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Would you like to be part of the journalism team and have a chance to see your article in the HD magazine? Then you want to join us at Edith Cowan University!

JOURNALISM For more information, visit www.ecu.edu.au


Welcome to Health journalism delves into the wide array of issues affecting the bodies and minds of Australians, young and old. Edith Cowan University journalism students explore personal and public stories with issues ranging from pregnancy to drugs and how and where to go for help if you should find yourself dealing with one of these health dilemmas. The best stories and illustrations from 2012’s Health Journalism and Vector Illustration units are presented here with many thanks to the efforts of design lecturers Stuart Medley and Hanadi Haddad and journalism lecturer Kayt Davies. Art Directors Luke Goulding Mitchel Webber Rehana Badat Abbey Chiappalone Cover Artist Rehana Badat Journalists Narelle Owen Nicole Towers Aine Ryan Claire Ottaviano Gemma Bates Georgia Stout Demi Kaye Mariel Chow Chanel Darcy Jon Hopper Jasmine Amis Liana Gemmiti

Sub-editors Jon Hopper Narelle Owen Contents Artist Mitchel Webber About HD Artist Abbey Chiappalone

The HD magazine team comprised of journalism and design students who tirelessly edited and put together the final articles and illustrations you see here in this publication. The valuable experience gained from researching, writing and compiling these articles has helped prepare us for our future endeavours in the workplace after our studies. We hope you enjoy reading it as much as we have enjoyed putting it together.

Illustrators Abbey Chiappalone Mitchel Webber Luke Goulding Rehana Badat Jack McAuliffe Ye Wang Gracie Lee Barrow Anisha Halik Philip Troaca Toni Mison Yanyan Zhang Cale Arnold Nicole Broderick Yuelin Wang Wenjie Zheng Brendan Hunt Eleanor Beilby Thi Giang Anh Nguyen


Features Coping with Colic By Narelle Owen

It’s still a mystery as to why babies suffer from colic. But it’s no mystery why parents suffer from babies with colic. Here’s some tips to cope.

New Mums Encouraged to Just Speak Up By Nicole Towers

One in seven new mums experience postnatal depression. After recognising the signs, support is just an arm’s length away.

The Sugar Debate: How sweet is too sweet? By Aine Ryan

Is sugar the real reason we are growing outwards as a nation? If we cut out sugar from our diet, can we expect to slim-down super-fast?

Cerebral Palsy: Looking at it in perspective By Claire Ottaviano

Australians with physical disabilities are three times more likely to suffer from mental illness than someone without. But in some cases, their will and strength is astronomical.

Low Fat Life

By Gemma Bates

How often have you walked into a chemist, picked up a bottle and seen the bright label before reading the fine print?


A Rude Awakening By Georgia Stout

Could a weekend sleep in be as healthy as a 30 minute run? Could a quiet night be just as beneficial as a balanced diet?

Anorexia: The ugly truth By Demi Kaye

No one can say for sure what causes Anorexia Nervosa. But what is certain are the devastating effects it can have on a victim’s body, mind and loved ones.

Beyond Feeling Blue? By Mariel Chow

Acknowledging mental illness can be a difficult process. Once that has happened, finding help isn’t nearly as hard.

Drugs: A real story By Chanel Darcey

One woman’s journey from the darkness of addiction, to the rocky road of rehabilitation and finally, into the light of a clean tomorrow.

In Brief Leaving Baby Brain Behind

Therapeutic Indulgence

Future Pharmacy

Men and Monkey Sex

By Jon Hopper

By Jasmine Amis

Leveling Up

Healthy Smart Phones

By Gemma Bates

By Claire Ottaviano

By Narelle Owen

By Aine Ryan

HEALTH ISSUE


Article by Narelle Owen Illustrated by Gracie Lee Barrow

Jo Brookes sits on her couch, legs crossed, calm and relaxed. That is until Narelle Owen asks her to recall the ‘colic days.’

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Her first baby is now six years old and her second almost three, but still the anxious memories of those first few weeks of each bubs’ life flicker across her face like pain from a migraine. Jo subconsciously presses her fingers against her temple as she relives her first baby’s colicky beginnings. “Oh, my god,” she says of the crying, “It was like she was being murdered. She’d lift her little legs up and scream. It just went on and on and on. It would sometimes start at four in the afternoon and it would go until about 11.30 at night.” MyDr Australia asserts that when a baby cries inconsolably for more than three straight hours a day, for three days each week, for at least three weeks, you more than likely have a colicky infant on your hands. About 20 per cent of all newborns will suffer from colic. Jo was one of the unlucky ones, with both her baby girls experiencing the condition and although it’s not considered a serious affliction, a colicky baby’s incessant, painful crying can cause serious worry for parents.

treatments work. The department states the causes of colic are also inconclusive, however, one theory it offers is a breastfeeding mother’s diet could be to blame; caffeine, alcohol and cow’s milk are among the culprits the department lists in its online colic brochure.

But more than just her baby’s discomfort, Jo was also concerned about the toll all the crying was having on the thrill of what was meant to be a precious time. The emotional highs of joy and love you’re supposed to feel for your newborn can quickly turn into anxiety with the onset of colic.

“Because I was breastfeeding, some of the doctors think that you should watch your diet and others say that it has nothing to do with it. And coming from a natural place, I thought it’s best to do it that way, what’s it going to hurt to try,” she shrugs.

“You are so tired and so stressed, it takes the shine off all the good stuff. It’s really hard to see the reward of bonding when they’re so full of colic. And it’s probably not even the bonding, I think that’s automatically there, it’s more enjoying and being delighted that you’ve got a baby, that suffers,” she says.

“You get so desperate, you’ll try Ngala gave Jo advice on different baby anything. I’m not sure if it made a difference. It’s hard to pin point which calming strategies which made small foods worked and which didn’t work.” improvements to the hours of crying she had to endure. Warm baths infused lightly with lavender oil was Jo’s Whatever the trigger, the good news favourite. It relaxed not only Maya; it is that colic should pass by the time also gave Jo an hour of solace while the a baby is around four months old. calming effects lasted. But an hour was However, in Jo’s world, four months not long enough. was too long to wait. It was time to bring in the big guns. Ngala was next Maya continued her relentless, on her list. fingernails down the blackboard, For Jo the worry became so great Ngala was originally named The House screaming. Jo remained focussed on ending the nightly crying match that she had Maya, her first born, of Mercy and was established in the admitted for an overnight stay in 1890s as a health nurse training facility. permanently. Armed with her neverhospital in desperation to find a Over the years it changed its name and say-die attitude and the knowledge gained from her colic internet research, cure and the reason for her baby’s its purpose to helping families with crying. The doctors monitored her early childhood difficulties. In 2005 the Jo turned to a chiropractor for the answer. and found nothing wrong with the not-for-profit organisation won WA otherwise-thriving three-week-old. Jo, Citizen of the Year, Gold Swan Award her husband Glenn and, of course, the for its outstanding commitment to the Jo found a local infant care specialist ever-present screaming Maya were sent community and the support it provides at Nervana Chiropractic clinic and home sleep deprived and anxious, with to enhance the lives of Western made an appointment. Dr Alison the advice, “she’ll grow out of it”. Scott is a qualified chiropractor with Australian families. a Master of Science in Chiropractic Paediatrics and has been working at “The hospital gave her some anti-acid Jo heard about Ngala’s health nurses’ tablets but they didn’t really do infinite wisdom with colic and sleeping Nervana for seven years. She explains anything. Nothing seemed to work. I strategies through her mothers’ group that chiropractors target the source of where the pain may be coming from clung onto what the doctors told me… and took Maya for a visit. “I went in and use adapted techniques for an it will eventually stop,” she says. and had a day stay where they just infant’s tiny body. looked at things, but they can’t really do anything you know, they just help Colic is a fancy word for spasm or tummy pain. There is some debate over you out and reassure you that it’s going “We assess the spine thoroughly... the cause of colic, although trapped gas to be ok. I was constantly on the phone because that’s where the brain sends messages through the nervous system... with them. They’re so lovely and they or wind in a babies belly is a popular just talk to you, even if it’s just to have if there is a misalignment in the belief. According to the WA Health vertebrae it can actually impact on the a cry and a whinge,” she recalls with a Department, there is no definitive health of the body. smile. proof of exactly what colic is or what

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Ngala’s tips on settling a crying, colicky baby; • Have a warm bath with your baby but make sure the temperature is just right – not too hot or cold. You can even try feeding the baby while you’re in the bath together. • Hold your baby upright over your shoulder after a feed and rub their back. • Try massaging your baby after a bath. Use circular motions over their tummy or back, but stop if this upsets them more. • Hold your baby face down over your knee so it puts pressure on their tummy or you can do the same thing holding them along your forearm. • Hold your baby upright with the back of their head resting on your chest then bring your baby’s legs up to their tummy just like in the foetal position. • Rock, pat and cuddle your baby in a stimulation-free, quiet place. • Sing softly to your baby. • Remember, all babies cry. Try and stay calm and trust in your own judgement.

“We also get trained in working on releasing tension within the abdomen as well, which could be holding in the wind and gas, so we can work on it from both directions,” she says. Dr Scott sees exhausted parents and their colicky babies almost every day. On a slow week she treats only two, but on a busy week she can see up to 20 babies. She explains that although the exact cause of colic is unknown, the light adjustments she applies are enough to make improvements within the first few visits. “It’s really hard in colicky babies because we can’t ask them exactly what’s happening,” she says. “The manipulation that we do is very gentle, very specific and it’s very low force. It’s the amount of pressure that you would use to squeeze a tomato at the shops to check for ripeness.” She adds, “You’d expect to notice changes within the first two to three weeks.” Chiropractics for the treatment of colic have its fair share of critics. A 2009 study published in the International Journal of Clinical Practice by the academic physician Edzard Ernst is one such critic. Ernst’s research conducted a trial on two groups of

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babies concluding that using spinal manipulation as a treatment for colic showed no significant difference in symptom improvement between the babies having the treatment and those that didn’t. Dr Scott is fully aware of the report and brushes it aside as one man’s opinion. “We have some research done in Denmark...and it showed that up to 90 per cent of them [colicky babies] received improvements within the first couple of weeks of getting care. Mr Ernst doesn’t like chiropractors very much so he does often publish things which don’t agree with our philosophies,” she says slightly bemused. For Jo, Ernst’s study results didn’t apply to her baby. She found Maya’s hours of pain and crying improved within the first week of seeing Dr Scott. Her face softens as she speaks of the relief Maya found at the fingertips of her chiropractor. “For Maya, the chiropractor was the best thing. Even though it didn’t cure it completely, it definitely alleviated the symptoms. I found going to the chiro was the best way of getting rid of colic,” she says. Jo discovered that seeking help and advice is paramount in staying

balanced and calm in what seems like total chaos. All her weeks of searching and experimenting with different colic treatments finally paid off. She took the matter out of her hands and literally into that of her chiropractor’s and found the peace she was looking for. It is different for each parent and baby; what works for one may not work for another, but as Jo says “colic won’t last forever, it will stop eventually.”


