live in a way that makes you a better person. You don’t have to believe in an afterlife or a god to be a good person, but having a faith, believing in God and praying is very important to living a good life for many people.

Choosing not to believe does not mean you don’t live a good and ethical lifestyle.

There are no right or wrong answers. It’s all about what fits or doesn’t fit for you. With Mel Marks

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There is so much diversity in our world; it is completely ok to be unsure which religion (if any) is going to provide the right answers for you. Most religions try to explain what happens to you after you die and how to live in the world so that your afterlife is better.

26

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Bahai - 7 Here is a snap shot of the main religions that are practiced throughout the world every day. Pie Chart sourced from www.christianityinview.com

World religions (millions)

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Imagine reading a book that had no punctuation. No full stops, no commas, just one long list of words running into each other. Without the breaks in the text, it would be difficult to make sense of it, wouldn’t it? Meditation is like creating full stops and commas in your life. It can help you make sense of things just in the same way punctuation helps us make sense out of a stream of words. Meditation is a way to step back from life for a little while and let your mind settle. Spending quiet time observing your mind and body can be an opportunity to rest and refresh, and it can bring clarity and perspective. Practiced by people from a variety of cultural and religious backgrounds, meditation can have a spiritual significance or a psychological purpose. There are a number of different ways to meditate. For example, you can join a group, do it with friends or learn from a book or the internet at home. There are many techniques and systems available. If you want to get started, you don’t need to prepare anything or buy anything. You just need to have an open mind and be willing to accept what comes. Find a comfortable spot and sit or lie down. Somewhere quiet is good at first because you’re likely to be easily distracted. Choose a sense to come into contact with. Hearing and touch are usually the easiest for this. Close your eyes and become aware of your body. Be aware of your breathing and the position of your limbs, and locate any tension. Your mind will move, it will chatter. That is what it is used to doing. The trick is to be completely unperturbed. 74

Open out your senses and accept all that comes. Try not to comment or name things, but don’t worry if that happens. You can rest there for as long as you feel comfortable. It may only be possible to be still for a minute at first, but eventually that will extend. This is a way of coming out of your mind, away from thoughts and chatter, and coming into your body. The body is always in the present. Becoming aware of the body can relieve us of the mind’s tendency to always be running ahead to the future, or dreaming of the past. Like anything else, meditation takes practice. Do not be surprised if it seems impossible at first! Just observing your mind and how much thinking goes on in there is a revelation in itself. Be prepared to experiment with different techniques until you find something that works for you. Meditation is a very personal thing and anyone teaching it should respect your personal position. Meditation is free; you can do it anywhere. Let the story of your life have a comma or full stop, and it may start to make a lot more sense. By Kylie Haigh


A THIRST FOR PARANORMAL ROMANCE Ever found yourself in a love triangle between a vampire and a werewolf? Unlikely, I guess, unless of course you’re Bella Swan. The Paranormal Romance phenomenon that is Twilight, with its ‘are you team Edward or team Jacob’ debate found its way to t-shirts, hats, coffee cups and many bedroom walls. But let’s face it, Paranormal Romance is just that—Paranormal, or beyond normal explanation. The whole aim of it is to take you to a place that does not resemble real life, whilst at the same time allowing you to recognise the familiar within it. That’s what sucks you in and keeps you thirsty for more. I’m pretty sure you’re not sitting in Science class thinking the person next to you wants to drink your blood, because that would be beyond normal, but then neither was Bella in the beginning. What she was doing, right from the start, was comparing herself to the “perfect” Edward Cullen and constantly telling herself that she fell short of the ideal. However, it is the ordinariness of Bella that makes her so appealing to the audience. Bella represents something familiar that we all seem to recognise. As a clumsy, sulky, shy teenager, trying to build a new relationship with her father, we find her endearing, and this leaves us with a sense of familiarity. However, Bella’s low self-esteem and desperate desire to be accepted by those she sees as extraordinary, such as Edward and his family, becomes an underlying theme throughout the Twilight saga. Every decision Bella makes revolves around her wish to be with and be worthy of Edward. She gives up all that is essentially her—her humanness. Just to be with a boy, who, let’s face it, is over 100 years old, never eats, never sleeps and has been in the same year of high school since before she was born! Why? Because she thinks being like Edward is better than actually being herself. Self-esteem comes from within, and yes, while we can sometimes be bolstered by another person’s view of us, ultimately it comes down to what we really believe about ourselves. Our minds tell us stories all the time. It’s like having our own talkback radio in our heads. Our internal dialogue goes on and on and sometimes the stories it tells are really negative. It can repeat messages like ‘I’m not

