Interface Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 2015

Page 1

VOL. 24, NO.1 Spring 2015

IN THIS ISSUE 3 From the Editor: Nobody Reads, Everybody Cites

7 Pennington Corner:

Hallway Collaborations

21 Special Section:

227th ECS Meeting Chicago, Illinois

39 Tech Highlights 41 PV, EV, and Your Home at Less Than $1 a Gallon

43 Home Energy Efficiency

Retrofits and PV Provide Fuel for Our Cars

49 PV and Batteries: From a

Past of Remote Power to a Future of Saving the Grid

53 The Role of V2G in the

Smart Grid of the Future

57 Fuel Cell Vehicles as

Back-Up Power Options

61 EV Fast Charging, an Enabling Technology

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 • 0720.A1.1002-INT © 2015 Metrohm USA, Inc. Metrohm and design® is a registered trademark of Metrohm Ltd.



Nobody Reads, Everybody Cites


recently came across the story (perhaps apocryphal) of a young aspiring musician from the 19th century who was determined to learn from a renowned teacher and composer resident in a distant town, but lacked the financial means to do so. Undeterred, the boy frequented the route taken by the then King on his weekly perambulations, prostrating and saluting each time their paths crossed. After six months, the King’s curiosity was piqued and the boy’s persistence was recognized and rewarded; he secured the requisite funding from the King to pursue his interests. There are several parallels between the boy’s pursuit of knowledge, and the pursuit of research funding in the sciences today. Academics continue to rely on the munificence of external agencies to fund their research. A six-month waiting period from grant initiation to decision is almost mandatory for federal funding. While it is perhaps no longer necessary to salute program managers on a weekly basis, a certain amount of networking and relationship building is certainly needed. And, most importantly, principal investigators continue to devote a disproportionately large fraction of their time to secure funding as opposed to actually practicing their art (or science). In this context, it is relevant to look into two factors that can influence the outcome of a grant application, namely bias in the review process, and the assessment of past scholarly performance. Do subliminal biases exist and, if yes, do they have a statistically significant influence on the outcome of the grant (or paper, or faculty application) review process? A recent study1 addresses just this question by performing a carefully designed computer simulation of a grant review process. The study concluded that even a 3% total bias in overall grant assessment, a number corresponding to less than half a standard deviation in an individual reviewer’s assessment, could result in a statistically significant discrepancy in funding outcome. It is extremely difficult to detect such low levels of bias during the review process, and even the large majority of fair-minded reviewers are not immune to subliminal influences. An increasingly pervasive subliminal influence is the ever-growing use of scientometric indicators such as the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) and the h-index to assess scientific performance and standing. The ease of calculation and ready availability of such indicators has reduced the assessment of a scientist’s body of work to a few numbers. One can argue, persuasively,2 that such indices must be used with utmost caution. As one example (among many that are possible) of the inherent flaws of such indices, the distribution of citations across papers within a journal is typically highly skewed, rendering an average measure such as the JIF quite meaningless in the context of evaluating the quality of an individual article. However, the root cause for concern is that both these indices, and a raft of other popular indicators, are based on the (rather flawed) assumptions that all citations to an article represent an equivalent measure of its impact, and that all the work cited within an article has had an equivalent impact on the authors and on the construct of the work performed. Perhaps there is a case to be made to require authors to classify citations as primary or secondary, wherein the primary articles cited are indispensible sources from a scientific viewpoint, without which the work could not be conceptualized or completed, while the secondary articles cited help describe the background and acknowledge/dispute prior work in the field. The various scientometric indicators can then be defined based on primary citations. This approach will at least provide a more meaningful relationship between citation and impact. In closing, we would be remiss to ignore outright the probability that important outcomes such as funding and faculty hiring decisions are at least subliminally biased by sub-optimal indicators of quality (JIF, h-index). As a Society, we should explore and popularize more meaningful metrics of quality and impact, and certainly shun the more irresponsible measures. And, while it sounds archaic, we should continue to promote the viewpoint that there is no substitute for good, old-fashioned reading when it comes to assessment of scholarly work.


1. “ The big consequences of small biases: A simulation of peer review,” T. E. Day, Research Policy (2015); doi:10.1016/j.respol.2015.01.006. 2. “Are scientists nearsighted gamblers? The misleading nature of impact factors,” J. Mayor, Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 1 (2010); doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00215.

Vijay Ramani, Interface Co-Editor

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Published by: The Electrochemical Society (ECS) 65 South Main Street Pennington, NJ 08534-2839, USA Tel 609.737.1902 Fax 609.737.2743 Co-Editors: Vijay Ramani,; Petr Vanýsek, Guest Editor: James M. Fenton, Contributing Editors: Donald Pile,; Zoltan Nagy, Managing Editor: Annie Goedkoop, Interface Production Manager: Dinia Agrawala, Advertising Manager: Becca Compton, Advisory Board: Bor Yann Liaw (Battery), Sanna Virtanen (Corrosion), Durga Misra (Dielectric Science and Technology), Giovanni Zangari (Electrodeposition), Jerzy Ruzyllo (Electronics and Photonics), A. Manivannan (Energy Technology), Xiao-Dong Zhou (High Temperature Materials), John Staser (Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering), Uwe Happek (Luminescence and Display Materials), Slava Rotkin (Nanocarbons), Jim Burgess (Organic and Biological Electrochemistry), Andrew C. Hillier (Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry), Nick Wu (Sensor) Publisher: Mary Yess, Publications Subcommittee Chair: Krishnan Rajeshwar Society Officers: Paul Kohl, President; Daniel Scherson, Senior Vice-President; Krishnan Rajeshwar, 2nd VicePresident; Johna Leddy, 3rd Vice-President; Lili Deligianni, Secretary; E. Jennings Taylor, Treasurer; Roque J. Calvo, Executive Director Statements and opinions given in The Electrochemical Society Interface are those of the contributors, and ECS assumes no responsibility for them. Authorization to photocopy any article for internal or personal use beyond the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act of 1976 is granted by The Electrochemical Society to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC). Copying for other than internal or personal use without express permission of ECS is prohibited. The CCC Code for The Electrochemical Society Interface is 1064-8208/92. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to: Pitney Bowes International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2 ISSN : Print: 1064-8208

Online: 1944-8783

The Electrochemical Society Interface is published quarterly by The Electrochemical Society (ECS), at 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839 USA. Subscription to members as part of membership service; subscription to nonmembers is available; see the ECS website. Single copies $10.00 to members; $19.00 to nonmembers. © Copyright 2014 by The Electrochemical Society. Periodicals postage paid at Pennington, New Jersey, and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The Electrochemical Society, 65 South Main Street, Pennington, NJ 08534-2839. The Electrochemical Society is an educational, nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization with more than 8000 scientists and engineers in over 70 countries worldwide who hold individual membership. Founded in 1902, the Society has a long tradition in advancing the theory and practice of electrochemical and solid-state science by dissemination of information through its publications and international meetings. 3 All recycled paper. Printed in USA.

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Vol. 24, No. 1 Spring 2015


PV, EV, and Your Home at Less Than $1 a Gallon by James M. Fenton

the Editor: 3 From Nobody Reads,

Everybody Cites

43 49

Home Energy Efficiency Retrofits and PV Provide Fuel for Our Cars by James M. Fenton

PV and Batteries: From a Past of Remote Power to a Future of Saving the Grid by David K. Click

53 57 61

The Role of V2G in the Smart Grid of the Future by Richard A. Raustad

Corner: 7 Pennington Hallway Collaborations

8 Society News Section: 21 Special 227 ECS Meeting th

Chicago, Illinois

36 People News 39 Tech Highlights 64 Section News 66 Awards 68 New Members 72 Student News

Fuel Cell Vehicles as Back-Up Power Options by Paul Brooker, Nan Qin, and Nahid Mohajeri

EV Fast Charging, an Enabling Technology by Charles Botsford and Andrea Edwards

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Hallway Collaborations “In many important aspects the scientific society has served as the central stage on which the scientific tale has unfolded.” That quote by ECS President Harry Gatos (1967-68), is from a speech he presented at The Electrochemical Society’s 75th Anniversary Celebration and it captures both the essence of the Society’s mission over the past century and the historically important role that professional societies have had on the advancement of science. Since 1902, ECS has staged opportunities for scientists and engineers to exchange and refine their research interests on the pages of our journals and in the hallways at our meetings. By providing effective venues for the exchange of information, ECS has indeed set the stage for the unfolding scientific tale, facilitating advancements or solutions in a broad scope of critically important areas including:


• energy storage and conversion, especially for power at remote locations; • environmental remediation of chemistries and bio-materials; • semiconductor technologies, especially for control and sensing in hostile environments; • corrosion of infrastructure, especially atmospheric and bio-corrosion; • water purification and sanitation; and • sensors for environmental monitoring, home and workplace safety, and medical care. A few years ago, the program directors of the Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) program at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation recognized that electrochemical processes might offer solutions to their major goal, which is to provide universal access to sustainable sanitation services. The foundation lent the expertise of WASH Program Directors Doulaye Koné and Carl Hensman at our Clean Water Technologies Symposium in Seattle (spring 2012) and San Francisco (fall 2013), respectively. Through their participation they observed the scientific tale unfolding at ECS meetings, where each event featured a few thousand of the world’s best scientists and engineers exchanging critical information and knowledge with the potential to solve some of the WASH program’s greatest challenges. These sanitation challenges impact 40% of the world population, an estimated 2.5 billion people who practice open defecation or lack adequate sanitation facilities; these circumstances have devastating consequences for human health and the environment. Carl Hensman observed that as much as 80% of our programming in San Francisco had relevant connections to the WASH program’s water sanitation objectives and suggested that we challenge ECS attendees to turn those hallway discussions into collaborative ideas and tangible proposals that might lead to financial support. We took up the challenge and gathered the innovative minds from the hallways at the Cancun meeting and organized them in a free-thinking workshop. We challenged them to propose new solutions in real-time to solve some of the critical issues of water sanitation. With support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and RTI International, we staged the workshop on Monday, inviting all the Cancun meeting attendees to apply for funding, and received 47 innovative proposals by Wednesday evening. On the final day of the Cancun meeting, an expert panel of reviewers selected the winners, each of whom received grants ranging from $40,000 to $70,000 (see sidebar). And so the hallway collaboration was conceived, implemented and culminated in a total of $210,000 in funding distributed to the four proposals that offered the most innovative solutions. The winners were notified before the sun went down on the Riviera Maya, and grantees were expected to immediately begin work on their proposed solutions for water treatment and sanitation. Looking back over a century at the topics in the ECS biannual meeting programs, it is clear that these hallway collaborations in electrochemical and solid state science have enhanced the human experience through advancements that benchmark progress in areas like: information technology, renewable energy, new materials, and wireless communications. Now the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has tapped ECS to determine if these hallway collaborations can lead to solutions for some significant environmental and health problems through the application of electrochemical processes. The Gates Foundation drives innovation with a laser focus on solutions, and that was the stimulus to extract the potential of the hallway collaborations at our Cancun meeting. The expectation is that the proposals we funded will propel us forward toward new applications of electrochemical processes that solve these important world problems. In the meantime, ECS is actively seeking new partners for similar programs, hoping to tap into the collective wisdom of our members for addressing more challenges in the future. Roque J. Calvo ECS Executive Director The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Joint International Meeting of The Electrochemical Society and The Sociedad Mexicana de Electroquímica Cancun, Mexico l October 5–10, 2014

2014 Electrochemical Energy & Water Summit: Applying Electrochemistry to Complex Global Challenges Steering Committee: Luis Gerardo Arriaga, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquímica Kathy Ayers, Proton OnSite Roque Calvo, ECS Executive Director Dan Fatton, ECS Director of Development Carl Hensman, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Paul Kohl, Georgia Tech Paul Natishan, Naval Research Laboratory Brandy Salmon, RTI International Brian Stoner, RTI International E. Jennings Taylor, Faraday Technology, Inc. Eric Wachsman, University of Maryland, Energy Research Center Funding Review Panel: Luis Gerardo Arriaga, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica Kathy Ayers, Proton OnSite Loannis Leropoulos, University of the West England Paul Kohl, Georgia Tech Barry MacDougall, National Research Center of Canada Paul Natishan, Naval Research Laboratory Brian Stoner, RTI International E. Jennings Taylor, Faraday Technology, Inc. Winners of the first “Science for Solving Society’s Problems Challenge” Artificial Biofilms for Sanitary/Hygienic Interface Technologies (A-Bio SHIT) Plamen Atanassov, University of New Mexico, $70,000 In-situ Electrochemical Generation of the Fenton Reagent for Wastewater Treatment Luis Godinez, Centro de Invest. y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquímica SC, Mexico, $50,000 powerPAD Neus Sabate, Institut de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (CSIC); Juan Pablo Esquivel, University of Washington; Erik Kjeang, Simon Fraser University, $50,000 More than MERe Microbes: Microbial Electrochemical Reactors for Water Reuse in Africa Gemma Reguera, Michigan State University, $40,000 7


Focus on Focus Issues ECS began publishing special “focus” issues of the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES) and ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS) in 2013. These issues highlight scientific and technological areas of current interest and future promise that are expanding rapidly or have taken a new direction. Since the first focus issue was published, ECS has published 10 focus issues in JES and 8 focus issues in JSS, covering a range of topics from intercalation compounds for rechargeable batteries to nanocarbons for energy harvesting and storage. Many of the focus issues grow out of related symposia held at Society meetings. In certain cases, new symposia are initiated as a result of focus issues. The focus issues are handled by prestigious guest editors who work closely with the journal Technical Editors to carry out the same rigorous peer review process that all ECS journal submissions undergo. This process ensures that only papers of the highest quality are accepted. Dennis Hess, Editor of JSS, in his editorial included in the first focus issue published by ECS (JSS Focus Issue on Luminescent Lighting Materials for Solid State Lighting), noted that “We hope that this issue expands your horizons and motivates further research and development in this exciting field.” In their introduction to the JES Focus Issue on Mechano-ElectroChemical Coupling in Energy Related Materials and Devices, guest editors J. D. Nicholas, Y. Qi, S. R. Bishop, and P. P. Mukherjee state, “MEC coupling provides new pathways for the characterization and

ECS Thanks 2014 Reviewers

The Electrochemical Society relies upon the technical expertise and judgment of its reviewers to maintain the high-quality publication standards characteristic of its four peer-reviewed journals (Journal of The Electrochemical Society, ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, ECS Electrochemistry Letters, and ECS Solid State Letters). We greatly appreciate the time and effort put forth by the reviewers, and express our sincere gratitude for their hard work and support. For a complete list of 2014 reviewers, please go to 8

control of material behavior. It is therefore likely that many exciting discoveries, some of which are highlighted in this Focus Issue, will continue to be made in this new, multi-disciplinary research field.” Many of the papers within the focus issues are freely available as Open Access papers and all of the papers in the JES Focus Issue of Selected Presentations from IMLB 2014 are Open Access. (For more information about Author Choice Open Access in the ECS journals, visit ECS is currently accepting submissions for the following focus issues: • Redox Flow Batteries – Reversible Fuel Cells (JES) • Electrochemical Interfaces in Energy Storage Systems (JES) • Chemical Mechanical Planarization: Advanced Material and Consumable Challenges (JSS) • Micro-Nano Systems in Health Care and Environmental Monitoring (JSS) Visit the ECS Digital Library ( for more information about submitting manuscripts to any of the focus issues listed above or to view any of the already published focus issues. Look for future “Focus on Focus Issues” columns in Interface for in-depth commentary on specific focus issues and links to highlighted articles from those issues. Finally, if ECS journal readers have ideas, suggestions, or proposals for future focus issues, please let us know.

ECS Sponsored Meetings for 2015 In addition to the regular ECS biannual meetings and ECS Satellite Conferences, ECS, its Divisions, and Sections sponsor meetings and symposia of interest to the technical audience ECS serves. The following is a list of sponsored meetings for 2015. Please visit the ECS website for a list of all sponsored meetings. • 17th Topical Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, May 31-June 3, 2015 —

Saint-Malo, France

• 16th International Conference on Advanced Batteries, Accumulators, and Fuel Cells,

August 30-September 4, 2015 — Brno, Czech Republic

• 66th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, October 4-9, 2015 — Taipei, Taiwan To learn more about what ECS sponsorship could do for your meeting, including information on publishing proceeding volumes for sponsored meetings, or to request an ECS sponsorship of your technical event, please contact

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •





“Social media is the ultimate equalizer. It gives a voice and platform to anyone willing to engage.”1


any things have changed since The Electrochemical Society was founded in 1902, yet the idea of providing an open forum for the community to discuss electrochemical and solid state science and technology remains the backbone of the Society. However, with 74 percent of online adults using social networking sites,2 that forum has most definitely changed from what the founders of ECS envisioned over 100 years ago. Since the introduction of the new ECS Marketing & Digital Engagement Department in April of 2014, the Society has set the ball rolling to expand our reach, communicate with our constituents, and build a sense of community. “Our goal is to be the digital go-to source for content in electrochemistry and solid state science,” says Rob Gerth, Director of Marketing & Digital Engagement for ECS. “That means gathering content, creating content, and then taking that content to the community.” The birth of the ECS Redcat Blog (www. has provided a new venue for members and nonmembers alike to stay informed on what is trending in electrochemical and solid state science, all while having the ability to interface with a like-minded community. With the constant flow of content, the ECS Redcat Blog has been able to gain traction and develop into a highly recognized news source. In a six month period, the blog had an astounding 125 percent increase in visitors, the majority of whom were new to the site. While the ECS Redcat Blog does serve as a news and information source, it also acts as a place to “socialize” our journals and celebrate the prominence of our members. By providing a new venue to propagate information and heighten accessibility, we’re able to further advance one of the Society’s main objectives of disseminating scientific information to the widest possible audience. Though content curation and dissemination are at the heart of ECS, the Society is always looking to inspire new ideas, experiments, research, and discovery. Our social networking sites pursue the same goals as our international scientific meetings: attract the very best scientists from around the globe to discuss issues, share results, and address some of the most critical situations the world is facing today. Through Twitter ( and Facebook (, we disseminate our Open Access journal articles as soon as they are published, speeding up the scientific discovery process. We are not only aiding in the discovery process—we’re also heightening author visibility. According to Facebook and Twitter, we’ve seen a growth of 271 percent and 64 percent respectively of our followers over a nine month period. 10



it y


v o c

r D i gi t a l C o u o m rY

Our robust LinkedIn group ( provides a forum to exchange ideas and network with peers to facilitate the open communication of science. Our established group of professionals numbers over 3,800 members, who are active in various fields of electrochemical and solid state science. With over one billion unique users each month—and 80 percent of that traffic coming from outside the United States3—YouTube is an ideal platform for ECS to reach out to its global constituents. We hope to popularize electrochemical and sold state science with topical videos, along with preserving the past and recognizing the great pillars of electrochemistry in our Masters Series, which features archived footage of some of the most prominent figures in the field. In a recently conducted online survey, the people spoke and confirmed that we’re on the right path to providing our valued constituency with the information and resources that are of the most value to them. However, we believe there is still work to be done on our end to heighten the visibility of our members and journals, as well as to expand the dissemination process through the use of video, webinars, podcasts, and the launch of our new website at the end of 2015. Over the past few years, many have been wondering if the Internet has changed science. We believe it has—and a lot of good has come from this for ECS. From the establishment of our Digital Library ( to the excitement behind our Open Access initiative (, the transition to online media has helped give all scientists and researchers a voice, promoting a more level playing field in the sciences. Our social networking initiatives are expanding our universe and opening doors to possibilities that would be otherwise inaccessible. Through our dedication to social networking, we hope to inspire personal connections, disseminate knowledge more freely, and help harness some of the greatest science the world has yet to see.


1. M. Russo, “Why It Pays to Be a Renegade: An Interview with Social Media Guru Amy Jo Martin,” The Culture-ist. Web. 2. “Social Networking Fact Sheet,” Pew Research Internet Project, Pew Research Center, social-networking-fact-sheet/. 3. “Statistics,” YouTube, html.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Altmetrics to the SOCIE TCome Y NE WS ECS Digital Library What Are Altmetrics? Altmetrics are a better way for authors to track the discussion surrounding their work. Where the Journal Impact Factor reports aggregate data for a journal, altmetrics report data for individual articles. By providing article level metrics, altmetrics allow authors to see not only how much attention their work is receiving, but where the attention is coming from, and at an earlier stage than traditional metrics.

How to Boost Your Altmetric Rankings • Publish open access so that more readers can view your research. • Like, tweet, and share. • Start a conversation and actively promote your work.

How Are Altmetric Scores Generated? Data comes from: • Online reference managers (Mendeley, CiteULike) • Mainstream media (newspapers and magazines) • Social media (Twitter, Facebook, blogs, etc.) Data is weighted based on: • Volume: How much attention is an article getting? • Sources: Which sources are mentioning the article? • Authors: Who is talking about the article?

Open Access and Altmetrics Are Complementary Open access and altmetrics work cooperatively to help articles reach their full impact. Altmetrics further ECS’s pledge to Free the Science™ by providing both transparent publication as well as transparent assessment of research.

(10) Google+ (12) new outlets (17) Facebook


(3) blogs (23) Twitter •

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



Staff News Christie Knef has recently been promoted to the Director of Meetings. Christie will be responsible for overseeing all aspects of the development, organization, and management of the ECS biannual meetings, satellite conferences, and other ECS sponsored events. She will work closely with the other senior staff and volunteer leaders to ensure the meetings support the Society’s goals and objectives. Christie joined ECS in 2013 as the Development Manager. During this time she was responsible for managing and coordinating fundraising activities to support ECS’s priorities and mission, managing and developing relationships with supporters, as well as the sales and coordination of the digital and print advertising programs. Additionally, she spent a great deal of time managing the ECS meeting symposium funding program, working closely with volunteers and funding agents to facilitate funding decisions, and ensuring accurate reporting for annual meetings. Christie’s robust experience across the hospitality and event planning industries, coupled with her time spent in the Development Department at ECS, has equipped her with the skills to take on the role of Director of Meetings with a fresh and focused approach. Christie is thrilled to take on this important leadership position and looks forward to the continued success of the meetings program at ECS. John Lewis has recently joined the ECS Meetings Unit as the Associate Director of Meetings, responsible for overseeing the technical programming of the Society’s biannual meetings. John has been with ECS since September 2005, first as ECS Transactions (ECST) Manager, then as Associate Director of Conference Publications. In both positions, John was responsible for the Society’s digital proceedings series, ECS Transactions (ECST). ECST grew from a newly-launched publication to a successful program with a backlist of 750 issues from over 60 meetings across the globe. Prior to joining ECS, John spent more than seven years working as a Digital Archive Manager for the Publication Technologies Department of Random House Inc., and more than five years as an artist and event manager in the music business. This intersection of events, technology, and personal service has given him a wellrounded skill set that has been of great value to the Society through the years. John’s depth of knowledge and experience regarding the ECS meetings and conference publications, as well as his relationships with many ECS leaders, have made him a natural fit for this position and an asset to the Meetings Unit.