Article by Narelle Owen Illustrated by Abbey Chiappalone

Most people have, at least once in their lives, misplaced their mobile phone, keys or wallet, but what about their first born child? Before you start judging, let me preface my story with, “But I was seven months pregnant at the time!” It all began on a relative­ly uneventful Thursday. I was living in Texas, where my local supermarket offered a wonderful crèche facility. Of course, being heavily pregnant with my second child, traipsing my three-year-old first born around a boring shopping centre was my least favourite thing to do, so I utilised this kind service. Not only did this crèche allow me to shop in relative peace, away from a tantrum-throwing toddler’s cries of “I wanna lollie”, there was also a built-in cafe in the centre. I could buy my groceries and have a (decaf) coffee without the hassle of having to peel a climbing child down from a food shelf or having my drink knocked over by a flying teddy bear. After taking advantage of my solo shopping hour, I went home, unpacked the car, sat down and wondered “why is it so quiet?” I’m not sure whether it was the chilled out feeling from the

stress-free trip or the anaesthetic-likeeffect of a monotonous chore that made me forget, but suddenly it hit me: I had left my little girl at the store crèche... I immediately blamed my ‘baby brain’.

occur in pregnancy can effect how a woman feels and thinks. Dr Laura Glynn, one of the article’s authors, said that there “may be some cost” because of these hormonal changes, forgetfulness being one of them.

Doctors have long debated this forgetfulness (aka ‘baby brain’) that pregnant women worldwide report experiencing. Researchers can’t agree whether the phenomenon really exists or if it is a mere side effect from sleep deprivation, another enjoyable symptom of pregnancy, or if it’s just because we expect it to happen.

And that’s the findings I’m going with for the purpose of my story.

The enormous hormonal changes that occur in pregnancy can effect how a woman feels and thinks

However, in a study published this year in the Psychology and Psychiatry Journal, researchers from Chapman University in California found that the enormous hormonal changes that

It all ended fine though. I bashfully returned to the store, picked my child up and left without telling the caregivers a thing. For me, the consequence of my ‘baby brain’ was thankfully minimal; an added dash of shame to what is already a guilt-ridden occupation, motherhood. Anxious questions like is my baby getting enough sleep, enough food or enough love are on most mums’ minds. But now I had another question to add to that list… have I remembered my child? The advice I offer any woman feeling the same hazy vagueness that came over me during my pregnancy is look twice before crossing the road, take extra care when you’re driving, don’t operate heavy machinery, and for god’s sake, no matter how tempting it is, make sure you don’t leave any of your little-noise-makers behind... it’s not worth the guilt.

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New Mums

Encouraged to

Looking into your newborns eyes should be one the happiest times of your life, but for some new mums it is not how they imagined it would be. These women may be feeling anxious, sad, withdrawn, helpless, and can’t understand why they feel depressed when they have a beautiful baby in front of them. These women are not alone as Nicole Towers uncovers… Illustrated by Thi Giang Anh Nguyen and Abbey Chiappalone

According to Beyond Blue, up to one in seven women in Australia suffer from Postnatal Depression (PND) in the year following the birth of their baby. Many mums suffering from PND are scared by their thoughts and are reluctant to discuss their feelings with anyone.

Subhan Dellar, a Perinatal Counsellor for Women’s Health and Family Services in Northbridge, provides therapy for mothers who suffer from PND. Ms Dellar believes they are battling with an inner conflict between how they feel and how they ‘think’ they should feel. “They love their baby but within themselves they are just feeling so down and so miserable,” she said. “Many women won’t want to say they are not coping.”

Recognising the signs

The severity of PND can differ between women from feelings of depression to anxiety being the most common. Ms Dellar has found, the women who are depressed will be feeling teary, hopeless and not engaging in their usual activities. The women on the more anxious side worry about their baby, worry about getting jobs done around the house and have trouble sleeping. “Most commonly they are teary and crying all the time and they don’t feel like going out of the house,” she said.“Women in a more severe state don’t feel a connection or bond to their baby or reject their baby in some way.” In her experience Ms Dellar has found that certain personality types are more prone to PND than others. “People with a perfectionist nature are prone to PND,” she said. “Also the people pleasing type personalities who put other people before themselves and then their own self care goes down.” It is important for mums to recognise these signs and not to be afraid to reach out to their loved ones for support.

How are relationships affected?

Postnatal depression can have a significant impact on couples, particularly if problems existed before starting a family. Ms Dellar explains, “One of the risk factors is if there is already a poor relationship where there has been conflict in the past, it can only make things worse not better,” she said. “Some males don’t understand what is going on and just put more pressure on their partner by saying ‘what’s wrong?’ and ‘where’s your old self?’” If the partner is unsupportive then it can make the road to recovery more difficult. The father can also be experiencing considerable stress and anxiety during the transition into parenthood with the extra responsibilities that it brings. “Dad might be feeling like he is not coping but feels that there is extra pressure on him to assist his partner,” says Ms Dellar. “He is doing more around the house, more of the baby care than he is used to and he is working during the day as well.” When the family is relying on Dad not only as the sole financial provider but also for his emotional support he may also need to seek help.

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Support systems

If families are concerned that their loved one may have postnatal depression, it is important to encourage them to speak to a health professional. “If she has depression or anxiety then she is going to need more support with family coming in,” said Ms Dellar. In her therapy sessions she has noticed that women who don’t have family to rely on, are susceptible to PND. “I am always amazed at the groups we run that 50 per cent come from a different place and they didn’t realise how much they would need their family until they had a baby,” she says. “Without that support there is so much isolation.” Ms Dellar has found that women from different cultures are reluctant to discuss their feelings with anyone. “There is a fear that if they do talk to somebody else that they’re going to have their baby taken away.” Her role is to let these women know that this is not the case and that she only wants to help them to be the best parents they can be. “Often…they know what answers to tick to make sure it looks like everything’s alright but on the inside they are suffering,” she said.

What treatments are available?

According to Ms Dellar, cognitive behavioural group therapy has proven to be really effective for women with postnatal depression. “Group therapy helps with the isolation factor, coming together and realising that they are not alone,” she said. During the program women learn how to manage their thoughts and behaviours. “We teach them skills about how to deal with their own mental health.” Women with a history of mental illness, such as manic depression or bipolar disease, can have extreme cases of PND, which may lead to psychosis or manic episodes. “One in 1000 women who give birth will go into a psychosis afterwards, usually within the first few weeks, where they have a personality change and lose touch with reality,” Ms Dellar said. During this time, women may have suicidal tendencies or thoughts about harming their baby. “There is a real risk to their child and to themselves because some women do take their lives in this period,” she said. “The fact that they have started to think about harming their baby leads to more guilt and shame and they beat themselves up about it.” The women who are identified as being at high risk can seek help at the mother and baby psychiatric unit at King Edward Memorial Hospital. Mums and their babies up to 12 months old can stay there together for two to four weeks and be properly assessed. Ms Dellar believes this is a crucial time for women to get professional help otherwise it can impact on the social and emotional development of the child. “When the mum is depressed it will affect their parenting, their attachment with their baby and there will be ongoing issues with their child if left untreated,” she said.

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Just Speak Up

It is so important for mums to know that they are not alone and there are many other women who are going through the same anxieties and feelings. The Beyond Blue, Just Speak Up campaign encourages women and their families to speak up, share their stories and get the help they need. On the website there are story galleries of women describing their personal battles with PND including Broadcaster Jessica Rowe who is the public spokeswomen for the campaign. Ms Rowe shares her own experiences with PND on the website to encourage other women to get help. “I knew I would never hurt my baby but I kept thinking about everyday objects in the house and what damage they could do to Allegra”, she said. “I spoke to my husband and it was one of the hardest things I’ve ever had to do because for me to be saying I am not coping and need help was so difficult.” The Just Speak Up campaign also aims to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness by women talking openly and spreading awareness about it. “It’s a public domain where you can hear each others’ stories, it’s like being in a big support group,” Ms Dellar says. Mothers are not alone in their struggle and there is support available to help them overcome their depression. Ms Rowe believes the most important thing is to seek help and to speak up. “I know that made all the difference to me and then I could focus on being a mum and getting to know my baby which is what it’s all about.”

For information and assistance about group therapy in your local area contact the Postnatal Depression Support Association on (08) 9340 1622.

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Bouncing back facts

The Bouncing Back group program is provided for women in regional WA who are experiencing or are at risk of postnatal depression. The WA Health Department evaluated the effectiveness of the program using data collected over a five-year period between 2003 and 2007. The mothers were asked to rate the program’s impact on their coping abilities:

97.9 % 97.9 per cent reported that the program had been of some help in assisting them to cope better with depressed feelings and postnatal problems.

82.1 % 82.1 per cent reported that attending the group had helped them to cope better when under stress.

71.6 % 71.6 per cent indicated that sharing their feelings and experiences with others in a non-judgmental environment had helped them cope better with their adjustment to postnatal problems.

95.8 % 95.8 per cent indicated their relationship with their baby was better after attending the group.


Therapeutic Indulgence Article by Aine Ryan Illustration by Luke Goulding

I love chocolate as much as the next person. Who doesn’t crave the rich, mouthwatering goodness that melts on your tongue? I’ve had my days of curling up in bed with a bar of chocolate while crying over The Notebook.