good looking enough’ or ‘I’ll never be able to do it’, until those messages become what we actually believe about ourselves. We need to listen to our internal talk because sometimes we don’t even realise that our internal talk is so negative. This happens constantly with Bella. Her mind tells stories which reinforce for her that she can never be extraordinary like Edward. She relies on his “love” for her to make her feel worthwhile. Perhaps if her mind had been questioning her internal stories and rewriting them in a more positive way she may have chosen team Bella, and Jacob and Edward would have been left off the posters altogether. It’s normal to have doubts and to question ourselves, but having good self-esteem means liking who we are and who we are becoming. It doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t set ourselves goals and challenges, it just means making sure those goals and challenges fit with our values and beliefs rather than someone else’s. This isn’t easy, especially when there are so many messages about how we “should” be. Finding our own place and space takes time, and there’s no hurry. Knowing yourself really is a life-long process, because you keep changing and growing as you learn and experience things. When you are attracted to someone (even if it is the smell of their blood that excites you), it’s ok to be different to them. Boys don’t have to “conquer” girls and girls are not defined by their relationship to boys, despite what teenage literature tells us! It’s ok for the person you are attracted to to be great at something and for you not to be, or vice-versa. We don’t have to change ourselves so someone will like us or think we are worthy. If you feel that way, or you think someone would prefer you to change, then that person may not be the best match for you. We don’t all have to be the same. In fact if we were, it would be a pretty boring. Take your time and discover who you are, what you believe in and what you’re good at, and be proud of it. If you have negative internal talk going on in your head, change the station to something more positive. You don’t need a paranormal romance to be extraordinary—you just have to be yourself!

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Everyone over 18 must vote in Australia to choose who will represent them and make decisions for them in government. If you don’t vote you can be fined. This is why Australia is called a representative democracy. So it’s good to get an idea of how government works and what beliefs or policies the people you are voting for have, because they make the decisions in government for you!

For a capitalist society to work properly it needs workers, and every worker pays taxes. Workers’ taxes go to the government, who then provides services to the community. There are three levels of government and they are responsible for different issues and areas; Federal Government, State Governments or Territories, and Local Councils. As a result, Australians are governed by three sets of laws and vote three times in elections to vote for their representatives in these three governing bodies. The Federal or Commonwealth Government has two houses—the House of Representatives and the Senate, where decisions are made for the Federal Government. The Federal, or Commonwealth, Government is responsible for the whole of Australia and passes laws which affect the whole country. It is responsible for things like international border protection and national security, defence (the Army, Navy, and Air Force), immigration, Commonwealth National Parks, the environment, welfare, and the national economy. 76

States like Queensland receive half their money from the Federal Government and are responsible for justice, education, transport, health, consumer affairs, housing, forestry, main roads and railways, public transport, electricity and water supply, mining and agriculture, the police and ambulance services. The Federal and State Governments share responsibility in some areas and can make laws about things like roads and health; however where there is disagreement the Federal law prevails. Local Councils get money from all local property owners, from rates charged on the properties they own and from the Federal and State Governments. Local Councils are responsible for local area needs including rubbish collection, water and sewage, local roads, animal control, neighbour disputes, footpaths, parking, public recreation including public swimming pools, sports stadiums, halls, camping grounds, caravan parks, public toilets, public libraries, street signage, bridges, noise control, aged care, community care, welfare services, airports, cemeteries, cultural facilities like art galleries and museums, town planning,