Since 2007, Beth Anne Stuebe has worked with John Lewis on the day-to-day running of ECST, with a focus on the production side of the publication. Beth Anne has worked closely with organizers, editors, and authors to facilitate the building and publication of issues. And now, with John Lewis’ transition to the Associate Director of Meetings, Beth Anne has assumed the leadership role for ECST, becoming the Meetings & Conference Content Manager. Moving forward, her job will focus solely on the production and management of ECST. By moving Beth Anne into the ECST manager role and the publication over to the Meetings Unit of the Content Department, ECST will have the full stretch of the Meeting Unit resources, making the ties among ECS meetings, ECS Meeting Abstracts, and ECS Transactions stronger and more cohesive, resulting in faster meeting publications and a growing ability to provide content in a continuous manner. Anna Olsen joined ECS in the fall of 2010 and has recently made the transition from the constituent and member services program area to the Content Department, working in both publications and meetings areas. Of her recent change, Anna said, “One good way to stop the conversation at a dinner party is to say, ‘I’m a Sr. Content Associate & Library Liaison.’ If anyone responds at all, it’s simply to say, ‘I love going to the library!’ Then the conversation turns to the books that everyone has been enjoying.” Anna, a fiveyear employee at ECS, laughs as she shares this observation. She went on to say that the switch from constituent services to the Content programs entailed entering areas with which she was not familiar, but she loves learning new things and accepting new challenges at ECS. Anna’s background, with a BA in Education, comes into play in teaching librarians about the kinds of content ECS offers and how to manage their subscriptions in the Digital Library. Anna shares the Society’s Open Access vision (www.electrochem. org/oa/), which gives authors an option to publish their work as OA, and gives subscribing institutions a very valuable benefit of unlimited article credits for authors at their institutions. This is an exciting and aggressive plan by ECS to make our content available to all. Looking to the future, Anna’s job is to build relationships with our subscribers and to help them use the full potential of our Digital Library, and she has been doing precisely that since she first began working at ECS.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Institutional Member spotlight ECS is delighted to announce that in 2015, Metrohm USA became our second Visionary Member. The highest level of institutional membership with ECS, visionary membership was created in late 2013 as part of a larger revision of our institutional membership program to include new discounts on advertising and meetings and improved visibility for those who support our society with annual institutional memberships. Metrohm USA first joined ECS as an institutional member in 2006. Over the course of their eight-year membership, they have steadily grown in their involvement with ECS, participating in our biannual meetings as an exhibitor and supporting our publications by advertising in Interface and within our digital venues. “ECS has appreciated both the continued support and the beneficial ideas and feedback we have received from Metrohm over the course of our longterm partnership,” noted Dan Fatton, ECS Director of Development

Announcement of the 2015 FONDAZIONE ORONZIO E NICCOLÒ DE NORA Fellowship in Applied Electrochemistry

and Membership Services, “we’re excited to see them take this next step into greater leadership in the Society.” Drawing on almost 30 years of their experience, Metrohm provides precise measurement solutions for diverse fields. Metrohm's expertise ranges from traditional electro-analysis methods such as polarography to hyphenated modern technologies. In addition to electrochemistry products, Metrohm offers a complete line of analytical laboratory and process systems for titration, ion chromatography and spectroscopy. From routine analysis to sophisticated research, they are ready to help you develop your method and configure the optimum system. “We are proud to support ECS and their work in the electrochemistry community. Our products address the needs of both research and the applied fields of manufacturing and environmental monitoring, therefore strengthening our partnership is a logical next step,” says Edward Colihan, CEO of Metrohm USA. “Together we look forward to advancing technology and serving the scientific community with cutting-edge products and unrivaled support.”

The Fondazione Oronzio e Niccolò De Nora, Milan (Italy), endows two Fellowships of Euros 24,000 each to support 1-year R&D Projects regarding the following selected fields of Applied Electrochemistry to be started no later than January 31, 2016: • Novel electrode materials and geometries, especially gas diffusion electrodes with their internal hydraulic regime, production and characterization methods • Cathode for hydrogen evolution in acid and alkaline media solutions and hydrogen peroxide production in acid solutions • Innovative materials and catalysts for the generation of hydrogen and oxygen in alkaline media • Electrochemical engineering, including reactor design and modeling • Water treatment and disinfection using direct or mediated electrochemical processes including sterilization of industrial cooling circuits and domestic waters, rehabilitation of waste waters • Reversible batteries for large scale energy storage • Innovative water electrolysis • Innovative electrometallurgical process for non-ferrous metals

Application deadline: July 31, 2015

Guidelines regarding the requested structure of the proposals can be retrieved at the following address: - email:

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



websites of note by Zoltan Nagy

Fuel Cells — Green Power

Although fuel cells have been around since 1839, it took 120 years until NASA demonstrated some of their potential applications in providing power during space flight. As a result of these successes, in the 1960s, industry began to recognize the commercial potential of fuel cells, but encountered technical barriers and high investment costs — fuel cells were not economically competitive with existing energy technologies. Since 1984, the Office of Transportation Technologies at the U.S. Department of Energy has been supporting research and development of fuel cell technology, and as a result, hundreds of companies around the world are now working towards making fuel cell technology pay off. Just as in the commercialization of the electric light bulb nearly one hundred years ago, today’s companies are being driven by technical, economic, and social forces such as high performance characteristics, reliability, durability, low cost, and environmental benefits. • Los Alamos National Laboratory


In 1797 the English physician George Pearson laboriously charged Leyden jars at his electric machine, then discharged them through water, carefully collecting the gases that appeared. Finally, he mixed the gases in a dry container and made a spark with his machine. Drops of water collected on the walls of the container when it cooled. He had decomposed water into its constituents, and then recombined them again. The world took little notice. In 1800 Alessandro Volta reported the results of his recent studies to the Royal Society of London, of which he was a member. His momentous achievement was the column, or “pile,” of discs of silver, zinc, and leather moistened with salt solution, repeated over and over. An alternative was the couronne des tasses, a ring of cups joined by arcs of silver and zinc alternately, filled with dilute salt solution. When the ultimate members of the pile or crown were connected by a conductor, a permanent electric current flowed. Much care was taken to show that it had the same qualities as the electricity from a static machine, principally that it could give a shock, or fuse a fine wire. Electricity was now available in unprecedented amounts with no exertion, but at a much lower pressure. And so it goes. • J. B. Calvert (University of Denver)


The Primer on Lead-Acid Storage Batteries as approved for use by all DOE Components. It was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. The major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal. Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

• Department of Energy (DOE) Primers

About the Author

Zoltan Nagy is a semi-retired electrochemist. After 15 years in a variety of electrochemical industrial research, he spent 30 years at Argonne National Laboratory carrying out research on electrode kinetics and surface electrochemistry. Presently he is at the Chemistry Department of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He welcomes suggestions for entries; send them to

Annual Society Luncheon and Business Meeting



he Annual Society Luncheon and Business Meeting will take place on Tuesday, May 26, starting at 1215h. The President, Secretary, and the Treasurer will give brief reports on the current state of the Society, and the Student Poster Award presentation will take place at this annual business luncheon. All members and meeting attendees are encouraged to participate in this event. Tickets are $41.00 by Early-Bird deadline, and $46.00 onsite. See page 21 more information about the Chicago meeting, including how to register.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Photo by ©Visit Phoenix.



Summit Dates: October 12-13, 2015

newable Energy e R d n a s e u s s I l a c i l October 11-16, 2015 Z A Solar Crit , x i n oe l Ph g n i t e e 228 ECS M


SAVE THE DATE! With population growth and industrialization, global energy needs continue to grow as well. Economic, political, and environmental issues are largely dictated by energy needs. The fifth international ECS Electrochemical Energy Summit (E2S) is designed to foster an exchange between leading policy makers and energy experts about society needs and technological energy solutions.

organizers • Daniel Scherson, Case Western Reserve University • Adam Weber, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • Krishnan Rajeshwar, University of Texas, Arlington

Participants • Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures, and Transport Center (FIRST) David Wesolowski, Oak Ridge National Laboratory • NorthEast Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES) M. Stanley Whittingham, Binghamton University • Center for Mesoscale Transport Properties (m2m) Esther Takeuchi, Stony Brook University • Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) Gary Rubloff, University of Maryland

• Center for Electrochemical Energy Science (CEES) Paul Fenter, Argonne National Laboratory • Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) George Crabtree, Director • Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) Harry Atwater, Director • Potential participation of large-scale government-funded efforts outside the U.S. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



Division Officer Slates Announced New officers for the 2015-2017 term have been nominated for the following Divisions. All election results will be reported in the summer 2015 issue of Interface.

Electronics and Photonics Division Chair Mark Overberg, Sandia National Laboratories Vice-Chair Colm O’Dwyer, University of College Cork 2nd Vice-Chair Junichi Murota, Tohoku University Secretary Soohwan Jang, Dankook University Treasurer Yu-Lin Wang, National Tsing Hua University Members-at-Large Andrew Hoff, University of South Florida Edward Stokes, University of North Carolina, Charlotte Albert Baca, Sandia National Laboratories Helmut Baumgart, Old Dominion University Noel Buckley, University of Limerick George Celler, Rutgers University Pablo Chang, Avago Technologies Cor Claeys, IMEC Stefan De Gendt, IMEC J. Jamal Deen, McMaster University Manfred Engelhardt, Infineon Technolgies AG Takeshi Hattori, Hattori Constulting internation Hiroshi Iwai, Tokyo Institute of Technology Zia Karim, AXITRON Yue Kuo, Texas A&M University Qiliang Li, George Mason University Durgamadhab, New Jersey Institute of Technology Fan Ren, University of Florida Fred Roozeboom, Eindhoven University of Technology Jerzy Ruzyllo, Pennsylvania State University Krishna Shenai, LoPel Corp Motofumi Suzuki, Kyoto University Ravi Todi, Qualcomm Inc. Tadatomo Suga, University of Tokyo

Energy Technology Division Chair Scott Calabrese Barton, Michigan State University Vice-Chair Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines Secretary Vaidyanathan Subramanian, University of Nevada Treasurer William Mustain, University of Connecticut Hui Xu, Giner Inc. Members-at-Large (up to 30 elected) Katherine Ayers, Proton On-Site Huyen Dinh, NREL


James Fenton, University of Central Florida Thomas Fuller, Georgia Tech Kunal Karan, University of Calgary Sanjeev Mukerjee, Northeastern University Sri Narayan, University of Southern California Peter Pintauro, Vanderbilt University Krishnan Rajeshwar, University of Texas at Arlington Juergen Stumper, Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation John Weidner, University of South Carolina Karim Zaghib, Hydro-Quebec

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry Division Chair Mekki Bayachou, Cleveland State University Vice-Chair Graham Cheek, U. S. Naval Academy Secretary/Treasurer (candidate not selected will become a member-at-large) Diane Smith, San Diego State University Members-at-Large (at least three to be elected) David Cliffel, Vanderbilt University Danjun Fang, Case Western Reserve University Toshio Fuchigami, Tokyo Institute of Technology Chang Ji, Texas State University Donal Leech, Maynooth University Flavio Maran, University of Padova Michael Mirkin, Queens College Kevin Moeller, Washington University Ikuzo Nishiguchi, Nagaoka University of Technology James Rusling, University of Connecticut Richard West, Case Western Reserve University

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division Chair Pawel Kulesza, University of Warsaw Vice-Chair Alice Suroviec, Berry College Secretary Petr Vanýsek, Northern Illinois University Treasurer Robert Calhoun, U.S. Naval Academy Members-at-Large Stephen Paddison, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Luke Haverhals, Bradley University Hugh DeLong, Air Force Office of Scientific Research Steven Maldonado, University of Michigan Plamen Antanassov, University of New Mexico Sanjeev Mukerjee, Northeastern University David Cliffel, Vanderbilt University Paul Trulove, U.S. Naval Academy Alanah Fitch, Loyola University

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Write Our Path Technology roadmap development workshop

SAVE THE DATE “Electrochemical Pathways for Sustainable Manufacturing (EPSuM) Technology Innovation”

ECST House Ad Chicago July 8 – 9

Embassy Suites Hotel, 2886 Airport Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43219

How can electrochemical engineering processes advance U.S. Manufacturing capacity in the chemical industries? Your feedback will give the direction! Do you have an electrochemical solution for the U.S. manufacturing industry? Join experts in the chemical and allied products industries to share your concepts. This two-day workshop is your opportunity to support the development of an industry-driven roadmap under the sponsorship of the Department of Commerce/NIST. For areas of interest and more details, visit: The mission of the Electrochemical Pathways for Sustainable Manufacturing (EPSuM) Consortium, based at Ohio University’s Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research, is to support, enhance, and sustain the U.S. manufacturing capacity in the chemical and allied products industries by designing and developing electrochemical processes and innovations to address challenges inhibiting the growth of sustainable, advanced manufacturing methods. Questions? Lisa Rooney,, 740.251.7390

Russ College of Engineering

and Technology Electrochemical Pathways for Sustainable Manufacturing in support of the NIST AMTech Presented by CEProTECH’s project to establish and industry-driven technology consortium for advanced sustainable manufacturing

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Winter 2014



ECS Division Contacts High Temperature Materials

Battery Robert Kostecki, Chair Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • 1.510.486.6002 (U.S.) Christopher Johnson, Vice-Chair Marca Doeff, Treasurer Shirley Meng, Secretary Corrosion Rudolph Buchheit, Chair Ohio State University • 1.614.292.6085 (U.S.) Sannakaisa Virtanen, Vice-Chair Masayuki Itagaki, Secretary/Treasurer Dielectric Science and Technology Dolf Landheer, Chair G-Camria LLP • 1.613.594.8927 (Canada) Yaw Obeng, Vice-Chair Puroshothaman Srinivasan, Treasurer Vimal Desai Chaitanya, Secretary Electrodeposition Giovanni Zangari, Chair University of Virginia • 1.434.243.5474 (U.S.) Elizabeth Podlaha-Murphy, Vice-Chair Philippe Vereecken, Treasurer Stanko Brankovic, Secretary Electronics and Photonics Andrew Hoff, Chair University of South Florida • 1.813.974.4958 (U.S.) Mark Overberg, Vice-Chair Junichi Murota, Secretary Edward Stokes, 2nd Vice-Chair Fan Ren, Treasurer Energy Technology Adam Weber, Chair Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • 1.510.486.6308 (U.S.) Scott Calabrese Barton, Vice-Chair Vaidyanathan (Ravi) Subramanian, Treasurer Andrew Herring, Secretary

Xiao-Dong Zhou, Chair University of South Carolina • 1.803.777.7540 (U.S.) Turgut Gur, Sr. Vice-Chair Gregory Jackson, Jr. Vice-Chair Paul Gannon, Secretary/Treasurer

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering

Venkat Subramanian, Chair Washington University in St. Louis • 1.314.935.5676 (U.S.) Douglass Reimer, Vice-Chair John Staser, Secretary/Treasurer

Luminescence and Display Materials Anant A. Setlur, Chair GE Global Research Center • 1.518.387.6305 (U.S.) Madis Raukas, Vice-Chair Mikhail Brik, Secretary/Treasurer

Nanocarbons R. Bruce Weisman, Chair Rice University • 1.713.348.3709 (U.S.) Slava V. Rotkin, Vice-Chair Dirk Guldi, Treasurer Hiroshi Imahori, Secretary

Organic and Biological Electrochemistry James Burgess, Chair Case Western Reserve University • 1.216.368.4490 (U.S.) Mekki Bayachou, Vice-Chair Graham Cheek, Secretary/Treasurer Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Robert Mantz, Chair Army Research Office • 1.919.549.4309 (U.S.) Pawel Kulesza, Vice-Chair Alanah Fitch, Treasurer Andrew Hillier, Secretary Sensor Bryan Chin Auburn University • 1.334.844.3322 (U.S.) Nianquiang Wu, Vice-Chair Ajit Khosla, Secretary Jessica Koehne, Treasurer


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


In the •

The summer 2015 issue of Interface will feature the Energy Technology Division of ECS. Guest edited by Andrew Herring and Vito Di Noto, the issue will include the following technical articles (titles are tentative) that highlight activities of interest to the Division: “Bi-functional Air Electrodes – Challenges and Prospects,” by S. R. Narayan, Sanjeev Mukerjee, and Aswin Manohar; “Origins, Developments and Perspectives of Carbon Nitride-Based Electrocatalysts for Application in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells,” by Vito Di Noto, Enrico Negro, Keti Vezzù, Federico Bertasi, and Graeme Nawn; “Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia: A Low Pressure, Low Temperature Approach,” by Katherine E. Ayers, Julie N. Renner, Andrew M. Herring, and Lauren F. Greenlee; and “Non-platinum Group Metal Catalysts

issue of for Fuel Cells: One Step Closer to Applications in Low Temperature Fuel Cells,” by Plamen Atanassov and Sanjeev Mukerjee. •

Highlights from the ECS Meeting in Chicago... Don’t miss all the photos and news from the ECS spring 2015 meeting in Chicago.

Tech Highlights continues to provide readers with free access to some of the most interesting papers published in the ECS journals. As an added bonus, the full text of all of the articles mentioned in this column are freely accessible in the ECS Digital Library.

Don’t miss the next edition of Websites of Note which gives readers a look at some little-known, but very useful sites.

Your article. Online. FAST! More than 100,000 articles in all areas of electrochemistry and solid state science and technology from the only nonprofit publisher in its field.

If you haven’t visited the ECS Digital Library recently, please do so today!

Not an ECS member yet? Start taking advantage of member benefits right now!

Leading the world in electrochemistry and solid state science and technology for more than 110 years

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



Meeting s




ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV

229th ECS Meeting San Diego, CA

Glasgow, Scotland

May 29-June 3, 2016

July 26-31, 2015

Hilton San Diego Bayfront & San Diego Convention Center

Scottish Exhibition and Conference Center

PRiME 2016

228th ECS Meeting

Honolulu, HI

Phoenix, AZ

October 11-16, 2015 Hyatt Regency Phoenix & Phoenix Convention Center

October 2-7, 2016 Hawaii Convention Center & Hilton Hawaiian Village

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA Hilton Chicago



n behalf of the officers, Board of Directors, volunteer leadership and staff of ECS, it is my pleasure to share highlights from the 227th ECS meeting. The 227th ECS meeting will be held at the historic Hilton Chicago. Located in downtown Chicago, the Hilton offers the ideal location for convenient access to many of the city's iconic attractions. This profound international conference includes more than 2,200 technical presentations, guest and award-winning lecturers, full-day short courses, professional development workshops and career opportunities, a dynamic technical exhibit, and our Free the Science™ 5K, with proceeds benefitting the ECS publications endowment. We encourage meeting attendees to participate in the technical program as well a variety of social events throughout the meeting. On Monday, May 25th at 1700h the plenary session will wrap up the first full day of the 227th meeting. John Turner will deliver the highly anticipated ECS Lecture, “Hydrogen from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting – What’s It Gonna Take?” and all ECS award recipients will be honored. This can’t miss awardee line-up includes Henry White, recipient of the first ECS Allen J. Bard Award, established in 2013 to recognize distinguished contributions to electrochemical science, and Yue Kuo, recipient of the ECS Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology, established in 1971 for distinguished contributions to the field of solid state science. In addition to Dr. White and Dr. Kuo, ECS will honor the Division and Section award winners. The Society, Division, and Section award talks are scheduled in various symposia throughout the week. Short courses are offered on Sunday, May 24th in addition to professional development sessions throughout the week which provide essential information on enhancing career opportunities and networking. Between the award lectures, technical sessions, exciting events in the technical exhibit hall, general Society and student poster sessions the 227th ECS meeting provides the perfect opportunity to get together with colleagues and associates from around the world, discuss important research, and discover new initiatives. We hope that each one of our guests will take advantage of all the educational, networking and technical sessions that will take place in Chicago.

Paul A. Kohl ECS President

Early-bird Registration Early-bird registration pricing is available until April 24, 2015. To register today or to review full information for the 227th ECS meeting please visit

CHICAGO The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Special Meeting Section

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA


Hilton Chicago

Meeting Events-at-a-Glance Sunday, May 24

Tuesday, May 26

0900h ����������� Short Course #1: Nanotechnology for Bioenergy: Biofuels to Fuel Cells 0900h ����������� Short Course #2: Fundamentals of Electrochemistry – Basic Theory and Thermodynamic Methods 0900h ����������� Short Course #3: Scientific Writing for Scientists and Engineers 1300h ����������� Technical Sessions (Check Technical Program for exact time) 1400h ����������� Professional Development Series Part 1: Essential Elements for Employment Success 1700h ����������� Sunday Evening Get-Together

Monday, May 25 0700h ����������� Session Chair Orientation Breakfast 0800h ����������� Professional Development Series Part 1: Essential Elements for Employment Success 0800h ����������� Technical Sessions (Check Technical Program for exact time) 0930h ����������� Technical Session Coffee Break 1200h ����������� Professional Development Series Part 2: Resume Review 1530h ����������� Allen J. Bard Award Lecture 1700h ����������� Plenary Session 1930h ����������� Student Mixer (By invitation only; contact for details)


0800h ����������� Technical Sessions (Check Technical Program for exact time) 0800h ����������� Professional Development Series Part 2: Resume Review 0930h ����������� Technical Session Coffee Break 1215h ����������� Annual Society Business Meeting and Luncheon 1300h ����������� Technical Exhibit 1730h ����������� Gordon E. Moore Award Lecture 1800h ����������� Technical Exhibit and General and Student Poster Session

Wednesday, May 27 0700h ����������� Free the Science 5K & 1 mile walk 0800h ����������� Technical Sessions (Check Technical Program for exact time) 0800h ����������� Professional Development Series Part 2: Resume Review 0900h ����������� Technical Exhibit 0930h ����������� Technical Session Coffee Break in Exhibit Hall 1800h ����������� Technical Exhibit and General Poster Session 1815h ����������� Author Info Session in the Edison Theatre

Thursday, May 28 0800h ����������� Technical Sessions (Check Technical Program for exact time) 0900h ����������� Technical Exhibit 0930h ����������� Technical Session Coffee Break in Exhibit Hall

Exhibit Hall Events Don’t miss these exciting events in the Exhibit Hall!