3. Dark chocolate contains chemicals Us ladies have been calling it comfort called flavonoids, which are also food for years, and it seems this was found in red wine. Flavonoids have never a myth to be busted. Studies have been found to lower low density shown that dark chocolate really does lipoprotein cholesterol (otherwise provide comfort, in the following ways. known as ‘bad’ cholesterol) levels, while protecting the body against coronary heart disease. 1. Apart from tasting amazing, dark 4. It also contains antioxidants that can chocolate instantly boosts your balance your hormones. concentration and mood making you feel more energized and vibrant. When you eat dark chocolate, the levels of endorphins that are released Apart from tasting amazing, into your brain are increased. Endorphins decrease stress and dark chocolate instantly boosts lessen pain.

your concentration and mood

2. There is a chemical found in chocolate that causes the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter thought to increase well-being and happiness while being an anti-depressant.

5. Dark chocolate releases something called phenylethylamine, otherwise known as a ‘chocolate amphetamine’ that causes changes in blood-sugar

levels and blood pressure. These changes lead to feelings of alertness and excitement. Phenylethylamine works like amphetamines in the way in which it decreases depression and increases mood, however it is not addictive. 6. Phenylethylamine is also named the ‘love drug’ as it causes a person’s pulse rate to accelerate, making a person feel the way they do when they are in love! So, if there is trouble in paradise, you are feeling sad about a friend, family member or your job, don’t feel guilty about taking a few bites of dark chocolate. But, let me leave you with these two words: In moderation. Now go on. Treat yourself!

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When Brisbane lawyer David Gillespie’s wife, Lizzie, revealed that she was pregnant with not one child, but a set of twins, he decided he was going to have to lose weight. Aine Ryan explores his story. The Gillespies were already parents to four children under nine years of age and Mr Gillespie felt his parenthood journey was going to be considerably harder while he was overweight. “I was going to have to be a dad to twin babies and four other young children and I couldn’t see myself managing it carrying 40 extra kilos, feeling lethargic and not sleeping,” he said in his 2008 book, Sweet Poison. Mr Gillespie had tried to lose weight in the past by exercising more, reducing the fat in his diet and simply eating less, but found that while these were effective ways of losing weight, it was hard to stay motivated. Mr Gillespie had been reading studies of the human metabolism and quickly learnt that the fructose part of sugar was fattening in animals, and possibly humans as well. He also discovered that sugar seemed to make humans want to eat more food than necessary. Mr Gillespie started eliminating sugary foods such as biscuits, cereal, juice and soft drinks. He began limiting himself to no more than 10g of sugar in each meal. After a few months he began not needing any willpower. He simply did not crave sugary foods anymore. “I’ve now lost the 40kg and, more importantly, no longer worry about

weight gain at all,” he said in the book he has written since losing the weight, Sweet Poison.

to see a result and I don’t believe just changing one nutrient such as sugar is going to aid in weight loss.”

“I know that I can eat when I feel hungry and stop when I feel full and I will not put on weight. I can eat whatever I like whenever I feel like eating, as long as it does not include sugar.”

“It also depends on how much sugar a person eats,” he said.

Perth nutritionist and sports dietician Boris Kazakov disagreed with Mr Gillespie’s claims that sugar is toxic to the body. “We’ve had sugar for years and years but David believes that every condition afflicted is via sugar,” he said. “Some of the studies that he’s actually put forward in his books are correct but to make a blanket statement that everything is caused by sugar is probably not correct.

“If you don’t eat much sugar and you cut it out, you won’t see much of a result. David believes he can eat high fat foods like bacon and eggs and still lose weight. It’s ludicrous. “You need to modify how much you eat. I mean, even a healthy diet, you can eat healthy foods and still not lose weight. You’re just consuming more than what your body needs.” Nutritionist Lisa Snowdon, who is recognised as Australia’s detox and diet guru, also believes sugar is toxic and that it should be cut out of our diets immediately.

“I don’t agree with that.”

“Cold turkey is the way to break the sugar addiction. A sugar detox is the best way to go,” she said.

Mr Kazakov explained that sugar on its own is not enough to lose weight.

“It’s painful for a few days, but that’s all.

“We can’t dispute the fact that he lost 40 kg, but what else did he change in his diet other than just sugar alone?” he asked.

“Then you’ll find your energy is better, you lose the cravings for sugar and your body can get into fat burning

“When one loses weight, you’ve got to change various aspects of your diet

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rather than fat storage mode, so you’ll lose weight (as long as you stick to it),” she said.

She also believes consumers are blissfully ignorant about the dangers associated with sugar.

“A glass of soft drink a week is not a problem. Two litres of soft drink a day is a problem.

Ms Snowdon said there are many dangers associated with a high intake of sugar.

“People don’t want to know that sugar is harmful as most Australians are addicted to sugar and don’t want to have to deal with the problem.”

“Seven out of 10 adults do not eat enough vegetables. Vegetables are good for you.

“Too much refined fructose and too much refined table sugar are the problem,” she said.

Nutritionist Glenn Cardwell disagrees with Ms Snowdon’s theory.

“The problem with fructose is it’s metabolised in the liver and too much causes fatty liver, similar to too much alcohol.

Sugar is sucrose, a combination of glucose and fructose, two natural sugars found in fruit, vegetables, honey,” he said.

“It can cause leptin resistance. Leptin is the hormone that’s produced to tell us when we are full, so when we eat fructose-laden foods there’s no off switch to our appetite and we just keep eating.

“We have been eating them for millennia.” Mr Cardwell said Mr Gillespie didn’t understand good nutrition, as

“Most people eat ‘bad’ amounts of vegetables. Most pop-nutritionists cannot grasp the concept of good nutrition.” Adrian Lopresti is a clinical psychologist in Perth who specialises in both psychological and nutritional treatments for mental health problems. Mr Lopresti also agreed with Mr Gillespie’s claims that sugar is a dangerous nutrient.

“Fatty liver, obesity, heart disease and diabetes are the result and these are serious lifestyle diseases that can dramatically reduce the quality and quantity of our lives.” Ms Snowdon says food companies are to blame for our sugar intake. “The science is really only just coming out about sugar and it’s slow to get into the public domain as there are so many companies that benefit from keeping us addicted to sugar.”

everything is about how much a person “When consumed in excess, sugar is eats or drinks, and how often. definitely toxic to the human body and is a major cause of disease and illhealth,” he said. “Nutrition is about amount and frequency. Stating that a food, or a component of food, is bad for you is “Unfortunately over the last few not how nutrition works. decades our sugar consumption has increased dramatically and is commonplace in Western diets. “Today we are consuming far too much sugar via processed and take-away foods.

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“Our soft drink consumption (including juices) has increased dramatically and is believed to be a significant contributor to obesity, diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases.” Mr Gillespie said there a certain products people should look out for when grocery shopping, such as breakfast cereals, muesli bars and most yoghurts.

“It should be 3g (or less) per 100g. If it is a drink then it needs to be 0g per 100 (because we drink more than 100ml in a sitting) and if it is a dairy product then it must be 8g or less (because the first 5g are lactose, which is a sugar but is fine).”

When consumed in excess, sugar is definitely toxic to the human body and is a major

He said shoppers must know what is in the food they buy and consume.

cause of disease and ill-health

“Look at the sugars line on the nutrition panel,” he advised.

Mr Kazakov said that not everybody consumes the same amounts and types

of food, so Mr Gillespie should not assume everyone needs to follow the same diet that he did. “I have to assess what the client’s lifestyle is all about and assess what they’re currently eating in terms of how often do they have takeaway foods, how much alcohol they drink, how much sugary foods and how they cook their foods,” he said. “I assess all that and then come up with a plan that’s individualised for the specific client. These are unfounded opinions that he’s got and let’s face it, he’s a lawyer. He’s not a dietician.”

Article by Aine Ryan Illustration by Anisha Halik

According to Calorie King, a website designed to help Australians see how much sugar, carbohydrates and protein are in the foods they eat, sugar should make up no more than 10 per cent of your total energy intake for the day. 10 per cent is equal to 50 grams or 10 teaspoons of sugar in a 2000 calorie-a-day diet. Australians already consume 30-40 teaspoons of refined sugar per day. Most of this sugar is added to food products such as soft drinks, confectionary and baked goods. Natural sugar, such as the sugar in fruit or a glass of milk, is not included in the recommendation. Calorie King believes it is not necessary for people to watch their intake of naturally occurring sugars. Below is a list of popular foods that Australians consume, as well as the amount of sugar in teaspoons in each food.

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Obesity epidemic amongst Australian children Article by Liana Gemmiti & Illustration by Philip Troaca According to the latest National Health Survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), in 2007-2008, Australian children are not eating the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables and a growing proportion of them are either obese or overweight. Of particular concern is the excessive consumption of foods high in fats, sugar and salt. According to researchers at Deakin University, banning foods and other coercive tactics, may be counterproductive. Instead parents are encouraged to promote healthy eating by exposing children to healthy foods, being models for healthy eating and reinforcing healthy eating at home.

What our children are eating

CHIPS

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What our children should be eating

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seit

Obe


article by Jon Hopper illustration by Toni Mison HD ponders the pharmacy of tomorrow and takes a look at what the researchers, chemists and drug companies are developing. Also, we take a look back at what used to be behind the counter, but isn’t anymore.

Researchers from Long Island University in New York may have made an important breakthrough in the battle against prostate cancer. The treatment has come from a source that grows in many herb gardens right around the country, oregano. Scientists extracted a chemical called carvacol from the herb and when it was added to prostate cancer cells, they were rapidly destroyed. When Pharmacologist Supriya Bavadekar presented his team’s findings to an Experimental Biology Conference in San Diego earlier this year he stressed that the results were very preliminary and more tests would have to be conducted.

While working on a drug to treat depression, Pfizer may have stumbled upon an oral treatment for autism. A Pfizer research program found mice given the drug called GRN-529 spent more time interacting with other mice and less time doing repetitive grooming and jumping . The drug that targets parts of the brain linked to behaviour and socialisation was then given to mice displaying signs of autism. The mice reduced anti-social behaviour and actions associated with autism according to research published in the Science Translational Medicine journal.