building regulations and land subdivisions. There are over 560 councils across Australia. Elected people in local councils are called councillors or aldermen, while the leader of the council is called the mayor or president. In each state parliament except for the Queensland Parliament there are two houses; one is usually called the Legislative Assembly and the other the Legislative Council. Politicians elected for State Government are called Members of the House of Assembly (MHA) or Members of the Legislative Council (MLC). The leader of a state government is called the Premier. The Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory only have one house, called the Legislative Assembly. The leader of each territory government is called the Chief Minister. There are ten Australian territories. The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and The Northern Territory (NT) are on the mainland and the one offshore territory is Norfolk Island. They have been granted a limited right of self-government by the Commonwealth. In these territories, a range of governmental matters are now handled by a locallyelected parliament. Seven other territories governed by Commonwealth law are: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, the Australian Antarctic Territory, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay Territory, and the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islands. Australia’s formal name is the Commonwealth of Australia. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy—”constitutional” because the powers and procedures of the Commonwealth Government are defined by a written constitution and “monarchy” because Australia’s Head of State is the Queen of England, Queen Elizabeth II. Based on the values of religious tolerance, freedom of speech and association, and the rule of law, Australia’s institutions and practices of government reflect British and North American models. At the same time, they are uniquely Australian. After the savage colonisation of Australia’s Aboriginal people, Australia became a nation in 1901 (meaning the coming together of the various British colonies which were transformed into states). So there’s often an assumption that most of our political traditions came directly from the United Kingdom. But the way politics works in this country is unique and is always a work in progress, having evolved over the last 110 years. Australia’s political system has been described in several ways, a “liberal democracy” and the “Westminster system” being two of the most common phrases used. Although Australia remains a constitutional monarchy (despite a strong movement for a republic in the 1990s), we have gradually moved towards being an independent nation state. Queen Elizabeth II, currently represented by Governor-General Quentin Bryce, is the formal head of state, but the head of government is the Prime Minister. We don’t directly elect the PM, but rather the leader of the political party which wins the most seats in the lower house of Parliament, the House of Representatives, leads the government. When we vote in federal elections every three years we vote both for a representative for the particular area (electorate) we live in, and also for Senators to represent our states.

Political parties are also a major part of how our politics works in practice. The Senate has a different voting system, which means that smaller parties, like The Greens, find it easier to win seats in the upper house. The lower house, which determines who is the government, is dominated by the two major parties— the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal Party (with the largely rural Nationals usually working closely with the Liberals). Labor is often termed a “left wing” party, and the Liberals “right wing”, or conservative. So people’s votes are often influenced by how much change they want to see, and how they want society to be organised. Traditionally, the ALP was seen as the party of the working people, with the Liberals seeking the support of the middle class and business. But over the last few decades our politics has become more focused on personalities, and a lot of issues—particularly feminism, immigration and green issues such as climate change— have become as important as how income and wealth are distributed. You could also seek a career as a politician, or study politics to understand the law and the Constitution. You can really make a difference in politics, whether it’s as a local councillor improving public facilities, or a Federal Minister who helps to make decisions on big issues that can change how we all live in Australia. You can also make a difference by telling politicians what your concerns are. Did you know that most of our national budget is spent on the Military and Defence? If you think we should be spending more on improving the health of our Indigenous population, science, aged care, health, education, the Arts, helping refugees, or making laws that mean as a nation we only use renewal resources to generate our power needs, then get political! You can choose one thing that you want to change or make better, and tell politicians about your issue so that they can make a difference on your behalf. If you write to them they have to respond to you!

Many citizens are now dissatisfied with the degree to which political leaders seriously confront the big problems we face as a nation. In a democracy, though, we must hope that the political system will continue to evolve to be more responsive to ordinary people’s concerns, and that’s where we all come in. You will be voting in the future, so it’s really good to understand how our system works and how your vote affects the running of the nation. For more info on Australia’s political system check out http://www.peo.gov.au/ students/cl/multi.html

with Mark Bahnisch consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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Myth: you have to answer any questions that the police ask you.