• •

Coffee Breaks General & Student Poster Sessions


• •

Breakfast with Princeton Applied Research & Solartron Exhibitor Workshop with Pine Research

CHIC The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Special Meeting Section

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA Hilton Chicago



Plenary and Awards Program

he Plenary Session will be held on Monday, May 25 at 1700h in the Grand Ballroom where ECS President Paul Kohl will wrap up the first full day of the 227th meeting by welcoming the ECS meeting attendees. Meeting attendees will then turn their attention to John Turner who will deliver the highly anticipated ECS Lecture, “Hydrogen from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting – What’s It Gonna Take?” and all ECS Award recipients will be honored. This can’t miss awardee line-up includes Henry White, recipient of the first ECS Allen J. Bard Award; established in 2013 to recognize distinguished contributions to electrochemical science, and Yue Kuo, recipient of the ECS Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology, established in 1971 for distinguished contributions to the field of solid state science. In addition to Dr. White and Dr. Kuo, ECS will honor the Division and Section award winners. The Society, Division, and Section award talks are scheduled in various symposia throughout the week.

ECS Lecture

Monday, May 25, 1700h Grand Ballroom Hydrogen from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting – What’s It Gonna Take? by John A. Turner John A. Turner, PhD, has made an immense impact on the field of electrochemistry, through his research in hydrogen production, and innovation in fuel cells. Dr. Turner has studied under highly notable pillars of electrochemistry, such as Fred Anson and Heinz Gerischer. He joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 1979 – where he is now a Research Fellow – and began his work on photoelectrochemical water spilling for hydrogen production. Among his


many honors and awards, Turner received the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Outstanding Mentor Award for his work with undergraduate students. He has also received awards from the Midwestern Research Institute, Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel, and Idaho State University. With over 160 peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Turner’s work focuses on direct conversion (photoelectrolysis) systems for hydrogen production from sunlight and water, catalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen reactions, materials for advanced fuel cell membranes, and corrosion studies of the fuel cell metal bipolar plates. His lecture is set to focus on hydrogen from photoelectrochemical water splitting.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Special Meeting Section

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA


Hilton Chicago

Society Awards ECS Gordon E. Moore Medal for Outstanding Achievement in Solid State Science and Technology Tuesday, May 26, 1730-1810h Williford Room B

ECS Allen J. Bard Award Monday, May 25, 1530-1600h Williford Room C

Research on Nano and Giga Electronics – Breakthroughs Along the Path by Yue Kuo

The Electrochemical Nucleation and Physical Behavior of Hydrogen Nanobubbles by Henry White, Q. Chen, S. R. German, H. Wiedenroth, L. Luo, and S. W. Feldberg

Yue Kuo is currently the holder of the Dow Professorship at Texas A&M University of Chemical Engineering. Through his extensive experience and research in solid state science, Dr. Kuo has established the Thin Film Nano & Microelectronics Research Laboratory, which is dedicated to solid state research and education. Among his many honors, Dr. Kuo has been awarded ECS’s Electronics & Photonics Division Award (2007) and the prestigious ECS Fellow Award (1999). He has authored many papers and edited many journals, including the Journal of The Electrochemical Society from 2003 to 2012. Dr. Kuo’s research is focused on the interdisciplinary nano and microelectronics area, especially the understanding of the complicated relationship among device performance, material properties, and fabrication processes of TFTs, ICs, and novel applications. Dr. Kuo’s work in solid state science has yielded many innovations and has provided a great impact in the scientific community. In his award address, Dr. Kuo will talk about breakthroughs in research on nano and giga electronics.

Henry White is a world leader in the field of electrochemistry, preforming pioneering research in energy storage and fundamental studies of reduction-oxidation reactions and electron-transfer reactions, and the structure of interfaces between metals and solutions. Professor White worked under Allen J. Bard while obtaining his PhD, where he researched electrogenerated chemiluminescence, transport in Nafion modified electrodes, and solar energy conversion using transition metal dichalcogenide photoelectrodes. Since joining the Society in 1985, Prof. White has been presented with ECS’s Carl Wagner Award (2010) and David Grahame Award (2005). Prof. White currently serves as Dean of the College of Science at the University of Utah. Here, he and his research team have made advances in new methods to determine the structure of biological polymers such as DNA, the development of novel batteries with increased storage capacity and investigations of drug delivery though human skin using electrical currents. In his award address, Prof. White will talk about the electrochemical nucleation and physical behavior of hydrogen nanobubbles.


CHIC The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA Hilton Chicago


Division and Section Awards Electronics and Photonics Division Award H04 Symposium Monday, May 25, 0900-0930h Hilton Chicago, Conference Room 4G Dielectrics for III-V Materials by D. C. R. Abernathy Cammy R. Abernathy started her journey through electrochemical science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980, where she received her SB degree in materials science and engineering. From there, she went on to Stanford University where she received her MS and PhD degrees in materials science and engineering in 1982 and 1985 respectively. Dr. Abernathy then joined the University of Florida, where she became a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. She was appointed the College’s Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in 2004, and currently holds the positon of Dean of the College of Engineering. Among her many honors, Dr. Abernathy has been presented the prestigious ECS Fellowship Award, and is a fellow of both AVS and APS. Dr. Abernathy’s research interests are in synthesis of thin-film electronic materials and devices using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. She is the author of over 500 journal publications, over 430 conference papers, one co-authored book, seven edited books, eight book chapters, and seven patents.

Energy Technology Division Research Award I03 Symposium Tuesday, May 26, 0800-0840h Hilton Chicago, Boulevard Room A

PEM Fuel Cell Electrode Layer Degradation by R. L. Borup, R. Mukundan, J. D. Fairweather, D. Spernjak, D. A. Langlois, K. L. More, G. Maranzana, A. Lamibrac, J. Dillet, S. Didierjean, O. Lottin, L. Guétaz, R. Ahluwalia, S. Arisetty, and K. Rau MPA-11: Materials Physics and Applications: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices SPO-AE: Science Program Office - Applied Energy Distributed Program manager for Fuel Cell and Vehicle Technologies

He received degrees from the University of Iowa and the University of Washington. Additionally, Dr. Borup has been awarded 13 U.S. patents, authored roughly 100 papers related to fuel cell technology and presented over 100 oral papers at international and national meetings. Dr. Borup has been a member of ECS since 1995 and is currently a member of the DOE/US Drive Fuel Cell Technical team, along with being co-chair of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Durability Working Group. He work in fuel cells has been highly recognized with the presentation of the Principal Investigator for the 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar Best Poster Award and the 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program R&D Award.

Energy Technology Division Supramaniam Srinivasan Young Investigator Award A01 Symposium Tuesday, May 26, 0940-1000h Hilton Chicago, Continental Room A

Near Room Temperature Conversion of Methane to Methanol by T. J. Omasta, W. A. Rigdon, C. A. Lewis, R. J. Stannis, R. Lui, C. Q. Fan, and W. E. Mustain William Mustain earned a PhD in Chemical Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 2006, followed by two years as a Postdoctoral Fellow in ECS President Paul Kohl’s research group at Georgia Tech. He went on to join the Department of Chemical & Bimolecular Engineering at the University of Connecticut in 2008. Over the past twelve years, Prof. Mustain has worked in several areas related to electrochemical energy generation and storage, including: catalysts and supports for proton exchange membrane and anion exchange membrane fuel cells and electrolyzers, high capacity materials for Li-ion batteries, the purposeful use of carbonates in low temperature electrochemical systems, and the electrochemical conversion and utilizations of methane and CO2. Prof. Mustain has been the PI or Co-PI on over $5M of externally funded research projects. He has published over 50 peer-reviewed articles, authored two book chapters, has three pending U.S. patents, and has over 70 invited and conference talks. Among his many honors and recognitions, Prof. Mustain has received the 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Early Career Award and the Illinois Institute of Technology Young Alumnus Award.

Rodney L. Borup is noted for his work in fuel cell transportation with such corporate and academic organizations such as General Motors and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). He joined LANL in 1994 as a postdoctoral researcher, where he would eventually move on to become the Program Manager for the Fuel Cells and Vehicle Technologies Program and Team Leader for fuel cells – titles which he currently holds.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

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227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015


Chicago, Illinois, USA

(continued from previous page)

Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award A02 Symposium Monday, May 25, 1400-1440h Hilton Chicago, Salon A-1

All-Graphene Energy Storage Device for High Energy and Power Density by H. Kim, H. D. Lim, J. Hong, and K. Kang Haegyeom Kim is a PhD candidate at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Seoul National University. Here he studies developing carbon based electrode materials and graphite derivative materials for energy storage devices such as Li rechargeable batteries, Na rechargeable batteries, and hybrid supercapacitors. Kim received his BS from Hanyang University and his MS from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. While obtaining his MS, Kim studied developing graphene based electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries including anodes and cathodes. Since 2010, he has authored 16 published papers and co-authored 18. Kim’s accomplishments have been recognized by the Korea Section of ECS, where he was presented with the Student Award (2014). Kim has also received the 20th Humantech Paper Award, the Global PhD Fellowship, and has been funded by the Korean government for his research.

Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award L10 Symposium Monday, May 25, 1040-1110h Conference Room 4D

Plasmonic Light Absorption Enhancement Mechanisms in Semiconductors Above and Below the Band Edge by S. K. Cushing, J. Li, A. D. Bristow, and N. Wu Scott Cushing is currently finishing his PhD dissertation in Physics at West Virginia University, where he is advised by Prof. Nianqiang (Nick) Wu and Prof. Alan D. Bristow. Through his research, Cushing aims to gain a fundamental understanding of plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion processes. His thesis involves understanding how plasmonics can improve light absorption above and below the band edge in solar materials. Cushing’s investigations on energy and charge transfer also span into semiconductor heterostructures, fluorophores, and plasmonics to improve application such as water splitting and optical bio-sensors – focusing on how these processes occur on coherent and ultrafast time-scales. Cushing’s research on the plasmonic enhancement of solar energy conversion was featured in an ECS Interface special issue. Cushing is also a Goldwater Scholar, NSF Graduate Fellow, and SPIE D.J. Lovell Scholar.


Hilton Chicago

Industrial Electrochemistry & Electrochemical Engineering Division New Electrochemical Technology (NET) Award F02 Symposium Monday, May 25, 1400-1440h Hilton Chicago, PDR 3

Development of Large Scale Commercial PEM Electrolysis by K. E. Ayers, B. Carter, L. Dalton, K. Dreier, C. Ebner, and L. Moulthrop, of Proton OnSite Proton OnSite is the world leader in commercializing proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. Founded almost two decades ago, Proton has built a successful, profitable and sustainable commercial business around this technology, providing reliable and cost effective products to industrial, laboratory, and military customers around the world. The company’s product portfolio spans hundreds of watts to nearly 200 kW of input power. Leveraging this strong commercial base, Proton is now poised to capitalize on the new emerging hydrogen markets in energy storage and mobility. The 2015 New Electrochemical Technology (NET) award for outstanding work in electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering is awarded to Proton Onsite for the development of their C Series Hydrogen Generator. The recognized technical team below represents a broader cross-functional effort of many Proton personnel in bringing this product to market. The C Series is a key advance in Proton’s product portfolio, with an output capacity of up to 65 kg/ day of hydrogen. This product represents a 5-fold increase in output (over previously available generators) with only a 1.5-fold increase in product footprint. This new system, introduced as a commercial product in 2011, has high strategic importance in that it continues to validate the technological advantage of PEM-based electrolysis at a scale similar to alkaline liquid based systems, without the disadvantages of the caustic electrolyte and high-pressure oxygen generation. Additionally, there has recently been significant interest in megawatt (MW)-scale PEM-based electrolyzers for renewable energy capture, especially in Europe, with several recent announcements poised to dramatically change the energy storage landscape. The C Series is a key stepping stone for this market and its demonstrated track record is providing confidence MW-scale PEM can compete in this market. This 65-kg/day system also is at an appropriate size for the next generation of fueling stations for fuel cell bus demonstrations, and for the refueling of small fleets of cars, or forklift trucks. Proton has delivered hydrogen generation equipment for several fueling stations, based on this new C Series hydrogen generator. To date, this product has supplied hydrogen to support over 2500 successful high-pressure fills and while dispensing more than 7000 kg of hydrogen at the fueling station on site at our headquarters, which has been in operation for over three years. This serves as testament to the robustness and longevity of this platform.

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Hilton Chicago

Proton OnSite Contributors Ken W. Dreier specializes in PEM electrolyzer systems integration and electrolysis-based hydrogen fueling stations. Dreier is currently a Principal Mechanical Engineer at Proton Onsite, and has previously led the mechanical systems development effort for the C Serious product. He holds a MOT degree from Georgia Tech and a BSME from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Curt C. Ebner is a Senior Mechanical Engineer at Proton OnSite. Ebner is an expert in hydrogen and thermal management systems and has applied this knowledge to several of Proton’s product development efforts including the C Series. He also has experience in designing sophisticated laboratory testing facilities for sound, psychrometric and electrical testing of HVAC equipment. Ebner holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Manufacturing Engineering Technology from Midwestern State University. Blake D. Carter currently serves as the Project Manager for Commercial Cell Stacks, facilitating sustaining engineering and manufacturing efforts for legacy electrolyzer cell stack platforms as well as bringing new designs into production. He holds a BS in Mechanical Engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and has served as a commercial product design and development engineer for over 11 years. Past work includes the development of a 5,000 psig differential pressure PEM electrolyzer cell stack platform. Luke T. Dalton is Manager, Advanced Technologies and Systems and has served as engineer and program manager for a number of key R&D initiatives including high pressure electrolysis cell stacks and systems, closedloop regenerative fuel cells, and alkaline membrane system development. He currently manages the Navy and NASA oxygen generation stack programs, electrochemical hydrogen compressor research, and contributed to the C Series product development through the cell stack design and cost reduction. Luke received AB, BE, and MS degrees from Dartmouth College.


Katherine E. Ayers is Director of Research where she is responsible for Proton’s advanced technology strategy, and has built a portfolio of projects to support Proton’s existing and future electrochemical products. She works with many universities and national labs to develop advanced materials for PEM electrolysis and other electrochemical devices. She was named one of the 2014 Rising Stars by the ACS Women Chemists Committee. Lawrence C. Moulthrop is the Vice President Hydrogen Systems and Co-founder of Proton OnSite, has over 36 years experience in PEMbased systems. Mr. Moulthrop works with Proton's engineering teams to develop packaged hydrogen generator systems for fueling, renewable energy capture, and backup power. Larry actively contributes to key H2 standards such as ISO22734-1 (Water Electrolyzers), DTR/ISO19880 (Hydrogen Fueling Stations), and NFPA2 Hydrogen Technologies Code, and is on the DoE Hydrogen Safety Panel. He holds 22 patents in PEM cell design and system architecture.

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award I03 Symposium Tuesday, May 26, 0840-0900h Hilton Chicago, Boulevard Room A

Anhydrous High-Proton Conductor Based on Ionic Nanopeapods by M. M. Hasani-Sadrabadi, E. Dashtimoghadam, G. Bahlakeh, and K. I. Jacob Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi is currently a graduate researcher studying bioengineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Georgia Tech, Hasani-Sadrabadi attended the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, where he received the Excellence Scholarship that enabled him to develop microfluidic platforms for controlled synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles. Hasani-Sadrabadi’s fuel cell research began in 2007 at Amirkabir University of Technology. In 2010, he established the Biologically-Inspired Developing Advanced Research (BiDAR) group as an international collaborative research team. His main research area of interest is the development of bio-inspired nanomaterials for energy and biomedical applications. Hansani-Sadrabadi has published more than 40 peer-reviewed papers and has an h-index of 15. He has received many honors and recognitions, including the National Scientific Prize for Elites and the IFIA Top Inventor Award.

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Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award F02 Symposium Monday, May 25, 1440-1520h Hilton Chicago, PDR 3

An Investigation of the Growth Mechanism of Coal Derived Graphene Films by S. H. Vijapur, D. Wang, D. C. Ingram, and G. G. Botte Santosh Vijapur is a PhD candidate in the Department of Chemical and Bimolecular Engineering at Ohio University, working under the guidance of ECS’s Dr. Gerardine G. Botte. Santosh’s doctoral research work involves development of graphene and amorphous carbon films using coal as a carbon source, with focus on detailed investigation of the growth mechanism by utilizing various spectroscopy, crystallography and chromatography techniques. He has also demonstrated the utilization of these carbon films in various electrochemical applications. Apart from his dissertation work, Santosh is involved in coal electrolysis project for hydrogen production and synthesis of various nickel based nanocomposites for urea electrolysis. Santosh has received degrees from Ohio University and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University. His master’s thesis focused on enhancing the collection efficiency of pollutants containing particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm. Santosh has published five peer-reviewed papers, two conference proceedings, and has given five oral presentations. Further, he founded the Ohio University ECS Student Chapter and served as its secretary.

Nanocarbons Division Richard E. Smalley Research Award B01 Symposium Wednesday, May 27, 1000-1040h Hilton Chicago, Lake Huron

Nanocarbons for Optoelectronic Applications by D. M. Guldi Dirk M. Guldi is known for his outstanding contributions to the areas of charge-separation in donor-acceptor materials and construction of nanostructured thin fil for solar energy conversion. Dr. Guldi joined ECS in 2008, where he served as Chair of the Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructers Division and was named a Society Fellow in 2014. His career has a robust background in academia and research. Dr. Gulidi has held


positions at Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, and has also served as the Associate Editor of the journal Nanoscale. Since 2004, Dr. Guldi has authored or co-authored more than 300 peer-reviewed articles and has been named among the world’s 2014 Highly Cited Researchers by Thomas Reuters. Dr. Guldi is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy at the FriedrichAlexander University in Erlangen, where his research topics of interest include efficiencies of solar energy conversions. Dr. Guldi completed both his undergraduate and PhD at the University of Cologne, followed by postdoctoral appointments at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin, and Syracuse university. Since 2004, he has authored or co-authored more than 300 peer-reviewed articles on the fundamental structural and electronic requirements for ultrafast charge transport and optical gating in carbon nanostructure arrays of donor-acceptor ensembles and in nanostructured thin films to address aspects that correspond to the optimization and fine-tuning of dynamics and / or efficiencies of solar energy conversion.

Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry Division David C. Grahame Award L04 Symposium Tuesday, May 26, 0800-0840h Hilton Chicago, Williford Room A

Kinetics of the Hydrogen Oxidation in Alkaline and Acid Electrolytes by H. A. Gasteiger, J. Durst, J. Herranz, A. Siebel, F. Hasché, P. J. Rheinländer, and C. Simon Hubert A. Gasteiger has touched many aspects of electrochemical science, from academia to industry. He received his PhD in Chemical Engineering from UC Berkeley in 1993, where he was mentored by Elton Cairns, Phil Ross, and Nenad Markovic in the field of electrochemistry. He went on to do a one-year postdoctoral fellowship at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, followed by academic research with Jürgen Behm at Ulm University – where he established a research group in heterogeneous gas-phase catalysis and electrocatalysis. After nine years of academic research, he spent ten years working in industry with organizations such as GM, Opel, and Acta S.p.A. He returned to the academic realm in 2009 when he accepted a oneyear Visiting Professorship at MIT, working on lithium-air batteries and fuel cell electrocatalysis – focusing on materials, electrodes, and diagnostics development for fuel cells and batteries. Dr. Gasteiger has been with ECS since 1989, where he has received the ECS Norman Hackerman Young Author Award and was named an ECS Fellow in 2011. He has published 94 refereed articles (h-index 53, 15,000 citations), 15 book chapters, and 33 patent applications/patents.

CHIC The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA Hilton Chicago

Dielectric Science and Technology Division Thomas D. Callinan Award Z03 Symposium Wednesday, May 27, 0845-0930h Hilton Chicago, PDR 7

Boron Carbon Nitride Thin Films for Low-k Dielectric Interconnect and Optical Applications by K. B. Sundaram, A. Prakash, and S. W. King Kalpathy B. Sundaram has provided the foundation of thin film technology for low-k and high-k dielectric materials. His technical contributions in non-traditional low-k materials are cited as the original works. Prof. Sundaram’s contributions in this field are well known and highly regarded by both academic and industrial researchers and engineers for solving fundamental problems with high-k materials. Since joining ECS in 1994, Prof. Sundaram has served various leadership roles in the Dielectric Science Division of the Society, as well as being awarded the ECS Fellow Award. His efforts in education have resulted in four “University for Excellence in Teaching Awards” given by the Board of Trustees. Prof. Sundaram has received degrees from the University of Kerala, Indian Institute of Science, and the Indian Institute of Technology. After he obtained his PhD, Prof. Sundaram joined McMaster University as a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow. He went on to join Opto-Electronics Inc. as a Research Scientist, and then the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Central Florida, where he currently holds the title of Senior Professor and Graduate Coordinator in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.



Europe Section Alessandro Volta Medal L01 Symposium Tuesday, May 26, 1400-1440h Hilton Chicago, Williford Room C

Electrochemical SERS on Nanostructured Surfaces and its Application to DNA Detection and Discrimination by P. N. Bartlett Philip N. Bartlett is highly recognized among the scientific community for his research in bioelectrochemistry, template electrodeposition of nanomaterials and chemical sensors. After receiving his B.A. in Chemistry from the University of Oxford, he was awarded a British Petroleum Scholarship to study for a PhD in Photoelectrochemistry under the supervision of Professor W. John Albery FRS at Imperial College. From this, he went on to work on modified electrodes with the help of a Research Fellowship from the Royal Society for the Exhibition of 1851. He went on to pursue a career in academia at the University of Warwick and the University of Bath. In 1993 Prof. Bartlett joined the University of Southampton, where he is currently the Professor of Electrochemistry. Prof. Bartlett has been presented many awards and honors, including ECS’s Electrodeposition Division Research Award (2005) and the Carl Wagner Memorial Award (2007). He is currently the President Elect of the International Society for Electrochemistry and holds many fellowships, including the Royal Society of Chemistry.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

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Special Meeting Section

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA


Hilton Chicago

ECS thanks our 227th meeting sponsors for their generous support Platinum




For sponsorship opportunities, please contact Becca Jensen Compton via phone: 609.737.1902x102; fax: 609.737.2743; or email: 30

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

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227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA


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Technical Exhibit Hilton Chicago, Salon C

Exhibit Hours Tuesday, May 26, 2015 0800-1300h ��������� Exhibitor Move-In 1300-1600h ��������� Technical Exhibit 1800-2000h ��������� Technical Exhibit, General & Student Poster Session

Wednesday, May 27, 2015 0900-1400h ��������� Technical Exhibit 0930-1000h ��������� Coffee Break in Exhibit Hall 0930-1030h ��������� Hydrodynamic Electrochemistry Using Rotating Electrodes with Pine Research Instrumentation 1100-1200h ��������� Potential Exhibitor Workshop in Exhibit Hall 1800-2000h ��������� Technical Exhibit & General Poster Session

Thank you!