A Japanese pharmaceutical has had some impressive results in a Phase 2 clinical trial of a multiple sclerosis drug. Ono partnered with pharmaceutical company Merck to test the oral drug.The trial concluded that in the mid-range dosage category, the drug eliminated 92 per cent of brain lesions compared to the patients taking the placebo. Lesions (or scleroses) are scarring of the brain’s white matter. Phase 3 trials are required before the drug can be released.

In the early 19th century if your child had a nasty cough, pharmacists were likely to say nothing would clear it up quicker that healthy dose of heroin.

Now well known to be poisonous, Mercury was once championed as a treatment for syphilis. Sufferers would apply mercury to sores where it would act as a disinfectant. This is mainly because mercury tends to kill anything living it comes into contact with. Syphilis wasn’t effectively treated until the arrival of penicillin.

Another testament to the great healing/killing properties of mercury was its use in contraception. Women in ancient China were encouraged to drink mercury to prevent pregnancy. Bearing in mind that mercury exposure causes lung failure, brain damage, muscle spasms and kidney disease, it probably did a pretty good job of limiting a women’s chance of falling pregnant.

In 1897 Felix Hoffman was working for Bayer pharmaceuticals trying to turn morphine into codeine, when he accidentally ended up with heroine instead. Morphine addiction was already a problem, so Bayer jumped on heroin as a non-addictive substitute to morphine, and also a top notch cough suppressant. A few years later, Bayer discovered heroin metabolises into morphine once it enters the body, so they’d effectively created a supermorphine and sold it to kids.

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Men and Monkey

By human nature, we respond to colours. Hospital walls are often green because the colour is easiest on the eye and relaxes patients. Doctors and nurses mostly wear white because its ability to show dirt means it represents sterility. It is widely accepted that red is associated with love and sex, as red represents the heart. Sexually speaking, it has been suggested that women wear red clothes, and in particular, bold red lipstick because it reminds men of their lady parts. A team from the School of Anthropology and Conservation at the University of Kent in the United Kingdom did a study to find out whether men were actually more sexually attracted to red, like our fellow primates. In monkeys, the colour red is synonymous with sex. Chacma baboons showed increased levels of masturbation when presented with infertile females fitted with red, artificial sexual swellings, and male rhesus macaques spent significantly longer looking at

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altered images of their female counterparts when their genital regions were artificially enhanced with the colour red. HD would like to remind any of our readers distracted and confused by the fact that monkeys do indeed masturbate, that this article is about a scientific experiment and the colour red. The study consisted of 16 generated images of the female genitalia with a subtle gradation of pinks and reds within the normal colour range of the vulva. Then 40 heterosexual men were shown the images, and rated the sexual attractiveness of each image. Results found that men did not show a preference for the reddest shade, and in fact found this the least attractive.


It was considered that perhaps in humans, we instead associate the colour red with detection of disease risk or blood. It is also possible that humans associate red and women with menstruation, a period of infertility that would lead to unsuccessful mating efforts. Basically for us, that means women don’t have to worry about squeezing into sexy red lingerie anytime soon, and men aren’t as much like monkeys as women think.

Article by Jasmine Amis Illustration by Yanyan Zhang

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When she was first diagnosed with cerebral palsy doctors told her mother there was a 10 per cent chance she would live through the night, and if she did, she would never walk or talk.

Article by Claire Ottaviano Illustration by Cale Arnold

A survey by the Australian Bureau of Statistics found that people with a physical disability are three times more likely to have a mental disorder than someone without.

watching TV or having a Everybody has been through some state drink with mates rather of depression, anxiety, even stress but than slogging it out onjuggled a not many can say they have treadmill for half hour a mental health issue an with multiple physicalday. disabilities. every If you’re going to learn anything from someone with a physical disability it’s most likely going to be, ‘don’t judge a book by its cover’. Approaching 21-year-old Kristina Harwood, you wouldn’t think she’d had a stroke at birth or have to inject herself twice a day to prevent blood clots. For Kristina her life is no different to any other ‘fully-abled’ person. When Kristina was born she experienced a preeclampsia, a problem

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which occurs only in pregnancy. Preeclampsia is commonly explained as a rapid rise in blood pressure that can lead to fits, stroke or organ failure and even death for the mother and/or baby. At birth Kristina had a fit, which led to her being diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). But don’t try to tell Kristina she has a disability. “I don’t consider myself to have a disability, a disability is the inability to do something. Find something I can’t do,” Kristina said with a defiant smile.

picking things up or just simple things, general things I can’t do…very well…I’ve found my own way of doing stuff.” When she was a child she used to walk on her toes so the doctors put her leg into serial casting. A process where they forced her foot into the right position and then left it cast for six weeks. “When that was over they’d take it off and force it up higher and I’d be in and out of that for months just trying to stretch the muscle,” she said.

“My [form of CP] is very mild. Normally you get more severe, like the people you see in the wheel chairs, they can’t walk, they can’t talk. Mine’s just on my right side, it’s purely muscle based so it’s all my fine motor skills.”

There’s more to Kristina’s story than a childhood of physiotherapy and hydrotherapy. When she was 18 she started experiencing pain in her lung, which she shrugged off as a pulled muscle from horse-riding and rock-climbing that day.

Separating her finger with her left hand she said, “I can’t do stuff like that, sometimes it’s holding things or

“I went to the hospital and they confirmed it was a PE which is a pulmonary embolism, which is a blood


clot in your lung. Because the lung and heart are connected they did a scan of my heart and [discovered] I have a blood clot sitting on my right tricuspid valve. “I’ve lost count of how many blood clots I’ve had. Most of the time they lodge so they just get stuck and I can actually pin point where it is, I can feel it and I know the pain, I know the signs and symptoms now so I just go straight to the hospital.” Despite these factors in her life Kristina grasps the positives and sees that her experiences have made her stronger. “Everything happens for a reason and I live by that. You just have to turn something negative into something positive. Everything in this life happens for a reason. I’m a huge believer in that, you may not see the reasons straight away but look back on it two months… two years and

you’ll be like, if that didn’t happen, I wouldn’t be here.” When we think about a disability, we tend to think it only affects the individual but a lot of the time, surrounding friends and family are directly impacted. Shockingly, before Kristina was diagnosed with blood clots the doctors told her she had heart cancer. “I just remember everybody around me falling to bits and crying and I’m like… what’s going on? Why is everyone crying? I never really reacted to anything… I’m just like, alright, what are you going to do about it. I’d never seen my best friend cry, ever, and he was in tears, hysterical,” Kristina said. After suffering a miscarriage, Kristina had to go off Clexane, her medication, which was a particular point in her life where she showed fear. “Because I had to go off Clexane, I was

petrified of waking up and not being able to talk, waking up and not being able to see, not being able to move my arms and legs. You can have a stroke.” As if this ordeal wasn’t enough, in February last year Kristina had an IVC filter placed in the inferior vena valve in her heart, kind of like a net that catches any clots. For this procedure the doctors attempted to insert it through the groin, but because of the blood clots they had to go through her neck. Kristina was awake and remembers the entire operation. “I can remember everything, and that kind of fucked with me a little bit. When I came home I went through a stage for about six weeks where I had complete anxiety, freaking out, constantly thought I was having a stroke, would sit in front of the mirror for hours watching my face, making sure it wasn’t drooping. It could have been a delayed reaction from everything that happened…

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making is how we learn, and making mistakes is a natural part of learning. I think being able to make choices about what we want to do is a big part of [maintaining ones independence].” This has been important to Kristina, as she never let anyone tell her she couldn’t do something.

people with disabilities and sometimes those messages can affect self-esteem and how people see themselves. We Kristina thinks that her remaining calm internalise messages that somehow people with disabilities are bad and is better for everyone around her. So not to be looked at… when I work with if she wakes up with a blood clot, she will quietly take herself to the hospital, people with disabilities sometimes it’s often there is nothing they can do but about the socialisation issues, which is maintain her medication and keep her different for someone who acquires a disability later in life.” under observation. because I’d never actually reacted [before].”

“[You have] to be yourself, be strong, you are who you are, you can’t let it stop you, especially when you’re young, which is why I want to work with kids with disabilities. I think that’s really important, they need to have, not just the physical development… they’ve got to build up resilience. “They have to build up a thick skin because it’s cruel out there and it’s horrible and it’s going to hurt and there are going to be nights and days when you don’t want to get out of bed, when you don’t want to go to school, when you feel like you’ve got no friends but you’ve got to know it’s not going to last forever. As you get older, things are going to get better.

“My nan has had quite a few strokes in her life so she’s built up a thick skin from the beginning. My sister is studying nursing... The more she knows about the medical, the more she stresses about me. The way I react has probably made it easier on them. I try not to freak out, try and be strong you know. I do have my freak outs occasionally, but only Troy (her fiancé) is privy to that.”

If you met Kristina without any prior knowledge of her conditions, her calm and pleasant demeanor would fool you into thinking she was just your typical girl next door. She’s engaged, studying and has future plans for her wedding and children.

Health Psychologist from Independence Australia, Dr Andrew Sinclair, describes why some people will react differently than others to sudden change.

“Don’t let anyone tell you, you can’t do something, ever. You want to climb “I think it’s a human right to be able to Mount Everest? Go and do it. make decisions about your life, to be able to make choices in how you spend “My grandmother told me ‘never let anyone tell you, you can’t do anything. your life… including getting married, Don’t let yourself be wrapped up in having children, being employed, and choosing your friendship groups, those cotton wool, don’t let teachers say, it’s alright, you sit here because you can’t kinds of things. do it’. “I think there are a lot of barriers, “It has a whole lot to do with your especially for people with profound mental attitude towards things. You’ve disabilities who live in supportive got to have that positive mental accommodations settings or require attitude or you’re screwed from the wheelchairs. It’s about being able to very beginning.” make decisions in your life, decision

“People who are born with the disability do describe not knowing any different so they don’t necessarily experience losses in the same way as someone who loses function or ability through acquiring a disability later in life,” Dr Sinclair said. “Having said that… in society we internalise a lot of messages about

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Because of her experience Kristina wants to work with children with disabilities, as a qualified carer, and she is continuing study in the field.