Fact: you do need to tell the police your name, address and how old you are. You don’t need to answer any other questions. If the police keep asking you questions, ask them if you are free to go. If the police take you back to the station for questioning, ask them if you are going to be charged with a criminal offence, and if so, why? Speak to a lawyer before you say or sign anything!!!!

Myth Busting LEGAL ISSUES Myth: if you are under 18 years old, it is legal to walk to a party with alcohol so long as it’s not open and you’re not drinking it.

Myth: you’re not allowed to go to the doctor without your parents until you are 18 years old.

Fact: you are allowed to apply for your own medicare card when you turn 15 years old. If you find a doctor who bulk-bills (only charges what medicare pays) then you will not have to pay anything for your appointment.

Myth: if you make an appointment with the doctor to discuss contraception or pregnancy they can discuss those things with a parent or guardian.

Fact: what you tell your doctor is confidential, that is, it is between you and your doctor. If you are 16 years old and able to comprehend the nature of the advice given to you by your doctor, it is against the law for your doctor to tell your parents or anyone else about your medical records and treatment without your permission. Make sure you make it clear to the doctor you’re seeing that you want your appointment to be confidential.

Fact: it’s illegal for you to have alcohol in a public space before you are 18 years old. It doesn’t matter if it’s not yours, or if it’s not open.

Myth: you’re allowed to work as soon as you get a job.

Fact: generally, you need to be at least 13 years old before you are allowed to work, and even then you can only work restricted hours because legally you should still be at school. There are exceptions to this if you are doing something like a paper run, or if you are in the entertainment industry.

Myth: because it’s illegal for anyone under the age of 13 to work, you really shouldn’t have to do any housework.

Fact: wake up to yourself! You still have to do your chores around the house, and if you get paid for it then you’re lucky! 78


Myth: i can get a tattoo whenever i want!

Fact: if you get a tattoo before you are 18 years of age, then the tattooist is doing something illegal and could be charged.

Myth: now that I’m 16 years old I don’t have to go to school.

Fact: after either turning 16 years of age or completing grade 10 (whichever comes first), you need to continue some form of education or training for a period of two years. This “compulsory participation” requires completing a senior certificate or one of the “eligible options” (like a course provided by university or tafe, or an apprenticeship). You can stop going to the “eligible option” when one of the following things happens: »

Fact: in Queensland when you turn 17 years old you are treated as an adult and will be brought before the adult courts, thereby receiving an adult sentence.

Myth: my girlfriend and I are both 15 so it’s ok to have sex. No one is committing a criminal offence.

You get your senior certificate,

» You get a particular vocational qualification (like a certificate iii or higher level), » You keep going to school for two years after you stopped being of compulsory school age, or »

Myth: my friend, who is 17 years old, got busted with some pot. It won’t be a problem because he isn’t legally an adult so he’ll just go to kids’ court and nothing too serious will happen.

Fact: it’s illegal to have sex with someone who is under the age of 16, so technically both 15-year-olds could be charged with carnal knowledge.

You turn 17 years of age. Myth: getting caught stealing when I’m in my teens is hardly going to matter when I’m an adult.

Myth: it’s no big deal if I don’t go to school.

Fact: your school can punish you directly (detention) if you don’t go to school. Legally it is your parent’s responsibility to make sure you are attending school. In extreme situations, your parents could end up in court and may be fined.

Fact: if you do get caught stealing or land a criminal record for any offence, you may not be able to travel to some countries, like America. When you do things that are wrong, you not only feel bad, but you also have to face the consequences of your actions. Be mindful of your choices and try to look at the big picture.