ECS Thanks our Exhibitors ABT/FCT............................................................ ALS Co., LTD............................................. Asylum Chroma ATE, Inc....................................... ESL Fujifilm Dimatix Gamry Gelest,

Thursday, May 28, 2015


0900-1200h ��������� Technical Exhibit


0930-1000h ��������� Coffee Break in Exhibit Hall

Huizhou Top Metal Material.........

0930-1030h ��������� Potential Exhibitor Workshop in Exhibit Hall 1100-1200h ��������� Potential Exhibitor Workshop in Exhibit Hall 1200-1600h ��������� Technical Exhibit Tear Down

Ivium Technologies.............................................. MTI PAR/ Pine Research Instrumentation......... Scribner Associates, Inc................................

Please visit,

Stanford Research Systems..........................

Thermo Fisher

to review a full listing of the 227th Meeting exhibitors!

Vacuum Technology Inc.......................


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Special Meeting Section

227th ECS Meeting May 24-28, 2015


Chicago, Illinois, USA Hilton Chicago

Symposium Topics and Organizers (Bold symposia titles denote an issue of ECST that will be available in advance of or at the meeting; see page 33 for details.)

A — Batteries and Energy Storage

F — Electrochemical Engineering

A01 — Joint General Session: Batteries and Energy Storage -and- Fuel Cells, Electrolytes, and Energy Conversion – A. Manivannan, T. R. Jow, K. Edstrom, V. Kalra, B. Liaw Energy Technology / Battery

F02 — Electrochemical Engineering General Session – V. K. Ramani, V. R. Subramanian, E. J. Taylor Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering

A02 — Lithium-Ion Batteries and Beyond – B. L. Lucht, K. Amine, J. Muldoon Battery

F04 — High Rate Metal Dissolution Processes 2 – E. J. Taylor, G. Zangari Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Corrosion / Electrodeposition

A03 — Stationary and Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Systems 5 – S. Narayan, J. St-Pierre, T. V. Nguyen, S. Mukerjee Energy Technology / Battery / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering B — Carbon Nanostructures and Devices B01 — Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion – J. L. Blackburn, P. Atanassov, J. Xiao, V. Di Noto, M. S. Arnold, S. K. Doorn Nanocarbons / Battery / Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry B02 — Carbon Nanostructures in Medicine and Biology – T. DaRos, H. C. De Long, R. I. Stefan-van Staden, L. J. Wilson, D. A. Heller, G. T. Cheek Nanocarbons / Organic and Biological Electrochemistry / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Sensor B03 — Carbon Nanotubes - From Fundamentals to Devices – S. Rotkin, S. K. Doorn, Y. Gogotsi, R. Weisman, M. Zheng, P. J. Kulesza Nanocarbons / Dielectric Science and Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

G — Electronic Materials and Processing G01 — Organic Semiconductor Materials, Devices, and Processing 5 – M. J. Deen, D. J. Gundlach, B. Iniguez, H. Klauk Electronics and Photonics / Dielectric Science and Technology G02 — Processes at the Semiconductor Solution Interface 6 – C. O’Dwyer, D. N. Buckley, A. Etcheberry, A. C. Hillier, R. P. Lynch, P. M. Vereecken, H. Wang, O. M. Leonte Electronics and Photonics / Dielectric Science and Technology / Electrodeposition / Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry CD/USB H — Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems H01 — Advanced CMOS-Compatible Semiconductor Devices 17 – Y. Omura, J. A. Martino, J. Raskin, S. Selberherr, H. Ishii, F. Gamiz, B. Nguyen CD/USB Electronics and Photonics c

B04 — Endofullerenes and Carbon Nanocapsules – T. Akasaka, L. Echegoyen, S. Yang Nanocarbons

H03 — Silicon Compatible Materials, Processes, and Technologies for Advanced Integrated Circuits and Emerging Applications 5 – F. Roozeboom, E. Gusev, K. Kakushima, V. Narayanan, P. Timans, S. De Gendt, Z. Karim CD/USB Electronics and Photonics / Dielectric Science and Technology

B05 — Fullerenes - Chemical Functionalization, Electron Transfer, and Theory: In Honor of Professor Shunichi Fukuzumi – F. D’Souza, N. Martin, D. M. Guldi, D. Cliffel Nanocarbons / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

H04 — State-of-the-Art Program on Compound Semiconductors 57 (SOTAPOCS 57) – Y. Wang, V. Chakrapani, T. J. Anderson, J. M. Zavada, D. C. Abernathy CD/USB Electronics and Photonics

B06 — Graphene and Beyond: 2D Materials – H. Grebel, Y. S. Obeng, R. Martel, A. Hirsch, M. S. Arnold, V. Di Noto Nanocarbons / Dielectric Science and Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

H05 — Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices 16 – S. Jang, K. Shenai, K. C. Mishra, G. W. Hunter, F. Ren, C. O’Dwyer Electronics and Photonics / Dielectric Science and Technology / Luminescence CD/USB and Display Materials / Sensor

B07 — Inorganic/Organic Nanohybrids for Energy Conversion – H. Imahori, H. N. Dinh, S. Meng, P. J. Kulesza, P. V. Kamat Nanocarbons / Battery / Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry B08 — Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Supramolecular Assemblies – K. M. Kadish, S. Mukerjee, N. Solladie, R. Paolesse, T. Torres Nanocarbons / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Energy Technology C — Corrosion Science and Technology C01 — Corrosion General Session – R. Buchheit Corrosion C02 — High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Chemistry 11 – E. J. Opila, J. W. Fergus, P. E. Gannon, T. Markus, T. Maruyama, E. Wuchina High Temperature Materials / Corrosion E — Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition E01 — Metallization of Flexible Electronics – L. Magagnin, Y. Shacham-Diamand, T. Homma, A. Hoff, P. Cojocaru, V. Arcella, G. Zangari Electrodeposition / Electronics and Photonics E02 — Surfactant and Additive Effects on Thin Film Deposition, Dissolution, and Particle Growth – T. Moffat, R. Akolkar, Q. Huang, J. Zhang Electrodeposition / Battery / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry


I — Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion I01 — Crosscutting Metrics and Benchmarking of Transformational Low-Carbon EnergyConversion Technologies – H. N. Dinh, E. L. Miller Energy Technology I02 — Electrochemical Synthesis of Fuels 3 – X. Zhou, G. Brisard, M. B. Mogensen, W. E. Mustain, T. M. Gur, M. C. Williams High Temperature Materials / Energy Technology / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry CD/USB

I03 — Materials for Low-Temperature Electrochemical Systems 2 – M. Shao, P. N. Pintauro Energy Technology / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering I05 — Solid-Gas Electrochemical Interfaces (SGEI 1) – M. B. Mogensen, E. Ivers-Tiffée, T. Kawada, S. B. Adler, P. J. Kulesza, S. Mukerjee High Temperature Materials / Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical CD/USB Electrochemistry


I06 — State-of-the-Art Tutorial on Diagnostics in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells – A. Z. Weber, T. A. Zawodzinski, V. K. Ramani, F. N. Büchi, D. J. Myers, K. Shinohara Energy Technology / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

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Hilton Chicago

K — Organic and Bioelectrochemistry

M — Sensors

K01 — Mechanistic Organic Electrochemistry – D. G. Peters Organic and Biological Electrochemistry L — Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry L01 — Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry General Session – P. J. Kulesza, A. H. Suroviec Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry L03 — Computational Electrochemistry – S. J. Paddison, S. Calabrese Barton Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Energy Technology L04 — Electrocatalysis 7 – S. D. Minteer, P. Atanassov, M. Shao Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Energy Technology L05 — Electrochemistry at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions – A. H. Suroviec, D. M. Fox, R. L. Calhoun, J. Burgess, M. T. Carter, S. Calabrese Barton, J. A. Staser, M. R. Anderson Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Energy Technology / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Organic and Biological Electrochemistry / Sensor L06 — Electrochromic and Chromogenic Materials – P. J. Kulesza, A. Rougier, C. Xu, A. Pawlicka Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry L08 — Spectroelectrochemistry 3 – A. C. Hillier, S. Mukerjee Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry L09 — Oxygen or Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts for Water Electrolysis – H. Xu, S. Mukerjee, V. K. Ramani, P. Atanassov, P. J. Kulesza Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry L10 — Photocatalysts, Photoelectrochemical Cells and Solar Fuels 5 – N. Wu, D. Chu, H. N. Dinh, E. L. Miller, V. Subramanian, A. Manivannan, P. J. Kulesza, Z. Zou, H. Wang, J. Lee Energy Technology / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Sensor

M01 — Nano/Biosensors and Actuators – A. Simonian, B. A. Chin, N. Wu, S. Mitra, L. A. Nagahara, D. Cliffel, Z. P. Aguilar, J. E. Koehne Sensor / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry M02 — Nano-Micro Sensors and Systems in Healthcare and Environmental Monitoring – A. Khosla, S. Mitra, P. K. Sekhar, A. Simonian, P. Vanýsek, G. W. Hunter, P. Hesketh, H. Furukawa, A. K. Pradhan, V. K. Varadan, M. C. Almonte, S. Bhansali, A. M. Parameswaran, M. Yasuzawa, R. I. Stefan-van Staden, S. Kassegne, E. M. Sabolsky, M. Bayachou, J. Choi Sensor / Organic and Biological Electrochemistry M04 — Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems General Session (Chemical and Biological Sensors) – M. T. Carter, S. Mitra, B. A. Chin, J. Li, Z. P. Aguilar, A. Simonian Sensor Z — General Z01 — General Student Poster Session – V. R. Subramanian, M. P. Foley, V. Chaitanya, A. Khosla, P. Pharkya, K. B. Sundaram All Divisions Z02 — Nanotechnology General Session – O. M. Leonte All Divisions / Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee Z03 — Solid State Topics General Session – K. B. Sundaram, O. M. Leonte, G. W. Hunter, K. Shimamura, H. Iwai Dielectric Science and Technology / Electronics and Photonics / Energy Technology / Luminescence and Display Materials / Nanocarbons / Organic and Biological Electrochemistry / Sensor Z04 — Nature-Inspired Electrochemical Systems – W. E. Mustain, H. N. Dinh, H. Xu, S. D. Minteer, A. Simonian, M. Bayachou, G. G. Botte Energy Technology / Organic and Biological Electrochemistry / Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry / Sensor / Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Subcommittee

L11 — Structure and Relaxations in Soft Ion-Conducting Materials – V. Di Noto, G. Liu, K. Karan Energy Technology / Battery / Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry

ECS Transactions – Forthcoming Issues Issues of ECS Transactions (ECST) for symposia with titles in bold in the list above may be pre-ordered and picked up at the meeting. Each of these issues will be distributed in a single package that will contain identical content on both a compact disc and a USB drive ( CD/USB ). These issues can also be purchased online through the ECS Digital Library as full-issue PDF files or individual article PDF files ( ) beginning on May 15, 2015. ECS will publish papers from the remaining ECST symposia approximately 2 weeks after the Chicago meeting. These issues and individual articles will be available as PDFs only. If you would like to receive information on any of these issues when they become available, please sign up for the eTOC alerts by visiting


Special Meeting Section

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


All photos © Glasgow City Marketing Bureau.

ECS Conference on Electrochemical SOCIE T Y NE WS Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV July 26-31, 2015

GLASGOW Scotland

Scottish Exhibition and Conference Center

General Information This international conference convening in Glasgow, July 26-31, 2015, is devoted to the following areas: • Section A: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-XIV)—All aspects of research, development, and engineering of solid oxide fuel cells. Lead organizer: Subhash C. Singhal, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. • Section B: Batteries—A wide range of topics related to battery technologies. Lead organizer: Peter G. Bruce, Oxford University. • Section C: Low Temperature Fuel Cells—Low-temperature fuel cells, electrolyzers, and redox flow cells. Lead organizer: Hubert A. Gasteiger, Technische Universität München, Germany. This is the first of a series of planned biennial conferences in Europe by The Electrochemical Society on electrochemical energy conversion/storage materials, concepts, and systems, with the intent to bring together scientists and engineers to discuss both fundamental advances and engineering innovations.

Important Deadlines • Discounted hotel options are available now until June 15, 2015 or until the blocks sell out, reserve early! • Early-bird registration is now open, early-bird pricing available through June 15, 2015. Register TODAY! Please visit the Glasgow Meeting page for the most up-to-date information regarding hotel accommodations, registration, short courses, special events and to review the online technical program. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



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35 1


In Memoriam memoriam Margie May Nicholson (1925-2014)


argie May Nicholson passed away September 23, 2014. An ECS member for 60 years, Dr. Nicholson became an active member in 1954. She was an emeritus member and was associated with both the Battery and the Physical and Electroanalytical Divisions. It is interesting to note that the two active ECS members who underwrote her ECS membership application were Norman Hackerman and Paul Delahay. Margie May Nicholson Dr. Nichsolson was born in San Antonio, Texas, June 10, 1925. As an aspiring student chemist she joined ACS in 1947. She received her PhD in physical chemistry from University of Texas, Austin, in June 1950. She was a research fellow in the Biochemical Institute (U. Texas) on an Eli Lily and Company scholarship and in March 1951 accepted a position in the Naval Ordnance Research Laboratory (White Oak) Silver Spring, MD.

In 1952 she became a research chemist at Humble Oil & Refining Company (later Exxon) in Baytown, Texas. In her position, she engaged in research on polarography and other aspects of electrochemistry. In 1955 she published a solo paper on electrochemical instrumentation, “Effect of Cell Circuit Resistance in Polarography with Stationary and Dropping Electrodes,” (Anal. Chem. 27 (1955) 1364-5.) Before 1972 she moved to California and became affiliated with Atomics International, a division of Rockwell Corporation (later Rockwell International) where she became involved in studying photoelectrochemical concepts but also (in 1972!) on lithiummagnesium electrodes in propylene carbonate. She was an author or co-author of twelve articles in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society. She holds several U.S. patents, one on acousto-optic transducer device. Margie was married to Dan Nicholson, also a chemist. They had no children, Margie had no siblings. Background research on M. M. Nicholson was done by Petr Vanýsek. The author acknowledges the help of Shelley O’Clair, a cousin of Dr. Nicholson, who also provided the photograph.

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


New & Notab!e

Ashok Vijh (ECS member 1968, Emeritus) has been awarded the D. S. Kothari Indian National Science Academy Distinguished Visiting Professorship. On leave of absence from Hydro Quebec, Dr. Vijh will spend several weeks in India as the Chair holder in January-February 2015.

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In Memoriam memoriam


Konrad E. Heusler (b. 1931) member since 1982, Battery Division

Find out what’s trending in the field and interact with a like-minded community through the ECS social media pages.

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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Research grade Potentiostat / Galvanostat Model EC301 ... $7990 The new EC301 Potentiostat / Galvanostat meets the requirements of modern research while offering tremendous value. Hardware for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is built in to the instrument and included at no extra charge. The compliance, bandwidth, and polarization range of the EC301 let you handle the most demanding of electrochemical cells. With an intuitive front panel, the EC301 gets you up and running in seconds. When you’re ready to stream data to the PC, the Ethernet and GPIB interfaces offer speed and convenience. The software is completely free; all the techniques are included. There are no modules to unlock, no add-ons to buy.

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T ECH HIGHLIGH T S Development of Hybrid Electro-Electroless Deposit (HEED) Coatings and Applications Electrodeposition can be achieved via electroplating, whereby current is applied to the work piece serving as the cathode, or by using an electroless deposition process, wherein the reductant is a co-dissolved species in the plating solution. Researchers in Canada have developed a combined deposition process, termed hybrid electroelectroless deposition (HEED) to deposit two metals. The authors present a method in which the more noble metal is deposited by electroless plating, to prevent the disruption of the electroless process by the application of the electroplating potential. When the electroplating process is concurrently employed, thereby effecting HEED, multilayered structures as well as controlled alloys and composites may be deposited. The advantages and disadvantages of the two electrodeposition processes are both present in HEED as is the added complexity engendered by the presence of electroplating species in an electroless deposition solution. Nonetheless, the authors explored and demonstrated initial success in forming (i) a tri-layer deposit containing Co and Au and (ii) a bi-layer on a Mg alloy from a Ni-Zn-P electrolyte. From: J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, D470 (2014).

“Time of Flight” Electrochemistry Measurement of molecular diffusion coefficients is important in understanding and determining the kinetics of physical and chemical processes. Among the measurement techniques employed are those based on pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, field flow fractionation, and electrochemistry. Electrochemical methods such as chronoamperometry (based on the Cottrell equation) and polarography (based on the Ilkovic equation) are two of the techniques used by electrochemists for these measurements. Researchers at the University of Wyoming, USA, recently reported the development of a simple and straightforward measurement method based on the use of interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes. In their article published in the JES Focus Issue in Recognition of Adam Heller and His Enduring Contributions to Electrochemistry, the authors measured the diffusion time between a generator electrode (where the electroactive species of interest is formed) and a collector electrode (where the electroactive species is measured), and used this value to calculate the diffusion coefficient based on digital simulations of chronoamperometric and cyclic voltammetric experiments. This “time of flight” approach uses the special structure of IDA electrodes and simple diffusion equations to provide good estimates of diffusion coefficients without the need for accurate knowledge of electroactive species concentration, electrode surface area, or

other parameters. The only requirement is accurate knowledge of the distance between the individual electrodes in the array. From: J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, H3015 (2014).

Atomic Layer Deposition of High Quality HfO2 Using In-Situ Formed Hydrophilic Oxide as an Interfacial Layer High-quality HfO2 is now the dominant high-κ oxide in mainstream manufacturing processing in the semiconductor industry. Atomic-layer deposition (ALD) is the deposition method of choice for ultra-thin, controlled HfO2 growth. For uniform ALD of HfO2 on silicon (Si), an interfacial oxide layer is always needed. This interfacial oxide is best formed on hydrophilic surfaces such as OH-terminated Si. Previous methods relied on ozonated water spraying to prepare the surface for ALD. However, in 3D silicon MOS device structures, such as FinFETs and related nanoscale architectures, it is difficult to allow uniform oxide formation on vertical fins and underneath nanowires due to limited access for reactive species. Researchers at the University of Kentucky have successfully demonstrated a method for highly hydrophilic SiO2 interfacial layer growth formed in-situ in an ALD chamber using 1 cycle of ozone and water. Subsequent growth of HfO2 on this interfacial layer showed promising growth linearity of 1 Å/ cycle, and stoichiometric composition. In test structures, capacitance-voltage analysis shows negligible frequency dispersion and hysteresis, confirming high dielectric quality comparable to traditional methods. The researchers state that the approach removes the need for chemical oxidation process in HfO2 growth for advanced integrated circuits manufacturing processes. It certainly provides a useful manner for high-κ oxide growth for more complex geometries in nanoscale CMOS devices. From: ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol., 3, N155 (2014).

Evaluation of the SEI Using a Multilayer Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Model The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays a critical role in the performance and stability of Li-ion batteries. Formed at the anode by reduction of electrolyte solution components, the film is comprised of an inner layer (adjacent to the electrode) composed primarily of inorganic matter and an outer layer (adjacent to the electrolyte) composed of organic matter. Prior spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) studies have simplified modeling of the SEI by treating it as a single layer. A researcher from Idaho National Laboratory in the U.S. has developed a model that incorporates two layers to characterize the SEI. The author identified four regions during the scanning of the potential of a Cu substrate to 0.02 V vs. Li and back to 1.7 V. The first region showed initial increase in thickness due to reduction of solvent. The second region exhibited an

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

increase in the inner layer thickness due to subsequent reduction of the initial products. Loss in thickness in both layers, attributed to dissolution of semi-soluble components, is revealed in the fourth region and corroborates quartz crystal microbalance data from other authors. Cycling revealed a slow growth of the SEI film arising from the inner layer growing during each cycle. This initial SE modeling work suggests more can be learned about the dynamic SEI layer. From: ECS Electrochem. Lett., 3, A108 (2014).

Acidic Buffer-Free Organic Solar Cells Using VanadiumDoped Indium Oxide Anodes Organic solar cells (OSCs) are comprised of thin layers of materials arranged to exploit their inherent properties that together enable the conversion of light into separated charge carriers and the flow of current. Conventional OSCs employ a poly(3,4-ethylene dioxylene thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) buffer layer that enables increased hole extraction efficiency from the active layer, but owing to its acidity leads to eventual etching of the Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) anode. Some researchers have prepared ITO anodes protected by a V2O5 coating. In this work, researchers from South Korea developed a V-doped In2O3 (IVO) film to address both the need for greater chemical stability of the transparent anode and for simplifying the manufacturing process. IVO films (200 nm thick) were prepared by cosputtering V2O5 and In2O3 followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). RTA at 600 °C yielded a film with lower resistivity, higher carrier concentration, and comparable carrier mobility and optical transmittance when compared to as-deposited and 500 °C-annealed films. OSCs containing the IVO anode or reference ITO anode were fabricated with and without the PEDOT:PSS buffer layer. Cells fabricated using annealed IVO films performed reasonably similar to the same initial level of the conventional OSC containing PEDOT:PSS on ITO. The authors demonstrated that the IVO film served well as a buffer- and anode-integrated electrode, eliminating the need for the extra layer. From: ECS Solid State Lett., 3, P145 (2014).

Tech Highlights was prepared by Mike Kelly of Sandia National Laboratories, Colm O’Dwyer of University College Cork, Ireland, and Donald Pile of Nexeon Limited. Each article highlighted here is available free online. Go to the online version of Tech Highlights, in each issue of Interface, and click on the article summary to take you to the full-text version of the article.


228th ECS Meeting

Phoenix, AZ October 11-16, 2015

Hyatt Regency Phoenix & Phoenix Convention Center

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©Visit Pho

Meeting Topics • • • • • • •

Batteries and Energy Storage Carbon Nanostructures and Devices Corrosion Science and Technology Dielectric Science and Materials Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition Electrochemical Engineering Electronic Materials and Processing

• • • •

Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion Luminescence and Display Materials, Devices, and Processing Physical and Analytical Eletrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photoelectrochemistry • Sensors

Important Deadlines • Discounted hotel rates start at $199 and will be available starting in June 2015 at the Hyatt Regency in Phoenix, Arizona. The reservation deadline is September 11, 2015 or until the block sells out, reserve early! • Early-bird registration opens in June 2015, early-bird pricing is available through September 11, 2015. • Take advantage of exhibition and sponsorship opportunities, submit your application by July 10, 2015. • Travel grants are available for student attendees and young professional (early career and faculty) attendees. The 228th ECS Meeting will be held at the Hyatt Regency Phoenix & Phoenix Convention Center. Please visit the Phoenix Meeting page for the most up-to-date information on hotel accommodations, registration, short courses, special events, and to review the online technical program. Full papers resented at ECS meetings will be published in ECS Transactions.