Dr Sinclair explains why this type of independence is vitally important and can re-energise those with physical disabilities.


I think it’s a human right to be able to make decisions about your life, to be able to make choices in how you spend your life… including getting married, having children, being employed, and choosing your friendship groups, those kinds of things.

What does an aged and disabled carer do? • Provide general household assistance • Emotional support • Care and companionship for aged and disabled persons in their own homes. • Accompanying aged and disabled persons during daily activities • Assisting clients with their mobility • Preparing food • Arranging social activities • Performing housekeeping tasks such as vacuuming and cleaning • Assisting in personal hygiene and dressing

Some of the most important skills to have as a carer, as listed on the the Australian Government Job Outlook website are; • Equipment maintence • Judgement and decision making • Learning strategies • Active listening and learning • Time management • Effective communication

Australian Government Job Outlook says that employment prospects for aged and disabled carers is good and expected to “grow very strongly” between 2015 and 2016. For more advice and career opportunities visit Australian Job Search at: http://joboutlook.gov.au/pages/occupation.aspx?code=4231 Or have a look at the Tafe Course Catalogue: http://www.eti.wa.edu.au/course-catalogue.html

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The Low Fat

SPECIAL SSS

Miracle

Weight

Loss

LZDZ

Gemma Bates looks at why Australians would rather swallow a pill than excercise. We’ve all been there. We’re time poor and lazy and any free time would rather be spent watching TV or having a drink with mates rather than slogging it out on a treadmill for half an hour every day.

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The kilos slowly pile one, your jeans start to feel a bit tight and we promise ourselves “tomorrow I’ll do something about it”. But since when has doing something about it meant reaching for diet pills over good old fashion healthy eating and exercise? In 2007 the Department of Health and Aging undertook an extensive national health survey. The statistics were alarming, but sadly, not surprising. Results showed that approximately 61

y.

per cent of Australian adults and a staggering 25 per cent of Aussie children aged between 5 and 17 were considered to be overweight or obese, putting them at risk of contracting a host of conditions such as early onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases to chronic back pain and sleeping problems. There is great pressure for Australians to change these alarming statistics,


from the Government’s “Find 30” campaign aimed at getting us moving again to our cultural obsession with beauty. It’s no surprise then that we spent an estimated $789 million on the weight loss industry in 2010, throwing money at weight loss supplements, meal replacement programs, dieticians, low calorie shakes and books. “Point me to your weight loss section,” asks a customer at a busy Perth pharmacy, the second such request in the hour I spent with pharmacy owner and pharmacist Rachel Morgan-Jones. In her mid-thirties, slim and with an easy smile, Ms Morgan-Jones is the picture of health as she stands in front of a formidable looking wall stocked from floor to ceiling with medications and eye-catching signs that cheerily declare “ask your doctor about me!” Selling health is her business. The customer, laden with shopping from the nearby supermarket begins to peruse the staggering array of supplements, bars, shakes and pills. A happy blonde leers down from a poster, holding a shake and looking at it with adoration, “you can look just like me” the poster suggests but does not say. Ms Morgan-Jones begins rattling off what sounds like a well-rehearsed script about high protein this and low carbohydrate that, retelling the success stories. The customer reaches for a bottle with “Metabolism Booster” boldly stamped across it, opting like so many for what they think to be the quick fix. The miracle weight loss pill.

In 2012 the Department of Health and Ageing released a series of guidelines for the health industry to help when dealing with the management of overweight or obese adult patients. It says an eating plan involving a reduced energy intake is more favourable than strict diet plans that eliminate total food groups, for maintaining and sustaining weight loss. They also supported and remarked on the effectiveness of meal plans or meal substitutions, saying, as well as weight loss, an improvement could also be seen in waist circumference, cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar levels. No mention was made of diet pills, metabolism tablets or weight loss detoxes. Ms Morgan-Jones admits to the store selling a lot of these so-called “diet pills”, containing weird and wonderful, confusing and often unpronounceable ingredients, all packaged into a convenient twice a day tablet. “What people don’t realise is that most are just Vitamin C, guarana and fibre… throw in a little milk thistle and you can say it helps detox the liver,” she tells me in a soothing English accent. It is not hard to see how so many Australians fall for the diet pill

trap and why so many are bypassing the doctor’s surgery in favour of their local chemist or health food store. In Australia alone the market for weight loss programs and supplements has rocketed, though in many cases the cause of the weight gain is never completely dealt with. Many people turn to over the counter pills as a fix all solution to what is often a much deeper problem. Depression, medication, stress and even giving up cigarettes can cause weight gain and all require intervention and assessment from a health professional before undertaking any drastic weight loss programs. “Besides prescriptions and paracetamol our biggest seller is Slimmm,” Ms Morgan-Jones tells me. It proves just how prevalent the weight loss market has become, rivalling large pharmaceu-

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tical companies and providing a large portion of the shop’s profits. “The worrying thing is when respected vitamin companies tout weight loss products, customers think they’re somehow safer,” Ms Morgan-Jones said. But side effects of diet pills can be disastrous, with many prescriptions and over the counter medications being recalled for causing the very side affects the consumers were hoping to avoid in the first place. Cardiovascular problems including palpitations and heart attacks are not uncommon. Ms Morgan-Jones remarks that the desire to be thin often far outweighs the potentially life threatening side effects. Many diet pills are deemed foods, not medicines, and therefore are not subject to the same rigorous drug approvals. Many slip through the cracks and onto the market, the results of which can be disastrous and humiliating. Earlier this year the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) admonished one such diet pill, claiming many of the ingredients to be useless. The pill which claims to “undo” poor eating choices was found by the TGA to contain high amounts of the natural laxative senna but the ingredient has since been removed from the supplement. “Most are tested but not at the rigorous standards of prescription weight loss drugs,” Ms MorganJones said, adding a reminder that no medication is without side affects, flashing her bright pharmacist smile that subliminally tells me everything will be ok. This epidemic has seen an alarming increase in instances of type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as an increase in the number

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of prescriptions doctors are writing for medications in the battle to lessen the often-irreparable effects being overweight has on the body. It comes as no shock that Australia’s, and the world’s, highest selling pharmaceutical is Lipitor. Released in 1985, Lipitor sees sales of $250 million per year in Australia alone. When you consider obesity has surpassed smoking as the number one killer in the country and costs the Government approximately $58 billion a year in health care services, medication, facilities and health campaigns, it’s not surprising that consumers are turning to alternatives to help them beat the bulge. More alarming is the rise in diseases not commonly seen in children and teenagers. Type 2 diabetes was once uncommon, as was high blood pressure and sleep apnoea. There are more weight loss programs and solutions on the market than ever before, not to mention the plethora of low sugar, low fat, light food options and diet. However, it’s not being reflected in our nation’s ever-ballooning waistlines The onus for our ever-expanding waistlines has fallen on our sedentary lifestyles, television, computers, our increasing addiction to technology and our decreasing desire to head outside. It would seem getting active first involves getting online. The emergence of smart phone apps and the geek ethos penetrating the once hallowed halls of the weight lifting meathead has seen a merging of gamer and fitness cultures. The result is phone apps which earn you points for the amount of physical activity you do as well as games such a Wii Fit which encourages people to get moving within the comfort of their own

The Tim Tam, it’s an Aussie favourite and a staple in many pantries but at 648kJs each you’ll need to run for about 13 minutes to burn that bad boy off. Opt instead for the equally delicious Anzac bickie clocking in at 213kJs each, which means just four minutes pounding the pavement.

home. In 2010, Nintendo announced over 22 million copies of the game had been sold worldwide. “It’s bizarre to think getting people motivated about their health starts with getting them online…one of the reasons they’re in this poor health position in the first place”, Ms MorganJones said pointing out the many posters around the shop instructing shoppers to go online for smoking support groups and online weight loss forums. “I try not to sell products that claim to be miracle workers”, Ms Morgan-Jones said adding that she’s not comfortable selling the miracle pills. She takes me through the products she has and points out that all say “in conjunction with a healthy diet and moderate exercise” printed in small lettering, usually beneath an impressive but meaningless looking bar graph or a diagram of fat being flushed out of a cartoon stomach. The dangerous world of diet pills and quick fixes clearly isn’t helping the nation’s weight epidemic despite the record number of sales and plethora of options available from both chemists and health food shops. It would seem good old fashion exercise and moderation is the key after all.

Article by Gemma Bates Illustration by Jack Mcauliffe


If life was a giant game of dodge ball, I would be the girl hiding at the back of the pack, hoping they haven’t spotted me so I can read my book on the sidelines. But some scientists are now saying exercise may be more beneficial to your mental cognition than brain games.

“You’re overweight,” my doctor told me. He then asked how much exercise I manage to do a week. My mind blanked; did foraging for berries on World of Warcraft count? How about that dragon I slayed? My thumbs get a work out…holding that Xbox controller is hard. “Four or five hours,” I tell him, well, lie to him. I can see he wasn’t convinced, nor impressed by my berry foraging skills.

sight of myself in the mirror on his in an aerobics class, lifted weights wall. so small that one guy actually smirked and said “don’t hurt yourLike all good intentions, I started self love” and then proceeded to lift out promisingly; I dusted off my two VW Beetles above his head… trainers and went to the gym. but I felt great! I am one of the roughly 2 million Australians with gym memberships and shamefully contribute to the nearly $500 million dollars of gym memberships and equipment that go unused in Australia every year. Sickened at the amount of money I’d wasted I met with a trainer, who was, as one would expect, disgustingly chipper and slim and perfect and she began putting me through my paces.

As he lectured me about healthy eating and exercise and asked if I wanted to get diabetes, I was tempted to pull the feminist card and proudly exclaim, “I’m a woman, I ran on the treadmill, turned left this is my size, like it or lump buddy” but stopped when I caught when the instructor yelled “right”

That’s all thanks to endorphins! They flood the brain as you work out, making you feel great and able to exercise longer. They also feed your brain with oxygen and increase blood flow. A study from the University of California suggested that simply walking 20 minutes a day can help you to study better, and retain more information. In short, exercise not only helps get you looking better, but it makes you smarter. And that’s something this bookworm can get behind. Illustrated by Nicole Broderick

“IT’S MORE THAN FASHION. IT’S THE PERFECT MIX OF ART AND INDUSTRY.” Emma Brankovic - Contemporary Fashion student

ARTS & HUMANITIES


Illustration by Ye Wang

“Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise” may be an old adage but Georgia Stout explains why it’s actually good advice. “With texting late at night and your mobile phone under the pillow, one person’s sleeplessness becomes another’s,” said Dr Hillman.