By Julie Sarkozi consume magazine  issue one  september 2011

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YOUTH SERVICES If you live in a State Outside Queensland, you can contact National Agencies to find youth services in your area

Government Website www.youth.gov.au

Australian Youth Affairs Coalition www.ayac.org.au

Other peak bodies in other states and territories of Australia Youth Coalition of ACT www.youthcoalition.net Youth Affairs Council of Victoria (YACVic) www.yacvic.org.au Youth Network of Tasmania www.ynot.org.au Youth Affairs Council of South Australia (YACSA) www.yacsa.com.au Youth Affairs Council of WA (YACWA) www.yacwa.org.au

Beauty Redefined www.beautyredefined.net

Youth Beyond Blue www.youthbeyondblue.com

Dieticians Association of Australia www.healthyweightweek.com.au

Dundalli Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Corporation for Youth Services (07) 3857 8244

Support, Housing, Crisis Care, and Mental Health

Centacare (07) 3252 4371

Lifeline 13 11 14 www.lifeline.org.au Reachout www.reachout.com.au Sexual Assault Crisis Line (07) 3656 5206

Northern Territory Youth Affairs Network (NTYAN) ntyan@darcity.nt.gov.au

Legal Aid (07) 3636 5206 www.legalaid.qld.gov.au

Youth Affairs Network of Queensland www.yanq.org.au

Brisbane Rape and Incest Survivors Support Centre (07) 3391 0004

Directory of youth sector organisations in Australia http://www.acys.info/sector_ contacts

Statewide Sexual Assault Hotline 1800 250 1800

Body Image and Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Association Queensland (07) 3394 3661 www.eda.org.au Isis – The Eating Issues Centre Inc (07) 3844 6055 www.isis.org.au Eating Disorder Victoria (03) 9885 0318 www.eatingdisorders.org.au The Butterfly Foundation www.butterflyfoundation.org.au

Kids Helpline 1800 250 1800 Headspace www.headspace.org.au Open Doors (GLBTI) (07) 3257 7660 www.opendoors.net.au Centre Against Sexual Violence (07) 3808 3299 Crisis Care (07) 3235 9999 Brisbane Youth Service Inc (07) 3252 3750 www.brisyouth.org Sane Australia 1800 18 SANE www.sane.org Beyond Blue www.beyondblue.org.au

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Teen Challenge (07) 3422 1500 www.teenchallengeqld.org.au Salvo Careline 1300 363622 Careline 1800 77 17 77 Zig Zag Young Women’s Recourse Centre (07) 3843 1823 www.zigzag.org.au Picabeen Community Centre (07) 3354 2555 www.picabeen.org.au Project Circuit Breaker (Mission Australia) (07) 3621 4000 Orygen Youth Health Australia’s largest youth mental health organisation www.oyh.org.au

Drugs and Alcohol Reachout www.reachout.com.au National Institute of Drug Abuse www.nida.nih.gov Drug Arm 1300 656 800 www.drugarm.com.au Alcohol and Drug Information Service (07) 3837 5989 Youth Support and Advocacy Service www.ysas.org.au Indigenous Youth Health Service Ph: (07) 3240 8971 http://iyhs.org.au/

Sex and Sexuality Websites www.likeitis.org.au www.iwannaknow.org www.puberty101.com www.notsostraight.com.au (Gay/lesbian/bi-sexual information for young people) www.completelygorgeous.com.au www.somazone.com.au/

Sexual Health Websites www.thefacts.com.au www.scarleteen.com www.qahc.org.au

Bullying Websites www.bullyingnoway.com.au www.lawstuff.org.au www.cybersmart.gov.au www.theline.gov.au

Other major youth organisations CREATE Seeks to empower Australian children and young people placed in out-of-home care through a combination of direct service provision and systemic advocacy www.create.org.au Australian Clearinghouse for Youth Studies Home of the journal Youth Studies Australia, and a website of useful info for anyone interested in youth www.acys.utas.edu.au Foundation for Young Australians gives grants and produces publications on youth issues and programs www.youngaustralians.org YouthGAS This useful site for youth workers and young people has lots of resources. www.youthgas.com.au


Feedback This magazine can only be as good as the youth educators and young people who contribute to it. We would like to thank all the contributors, writers and artists that made this first edition. Did you like reading this magazine? We would love to hear what you thought about this magazine and what you think should be in the second edition. We would have loved more articles from young people and a broader range of youth educators. If you would like to contribute to further editions, provide suggestions or simply let us know what you thought about this edition please email admin@eda.org.au or leave feedback on the website www.consumemagazine.com



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