Future Meetings 2015, July 26-31 — Glasgow, Scotland

(ECS Satellite Conference) ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC–XIV

2016, May 29-June 3 — San Diego, CA

229th Meeting at the Hilton San Diego Bayfront & San Diego Convention Center

2016, October 2-7 — Honolulu, HI

PRiME 2016 at the Hawaii Convention Center & Hilton Hawaiian Village

2017, October 1-6 National Harbor, MD (greater Washington, DC area) 232nd Meeting at the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center

PV, EV, and Your Home at Less Than $1 a Gallon by James M. Fenton


n the Interface article “The Society on Wheels”1 that appeared in the summer of 1996, it was shown how each of the Society’s Divisions and their technical areas play an important role in the manufacture, operation, and life of our automobiles. In the Interface article “Two Fuel Cell Cars in Every Garage?”2 that appeared in the fall of 2005, the authors pointed out that “In 1928, U.S. presidential candidate Herbert Hoover promised growing prosperity represented by ‘a chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage.’” The authors then suggested that “We now find ourselves at a point in history wondering if and when the power for those cars will come from fuel cells instead of internal combustion engines.” (Emphasis added.) Increased funding for fuel cell research was made possible because, in 2003, President George W. Bush promoted the environmental promise of cars running on hydrogen, the universe’s most abundant element. “The first car driven by a child born today,” he said, “could be powered by hydrogen, and pollution-free.” Now, ten years later, 2015, we have a scenario wherein “the wheels on the car go round and round,”3 powered by electric motors that use electrons! Today those electrons come from grid4 charged batteries (mostly fossil fuel generated electrons), gasoline range extender electric generators, or regenerative braking. Fuel cells are still around the corner (the child born in 2003 is not sixteen years old until 2019!),5,6 but there have been sightings of fuel cell vehicles; fuel cells also make good range extenders. PV and zero-energy homes—In 1996, U.S. residential electricity was 8.36 ¢/kWh, the installed cost of a residential PV system was >$12/W (~48¢/kWh),7 gasoline cost $1.23 per gallon, the average fuel efficiency of light vehicles was 21 mpg,8 and the Toyota Prius (the bestselling hybrid electric vehicle with over 5 million units globally) had not yet debuted (1997 Japan, 2000 worldwide) (Fig. 1). In 2005, residential electricity was 9.45¢/kWh, the installed cost of a residential PV system was $9/W (~23-32¢/kWh), gasoline cost $2.30 per gallon, and Hummer (a large sport utility vehicle with poor gas mileage) sales were at their peak. In 2005, President George W. Bush

Fig. 1. Gasoline, electricity, and PV prices.

said, “One day, technologies like solar panels and high-efficiency appliances and advanced insulation could even allow us to build ‘zero-energy homes’ that produce as much energy as they consume.” The goal of the Bush Administration’s Solar America Initiative was to reduce the cost of solar photovoltaic technologies so that they become cost-competitive by 2015. Today, residential electricity is 11.88¢/kWh, you can purchase a net-zero energy home, the installed cost of a residential PV system is $3.73/W [~12¢/kWh, the levelized cost (LCOE) for residential PV with the federal income tax credit is the same as the cost of electricity “out of the wall,” i.e., most of the U.S. is at grid parity], gasoline costs $3.60 per gallon (Jan.–Sept. 2014) or ~$3.00 per gallon (Oct.– Nov. 2014), and the Hummer is gone. Back to the future—The DeLorean time machine is a fictional electricity-powered automobile-based time travel device featured in the Back to the Future movie trilogy.9 In 1955, the automobile time-machine was provided with electricity from a bolt of lightning; in 1985, a nuclear fission reaction; in 2015, it was supplied by a nuclear fusion generator that uses garbage. Like the Hummer, the DeLorean is gone, but today there are nearly 20 models of electric plug-in vehicles10 offered in more than a dozen different brands— and in a range of sizes, styles, price points, and powertrains to suit a wide range of consumers. The question now is where do we get the electricity and how much does it cost? Will the nuclear fusion generator called the SUN be our source of transportation fuel? Many of the states in the United States have not had a strong renewable energy policy in place, primarily because renewable energy was thought to be too expensive and we thought only biomass could be used to make transportation fuel. We were wrong! It’s gasoline (often imported from other states or countries) and electricity produced from coal and natural gas (also, often imported) that are too expensive. Transportation fuel can and should be electrons or hydrogen because it is cheaper! Electricity at $0.99 per gallon—Electric cars run so efficiently on electricity that they are significantly less expensive to operate than an equivalent sized gasoline car (Fig. 2). The efficiency of the average car on the road is 25 mpg and the efficiency of the average electric car is 3 miles per kWh.11 At $3.60 (or $3.00) per gallon and 11.88 ¢/kWh for residential electricity, the gasoline car costs 14.4 (or 12.0) cents per mile to drive while the electric car costs 3.96 cents per mile. This shows that electricity is 27.5% (or 33%) of the cost of gasoline or that residential electricity is equivalent to $0.99 per gallon gasoline! The energy consumption of our homes can be cost-effectively reduced through energy retrofits at less than 5 ¢/kWh,12 which is equivalent to fueling your car at $0.42 per gallon. PV, EVs, buildings, and the grid—If we embrace this transformation from (a) expensive fossil fuels for transportation and (b) utility only production of electricity, to that of cheaper utility and rooftop solar plants for electricity for transportation and to power our energy

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efficiency retrofitted buildings and homes, we will be able to manufacturer the solar PV panels, energy efficiency products, batteries, and vehicles locally. If we delay, we will be trading our addiction to expensive and often imported fossil fuels to imported PV panels, and batteries, but at least the installation jobs would not be outsourced. The question then is will nations get out in front and surf the wave created by the solar and EV tsunami or will they drown? Will electric utilities succumb to a “Utility Death Spiral”?13 (As more customers adopt distributed generation installed behind the customer’s utility meter, utilities’ costs to maintain and operate the grid must be spread across a smaller customer base, raising customer rates and increasing the economic incentive to cut the connection to the grid.) Or can we all work together and look at the future as an opportunity?14 “The electric grid will be just as important in the years to come because the grid is becoming the platform that makes it possible for people to plug in solar panels, batteries, and charging stations,” said Ellen Hayes, a Pacific Gas and Electric Company Fig. 2. Efficiency of gasoline and electric vehicles. spokeswoman. “Having a solar panel that isn’t connected to the grid is like having a computer that’s not connected to the Internet.”15 The Electrochemical Society can lead us into the future—In 2. M. F. Mathias, R. Makharia, H. A. Gasteiger, J. S. Conley, 1996, “The Society on Wheels” showed how each of the Society’s T. J. Ruller, C. J. Gittleman, S. S. Kocha, D. P. Miller, C. K. Divisions and their technical areas play an important role in the Mittelsteadt, T. Xie, S. G. Yan, and P. T. Yu, “Two Fuel Cell manufacture, operation, and life of our automobiles. In this issue of Cars in Every Garage?,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 14(3), 24 the Interface, we look at the role of, and opportunities for, the ECS (2005). community in electric vehicles, the buildings near which our vehicles 3. Anonymous, “The Wheels on the Bus.” are parked, the electric fueling infrastructure, the role of solar energy, 4. J. P. Meyers, “Lightning in a Bottle: Storing Energy for the grid-scale electricity storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, sensing, and ‘Smart Grid,’” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19(3), 44 (2010). communication infrastructure. The future is indeed vibrant for the 5. “Hydrogen Cars, Coming Down the Pike,” The New York Times, members of our Society. Nov. 29, 2014. 6. M. M. Bomgardner, “Fuel-Cell Cars Start to Arrive,” C&E © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F01151IF News, p. 17, Nov. 17, 2014. 7. G. Barbose, S. Weaver, and N. Darghouth, “Tracking the Sun About the Author VII: The Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2013,” James M. Fenton is the Director of the University the_sun_vii_report.pdf (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). of Central Florida’s Florida Solar Energy Center 8. “Average Fuel Efficiency of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle,” http:// (FSEC). The U.S. DOE is currently funding programs at FSEC in: “Building America” energy national_transportation_statistics/html/table_04_23.html efficient homes, Photovoltaic Manufacturing, (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). Hot-Humid PV testing of large-scale PV to show 9. “Back to the Future–The Complete Movie Trilogy,” http:// bankability, train-the-trainers education for solar (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). installations, programs to decease the soft-costs 10. “Cars,” (accessed Jan. 21, of PV installation and management of a smart2015). grid education consortium for power engineering 11. “Compare All-Electric Vehicles Side-by-Side,” http://www. students. The U.S. DOT recently awarded a University Electric (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). Vehicle Transportation Center (EVTC) to FSEC. Prior to joining 12. “Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis – Version 8.0,” FSEC, Dr. Fenton spent 20 years as a Chemical Engineering Professor at the University of Connecticut. He received his PhD in Energy%20-%20Version%208.0.pdf (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois in 1984 and his 13. “Solar Disruption? Yes. Utility Death Spiral? Not Necessarily,” BS from UCLA in 1979. He is an Electrochemical Society Fellow and received the Research Award of the ECS’s Energy Technology article/2014/04/solar-disruption-yes-utility-death-spiral-notDivision last May. He may be reached at necessarily (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). 14. “Adapting to Plug-Ins,” business/21621850-electric-cars-could-help-save-powerutilities-death-spiral-adapting-plug-ins (accessed Jan. 21, 2015). References 15. “Musk Battery Works Fill Utilities with Fear and Promise,” B. E. Rounsavill, “The Society on Wheels,” Electrochem. Soc. works-fill-utilities-with-fear-and-promise.html (accessed Jan. Interface, 5(2), 18 (1996). 21, 2015). 42

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Home Energy Efficiency Retrofits and PV Provide Fuel for Our Cars by James M. Fenton


hile retrofitting buildings and homes to make them more energy efficient1 has always been cost-effective, it is now even more so, given that even utility solar2 and rooftop solar power3 is cheaper than electricity made from fossil fuels! So, while we may never see $1 per gallon gasoline again in the U.S., there is a clear route to prosperity represented by driving cars powered by electricity (saved by retrofitting our homes or made locally from utility solar “out of the wall” or by rooftop solar) at an equivalent cost of a dollar per gallon while keeping all the money and jobs at home. President Obama issued the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge4 to the nation on March 2012 to produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable for the average American family as today’s gasolinepowered vehicles by 2022. In June of 2012, David Danielson, the U.S. DOE Assistant Secretary, referred to the Challenge as a “Big Hairy Audacious Goal.”5 Today the current cost of the battery is $325/ kWh (see Fig. 1), while the 2022 battery technology cost target is at $125/ kWh.6 As technology advances, and battery and drivetrain costs continue to drop, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales are expected to keep increasing each year, replacing demand for petroleum with demand for electricity. This additional demand for electricity can be met by widespread deployment of renewables, such as photovoltaic (PV) solar power. The U.S. DOE SunShot Initiative7 aims to reduce the total installed cost of residential roof-top solar and utility-scale solar energy systems to an unsubsidized $0.09/kWh and $0.06/kWh, respectively by 20208 (with the federal income tax credit today the residential and utility prices are $0.12/kWh and $0.056/kWh, respectively). In June of 2012, Dr. Danielson referred to the SunShot Initiative also as a “Big Hairy Audacious Goal.”5

Figure 2 shows the U.S. average residential electricity costs from 1990 to 2014 as black dots, with the orange and red curves showing possible bounds for the future price of residential electricity out of the wall up to the year 2025. The dark green curve shows an average residential rooftop PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for the U.S. with the 30% ITC and the light green curve shows the unsubsidized LCOE. While today, energy efficiency retrofits and residential PV systems can power PEVs at the equivalent of $0.42 and $1 per gallon, respectively, there are upfront costs to retrofits and residential PV (in the tens of thousands of dollars). It is interesting that only when we talk about energy efficiency retrofits or more energy efficient electric cars, do we talk about payback and economics when we spend more money upfront. We ask what the payback is on more attic insulation or a more energy efficient air conditioner, but we don’t ask what the payback is on the granite counter-top or the big screen TV. In choosing the different options of a particular car, we do not ask what the payback is on leather seats, fancy rims, a bigger engine, or a better sound system. What is the payback of say a Mercedes S550 over a Toyota Corolla? We do not ask these questions when we consider entertainment, luxury, or go on vacations. We do pay money for experiences (hopefully good, or better yet, great experiences) and not ask about payback. This experience is then why people want to put PV on their roof before they carry out cost-effective energy efficiency retrofits. PV is “sexy” while increased insulation is boring. The Tesla Model S in 2013 had sales of ~17,650, which puts Tesla’s electric sedan well ahead of its large luxury sedan competitors: Mercedes-Benz S-Class (13,303), BMW 7 Series: (10,932), Lexus LS (10,727), Audi A8 (6,300), or Porsche Panamera (5,421). People who bought the Tesla Model S instead of the other luxury cars did (continued on next page)

Fig. 1. Cost reduction of PEV batteries.

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(continued from previous page)

so for the premium experience. EVs are smoother, quieter and have more torque. So they drive better! The same is true for the retrofitted house with PV on the roof. It is quieter, operates better, provides a healthier environment, and is worth more. That said, it still would be nice to own a net-zero-energy home, own the PV fueling station, have luxurious vehicles, and still pay less than what we paid for our base house and gasoline vehicles. The upfront costs of plug-in electric vehicles such as the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt are higher than comparable gasoline fueled cars (Versa and Sentra for the Leaf; and Cruze, Malibu, and Impala for the Volt) even with the $7,500 federal income tax credit (see Table I). On the other hand, the monthly costs of fuel [$0.1188 per kWh and $3.60 ($3.00) per gallon of Fig. 2. U.S. residential electricity cost and residential rooftop PV LCOE cost. gasoline] and 2014-advertised 36-month leases have the Table I. Cost of plug-in vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles at $3.60/gal gasoline. Nissan Leaf cheaper per month than the Versa (same cost) and Sentra; and the Chevrolet Volt is cheaper per month than the Malibu (same cost) and Impala, but $50 ($65) per month more than the Cruze. Based on 5-year financing at 0% interest, the monthly cost (fuel + financing) for the Nissan Leaf and Sentra are equivalent (at $3.00 per gallon the Sentra is $25 less per month). The Leaf is $70 ($91) more per month than the Versa; and the Chevrolet Volt is cheaper per month (fuel + financing) than the Malibu and Impala, but $40 ($60) per month more than the Cruze. By 2022, when the initial cost of the PEV is approximately equal Table II. 127 M U.S. residential electricity customers to—or even less than—a gasoline vehicle, inexpensive utility PV(paying $0.1188 per kWh in 2012). generated electricity can power EVs at less than $0.50 per gallon. Given the expected expansion of both PEV and PV markets over the coming decades, a cost-effective and reliable systems integration of PV, EVs (and their fueling infrastructure), and buildings is needed that offers advantages to homeowners, drivers of PEVs, workplaces, and utilities. As fuel cell vehicles, EVs with fuel cell range extenders, and wireless charging become more prevalent, these technologies must be coordinated with PV installations and the proliferation of battery and/or fuel cell EVs, so as to bring benefits to consumers, employers, and utilities. In 2012, the U.S. consumed 3,695 TWh of electricity (37% residential, 36% commercial and 27% industrial). There were 127 million residential electricity customers, who consumed on average 903 kWh per month of electricity at 11.88 cents/kWh for an average monthly bill of $107.28.9 This means U.S. residential customers spend $163.5 B per year for electricity or $0.45 B per day (see Table II). Energy efficiency retrofits can cut the energy use of U.S.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Table III. U.S. 232 M cars and light trucks (gasoline: $3.60/gal or $3.00/gal; $0.1188 /kWh; 12,000 miles/yr).

residences by more than 20%,10 saving 275 TWh per year (7.4% of U.S. electricity) or $33 billion annually on electric bills, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and create jobs. While there are additional upfront costs to improve an older home or building, or build a new home or office to be highly efficient, these costs are recouped through lower energy bills. On average, families spend about $2,000 per year on energy for their homes—each family could cost-effectively save about $400 each year with energy-saving upgrades. This savings for all the residential customers is then $51 B per year. In the U.S. there are 111.3 million cars and 120.8 million light trucks (232.1 million total light vehicles) (see Table III). The average fuel economy for the U.S. car fleet (all cars on the road today) and the U.S. light truck fleet (all light trucks on the road today) are 24.9 mpg and 18.5 mpg, respectively. The average U.S. household vehicle travels 12,000 miles per year. At $3.60 per gallon the average car uses $1,735 of gasoline per year, and the light truck uses $2,335 of gasoline per year. In the U.S. then cars and light trucks spend $475.2 B per year or $1.30 B per day on gasoline. The U.S. budget for 2015 is $1.1 trillion. As described above, U.S. residential customers spend $163.5 billion in electricity (most of which is fossil-fuel based) and spend $475.2 billion on gasoline, or they spend 58% of the budget to power their homes, cars, and light trucks. If all of the gasoline-fueled small cars in the U.S. were changed to EVs, what would be the gasoline savings and the electricity demand? Small cars (61.0 M) make up 26.3% of the light vehicles. If these small cars get 30 mpg, they use 400 gallons of gasoline per year and at $3.60 ($3.00) per gallon the small car uses $1,440 ($1,200) per year. In the U.S. then small car owners spend $88 B ($73 B) per year on gasoline and use 24.4 B gallons of gasoline per year. The electric car consumes 4000 kWh per year and the electricity costs $475 per year for a U.S. yearly cost of $29 B per year for 244 TWh of residential electricity.

Fig. 3. Switching all of the U.S.’s small cars to PEVs.

This means that the 20% energy efficiency cost-effective retrofits to our homes (275 TWh saved per year) let us drive our 61M EV cars (244 TWh consumed per year) for free forever! This also eliminates the consumption of 24.4 B gallons of gasoline at a savings of $88 B per year or 18% of our gasoline use for light vehicles (see Fig. 3). In 2012, U.S. net oil imports provided 40% of the petroleum and other liquids consumed in the United States.11 Of this imported oil 28% came from the Persian Gulf, and 16% from Africa, which means that 17.6% of U.S. oil comes from the Persian Gulf and Africa. Switching to EV cars then saves all the gasoline used in vehicles in the U.S. that is imported from the Persian Gulf and Africa. Figure 4 shows that if the U.S. installs utility-scale PV to provide the 244 TWh/yr (6.6% of U.S. electricity) for 61 M EVs, this would be equivalent to 163 GW of PV (assumes a solar irradiance of 1,500 kWh/kW per year). The Q2 2014 utility turnkey fixed-tilt PV system pricing12 was $1.69 /W. Therefore, with the 30% federal income tax credit, the cost would be $202 B or 2.3 years of gasoline savings. While the first 61 M EVs would be fueled for free through efficiency retrofits, the next 61 M EVs could be fueled by utility-produced PV at 5.6 cent per kWh or the equivalent of $0.47 a gallon. Many of the nation’s more than 116 million homes and almost 80 billion square feet of commercial space were constructed before 1980—prior to the existence of today’s efficient products and most equipment standards and building codes. An analytical study carried out under the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program, “Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States,”13 looked at 1,600 ft2 homes built in 1975 in 14 cities. The principal objectives were to: • Determine the opportunities for cost-effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs. • Examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost-effectively achievable. A key finding was that the energy efficiency of even older, poorly insulated homes across U.S. climates could be dramatically improved. Moreover, with favorable economics, they can reach performance levels close to zero energy when evaluated on an annual source energy basis. Findings indicated that retrofit financing alternatives and whether equipment requires replacement had considerable impact on the achievable source energy reduction in this cohort of residential building archetypes. The results that follow: 1) modified this study using a 30year refinance mortgage at 4.0% interest using full replacement costs; (continued on next page)

Fig. 4. Switching all of the U.S.’s small cars to PEVs powered by utility solar.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



(continued from previous page) Table IV. Retrofitted homes from 14 U.S. cities.