There never seems to be enough time in the day. With only 24-hours to juggle the daily grind, something has to give. Research indicates for many Australians, what we give up is sleep. According to Australia’s largest ever sleep survey, Sleep Census, 96 per cent of 13, 089 respondents were waking up tired. But what’s so bad about feeling a little groggy in the mornings? Well sleep deprivation and disorders have huge economic and health costs. With sleepiness exceeding alcohol and drugs as the leading contributor to motor vehicle and industrial accidents, Sleep Health Foundation Australian claims being tired costs the Australian economy $5.1 billion a year.

The Sleep Census, conducted by bed manufacturer Sealy, in conjunction with the Appleton Institute at CQ University, also acknowledges the impact of technology in our bedrooms with over 70 per cent of respondents saying they had not had enough shut eye because of being disturbed.

“Even a good old-fashioned sleep-in on the weekend is now seen as being lazy,” he explains. He also adds that many people who are sleep deprived carry their sleep debt until they have a holiday, “then they chill out and feel so much better.” Dr Hillman believes part of the problem is that we are shifting from our established mono-phasic sleep routine, where we would naturally sleep for one solid block during every 24 hours at night time, in order to keep up with today’s 24-hour society. He suggests that a cultural change is needed.

Our loved ones can also contribute to a bad night’s sleep according to the census.

“We need to respect the need for sleep and get rid of the idea that you can train yourself to go without it,” he says, Of the 7500 participants who share their as it can lead to “involuntary sleeps.” bed, 50 per cent claimed their partners Dr Hillman said involuntary sleep is snoring kept them awake at night your body trying to compensate for and four out of ten said their partners inadequate over-night sleep. tossing and turning was to blame. But let’s be honest, it’s pretty easy to abuse our bedtime when we live in society that broadcasts all night re-runs of Friends and has 24-hour McFlurry availability.

Dr Hillman believes that the attitude that we can beat the sleep is what Dr David Hillman, Chairman of the causes our nation-wide sleepiness and Sleep Health Foundation and Director claims that many Australians don’t of West Australian Sleep Disorders understand they’re in a sleep deprived believes that the invasion of social state when they don’t reach the average media in our bedrooms is a major requirements, which for adults is 8 disruption that keeps us awake at night. hours per night.

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“In Australia we seem to view sleep as a nuisance.”

“These little micro sleeps, where you go to sleep momentarily are very dangerous especially if you are driving a car,” he said. Almost 40 per cent of respondents in Sealy’s Sleep Census reported falling asleep at work during a meeting and 30 per cent said they had called in sick to work because of having a poor night’s sleep. While many of you think a power nap will save you, Dr Hillman says while


it’s a good emergency fix, it’s not the same as catching eight hours of Zzzzzs, because it’s during these hours that the brain sorts out information and consolidates memory.

lifestyle.” He lists quality sleep, a balanced diet and exercise as the roots of a happy, healthy and prolonged life.

“Put those three things together and you’ve really got these basis of a good He advises if you are taking a nap, limit healthy lifestyle,” he said. them to 10 to 15 minutes. So in the bid to be fitter, richer and smarter, apparently all you need is “What you will notice is if you go for sleep. But I’ll let you sleep on that. a nap for long periods of time during the day then often you get into a phase of sleep called slow wave sleep and you wake up generally feeling worse,” he said. So how do we respect sleep? Ridding our bedrooms of distractions is a start. Even Dr Hillman admits it’s hard to not to stay up past midnight with a good book in bed but urges that all distractions should be removed from our bedrooms. “Our beds should be used for sleep only. “Remove TVs and turn off the mobile phone,” he said. The Sleep Census also found that poor sleeping environments and bedroom habits interfere with our ability to rest.

The Body Clock

And surprise, surprise the study found that computers and the internet impacted a good night’s sleep the most, with 78 per cent of respondents who complained about restless sleep admitting they sit up in bed with their computers working before going to sleep.

We naturally feel sleepy at night and awake during the day because of our internal body clocks.

A part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) control our body clocks.

This SCN send signals to our body clocks when it’s time to sleep and does so in response to light and dark.

In addition those who do not have a television in their rooms reported sleeping better than those who do.

Did you know?

Driving-drowsy Did you know?

Dr Hillman also advises having a pre-sleep routine.

You are at the same risk of driving with a blood alcohol level of 0.05 per cent if you drive after 17 hours without sleep.

“In the hour before you go to bed, wind down and do something quiet and nonstimulating,” he said.

Most accidents happen when you’ve had fewer than 6 hours of sleep.

In Australia, at least 1 in 6 road accidents are results of drowsy drivers.

“A healthy sleeping pattern is a major factor in the composition of a healthy

Sweet-treats are not helpful in attaining alertness. You become sleepier within 30 to 90 minutes of consuming sugar than with no sugar.

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Article by Demi Kaye Illustrated by Yuelin Wang Many people may think that Anorexia Nervosa, or Anorexia as it’s more commonly known, is a way-of-life chosen by its sufferers. Little do they know that it’s actually a very serious and potentially life threatening mental illness.

Anorexia and it can’t be put down to one specific cause.

Anorexia results in severe medical complications and increased mortality and suicide rates. It is the most prominent cause of premature death in women when compared to other psychiatric disorders.

Ms King believes that Anorexia can be caused by a previous family history of the illness, a period of dieting that has become addictive, being surrounded by family or friends who are constant high achievers, as well as being in a society continuously portraying what women ‘should’ look like.

More likely to occur in young people, Anorexia has been known to affect people from the tender age of seven to as old as 70. Eating disorders such as this cause a significant impact on Australian society and are often associated with other physical and psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders. Research from the National Eating Disorders Collaboration (NEDC) shows that illnesses such as Anorexia has become increasingly more prominent in our society. Both eating disorders and body image issues have increased worldwide within the last 30 years. Sadly, these illnesses have been estimated to affect approximately 9 per cent of the population, with Anorexia affecting between 2 and 4 per cent within that amount. It’s been proven that there’s no real cause, nor is there a specific treatment to overcome it, but it is one of the most common and dangerous mental illnesses around. Clinical psychologist and co-ordinator of the Eating Disorder Programme at Perth’s Hollywood Clinic, Jennifer King, said there’s a range of different reasons why people start to develop

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“There isn’t any one cause or there’s not ‘something’ that everyone who develops anorexia has in common,” she said.

“Strategies such as body enhancing, airbrushing and ‘photoshopping’ of images don’t present a very realistic view,” she said. “In magazines people have been touched up to make their proportions look what’s seemed to be ‘appealing’ in a Western world - but not necessarily realistic.

look good and be a size 0 is consuming our lifestyle choices and affecting our decisions. The NEDC says that 70 per cent of Australian girls have body dissatisfaction and it was the top-ranked issue of concern among young people in the 2010 Mission Australia Youth Survey. Ms King has been working with people suffering from eating disorders for the last two years and says there’s a lot of stigma associated with how people view those with the disorder. Many outsiders who aren’t able to comprehend the seriousness of this issue may put it down to ‘attention seeking’; however, Ms King says there’s a lot more to it. “It’s important to note that anorexia is not a lifestyle choice,” she said.

“While it may begin as dieting, by the time it develops into an eating disorder, the individual is no longer in control of their thinking or their eating habits and “There’s a general desire and belief that the disorder has taken over.” beauty is related to thinness and that’s Ms King said that eating disorders have a perpetuated in the media a lot and way of ‘consuming an individual’s mind’, there’s also a big dieting mentality in so over time all they think about is food, the Western world.” weight and shape. Ms King believes that eating disorders have shown to be higher in Westernised societies and links to the Western ideals of thinness go hand in hand with beauty. As a society, Ms King says we need to be careful not to focus too much on either extreme of weight gain or weight loss as it can lead to negative repercussions. Today, the obsession to


By having these constant thoughts, it makes it difficult to function in other areas of life, such as relationships, study, work and socialising. There are various emotional effects that Anorexia has upon the body and mind and can often be difficult to identify as they’re closely tied in with the physical and medical aspects. It’s not uncommon for those with Anorexia to also be diagnosed with other illnesses such as anxiety and depression. All of these factors contribute to how the body works and functions. When someone isn’t eating adequately, or when their energy expenditure outweighs their energy intake, their body isn’t getting the nutrients and nourishment it needs.

ways to offer help and support that can be effective without being evasive. It is important to keep in mind that many sufferers are in denial that there’s a problem so it’s vital to approach the situation carefully, calmly and directly without being attacking or making accusations. “Approach it with compassion and let them know that ‘I’m concerned and it seems that eating has become quite difficult for you lately,’ or that ‘I’ve been noticing that you’ve been finding some of these things really hard,’” Ms King explained. “Encourage them to get treatment or get help – with the first place to start being your GP. “It’s about being supportive of them but at the same time not encouraging the eating disorder.

“Starvation has a big impact on the brain as it isn’t getting the energy it requires to function properly,” she said. “People with an eating disorder will often, at times, be reluctant to access help as the eating disorder tells them “As a result of that, people’s cognitive that people just want to make them ability becomes reduced. Their ability fat,” she said. to really think things through clearly and rationally declines, which impacts on their day-to-day decision making A lot of distress may be felt during process. treatment as it involves facing fears of eating as well as weight gain recovery. “It also has an impact upon emotions as well. People tend to become a lot more As there are many complexities ‘black and white’ in their thinking involved with this disorder, it’s when they’re malnourished, tending important that family and loved to see things as they’re ‘good’ or ‘bad’, ones also access support and are well with little-to-no middle ground.” informed on ways to help and assist during the recovery process. Apart from the obvious giveaway of weight loss, signs and signals of people Ms King said there isn’t conclusive suffering from Anorexia may be hard evidence to show what the best to see at the start. However, there are treatment is but instead it involves a various ways and behavioural changes range of different people, treatments that can be recognised. and a multi-disciplinary approach. A fear around food, the restriction of certain foods, becoming more conscious about eating in front of others, as well as a general avoidance of food, are just some of the indicators to monitor. Going through an experience like this has severe impacts not only upon the individual but can also affect the family and loved ones. But there are

“There usually needs to be a number of people involved in treatment,” she said. “These include medical staff, such as a psychiatrist, gastroenterologists, GPs, nurses, as well as psychologists, dieticians and occasionally people like physios or exercise psychologists. “Eating disorders really do benefit from having a range of disciplines involved

as the disorder impacts on so many aspects of the person. All aspects need to be provided with treatment.” For anyone who is showing symptoms or thinks that they may be suffering from the illness, it’s recommended to talk to someone trustworthy and to seek professional help. A lot of guilt and shame are associated with people who suffer from Anorexia as they believe they’ve brought it upon themselves. However, Ms King stressed that people simply don’t ‘choose’ to have a disorder to enhance their looks or lifestyle and that it is, in fact, an illness. “I really encourage anyone that is reading this that thinks they might have some problems with eating, and possibly an eating disorder, to recognise that it’s not something to be ashamed of and that there are people out there that would like to help them,” she said. Many people are secretive about their eating problems as they’re afraid of the shame, guilt and fears of how people might react, so it’s important to look beyond that and break the secrecy to someone trustworthy or a professional. The path to recovery from Anorexia can be a long, daunting and often a repetitive one, but it is possible. With the right amount of support and a high level of commitment, being able to move on from the illness is achievable. “I guess the treatment of an eating disorder can be linked to many other forms of addiction, where treatment and recovery can involve going through the stages of treatment a number of times before the individual fully recovers,” Ms King said. “Each person’s recovery process is slightly different, but when an individual is motivated for a change and has a support network of people around them, then the outlook is optimistic. “There is hope.”

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Beyond Beyond

Feeling Blue? Blue? Feeling “Why did this happen?” “Why did this happen?”

Along with sleeplessness, Alexandra Law would cry every night. She kept doubting herself, repeatedly asking the same question, “Why did this happen?” Alexandra lived with her mother all her life, although her mother was never married, she still kept a civil relationship with Alexandra’s biological father. One day when Alexandra was only 14, she decided to hang out with her father but little did she know, that day would scar her for life. Alexandra was doing homework in her father’s living room. Her father walked in and told her to finish her work outside as he wanted to take a nap. Alexandra complied and walked out with her coursework. After she was done, she decided to go home and walked into her father’s bedroom to wake him. Her dad groggily said, “Lie down next to me”. Alexandra hesitated but did as she was told. As she lay there, all of a sudden, her father touched her lower belly.

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Shocked, Alexandra asked him what he was doing. Her father looked at her and said, “Don’t worry; I just want to see how you’ll react”. Alexandra immediately told him to stop and forced him to drop her home.

According to statistics published by responseability.org, a website guiding journalism graduates to be able to respond to issues relating to suicide and mental illness, depression is the most common health condition among young people.

Six years later, Alexandra started to get flashbacks and the horror of that afternoon kept coming back like a terrible recurring nightmare. She cried and cried till she realised that she had severe anxiety.

Although numbers are reaching alarming heights, sadly, only one out of four young people suffering from mental illness actually seek help.

Alexandra spoke to her mother, needing a shoulder to cry on. Because her mother was in another country, her mother said to speak to a professional.

According to responseability.org, very few people seek help because of different reasons. Among these reasons are presumptions of high costs, not knowing where to get help and the stigma of admitting to a mental disorder.

She soon visited a free psychologist provided by a university. The psychologist told her she was suffering from anxiety and repressed memories and if nothing was done, it would lead to dire consequences. There are thousands of young people just like Alexandra, diagnosed with depression, anxiety and personality disorders every year. In clinical terms, these disorders are classified as mental illnesses.

Beyond Blue, a national depression initiative, aims to build a society that understands and responds to the impacts of depression. Beyond Blue also aims to provide national focus to increase the capacity of Australians’ sense of community to prevent depression. Athena Vass, Program Leader for youth and young adults at Beyond Blue said, “Stigma has been


researched, what is evident is stigma is likely to increase if depression is believed to be a weakness rather than an illness”. Dr Monique Robinson, Australian Rotary Health Colin Dodds Postdoctoral Fellow and Registered Psychologist, said many youths suffering from a mental illness like depression or anxiety, do not seek help not only because of the stigma but also because they might not know they have the symptoms.

low-income or unemployment. Dr Robinson said, “Causes might be biological or genetic. It also could be due to the family environment or friendship issues that have led to social isolation.

“Some people may not recognise that the symptoms they’re experiencing are symptoms of a mental health problem. For example, they may feel tired, emotional, liking staying in instead of going out and trouble sleeping”.

“There are also risk factors like substance abuse, difficult childhood, unemployment, low-income. Quite a lot of things that can lead to a person struggling with mental health problems”, she said.

Dr Robinson also noted that if people do not seek the help they require, some might even try to self-medicate and “fix” their anxieties with drugs, alcohol or through other unproductive means.

Alexandra never had suicidal thoughts but fantasising about hurting and sometimes even killing her father replayed in her mind over and over again. She said that if it was not for the help from a qualified professional, she just might have done something she would have regretted for the rest of her life.

There might be different reasons behind anxiety and depression. For Alexandra, it was a traumatic experience with a family member, for others it might be because of

If mental illness is not treated early, Dr Robinson said it could lead to years feeling unhappy or even suicide. There are many signs when one is experiencing depression. Examples of these symptoms are intense low moods for long periods of time

without any particular reason, difficulty functioning daily and reluctance to participate. If one experiences any of these symptoms, it is best to seek help, either from a GP or helplines. Dr Robinson said it is important to get help or seek advice as soon as the problems are recognised. “A GP can provide a mental health care plan and this will allow Medicare to cover most of the cost of seeking treatment. So a GP is a good first step. “Websites are also a good place to start. Headspace are excellent at service provision for mental health in young people,” she said. Ms Vass, from Beyond Blue concurred. She said young people are currently responding to online help. Ms Vass explained, because of the internet allowing degrees of anonymity, young people are able to let go of their inhibitions and get the help they require through e-mail. With such alarming rates of mental illness among teens and spending money being scarce, it is good news

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Beyond Blue is a great starting point for anybody seeking help. that most mental services are free. Unfortunately, because of the high numbers, accessibility might pose a problem. Dr Robinson said with the Federal Government’s latest commitment to mental health, she is hopeful that accessibility for people who need free services will improve. However, while she agreed the government needed to do more to help young Australians suffering from mental illness, the most important thing is to firstly cut out the stigma related to mental disorders. “No matter how many services there are, we will not be successful unless we reject the stigma around mental health and encourage people to understand symptoms of mental health and seek help”.

for anybody seeking help. Not only will they be able to link anyone to doctors or helplines, young people suffering depression will also be able to get information on treatments and the best doctors. Alexandra is now a thriving student with a happy life. She agreed that getting help was the first step to recovery and if any young person is feeling down in the dumps, not to worry, there are always people you can speak to. For anyone who feels they need help, you can contact Beyond Blue at 1300 22 4636 to get started or call Headspace’s kids help line at 1800 55 1800 to talk to a professional. In the words of Ms Vass, “Depression does respond to treatment!”

Beyond Blue is a great starting point

Article by Maria Chow Illustration by Wenjie Zheng

Mental Illness Facts According to responsibility.org, 16 to 24-year-olds report the greatest number of mental illnesses with one third of patients admitted to hospital, due to mental illness, being below thirty years. In 2008, at least 7 per cent of Australian adolescents and children from the ages of zero up to 17 were experiencing mental health problems. With teens and young people reporting the highest numbers of mental disease in any age group, it’s no surprise that adolescents also report higher threats of risky behaviour like smoking, drinking, drugs and even suicide. In 2004 to 2005, more than 8000 adolescents with mental disorders were hospitalised because of alcohol and drug use. 12 per cent of young people with mental illnesses have reported contemplating suicide while 4.2 per cent have actually attempted suicide.

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It took Katie* 13 years to admit she had a problem. She was using a wide range of drugs and had been in-and-out of rehab four times before the realisation hit her “like a bolt of lightning”… she was a drug addict. Katie’s first experience with drugs was at the age of 12. Innocently, Katie was given some Mersyndol (Codeine) by her mother to treat a headache. “I remember going to bed and just lying there enjoying the sensation,” she said. “From then on every ‘headache’ or ‘belly ache’… I would ask for them.” Eventually Katie’s drug use broadened as her teenage years developed. By the time she was in the worst stage of her drug use, Katie said she had used “everything” from illicit drugs to prescribed drugs and over the counter drugs. “Ecstasy, speed, rock, heroin, Subutex, acid, mushrooms, morphine, all the benzos, fantasy, coke, butane, amyl nitrate, nitrous oxide, ketamine, antihistamines to hallucinate, dexies… anything I could get my hands on really,” she said. Although she admits to using all of these drugs, Katie was only ever addicted to heroin, morphine, rock, Valium and Subutex. Research conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2001 revealed that approximately 2 out of every 100,000 young people aged between 15-19 will die of an accidental overdose per year.

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Throughout the entire population opium, heroin and other opioids proved to be the most dangerous causing 36 per cent of accidental druginduced deaths. Benzodiazepine use resulted in 23 per cent of deaths and other narcotics and hallucinogens caused 18 per cent. Benzodiazepines and antidepressants were the most dangerous amongst women. Alcohol was also a defining factor in 18 per cent of these deaths, although it was not the overall cause of death. Drugs can be categorised into four separate groups; stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens or other. These categories help identify the possible effects of each drug.

physical effects of drugs are very serious for young people. “Illicit drugs are associated with negative mental and physical health problems, ranging from depression to heart problems, cancer, blood borne diseases and brain damage,” she explained. “Most importantly they can be fatal and problems can arise from a single dose.” The health effects that Katie dealt with during her drug use were horrific. Some of the side-effects of her drug use are still a battle for her today. “I was a broken individual,” she said.