2) corrected for the decrease in price of PV from 2012 to today’s price of $3.73 W installed; 3) retrofitted the 14 homes to a net-zero electric home; and then 4) added the PV needed to provide the electricity for a Nissan Leaf or Chevrolet Volt driven ~12,000 miles per year. Table IV shows the 14-city home locations along with Seattle (no PV), their climate zone, a brief description of the home, electricity and thermal energy costs, the base house electricity use the monthly electric bill, the retrofit house electricity use, solar irradiance, and the amount of PV to make the house a net-zero electric house. Figure 5 shows the monthly payments for each of the 15 retrofitted houses under three scenarios (cost effective efficiency retrofits, cost effective efficiency Fig. 5. Monthly cost differences with respect to base house (retrofits, +PV for zero electric home, +PV for EV). retrofits with PV to make the home a zero-electric house, and PV added to the zero-electric house to power the PEV) electric and natural gas bill for the base house. In all cases, except for less the cost of the monthly electric and natural gas bill for the base Seattle, the retrofits resulted in monthly savings (i.e., an immediate house. The purple bars show the monthly payments of the retrofits payback). Seattle has very low electric rates (~ 8 ¢/kWh, renewable plus the remaining electric and natural gas bills less the monthly hydroelectric), and, as the rates rise over time, the greater than 46

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

the retrofitted zero-electric home results in more savings than the retrofitted home without PV. The blue bars add the monthly payment for installed PV to fuel an EV such as a Nissan Leaf or Chevrolet Volt, so there is then no electric and no gasoline bill (there still may be a natural gas bill for heating). In Baltimore, San Francisco, New York, Miami, Houston, Phoenix, Ft. Worth, Minneapolis, Los Angeles, and Denver, paying for a net-zero electric house retrofit with PV to fuel the Nissan Leaf or Chevrolet Volt for 30 years is cheaper than doing nothing to the house. In St. Louis and Atlanta it would cost only $10 more a month (over status quo) to have a zero-electric home with PV fuel for the car provided for 30 years. Apparently there is a large cost to doing nothing! Now that we have looked at the monthly costs of electric bills, retrofits and PV, let us add automobiles into the garage of our homes. Based on 5-year financing at 0% interest, the monthly payment of the gasoline-powered cars (gasoline fuel at $3.60 gallon + financing) is independent of the city. For the electric vehicles powered with PV, the city location affects the solar electric fuel costs (30-year refinance mortgage at 4.0% interest). Figure 6 shows the monthly cost differences between a net zero-electric house retrofit with PV for car fuel and a Nissan Leaf parked in the garage relative to a base house monthly electric and natural gas bills with a Versa, Sentra, Cruze, Malibu, or Impala in the garage. The base house with the Versa (purple bars) has the Fig. 6. Monthly cost differences between a net zero-electric house retrofit with PV for car fuel and a Nissan Leaf lowest monthly cost for all cities, parked in the garage relative to a base house monthly electric and natural gas bills with a Versa, Sentra, Cruze, but the zero-electric house with Malibu, or Impala in the garage. the PV-powered electric Leaf is cheaper than the base house with the Malibu and Impala for all cities. The zero-electric house with the PV-powered electric Leaf is cheaper than the base house with the Sentra and Cruze in Miami, Houston, Phoenix, Ft. Worth, Seattle (no PV), Atlanta, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Along similar lines, Fig. 7 shows the monthly cost differences for the Chevrolet Volt (costs based on all electric miles) parked in the garage of a net-zero electric house retrofit with PV for fuel, relative to the base house monthly electric and natural gas bills with a Versa, Sentra, Cruze, Malibu, or Impala in the garage. The base house with the Versa (purple bars) and Sentra (red bars) have lower monthly cost for all cities, but the zeroelectric house with a PV-powered electric Volt is cheaper than the Impala with the base house for all cities. The zero-electric house with a PV-powered electric Volt is cheaper than the base house with 8000Â kWh/yr saved will show a savings in future years during the 30year refinance period (see Table IV). Many of the homes in the colder climates had retrofits that saved on the use of thermal energy more than electrical energy. The red bars show the monthly payment for the retrofit and the PV (a net-zero electric home, i.e., no electric bill) less the standard payment for the base house. The cost effectiveness of adding PV to the retrofitted home is a function of the solar irradiance, but, more importantly, the base electric rate. In most cases, except for Seattle and St. Louis (lowest electric rates of the cities considered),

Fig. 7. Monthly cost differences between a net zero-electric house retrofit with PV for car fuel and a Chevrolet Volt parked in the garage relative to a base house monthly electric and natural gas bills with a Versa, Sentra, Cruze, Malibu or Impala in the garage. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

(continued on next page)



(continued from previous page)

the Malibu as well in Miami, Houston, Phoenix, Ft. Worth, Seattle (no PV), Atlanta, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The zero-electric house with the PV-powered electric Volt is cheaper than the base house with the Cruze in Miami, Houston, Phoenix, and Ft. Worth. So what can you as a home and car owner do, besides wait until the U.S. chooses to provide financial instruments to retrofit your homes and utilities install solar at large scale? First, you can get a home energy rating analysis of your home’s energy efficiency, as per the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index.14 The HERS Index is the nationally recognized scoring system for measuring a home’s energy performance. Based on the results, an energy-rated home will receive a HERS Index Score. The HERS Index Score can be described as a sort of miles-per-gallon (MPG) sticker for houses. The comprehensive HERS rating provides a computerized simulation analysis utilizing RESNET Accredited Rating Software to calculate a rating score on the HERS Index. The report will also contain a cost/benefit analysis15 for the recommended improvements and expected return on investment. You could then refinance your house (4% interest 30 years) and include in the refinance the cost of efficiency improvements, and PV to make the house both a netzero electric home and provide the electricity for your PEV, all while making money and putting people back to work. Imagine no electric or gasoline bills for as long as you are in your home! © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F02151IF

About the Author James M. Fenton is the Director of the University of Central Florida’s Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The U.S. DOE is currently funding programs at FSEC in: “Building America” energy efficient homes, Photovoltaic Manufacturing, Hot-Humid PV testing of large-scale PV to show bankability, train-the-trainers education for solar installations, programs to decease the soft-costs of PV installation and management of a smartgrid education consortium for power engineering students. The U.S. DOT recently awarded a University Electric Vehicle Transportation Center (EVTC) to FSEC. Prior to joining FSEC, Dr. Fenton spent 20 years as a Chemical Engineering Professor at the University of Connecticut. He received his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Illinois in 1984 and his BS from UCLA in 1979. He is an Electrochemical Society Fellow and received the Research Award of the ECS’s Energy Technology Division last May. He may be reached at


References 1. “Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis—Version 8,” Energy%20-%20Version%208.0.pdf (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 2. “Solar Less Than 5¢/kWh In Austin, Texas! (Cheaper Than Natural Gas, Coal, & Nuclear,” http://cleantechnica. com/2014/03/13/solar-sold-less-5%C2%A2kwh-austintexas/ (accessed Jan 22, 2015); “Austin Energy Switches from SunEdison to Recurrent for 5-Cent Solar,” http://www. (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 3. Calculated using the System Advisor Model (SAM 2014.1.14) 4. “EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: DOE’s 10-Year Vision for Plug-In Electric Vehicles,” gov/vehiclesandfuels/electric_vehicles/10_year_goal.html (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 5. “EV-Everywhere Grand Challenge,” prod/files/2014/02/f8/2-danielson.pdf (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 6. D. Howell, “USA Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Market and R&D Activity, May 22, 2014,” files/klima-co2/transport/elbiler/IA-HEV_EVI/Konference_22_ maj_2014/david_howell_u.s._department_of_energy.pdf (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 7. SunShot Initiative, (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 8. R. Garabedian, “A Utility Scale PV Perspective on SunShot Progress and Opportunities,” Slide 15, prod/files/2014/07/f17/raffi_garabedian_firstsolar_sunshot_ progress_2014.pdf (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 9. “Electricity,” (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 10. “About the Building Technologies Office,” eere/buildings/about-building-technologies-office (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 11. “How Dependent Are We On Foreign Oil?,” http://www. (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 12. “Solar Market Insight Report 2014 Q2,” http://www.seia. org/research-resources/solar-market-insight-report-2014-q2 (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 13. P. Fairy and D. Parker, “Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States,” , (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 14. “What Is the HERS Index?,” (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 15. “Energy Rating Benefits,” (accessed Jan. 31, 2015).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

PV and Batteries: From a Past of Remote Power to a Future of Saving the Grid by David K. Click


or much of the first century of electrification, the power generation and delivery system has been set up in a relatively straightforward manner. Utilities have built increasingly large centralized power plants to supply what has been a generally increasing demand for electricity, with about 6000 power plants operating in the U.S. today with a nameplate rating of at least 1 megawatt (MW).1 The vast majority of electricity production occurs at fossil fuel-burning power plants with a nameplate capacity of over 100 MW, with each plant serving an average of 50,000 people. This infrastructure focused on cities and towns with a concentrated population, before rural electrification began in earnest in the 1930s.2 For most customers on the electric grid, the price of electricity from the grid was generally far less than the cost they would pay to own and operate their own electricity generation unit. For many years, the only option for many people looking to generate their own power was to burn some kind of fuel in an engine—this remains a difficult task economically as the costs reduce dramatically at scale. And even if a customer had been able to generate their own power, it would have been technically difficult to interconnect that system to the electric grid while maintaining the safety and stability of the system. In parallel, there was some research into how solar power photovoltaic (PV) systems could help supply the electric energy required by society. After Charles Fritts built the first solar cell in 1883, he quickly learned that his cells of less than 1% efficiency couldn’t readily compete with the coal-fired power plants being developed by Thomas Edison. After a few decades, Bell Labs produced a 6% efficient cell in 1954.3 Further development led to PV finding a niche as a power source in remote applications, such as the Vanguard 1 satellite launched in 1958 and telecommunications repeater stations or navigation buoys back on Earth. After the energy crisis of the 1970s, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) created, among other things, a market for power from generators that were not utilities. In 1980, the first house in the U.S. was built featuring a PV system that was utilityinteractive—using the energy generated from the PV system first and then drawing power from the utility system whenever more power was needed.4 The worldwide PV industry produced less than 10 MW of modules (“solar panels”) in the year 1980;5 to put that number in perspective, in 2014 the U.S. PV industry installed nearly 20 MW every day. Several decades ago, the low amounts of production and associated high costs rendered grid-connected PV systems a

tough sell for most customers. However, home and business owners in remote areas without reliable grid service started to find PV economically viable even back in the 1980s. Customers in some rural areas found that electric utilities may charge them hundreds of thousands of dollars to run a dedicated power line to them; a PV system with integrated energy storage (often deep-cycle lead acid batteries) proved cost effective compared with this option, and more attractive than a noisy fuel-powered generator. A 3 kW PV system with lead acid batteries and wind turbines, located at a residence in Westcliffe, Colorado, is shown in a 2001 picture in Fig. 1. The PV industry got its footing in supplying power to these remote applications. Even today, it’s common to see PV integrated into remote highway signs or even traffic signs in urban areas where the cost of a dedicated grid connection didn’t make economic sense. Rural electrification, which used to mean either noisy generators nearby, or a very long power line to some distant, noisy generators, is now a market being served around the world by PV systems and batteries (and, it should be said, generators as an occasional backup). In 1987, 24.9 MW of PV was installed worldwide.6 A surprising 96% of that capacity was not grid-connected. This percentage decreased over time as shown in Fig. 2. The year 2000 was the first year in which grid-connected systems exceeded the number of off-grid systems in remote applications. Sometime in the early 2000s, the majority of systems no longer included batteries, opting for a simpler (and cheaper) system. Today, at least 90% of PV systems within the U.S. do not include energy storage, though that trend is changing as storage solutions become increasingly competitive. A typical grid-interactive PV system installed in the U.S. today will operate whenever the electric grid is operating normally within certain voltage and frequency parameters. That system will, in fact, only operate when that location on the grid is experiencing normal operation. Most PV systems are subject to local utility requirements designed to disconnect PV systems from the grid whenever there is stress on the grid—perhaps a fault at a steam turbine within a power plant, or times when generation capacity can’t fully meet the loads— leading to brownouts or blackouts. These technical requirements governing interconnection were first drafted in the 1980s, when there were only a few megawatts of PV systems connected to the U.S. grid. This was a very small percentage of the total grid-connected generation, which numbered in the hundreds of gigawatts. Therefore, it was decided that if there were a fault on the system, the PV (continued on next page)

Fig. 1. Remote PV, wind, and battery storage system for a Colorado residence. (Photo by Warren Gretz, NREL 10622.) The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



The addition of inexpensive storage to PV systems will shape the course of the PV industry over the next 10 years. Storage can offer benefits to all parties involved—residential and commercial customers, as well as the electric utility that serves them. As noted, storage can help mitigate PV system power variability, and in some areas is required explicitly for this reason. Storage can also provide a backup power source for PV systems to supply important loads within a building of any size. Perhaps the idea most interesting for utilities is that PV systems can become reliable, dispatchable power plants. After many years of accepting whatever power the interconnected PV systems could supply the utility at that instant, utilities are already investigating how PV systems—coupled with storage—could produce power even when there is minimal or no sunlight available. There are some exciting opportunities ahead for PV customers in the residential and commercial sector. The integration of PV, storage, electric vehicles, and various building demand response or load controls can make each customer a much more involved partner with the utility. Customers can become more than just variable loads to the utility—they can become autonomous power plants. Solar installers are now offering opportunities for solar and storage at the commercial and residential level. SolarCity CEO Lyndon Rive and Chairman Elon Musk announced that SolarCity would be including battery backup systems with every single one of its rooftop solar power systems within 5-10 years.7 For many customers in the U.S., a solar battery backup system already will be able to produce electricity for less than that from the grid. Sunpower is another large residential unit provider that has also said it will provide storage with solar for residential customers in the next few years.8 SolarCity is now offering Tesla energy storage to its commercial customers to mitigate demand charges during times of peak demand. This newfound ability of customers to disrupt the traditional utility provider/customer consumer relationship has been noted by many in the utility industry. Given the consistently dropping costs of PV systems and the uncertainty of future utility rates, it’s likely that many customers will be technically able to disconnect from the utility grid without sacrificing their way of life. It will certainly be a challenge for utilities, regulators, and the market to derive the best way to reward customer-sited PV and storage, and keep them incentivized to maintain their grid connection. This creates an opportunity for utilities—by absorbing technology risk and becoming

(continued from previous page)

systems should disconnect from the grid as the relatively small PV contribution wasn’t worth trying to keep online in the event of a grid fault. This “anti-islanding” requirement keeps PV systems from operating as “islands” in the system. This approach to grid protection and reliability worked well until recently, when it was realized that PV systems were no longer negligible players in the utility market. In areas of focused PV deployment, utility distribution lines began to experience unusual operating conditions. A distribution line supplying 1.5 MW of load was likely originally designed for that power to come in a single direction from the distant, centralized power plant, perhaps with capacitors installed along the line to maintain voltage. However, if that line had 1.5 MW of load and 1.6 MW of PV, it would actually see power fed back into the substation. And in the case of a three-second outage, all the PV would be required to disconnect from the grid. Within those three seconds, the utility would suddenly have to supply 1.6 MW of additional power back into its system. For utilities with high levels of PV, this local problem becomes a problem across its service territory, as a quick flicker can switch all interconnected PV systems offline right when that generation is needed and expected. The variable nature of PV power production makes integration of these systems into the grid even more complex. A typical PV system does not have integrated energy storage and will export an amount of power to the grid directly proportional to the amount of sunlight shining on the PV modules at that time. Clouds passing over a small 5 kW system (roughly 400 square feet in area) will cause its power output to fluctuate. Integration of this variability isn’t an issue for utilities, any more than it is for them to keep the lights on when an air conditioner or EV charger turns on. For a utility with a service territory spanning a wide expanse of area, managing the variability of several small systems is an easy task, as a passing cloud will not affect multiple systems at the same time. Energy storage can bring additional functionality to residential PV systems, even though it is often not needed to mitigate the variability at the individual system level. Special bimodal systems can provide power to “protected loads” within the house and keep those loads online even during a power outage. PV system pricing has only recently dropped within the budget of many homeowners, but this bimodal capability can increase the system cost by thousands of dollars. Interest in the bimodal functionality often drops when a customer learns of the extra cost, unless it’s immediately following a major utility outage (e.g., the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy in 2012). Clouds passing over a system of 1 MW or larger, or over many small systems concentrated geographically, can cause issues in some grid scenarios. Many utilities rarely deal with substantial, quick power changes such as those inherent to many PV systems. In Puerto Rico, the utility requires large PV systems to control “ramping” speeds, to ensure that the power output of a system does not vary beyond the utility’s ability to manage it. If a system is operating at 500 kW and has the sunlight available to operate at 800 kW, it is relatively straightforward to step up the power output incrementally. However, if a system is operating at 500 kW and then a passing cloud brings the available power production to 200 kW, the system simply has no fuel to do anything but drop down to a 200 kW output as quickly as the sun fades. For these larger commercialscale systems, some storage device would be required to slowly step down the power Fig. 2. Comparison of worldwide off-grid and on-grid PV installations, 1986-2000. (Reproduced from output. 6 data. )


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

more of a services provider to customers. Perhaps utilities could own and operate PV systems and/or storage systems to provide greater reliability to the customers willing to pay a premium. The PV industry has come a long way over the past few decades, and the installed capacity continues to grow substantially with each year. As noted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a recent quarterly update on PV market trends, more PV had been deployed in the U.S. over the previous 18 months than in the prior 30 years.9 In the U.S. in 2013, roughly 25% of all new power generation capacity was PV. PV costs have reached grid parity in 10 states that generate the bulk of U.S. solar electricity. Deutsche Bank predicts that when the 30% federal tax credit is eliminated for residential customer-owned systems in 2017, solar electricity costs will still reach parity with traditional electricity sources across 36 states10. By the end of 2013, there were over 15 GW of solar electric capacity operating in the U.S.; by 2016 cumulative capacity is expected to exceed 47 GW.11 As of November 2014, 174,000 Americans were currently working in the U.S. solar industry,12 up 20% from 2013, or 10 times the national average growth rate. Over 60,000 new jobs have been added since 2010. All of the growth has exceeded the expectations of many in the industry and in the U.S. Department of Energy. However, even this good news about the decrease in price, and with it the arrival of grid parity, the upfront cost to purchase a 5 kW residential system is on the order of $15,000 to $20,000 before the 30% income tax credit that is in effect through the end of 2016. Fortunately for the homeowner, businesses have found new ways to finance residential solar. In 2013, over 50% of rooftop solar was installed in a lease or power-purchase arrangement, enabling pay-asyou-go agreements with little down payment, if any. For the first time, annual growth in the residential sector outpaced that of the overall market 60% to 41%, due to widely-available financing.13 There are many U.S. companies that provide this service to customers, who typically make predictable monthly payments for the output under 15- to 25-year contracts. This makes it easier for homeowners to sign up for rooftop solar and the payback can be immediate. In most rooftop applications of solar, “net-metering” rules allow the excess solar electricity generated to be sent back onto the grid to be used later to offset electric energy provided by the electric utility. The grid in effect provides the storage, because without an energy storage system, PV systems can only provide electricity during daylight hours. Increased deployment of storage could enable PV systems to provide the majority of a region's electrical needs well into the evening hours. As more solar power plants come online at the rooftop (residential and commercial) and the utility scale, the variability and uncertainty of solar generation poses challenges for reliably integrating PV into the electric power systems, both at the distribution and bulk system levels. In the fall 2010 Interface issue titled, “Lightning in a Bottle: Storing Energy for the ‘Smart Grid,’”14,15 several articles discussed energy storage using Large Scale Stationary Batteries,16 Flow Batteries,17 and Super Capacitors18 to mitigate variability and provide additional services in ensuring the reliability of the grid. There’s a long road ahead for the industry, as PV will still produce less than 1% of the electric energy required in the U.S. in 2015. The industry has many more gigawatts of installations ahead of it, with low-cost energy storage enabling a transformation of our power generation system. Inspired by the efforts of Charles Fritts to commercialize the first solar cell, R. Appleyard dreamed of a future where “the blessed vision of the Sun, no longer pouring his energies unrequited into space, but by means of photo-electric cells…, these powers gathered into electrical storehouses to the total extinction of steam engines, and the utter repression of smoke.”19 A dream when written in 1891, but decades of technological advancement have started to make it a real, achievable goal. © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F03151IF

About the Author David K. Click, is a Program Director in the Solar Systems Research Division at the University of Central Florida’s Florida Solar Energy Center. Mr. Click holds BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Virginia and has been working in PV system installation, training, and research for fifteen years. He may be reached at

References 1. “Electricity,” html (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 2. “United States Department of Agriculture: Rural Development,” (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 3. “This Month in Physics History,” publications/apsnews/200904/physicshistory.cfm (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 4. “Carlisle House,” carlisle-house/ (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 5. “Sunshot Vision Study,” pdfs/47927_chapter4.pdf (Figure 4-3) (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 6. “Off-grid Solar Applications, Where Grid Parity is Truly Meaningless,” news/article/2013/08/off-grid-solar-applications-where-gridparity-is-truly-meaningless (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 7. “Every Solar Customer Will Get Battery Back-up Within 5-10 Years,” (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 8. “Sunpower to Bundle Solar with Storage,” http://www. (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 9. “U.S. PV Market Trends Update,” solar-now/snu-2014-presentations/kristen-ardani-us-pv-markettrends-update (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 10. “2014 Outlook: Let the Second Gold Rush Begin,” https://www. Second_Gold_Rush_Begin.pdf (accessed Feb. 25, 2015). 11. “GTM Research/SEIA: U.S. Solar Market Insight, Q2 2014 Executive Summary,” solar-market-insight-report-2014-q2 (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 12. “National Solar Jobs Census 2014,” http://www. (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 13. “U.S. Residential Solar Financing 2014-2018,” http://www. (accessed Jan. 22, 2015). 14. J. P. Meyers, “Lightning in a Bottle: Storing Energy for the ‘Smart Grid’,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 44 (2010). 15. C. Harris and J. P. Meyers, “Working Smarter, Not Harder: An Introduction to the ‘Smart Grid’,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 45 (2010). 16. D. H. Doughty, P. C. Butler, A. A. Akhil, N. H. Clark and J. D. Boyes, “Batteries for Large-Scale Stationary Electrical Energy Storage,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 49 (2010). 17. T. Nguyen and R. F. Savinell, “Flow Batteries,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 54 (2010). 18. P. Jampani, A. Manivannan, and P. Kumta, “Advancing the Supercapacitor Materials and Technology Frontier for Improving Power Quality,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 57 (2010). 19. R. Appleyard, Telegraph. J. Electr. Rev., 28, 124 (1891).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

The Role of V2G in the Smart Grid of the Future by Richard A. Raustad


ne of the world's first electricity generating plants was installed in 1882 on Pearl Street in New York City’s financial district.1 The transfer of electrical energy to the consumer originally occurred by means of direct current (DC). However, this form of energy transfer limited distribution to customers in close proximity to electric generators. Alternating current (AC) provided much longer transmission distances and soon took hold. Electric utility companies then began springing up in other U.S. cities, forming the beginnings of utilities and the grid as we now know it. Fast-forward to the 21st century where utility companies now use, or have within their network, distributed generation, smart grid technology, and electric vehicles. Con Edison defines distributed generation as a facility dedicated to the production of energy to support local loads.2 The concept of distributed generation includes both AC and DC currents, renewable (photovoltaics, wind, hydroelectric) and non-renewable (conventional engines, turbines, fuel cells) generation. These energy sources must conform to the requirements of the grid-connected utility. The term “smart grid” describes the communication network between the user of energy and the utility company or between one utility and another.3 Utility companies traditionally accomplished their communication using electric meters, which were manually read on a regular interval and then used to bill customers for energy consumed. This rudimentary form of energy monitoring did not provide the necessary detail to identify when energy was consumed or at what rate and duration. An initial step toward a solution was the installation of building electric meters, similar to the meter shown in Fig. 1, that could be automatically or remotely scanned to process the end use of energy. Automatic meter reading (AMR) originated in the 1970s and began a transformation where electric consumption information could be remotely collected or automatically communicated back to the utility company and to the consumer, if desired. Today’s utility companies are installing AMR devices on residential, commercial, and industrial buildings throughout their territories. This effort creates a foundation for an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) that relies on digital technology and allows for two-way communication between the utility company and the consumer. In addition to smart meters, a true smart grid would include and monitor distributed generation and energy storage technologies. Active monitoring would provide real-time control over distributed generation, including any stored energy, and offer one more tool for

balancing electricity supply and demand. For optimum grid control, energy storage must be a critical part. The fortuitous revitalization of electric vehicles (EVs) and the battery technologies being developed will provide the storage mechanisms for grid optimization and increased use of distributed generation. The Department of Energy (DOE) EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, initiated in 2012, has identified technical targets in four areas of research: battery and electric drive system research and development, vehicle weight reduction, and advanced climate control technologies. Reducing battery costs from their current $325/kWh to $125/kWh has the greatest potential to bring the perceived high cost of EVs in line with conventional vehicles.4 Improvements in EV electric drive systems have led to lower cost inverters that meet or exceed DOE’s 2015 EV challenge targets. Parallel research into vehicle light weighting and advanced climate control technologies has also led to reduced energy consumption and extended vehicle range. EVs, given their projected penetration into the market, have the potential to provide (via their batteries) the most important component in the evolution of the smart grid—energy storage. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) store energy in a battery and later use that energy as the motive force for transportation. The battery is replenished through grid-connected electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), better known as charging stations. The EVSE is the connection between the vehicle and the utility grid and manages the charging session. To store energy in the battery, the utility delivered AC must be converted to DC, which can occur in the vehicle itself (on-board charger) or the EVSE (off-board charger). On-board vehicle chargers generally provide lower charging rates because the vehicle must include, and therefore transport, the ACDC conversion electronics at the expense of both initial cost and vehicle weight. Off-board vehicle chargers offer higher charging rates through the use of larger (and heavier) charging stations. These stations, referred to as DC fast chargers (DCFC), charge the EV using DC current that connects directly to the vehicle battery. EV and EVSE manufacturers currently offer chargers solely as a mechanism for replenishing the vehicle battery. Energy flows in one direction from the utility grid, through the EVSE, and into the vehicle battery (grid to vehicle). Although these unidirectional devices are not capable of injecting energy into the utility grid, in the future grid system these charging stations could be used to support the transmission system through active management of the charging session (V1G, a.k.a. V2G half).5 A more proactive method of balancing utility supply and demand would be to access the EVs’ stored energy and, when needed, feed that energy directly to the grid. In this case the energy transfers from the vehicle to the grid (V2G) and requires a bi-directional charger to accommodate both the charging and discharging of the traction battery.6 Most vehicles are in actual operation for about one hour per day and EVs could therefore be connected to the utility grid for the majority of the day.7 Thus, the energy stored in the vehicle’s battery could be used for other purposes as long as the vehicle battery is sufficiently charged for the EV owners commute. For more than a decade, V2G has been the focus of research and development/demonstration, with the goal of proving conceptual viability. It is gradually finding application as a benefit for utility grid regulation and as a demand limiting technology. V2G could provide the distributed resource the utility grid and infrastructure needs to supplement generating capacity and alleviate transmission grid bottlenecks today and into the future.