Popular party drugs, such as dexies, are stimulants. That means they increase the body’s state of arousal and make people become more energetic. Depressant drugs, quite clearly, do the opposite and they make people become drowsy and slow.

“I was incredibly emaciated and undernourished. I had constant vein infections, including blood poisoning so bad that I had to be hospitalised and have a portion of my arm that was infected cut out, leaving me with a massive scar to this day.

Hallucinogenic drugs alter people’s perceptions and can lead people to see or hear things that aren’t really there, although this may sound exciting, it can often be a terrifying and dangerous experience. ‘Other’ is a category for drugs such a cannabis that can be spread over many categories. Cannabis for example is a depressant, hallucinogen and a stimulant.

“I contracted Hep C, I had terrible acne and would black out when standing.”

Fresh Start Recovery Program research coordinator, Erin Kelty, is currently completing her PhD in addiction and says the mental and

The effects of her drug use extended much further than her physical heath. Her mental health was incredibly unstable and she had ruined many of her valued relationships. “At various stages I suffered from drug induced psychosis and couldn’t speak properly, only mumble,” she said. “My mind was concerned only with using, when I could use next, how I


Article by Chanel Darcey Illustration by Brendan Hunt

“Even a single dose can have dire consequences.” was going to use next? I had become unfeeling towards anyone else.”

with mad people with no concern for my safety,” she said.

Katie’s experience is similar to what Ms Kelty described.

Her family was loving and caring, however her drug use got to such a bad point that she was eventually cut off from them.

“Desperation can lead you to do things you would never imagine yourself doing. I have many nightmares that still haunt me almost nightly.”

“I have been to rehab countless times. Detoxes in hospital and at home, I had implants of naltrexone put in my stomach to block opiates, I had drips of flumazenil to speed up my benzo detox. I switched from heroin to Subutex doses at a chemist but I would divert them and shoot them up instead. I switched from heroin to meth but that wasn’t the best outcome either,” she said.

“I broke my family’s hearts so many times that in the end I was a write-off,” she said. “As for friends the only ones that I required were those that could use with me, my drug buddies. “Sometimes the only other person I had in my life was my equally as sick co-conspirator boyfriend or friend, as long as there was one other person there I was happy enough. “Being alone killed me so I avoided it by having low standards.” Katie could not recall one particular moment in which she believes she “hit rock bottom”… not because there was not one, but because there were so many. “For me there were many bottoms, all as gruesome as each other, like using

After Katie admitted she had a problem, she needed to give rehab another chance. However, like many others, she had experienced many failed attempts before this. Ms Kelty said successful rehabilitation can take many attempts because quitting an addiction is a major lifechange. “When someone decides to stop using drugs, they are choosing to change their entire life and their life’s focus,” she said. “In rehab they are attempting to learn the skill they will need to lead a drug free life.

There are two major forms of rehabilitation, harm-minimisation and abstinence based. “Harm minimisation places the emphasis of drug treatment on reducing the harm associated with drug use,” said Ms Kelty. “For example shifting patients from illicit opiates to prescription opiates (methadone), the use of safe injecting

“For many patients, this will be the first time in their adult lives they have had to lead such an existence.”

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rooms or the distribution of clean needles.

gave me, along with the fact they saved my life.”

“In contrast the aim of abstinence based programs is for patients to lead a drug-free existence. Examples include rehabilitation, opiate antagonist treatments such as naltrexone, and Alcohol or Narcotics Anonymous.”

Katie definitely agrees that drugs used in excess should never be encouraged, but thinks it is foolish to assume young people will not have a curiosity towards drug use. “I think that as a society we need to be much more open to dialogue about drug use,” she said.

Although people often believe the forms of rehabilitation are different, Ms Kelty said the two are not “Young people experiment with drugs completely separate and in many cases and that doesn’t make them bad for the best form of harm-minimisation is doing it.” abstinence. She asks young people who are Katie credits her rehabilitation to the using or considering using to be very incredibly popular abstinence based cautious. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) program. “I would say to young people use “I needed complete abstinence for a carefully with friends, not alone. few years for my head to clear and Don’t use all different substances at to really get back to who I am. There once, just stick to one thing at a time, was so much healing that needed to educate yourselves on safe practices happen and they say that you need and don’t inject. to grow up again from when you first started using as it stunts your “Have frank and honest discussions emotional growth,” she said. with older siblings, your friends, teachers, school counsellors or parents “I was still a hectic little teenager and if they are open to it.” I had a lot of growing up to do. The support I needed came from Narcotics Ms Kelty hopes that young people Anonymous; I got a sponsor and did consider the seriousness of drug use everything they told me to do. before they experiment. “I basically had to stop thinking for myself and let someone else guide me for a while as my best thinking up until then always lead me to a needle in my arm and a whole lot of mess and drama. “I was in that program for years, and although I have since left I am forever grateful for the love and support NA

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“Drugs are largely an unknown, you can never be sure what the drug you’re taking contains or the effects it will have on you,” she said. “Even a single dose can have dire consequences.” Katie has been clean for over 5 years now and has rebuilt relationships

with her family. She has a large group of non-using (including many ex-using) friends and a healthy and very loving relationship. Katie is currently treating her Hep C and making sure she makes time to travel with a holiday to Japan planned this week. She said she is “healthy and oh so happy!” The most important thing Katie said she had learnt from her battle with addiction was, “I can never be the master of my using, the drugs are top boss and they don’t care if they kill me in the process.” It is important to remember that drugs affect everybody differently. Visit drugaware.com.au for more information on drug use and addiction. *Name changed to protect her identity.


Codeine is a narcotic pain medication traditionally used to treat moderate to severe pain. Codeine is an opiate. Ecstasy (or E) is the street name for Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Ecstasy is a stimulant drug and also has the ability to make people hallucinate. Speed (or Ice, Meth, Crystal Methamphetamine) is stimulant drug that can be swallowed, snorted, smoked, or injected. Rock (or Crack, Coke) is a form of Cocaine that has been processed so it is easier to smoke. Rock is a stimulant drug. Heroin (or Smack) is made from the opiate poppy and is also a depressant drug. Heroin is most commonly injected. Subutex is a brand of opiate pain medication called Buprenorphine. Subutex is traditionally used as a treatment for Narcotics addiction and comes in the form of a dissolvable pill. Acid (or LSD) is a hallucinogen drug used that can create fear, anxiety and confusion. Often people on acid experience “trips” in which they hallucinate and experience weird things. Morphine is a narcotic pain reliever used very commonly in hospitals when patients are experiencing extreme pain. Morphine is an opiate that is injected. Benzo is the street name for Benzodiazepine and is a depressant drug. Benzos slow down messages from the brain to the body and are often used as sleeping or anxiety pills. They come in the form of a pill or small tranquiliser. Fantasy (or GHB) is the street name for Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid. Although it is in no way related to MDMA, Fantasy is a depressant drug sometimes called “liquid ecstasy.” Often used as a date-rape drug.

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Smartphones and tablets are the new must haves, but with so many apps out there, how do you find the ones right for you? Claire Ottaviano has done the hard work and road-tested a bunch of applications to find some that will slide comfortably into your life and make it better. You won’t know what you ever did without them and best of all, they’re FREE!

Z

Z

Z

Sleep and relax: Maybe I shouldn’t tell you about this one because it’s a little too good. Not to say this a cure for insomniacs, but if you lay in bed sometimes with the events of your day/week/month running through your head then this app is great to get your mind off things and relax

First Aid: If a friend or family member were to suddenly collapse in a medical emergency, would you know what to do? This app is full of information and is quick and simple to use. It has a quiz section as well as a myths section to help you know your first aid facts.

My fitness Pal: I can now admit that I am a self-confessed calorie counter! It’s not just for people trying to lose weight but it helps you maintain what you eat. It is so simple, there’s even a barcode reader that does all the work for you. In the beginning it asks you your current weight, what you want to weigh and how fast you want to lose it. Then it gives you a daily calorie intake goal. You will be surprised at exactly what you’re eating. Private Diary: We all use Facebook as a venting platform, but when everyone knows that you took the dog for a walk, saw a spider web in the sun that reminded you how life is short and then had a protein shake for lunch because you’ve decided to go on a health kick. It’s time to get a diary.

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Article by Claire Ottaviano

Illustration by Eleanor Beilby


The Health Journalism and the Vector Illustration classes of 2012 have collaborated to craft this edition of HD Magazine. The publication experiment has given high achieving students the chance to showcase their finest work. It has also given students the opportunity to take part in the publication process from start to finish.

Vector Illustration: (DES2104)

Health Journalism: (JOU3113) Health Journalism provides students with the journalistic skills needed to write health and medical stories. It places students in the role of editor of a health publication responsible for negotiating the issues and agendas in the health area. Studies include journalism technique and genres in health journalism, including news stories, investigative journalism and feature writing, with examination of local articles and international examples, including Pulitzer Prize-winning medical stories. Students conduct interviews and write stories during the course, whilst also reading widely, from sources including  online story databases on current health topics. Theoretical studies involve an understanding of issues behind health news and of the agendas, competing interests, pressures and policy issues in the health area.

Vector Illustration introduces students to a range of techniques, styles and applications involved in the design and construction of vector-based illustrations. Communicative advantages of drawings and diagrams over photorealism are a major point of focus. Students will also examine the process of concept development in the print and digital media industries, where vector based drawing has a wide application.

These units are part of the ECU Bachelor of Communications and Bachelor of Creative Industries Degrees. Each degree is made up of 24 units and a set of eight within that 24 comprises a major. JOU3113 is part of the Journalism Major, and DES2104 is part of the Graphic Design Major. *At ECU ‘High Distinction’ means achievement of 80 per cent or more for an assignment or a unit of study. For more information about ECU courses visit www.ecu.edu.au


Graphic Design at ECU

The illustrations in HD Magazine were created by Edith Cowan University students enrolled in the Graphic Design course. For information about the course, visit www.ecu.edu.au or email s.medley@ecu.edu.au

HD4 The Health Edition  

These articles and illustrations were created by students in the School of Communication and Arts at Edith Cowan University in Perth, Wester...

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