Fig. 1. PG&E smart meter. (Photo: EMS Safety Network.) The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

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The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been collaborating with automotive and EVSE manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and other stakeholders to develop a two-way communication platform where utilities are able to send commands directly to the vehicle.8,9 A utility-generated command could request that the vehicle begin charging, suspend charging when the grid is nearing its maximum capacity, resume charging when grid loads subside, or request energy from the on-board battery to supplement the electric grid. The two-way communication would allow the EV to become part of a larger network of resources participating in utility regulation. The United States Air Force recently replaced some general purpose vehicles with V2G capable EVs. The vehicles are charged using Princeton Power Systems’ bi-directional EV charging stations (Fig. 2) installed at Los Angeles Air Force Base in El Segundo, California. The EVs will be charged directly from the utility grid and, when called on, the bi-directional charger will reverse power flow from the vehicle’s battery back to the grid.10 This is reportedly the largest V2G installation in the world and consists of 42 plug-in electric vehicles, 36 of which are V2G-capable. The United States Navy is collaborating with Imergy Power Systems to combine solar energy production with battery energy storage using vanadium flow batteries.11 The system can store and discharge up to 200 kWhs of energy at a 50 kW rate. The containerized battery storage module currently delivers a cost of less than $300/ kWh and targets costs of $220/kWh within the next two years. The California Energy Commission (CEC) and South Coast Air Quality Management District are providing funding to support research into electric school buses.12 This is one of the first V2G demonstration projects targeting school transportation vehicles. William Kempton at the University of Delaware and EV pioneer Tom Gage have been proactive in V2G for some time. The current program at the University of Delaware is offering to lease a small number of BMW Mini-E EVs. This program will allow research into driving patterns as part of an on-going V2G demonstration project where a utility grid operator signal can use the EV battery as part of grid regulation programs.13 Nissan has been field testing their new vehicle-to-home (V2H) energy storage system in Japan as shown in Fig. 3.14 This is in response to the recent earthquake disaster, which left many without power. The average daily household consumption in Japan is about 10-12 kWh. So the Nissan Leaf’s 24 kWh battery can supply emergency power for approximately 2 days. Field tests are being conducted by ENERES Corporation. Similar tests are underway in the U.S. where average daily household electricity consumption is approximately 32 kWh.15 Burns and McDowell together with Coritech Services developed a system of five 60 kW bi-directional, DC fast-charging stations for a fleet of electric trucks. This project is part of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) microgrid project at Fort Carson which includes diesel generators and a 2 MW PV array. The project is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Omaha District, and includes technical guidance from the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), and Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC).16 Total charging and discharging power is 300 kW using SAE J1772 compliant bi-directional charging cables. These demonstration projects are but a sampling of those performed today and in recent years. Grid regulation using EVs is becoming more prominent and can generate revenue for vehicle owners, making the economics of vehicle ownership more attractive. More importantly, grid regulation using V2G can provide stability at the local level in response to intermittent renewable energy generation (PV and wind) and highly variable end use loads (DCFC, water heaters, HVAC, etc.). V2G can also be applied on a larger scale where many energy storage devices act in unison as a utility grid resource.


Fig. 2. Princeton Power System bi-directional charger. (Photo: Tech Sgt Sarah Corrice, AFSC.)

Participants in the electricity services market respond to demand requests by utilities and grid operators in a variety of ways to improve reliability, increase economic efficiency, and to integrate renewable generation capacity. Of the three major categories of demand response products, experts agree that the ancillary services market holds the greatest potential for EVs and V2G technology.17 Ancillary services provide the short-term electrical capacity needed to adjust for temporary changes in overall grid capacity. As the reliance on renewable generation capacity (wind and solar) increases, the intermittent nature of these resources requires additional generation to balance the inconsistencies in energy production (changes in wind speed or cloud coverage). Ancillary services are required to dispatch resources within seconds or minutes to help balance the system on a short-term basis. This market provides an opportunity for EV and energy storage owners, and the aggregators that manage these resources, to create an additional revenue stream. A single EV would have minimal impact on the electric grid, but the combination of many vehicles would provide the capacity needed to significantly impact grid operation. V2G participation in the ancillary services market in the current and future transmission system would require a large number of EVs to be grouped or aggregated to create a single block of electrical capacity. Ancillary market services typically requires that 1 MW of capacity be available for dispatch and control on an hourly basis. The number of EVs required for a 1 MW block of capacity is estimated at 100-200 vehicles operating at or below 10 kW of available output capacity. Those EVs not connected to the grid could not participate while others could only participate during the charging process (V1G). Those that opted to actively participate while their vehicles were parked, for example those that connected to the grid via bi-directional V2G chargers, could reduce electricity loads on the transmission system, alleviate bottlenecks, and regulate grid frequency. The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

There are several aspects of utility grid regulation where V2G and energy storage can play an important role. V2G capable EVs could provide peak power or serve as a demand response resource in the ancillary services market. While V2G capable vehicles could provide these services, the economic returns do not generally justify the expense.18 Two ancillary service areas where V2G shows promise are frequency regulation and operating reserve. Frequency regulation, where electricity supply and demand (generation vs load) are imbalanced and utility generators must adjust to maintain a tight operating frequency (60 Hz in the U.S.), can benefit from V2G technology given the fast response time inherently available from batteries and the limited energy required to stabilize that imbalance. Participation occurs as either regulation up or down events where the battery either provides energy to or accepts energy from the utility grid. Over time, these events balance to where the amount of energy in the storage device does not change dramatically. These events are also limited in time duration and are believed to have very little impact on battery life. Letendra, et al., estimate frequency regulation revenue per V2G capable EV as $578 and $2,891 per year for 2 kW (AC Level 1) and 10 kW (AC Level 2) capacity, respectively. These are the average costs for PJM Interconnection LLC, a regional transmission organization in the eastern United States and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), an independent transmission system operator representing 85% of the state’s electric load. Operating reserve is spare generating capacity. Spinning reserve refers to the generating equipment that is online and synchronized with the utility grid and available for dispatch within 10 minutes. Non-spinning reserve refers to off-line generating capacity that can be started and synchronized with the grid within 10 minutes. Mechanical equipment cannot adjust quickly enough to respond to rapidly changing demand while battery energy storage offers a resource that can quickly adjust to the changing needs of the utility grid. Letendra, et al., estimate spinning reserve revenue per V2G capable EV as $204 and $1,019 per year for 2 kW and 10 kW capacity, respectively.18 The regulations for the ancillary services market may also need adjustment to maximize the available potential of V2G capable vehicles. The Northeast Power Coordination Council requires a minimum runtime of one hour for resources providing synchronized, 10- or 30-minute reserves.19 Actual participation in this market

requires dispatch in much less than one hour and this requirement limits the accessible capacity each vehicle could offer. Under this regulation, a 24 kWh battery could reasonably provide no more than 20 kW of capacity when, for shorter durations, this battery could easily supply 40 kW or more. Limiting the available capacity of EVs in the ancillary services market would limit the potential of V2G in the future. Transmission system components used to ensure reliability and quality of service were engineered assuming the flow of energy in one direction. As more distributed resources come online, thereby feeding energy back into the grid, these components would need to be redesigned to ensure the same high quality of service. If energy storage, including V2G technology, were connected to the utility grid, and that energy were used locally and efficiently, the necessity for two-way energy flow through the transmission system might be minimized or eliminated. Energy storage used as a local electricity source or grid resource will play a key role in the future. For example, the unpredictable and intermittent operation of photovoltaic and wind generating equipment is one characteristic of renewable generation that is difficult to resolve. If renewables are to provide an increasingly higher percentage of available grid capacity, the variation in generation must be addressed. Storage of renewable energy and the subsequent dispatch of that energy on an as needed basis will be key to the future of energy storage and its interaction with the utility grid.18 Batteries are capable of responding to a request for a change in output very quickly. As end use loads and renewable generation vary, on the order of seconds (air conditioners turning on or clouds covering a PV system), battery storage technology can respond to these variations much faster than other available technology. As Harris and Myers so aptly described only four years ago, “The modern grid, however, is still largely based on the original design that Westinghouse and Edison debated in the late 1800s, and isn’t designed for modern electrical loads, distributed energy sources, or optimal efficiency. Power is generated and distributed by utility companies, without local competition to speak of, and with fairly little communication between utilities and end users in terms of how to get more out of the system. To date, the revolutions that we have seen in communications have very few analogs in the electric grid.”20 (continued on next page)

Fig. 3. Nissan LEAF to home. (Photo: Nissan.) The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



(continued from previous page)

Although there has been some progress, the future of V2G and smart grid technology, renewable energy, and energy storage, as they relate to the electric grid, is unclear to a certain degree. It is hard to believe that any of these individual technologies would not be part of the future electricity system. The uncertainty lies in the role each will play. A well placed bet would be to spread an investment over each of these technologies and reap the rewards well into the future. © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F04151IF

Acknowledgment The author would like to acknowledge Nissan North America, Inc. for the use of V2G demonstration photographs.

About the Author Richard A. Raustad is the Program Director for the U.S. DOTʼs Electric Vehicle Transportation Center at the University of Central Floridaʼs Florida Solar Energy Center and is a Sr. Research Engineer in the Buildings Research Division at UCF/FSEC. Mr. Raustad holds a BS degree in Electrical Engineering and has over 25 years of experience in energy conservation research. He may be reached at

References 1. “Emergence of Electric Utilities in America,” (accessed Nov. 28, 2014). 2. “Distributed Generation,” (accessed Nov. 30, 2014). 3. “The History of Making the Smart Grid,” http://www.ieeeghn. org/wiki/index.php/The_History_of_Making_the_Grid_Smart (accessed Nov. 30, 2014). 4. “EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Road to Success,” http:// success.pdf (accessed Dec. 1, 2014). 5. S. Morse and K. Glitman, “Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources in ISO-NE and Vermont,” default-source/resources/reports/evt-rd-electric-vehicles-gridresource-final-report.pdf (accessed Feb. 9, 2015). 6. A. Briones, J. Francfort, P. Heitmann, M. Schey, S. Schey, and J. Smart, “Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Power Flow Regulations and Building Codes Review by the AVTA,” http://www1.eere. rpt.pdf (accessed Feb. 9, 2015).


7. W. Kempton, J. Tomic, S. Letendre, A. Brooks, and T. Lipman, “Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California,” (accessed Feb. 9, 2015). 8. C. Morris, “Utilities and Automakers to Develop Open Grid Integration Platform,” (accessed Dec. 2, 2014). 9. C. Morris, “Automakers and Utilities Develop Cloud-Based Platform for Vehicles to Communicate with Power Grids,” (accessed Dec. 2, 2014). 10. T. Casey, “Keystone, Schmeystone Part II: Air Force Nails Biggest V2G Fleet in the World,” http://cleantechnica. com/2014/11/24/keystone-schmeystone-part-ii-air-force-nailsbiggest-v2g-fleet-world/ (accessed Dec 2, 2014). 11. C. Morris, “California Program to Demonstrate Electric School Buses with V2G Technology,” california-program-to-demonstrate-electric-school-buses-withv2g-technology/ (accessed Dec. 2, 2014). 12. C. Morris, “California Program to Demonstrate Electric School Buses with V2G Technology,” california-program-to-demonstrate-electric-school-buses-withv2g-technology/ (accessed Dec. 2, 2014). 13. C. Morris, “University of Delaware to Offer BMW Mini-E EVs for Lease in V2G Project,” university-delaware-to-offer-bmw-mini-e-evs-for-lease-in-v2gproject/ (accessed Dec. 2, 2014). 14. J. Ayre, “Nissan Testing LEAFs In Energy Supply & Demand Management Systems,” http://cleantechnica. com/2014/10/28/nissan-testing-use-leaf-evs-energy-supplydemand-management-systems/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_ medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+IM-cleantechnica+ %28CleanTechnica%29 (accessed Dec. 3, 2014). 15. “State Fact Sheets on Household Energy Use,” http://www. (accessed Dec. 7, 2014). 16. M. Kane, “Burns & McDonnell Install Bi-Directional EV Chargers in Colorado,” (accessed Dec. 7, 2014). 17. “What is an Ancillary Services Market?” http://www.enernoc. com/our-resources/term-pages/what-is-an-ancillary-servicesmarket (accessed Dec. 3, 2014). 18. S. Letendre, P. Denholm, and P. Lilienthal, “Electric & Hybrid Cars: New Load, or New Resource?” http://www.fortnightly. com/fortnightly/2006/12/electric-hybrid-cars-new-load-or-newresource?page=0%2C2 (accessed Dec. 3, 2014). 19. “Regional Reliability Reference Directory #5,” https://www. Member Approved Clean-Footer Revised-GJD 20140324.pdf (2012). 20. C. Harris and J. Meyers, “Working Smarter, Not Harder: An Introduction to the ‘Smart Grid,’” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 19 (3), 44 (2010).

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Fuel Cell Vehicles as Back-Up Power Options by Paul Brooker, Nan Qin, and Nahid Mohajeri


ver the past few years, the United States has seen a significant impact of major storms on the lives of its citizens. Hurricane Katrina left several hundred thousand individuals without power for several days. Hurricane Irene and Superstorm Sandy similarly affected millions. The ability of the government to effectively mitigate the impact on each and every individual can only go so far. To this end, the following statement is posted on the DOE’s website: “While these government and industry groups initially focus on critical facilities, homeowners, business owners, and local leaders may have to take an active role in dealing with energy disruptions on their own.”1

this case, the generator would not need upkeep, is used frequently, and could provide heat, water, and electricity in the event of an emergency, all without noise or air pollution. The fuel cell-powered vehicle has taken many forms over the years, with different configurations being explored. The first attempt to employ fuel cells as vehicle propulsion systems dates back to 1966, with General Motor’s introduction of their fuel cell-powered Electrovan.4 Over the last two decades, over 30 auto manufacturers have researched and developed more than 110 fuel cell concept vehicle models.5 In 2003, the DOE funded a $170 million project that saw deployment of 183 fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), with more than 500,000 vehicle trips covering 3.6 million miles.6 The DOE’s 2009 targets of 250-mile range, fuel cell durability of 2000 hours, and fuel cell efficiency of 60% were met during the demonstration. More recently, Toyota and Hyundai have announced their first commercially available fuel cell vehicles for 2015 (limited lease program started in 2014). The sales will be first opened in California where a hydrogen fueling station network is located. Ford/ Nissan/Daimler and GM/Honda have teamed up to bring fuel cell vehicles to the market in the next five years.7,8

With this in mind, a few comments on power security may be in order. Figure 1 illustrates the fraction of power outages over the past three years, as a function of the number of days without power. The majority of outages (57%) lasted less than a day, but a significant portion (31%) lasted 1-3 days. There were a variety of causes for these electricity interruptions, but most were weather-related. The number of customers affected from these outages also varied, from a few hundred to a few million, in extreme cases. For example, (continued on next page) after Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern U.S. on October 29, 2012, 2 over 8 million people lost power. For many of these individuals, power was not restored until November 19, 2012. Electricity was not the only commodity shortage that resulted from Sandy. Gasoline supply was also significantly impacted. Figure 2 plots the response of gas stations to a telephone survey conducted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) after Hurricane Sandy.3 Four days after Sandy hit, only 33% of gas stations were operating, and 10% reported they had no gasoline. The remaining gas stations either could not be reached (53%) or were without power (3%). As time progressed and more gas stations re-opened, New York City and New Jersey experienced a fuel shortage, and gasoline rationing was implemented on the eleventh day after Sandy. With all this, the New York City government did its best to provide energy to as many people as possible, by distributing gasoline-powered generators to those areas where it would make the Fig. 1. Power outages in the U.S. over the past three years, as a function of days without power. greatest difference, e.g., hospitals, care facilities, and multi-family units. However, families living in individual residences were lower in priority, since it was easier to service a larger population in more densely populated areas. So, the question arises: what is an individual homeowner to do in the event of a power outage? One approach is for homeowners to purchase their own generators. These generators vary in size from a few kW (powering a few small appliances) to large, whole-home generators. The small, portable generators are cheaper, but are unable to provide a significant contribution to the home’s energy consumption. Additionally, they cannot operate indoors, and they consume gasoline or diesel, which may be in short supply during extended outages. Whole-home emergency generators are costly (>$20,000), require upkeep, and are used infrequently. In this article, fuel cell-powered cars are discussed as Fig. 2. Gasoline stations’ response to EIA survey after Superstorm Sandy. an alternative to the whole-home generator. In The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Brooker, Qin, and Mohajeri (continued from previous page)

A FCEV can be used to provide back-up power for a home during an outage. As an example, Toyota states that their Mirai FCEV can power the essentials of a home for a week on a single tank of H2. However, in the case of the Mirai, a separate unit would need to be purchased to interface the FCEV with the home, which may not be the most economical approach in terms of cost-per-use. A different paradigm may provide a more cost effective route to back-up power. Most of the fuel cell cars being offered are powered by large fuel cells (80-100 kW), and a small battery (<2 kWh). The fuel cell provides primary power at all times, while the battery is able to recapture energy during regenerative braking. An alternative configuration that has yet to be seen is the fuel cell range-extending vehicle (FCREV). In this case, a medium-sized battery (16-20 kWh) is paired with a medium-sized fuel cell (30 kW) and a tank containing up to 5 kg H2. The battery would then be large enough to provide the energy needed for short trips (less than 40 mi), while the fuel cell would provide the range required for longer trips (up to 300 mi). With a FCREV, the majority of trips (near 80%) could be completed on the battery alone, assuming charging takes place at the destinations (e.g., home and work). Since the majority of travel within residential areas would utilize only battery power, there would be less need for hydrogen filling stations near homes. Instead, hydrogen filling stations could be located along interstates, assuming most long trips involve highway travel. While the need for an extensive distribution of hydrogen filling stations exists for both FCREV and FCEV, the FCREV could tolerate a fewer number of filling stations, provided there are sufficient numbers along major routes to support long trips. Furthermore, substantial benefits to the home during power outages could be envisioned when a FCREV is in place. Charging of the FCREV battery could happen at home, which would entail the installation of a level 2 charging station (3.3-10 kW) and integration of the station with the home’s power circuits. Since typical home loads are near this range, if the charging station were to include the necessary hardware, it could double as the automatic transfer switch (ATS) that is found in a whole-home emergency generator. The ATS isolates the home from the grid and allows the back-up generator to provide power to the home. With some modifications in the circuits during charging station installation, one should be able to create a system where the FCREV with the modified charging station is able to provide whole-home power. Since the charging station and installation are required for the purpose of powering the vehicle, only a small incremental cost is incurred for whole-home back-up power. Thus, in the event of an emergency, the FCREV could provide power to a home over an extended period. The advantage of this approach is that no separate equipment would be needed, and all equipment would be in constant upkeep. This way, when an emergency did occur, there would be a high degree of confidence that all components would be operational, and that there would be minimal impact on the homeowner. Figure 3 shows the approximate setup using a FCEV vs. FCREV, and the required additional components for whole-home power backup. While the above concept suggests that the issue of powering the home during an outage can be addressed using an FCREV, a key question that remains is: what about H2 supply? During past longterm outages, severe gasoline shortages have occurred. How would a fuel cell range extender vehicle be able to mitigate this issue (i.e., unavailability of fuel)?

H2 Generation The lack of hydrogen fueling infrastructure has been identified as a major obstacle in FCEV commercialization.9 Hydrogen fuel can be produced in centralized locations and distributed by trucks or by hydrogen pipelines. Alternatively, hydrogen can be produced on site at the fueling stations via methane steam reforming or water electrolysis methods. The decentralized nature of onsite hydrogen production renders these stations unique during emergencies in that they do not rely on deliveries for supplying fuel. The water electrolysis method is especially relevant as it does not depend on raw materials such as 58

natural gas; only water is required. If each filling station were to store 3 m3 of water, this could provide sufficient hydrogen for 100 cars over a three-day power outage. In a water electrolyzer, electricity is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The electricity can come from either the grid or from renewables such as photovoltaics and/or wind, or from a mixture of sources. Most commercial electrolyzers today are capable of electricity to hydrogen production efficiencies of 80% to 90% (based on the higher heating value, HHV).10,11 The complete electrolyzerbased hydrogen generating station requires the following hardware: • Water electrolyzer (for onsite hydrogen production) • Purification system: to purify hydrogen to meet the purity standards for fuel cell vehicles • Storage vessels: to store hydrogen in gaseous or liquid form • Compressor: to minimize storage volume and prepare the gas for pumping into high pressure (35 MPa-70 MPa) vehicle storage tanks • Safety equipment (e.g., pressure relief valves, vent stack, hydrogen sensors, fencing) • Mechanical equipment (e.g., underground piping, valves) • Electrical equipment (e.g., control panels, high-voltage connections, meters) During Sandy, several gas stations were unable to function due to the lack of power. Clearly, the utility of an H2 generating station during an outage would be similarly impaired if there were no electricity. By building PV into the station’s power supply, it will be able to function during a grid outage. By coupling the FCREV to power the home with a local H2 filling station with PV backup, both transportation and residential power needs may be met, even for extended outages. A H2 filling station will also be able to serve individuals who may not have purchased PV for their homes, but own a FCREV. Another advantage of using a FCREV is its ability to be distributed to different locations. At low levels of penetration, it is not reasonable to expect a FCREV owner to provide power to the entire community. Therefore, one might consider a scenario in which the municipality owns a fleet of FCREVs. In this case, these cars could be dispatched to suitably retrofitted public emergency shelters to act as the generators. This approach may be able to serve a wider group of people than a typical residential application, since the emergency shelter would be able to accommodate a larger group, and the economies of scale would make this approach more energy efficient. Another approach for distributing energy in an emergency would be to deliver hydrogen in a tube-trailer to the various shelters. It is quite possible that a few FCREVs at a single site would be sufficient to provide the power needed over a short time frame. However, for larger emergencies that extend for several days, it may be necessary to provide additional energy to those areas that are not co-located with a PV-powered electrolyzer. In this case, a tube-trailer of hydrogen may be dispatched to the shelters (or an appropriate location for residential customers to access), so that the FCREVs can be refilled. Tubetrailers provide >500 kg of hydrogen, and could be outfitted with the appropriate filling equipment for FCREVs. Tube-trailers have been used for fuel cell vehicle demonstrations and this approach is commonly used for fueling stations supporting short term events and demonstrations. In an event of emergency, these mobile refuelers can travel between hydrogen production plants and the fuel cell vehicle fleets to ensure a continuous supply of hydrogen.

Conclusions A power outage is inconvenient if it lasts for a few hours, and could be dangerous if it lasts for several days, especially under adverse weather conditions. A FCREV offers a back up approach that is potentially cost-effective and that serves a large community. This approach can be incorporated at the consumer level, or at the municipal level, as part of their emergency response and green-fleet initiatives. © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F05151IF The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Fig. 3. Schematic demonstrating the possible use of FCEVs as whole-home generators.

About the Authors Paul Brooker received his BS in Chemical Engineering from Brigham Young University Provo, Utah in 2004 and his PhD from the University of Connecticut in 2009. His graduate and post-doctoral studies investigated the performance of fuel cells, as a function of electrode structure and membrane/electrode interfaces. In addition to fuel cell membrane and electrode characterization, Dr. Brooker has extensive experience electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and flow batteries, in identifying failure mechanisms and developing electrodes for enhanced performance and durability. Additionally, Dr. Brooker provides support for the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium (PVMC), where he has assisted in identifying failure modes and wear mechanisms for diamond wires used in silicon wafer slicing. He is currently an Assistant Research Professor at the Florida Solar Energy Center. He may be reached at Nan Qin received her BS in Applied Chemistry from Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China in 2006, and her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the State University of New York-College of Environmental Science and Forestry in 2011. Her graduate research focused on the development of hydrogen storage materials for fuel cell vehicles, funded by the U.S.DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program. She joined the Florida Solar Energy Center as a Postdoctoral Associate in 2012. Since then she has led several projects aiming at developing light-weight hydrogen storage materials, space radiation shielding materials, and hydrogen sensors. She may be reached at

Nahid Mohajeri’s main areas of research interest include: thermal and chemical degradation of organic and inorganic materials, hydrogen storage, hydrogen sensors, polymer coating, and solid polymer electrolytes for energy storage application. At present, Dr. Mohajeri’s research efforts are focused on chemical and thermal stability of high temperature fluids (HTF) used in concentrated solar power (CSP) applications and research and development of durable proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications. In addition, she has extensive experience in research and development of specialty chemochromic pigments for hydrogen leak detection. The aim of this work is to generate functional materials that visually detect hydrogen leaks in ambient air from the minute gas leaks from pipes, flange joints and ports. She may be reached at

References 1. “Community Guidelines for Energy Emergencies,” community-guidelines-energy-emergencies (accessed Nov. 21, 2014). 2. “Today in Energy,” cfm?id=8730 (accessed Nov. 20, 2014). 3. “New York City Metropolitan Area Retail Motor Gasoline Supply Report,” sandy/gasoline_updates.cfm (accessed Nov. 20, 2014). 4. “1966 GM Electrovan,” wiki/index.php/1966_GM_Electrovan (accessed Dec. 4 2014). 5. “Fuel Cells 2000,” (accessed Feb. 12, 2015). 6. K. Wipke, S. Sprik, J. Kurtz, T. Ramsden, C. Ainscough, and G. Saur, “National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (2012). (continued on next page)

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Brooker, Qin, and Mohajeri (continued from previous page)

7. “Daimler, Ford and Nissan Sign Deal on Fuel-Cell Cars,” Automotive News, OEM05/130129909/daimler-ford-and-nissan-sign-deal-on-fuelcell-cars (accessed Nov. 24, 2014). 8. “GM, Honda to Collaborate on Next-Generation Fuel Cell Technologies,” html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2013/Jul/0702-gm-honda.html (accessed Nov. 24, 2014).

9. “Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Station Deployment Plan: A Strategy for Meeting the Challenge Ahead,” California Fuel Cell Partnership, West Sacramento, CA (2009). 10. K. Harrison and M. Peters, “Renewable Electrolysis Integrated System Development and Testing,” 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Review (2013). 11. J. Ivy, “Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/MP-560-36734, Golden, CO (2004).








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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

EV Fast Charging, an Enabling Technology by Charles Botsford and Andrea Edwards


hat obstacles remain for mass adoption of electric vehicles (EVs)? If a portion of early EV buyers choose the high cost EV to obtain maximum driving range, and other EV buyers choose the lower cost EV and sacrifice driving range, what type of EV will auto manufacturers need to offer to capture the mainstream car buyer? The obvious answer is to offer an affordable EV that also solves the range issue. This paper looks at true fast charging as an enabling technology to accomplish this.

Introduction to the EV Driver State of Mind The adoption of EVs from 2010 to the present has made great strides both in terms of vehicle sales and in terms of installation of charging infrastructure. The underlying reasons for the enhanced state of the EV market now versus the first incarnation of EVs in the 1990s, which was driven by air quality regulations (e.g., California zero emissions vehicle mandate), are that in addition to the ZEV mandate, key drivers also include high fuel prices, the need for energy independence, and more stringent federal regulations (e.g., the Corporate Average Fuel Economy, CAFE). Yet, questions remain regarding whether EV adoption can be sustained or whether the current EV market will stagnate or even decline. What is necessary for a consumer to decide to buy an EV? The mainstream car driver has operated a regular gasoline-powered vehicle all her life and would happily continue doing that for as long as she can keep refilling her car’s gas tank—affordably. That, of course, was one of the major EV market drivers after the scare of 2008 when the price of crude oil increased to $140/bbl. What happens if a driver has to pay a fortune for a gallon of gasoline? In the 2011-14 time frame, the price of crude oil stabilized at $100/ bbl and has recently declined to $60/bbl. Many forecasters project oil to remain at this low price level, possibly for several years. This will likely dampen the demand for EVs—until the next run up in crude oil prices. Price volatility and market uncertainty often drive the need for people to find alternatives.

EV Adoption Obstacles Even with high crude oil prices, however, other obstacles remain in the path of widespread EV adoption. The two major obstacles are the price differential and limited range. For mainstream consumers to switch to EVs, they have to believe they are getting an upgrade from the gas-powered Ford, Toyota, or Chevy they have driven for years. Early adopter EV owners have made allowances. They charge their vehicles overnight at their homes. They have secured a $199/ month, three-year lease. They might have access to the West Coast Electric Highway (WCEH)1 (Fig. 1) or Tesla’s Supercharger network for fast charging. They may even charge their EVs at work to manage their long daily commutes. Still, none of them can charge his EV in under ten minutes and then drive a hundred miles (ten miles per minute of charging). Tesla comes closest to this with their 125 kW Superchargers, which enable a bit over six miles per minute of charging. For thirty minutes parked at a Supercharger, the Tesla driver can drive about 180 miles. Is this enough to satisfy a regular car driver who is used to three minutes at a gas pump to travel 300 miles? Thirty minutes is a long time, considering the ten minutes required to exit the freeway and another ten minutes to get back on. The whole stop for a Tesla fast charge might be close to an hour. That’s the same on-and-off time for a regular car driver, by the way. The three-minute fill time is sandwiched between twenty minutes to get on and off the freeway, for a total potential stop time of twenty-five minutes. So a ten-minute EV charge time is a thirty-

minute stop. This doesn’t solve the range problem by a long shot, though, for those who want to hop in their car and drive 300 miles without stopping. Some have argued that a driver should stop every 100 miles, or an hour-and-a-half of driving time, just to take a break. The 300-mile driving-without-a-stop expectation might be mitigated with $5/gallon gasoline, but this is still an open issue. Tesla currently serves a small subset of EV drivers who can afford large battery packs and the upfront payment for fast charging. While Tesla plans to pursue the mainstream driver, the price differential is certainly the other constraint they would need to solve to bring about widespread adoption of EVs.

Fast Charging as an Enabler to Overcome the Price and Range Obstacles So, how do we solve the price differential and limited range problems? Price Differential—The major EV cost component is the battery pack. Tesla currently offers large battery packs of 60 to 85 kWh to solve the range problem. An 85 kWh battery pack can allow an EV to travel up to 250 miles (assumes 75 kWh usable pack state of charge, SOC). The problems with a pack that large are weight, volume, and cost. Many other car companies have designed their EVs with 20 to 30 kWh packs. While this reduces the cost impact of the battery pack, it also results in a range of less than 100 miles. For example, a Nissan LEAF has a 24 kWh battery pack (18-20 kWh usable SOC) with a reported highway range on the order of 75 miles. If 24 kWh is too small to satisfy the mainstream EV driver and 85 kWh is too expensive, what is a good compromise? Let’s examine the characteristics of a 40 kWh battery pack. The usable state of charge is on the order of 32-34 kWh, which could result in a highway range of 120 miles, depending on vehicle weight, tires, aerodynamics, and other factors. Battery pack price projections abound. In the early days of lithium batteries, a battery pack cost approximately $2,000/kWh. Thus, a 40 kWh battery pack would have cost $80,000. That was then. Some researchers project lithium cell costs declining to $100/kWh, but then you have to add pack structure and battery management system costs, which bring the total battery pack cost closer to $200/kWh. Thus, a 40 kWh battery pack would cost $8,000. This is expensive, but still consistent with cost models for producing affordable EVs in the $30K to $40K range. Limited Range—What good is 120 miles of range if a driver wants to travel from Bellingham, Washington to Ashland, Oregon (continued on next page)

Fig. 1. LEAF charging at Skyhomish, WA WCEH DC Fast Charging Station.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Botsford and Edwards

(continued from previous page)

(essentially Canada to California), which is 550 miles? EV drivers can now take that trip on the WCEH in a Nissan LEAF by stopping every 60 miles. The recharge time is about thirty minutes. Driving at 65 mph, the total trip time would be on the order of fourteen hours. The WCEH chargers are rated at 50 kW. To recharge the 34 kWh of a 40 kWh pack in ten minutes the chargers would need to be rated at 200 kW, or 60% more power than the Tesla Superchargers. The same trip with a 120-mile range EV recharging in ten minutes would take eleven hours. This is roughly the same time it would take a Tesla driver with an 85 kWh battery pack. The same driver in a gasoline car could do the same trip in about ten hours. (See Table I.) Table I. 550-Mile Trip from Bellingham, WA to Ashland, OR Gasoline

120-mile EV







Overcoming the Remaining EV Adoption Obstacles

In addition to price and range, several additional obstacles remain. While no one can predict for sure how these issues will be resolved, it is important to highlight their significance. Battery Technology—A significant technology advancement enabling faster direct current (DC) charging was the development of lithium titanate, a battery chemistry that allows for ten-minute fast charging. In 2007, Altairnano Technologies developed a 35 kWh lithium titanate battery pack, and was able to successfully demonstrate a ten-minute fast charge capability using a 250 kW high power DC charger (Fig. 2). In 2011, Foothill Transit, which is a joint powers authority of 21 member cities in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys of California that operates a fixed-route bus public transit service in Greater Los Angeles, put EV buses into service. The buses, manufactured by Proterra, have 83 kWh lithium titanate battery packs, which are charged in ten minutes using 500 kW DC chargers. These buses remain in service today. Today, existing EVs such as the Honda Fit and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV use the Toshiba version of the lithium titanate chemistry. This lithium chemistry is noted for its long cycle life on the order of 5,000 cycles at 100% depth of discharge, high charge and discharge power density (6c rates), excellent safety record, and long calendar life. Grid Impacts—Utility concerns over DC fast chargers include voltage sag, poor power factor, and other issues. However, a study that examined four types of utility local distribution feeders, two at 13.2 kV and two at 26 kV show that even with multiple 250 kW DC fast chargers, grid impact could be minimal.2 The proof of the validity of this study is in Tesla’s implementation of their Supercharger network and the Foothill Transit 500 kW DC chargers.

The study concluded that the effect of a proposed EV fast charging station at the 500 kW power level would be dependent on the utility system site, and that compensation techniques may be necessary. At lower levels, however, modeling showed almost negligible grid impacts for even low quality distribution circuits. EV fast chargers typically ramp up power levels rather than supply instantaneous power. This alleviates short time scale grid shocks. They are also designed with the capability to communicate continuously with the grid. If a problem occurs with the distribution line, the utility could command the EV charger(s) to ramp down in power level, or shut down completely as a form of demand response. For weak grid distribution lines, charging schemes that include battery storage between the grid and the charger bank, as detailed in a 2007-issued patent,3 could provide a buffer to further reduce the potential for adverse grid impacts (Fig. 3). Indeed, utility control, coupled with a high peak use rate structure, is designed to modify consumer behavior and could minimize potential grid impacts from fast charging. High Power Connectors—In the U.S., three high power charger connectors and their communication protocols are prominent: 1) CHAdeMO, 2) Tesla, and 3) the SAE combo. CHAdeMO, an organization that originated in Asia, now has 435 members in 26 countries. The CHAdeMO connector power level allows for charging up to 62 kW, but most chargers are 44 to 50 kW. In the U.S., the CHAdeMO chargers number over 800 as of the end of 2014. Tesla Superchargers are 90 and 125 kW in power level and number almost 350 stations with 1,900 ports in the U.S. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) “combo” connectors allow for DC fast charging at up to 80 kW (typically 50 kW), combined with the SAE Level 2 connector. In the U.S., the SAE combo chargers numbered approximately 20 as of the end of 2014, according to Plugshare.4 To charge at 200 kW or higher would require a different connector. A rumored high power DC connector from China could potentially work, but would have to gain acceptance through the standards committees. Economics of DC Fast Charge Stations—Who would install high power DC fast charger stations? These stations are not highly profitable. A gasoline station could see $50 revenue from each threeminute fill up, times 50 fill ups per day per pump, times six pumps, or $15,000 of daily revenue. A DC fast charge station could see $7.50 per ten-minute charge, times 20 charge sessions per day, times two chargers, or $300 of daily revenue. Selling gasoline, however, is a low margin business, and the stations make money selling food and cigarettes. Adding value to the venue business model may be the real business case for DC fast chargers as well. Today, government grants provide the bulk of funding for equipment and installation of DC fast charge stations with three notable exceptions: Tesla, Nissan, and NRG Energy (eVgo). Tesla



164 128













~ ~






Fig. 2. May 2007 10-minute fast charge demonstration.


Fig. 3. Illustration from a utility bi-directional EV charger patent.3

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

has invested significant corporate funding and also includes fast charge access in the price of their vehicles to fund installation of their Supercharger station network. Nissan has also invested heavily in deploying DC fast chargers at their dealerships and other venues. In Texas and California, eVgo has installed significant numbers of DC fast charge stations. Auto Manufacturers and Battery Chemistries—Switching to a fast charge lithium chemistry for some auto manufacturers will be an obstacle. Most auto manufacturers use either standard lithium chemistry (4.1 V) for their battery cells, or lithium iron phosphate (3.2 V). Typically, the higher the cell voltage, the higher the specific energy (kWh/kg). Thus, Tesla, Nissan, and many others use the higher voltage cells because they can minimize EV weight for a given kWh pack. In addition, the chemistry tends to cost less than the lower specific energy chemistries because less lithium is needed per kWh. Lithium titanate, which is a fast charge lithium chemistry, is a 2.6 V cell chemistry, which means it has low specific energy (higher pack weight). Though low in specific energy it has many other major advantages besides the ability to fast charge as mentioned above. Also mentioned above, several auto manufacturers (Honda, Mitsubishi, others) use lithium titanate for their EV packs, which means these auto manufacturers consider that the advantages outweigh the low specific energy disadvantage.

Conclusions Widespread adoption of EVs faces many obstacles, most notably high costs when coupled with large battery packs, and limited range when coupled with small battery packs. One potential solution is to increase the traditional battery pack size to the 120-mile range, but use a lithium chemistry that allows ten-minute fast charging. © The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1149/2.F06151IF

About the Authors Charles Botsford is a professional chemical engineer (California) with an MS in chemical engineering and with 30 years of experience in engineering design, distributed generation, and environmental management. He has a wide range of experience relative to energy storage, renewable energy systems, electric vehicles, power electronics, and air quality issues. Mr. Botsford conducts technology and business development activities for AeroVironment’s EV Solutions Group and is a Qualified Environmental Professional (QEP), Emeritus. He may be reached at

Andrea Edwards is a business development associate with extensive experience in electric vehicle charging networks and data management. Ms. Edwards has a BA degree. She conducts technology and business development activities for AeroVironment’s EV Solutions Group. She may be reached at

References 1. C. Botsford, A. Horvat, T. Buell, and M. Stefan, “The West Coast Electric Highway,” enduse/electricvehicles/articles/3017 (accessed Feb. 5, 2015). 2. M. Etezadi-Amoli, K. Choma, and J. Stefani, “Rapid-Charge Electric Vehicle Stations,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., 25 (3), 1883 (2010). 3. Aerovironment Inc., “Battery Charging System and Method,” U.S. Patent 7,256,516, 2007. 4. (accessed Feb. 5, 2015).



The following volumes are sponsored by ECS, and published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. They should be ordered from:

Lithium Batteries: Advanced Technologies and Applications Edited by B. Scrosati, K. M. Abraham, W. van Schalkwijk, and J. Hassoun (2013) 392 pages. ISBN 978-1-18365-6 Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions (2nd Edition) by V. Bagotsky (2012) 406 pages. ISBN 978-1-1180-8756-5 Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook (3rd Edition) by R. Winston Revie (2011) 1280 pages. ISBN 978-0-470-08032-0 Modern Electroplating (5th Edition) by M. Schlesinger and M. Paunovic (2010) 736 pages. ISBN 978-0-470-16778-6 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy by M. E. Orazem and B. Tribollet (2008) 524 pages. ISBN 978-0-470-04140-6 Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition (2nd Edition) by M. Paunovic and M. Schlesinger (2006) 373 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-71221-3 Fundamentals of Electrochemistry (2nd Edition) Edited by V. S. Bagotsky (2005) 722 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-70058-6 Electrochemical Systems (3rd Edition) by John Newman and Karen E. Thomas-Alyea (2004) 647 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-47756-3 Atmospheric Corrosion by C. Leygraf and T. Graedel (2000) 368 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-37219-6 Semiconductor Wafer Bonding by Q. -Y. Tong and U. Gösele (1998) 320 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-57481-1 Corrosion of Stainless Steels (2nd Edition) by A. J. Sedriks (1996) 464 pages. ISBN 978-0-471-00792-0 ECS Members will receive a discount. See the ECS website for prices.

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A scene from the “Talk Shower” held in Kyushu, September 1, 2014.

A scene from the 2014 Fall Meeting in Hokuriku, held October 17, 2014.

A meeting scene in Tohoku.


The ECS Japan Section actively participates in international conferences and workshops held in Japan. The 78th Symposium on Semiconductors and Integrated Circuits Technology was held on July 17-18, 2014 in Morito Memorial Hall, Tokyo. The symposium was organized by the Electronic Materials Committee of The Electrochemical Society of Japan (ECSJ), and it received financial support from the ECS Japan Section. Seventy-four people participated. The 43rd advanced science seminar, “Recent research progress on rechargeable sodium batteries,” was held June 4th at the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo. The seminar was supported by the ECS Japan Section, Kanto branch of The Electrochemical Society of Japan, and co-organized by the Committee of Battery Technology of The Chemical Society of Japan; ninety-four participants including five invited speakers attended this seminar. The ECSJ Hokkaido Branch, had the “30th Lilac Seminar and 20th Research Exchange Meeting for Young Researchers” at Okobachi sansou (a mountain retreat), Hokkaido, on June 28-29, 2014. The meeting had 122 participants, three invited lecturers at the Lilac Seminar, and four invited lecturers at the research exchange meeting for young researchers. A poster session at the research exchange meeting was also held for two hours, with 36 posters and a Poster Award of the ECSJ Hokkaido Branch. Three students received this award. An annual summer seminar for young researchers and students in the field of electrochemistry, traditionally in Japanese called the “Talk Shower in Kyushu,” was held at Hotel Hamaso in Miyazaki on September 1-2, 2014. The seminar was supported by the ECS Japan Section, The Electrochemical Society of Japan, and Kyushu branch of The Electrochemical Society of Japan. The seminar drew 86 participants, including five invited speakers. The 2014 Fall Meeting for Young Researchers was held at the Lifelong Learning and Women’s Center in Fukui on October 17, 2014. The Hokuriku Division of The Electrochemical Society of Japan and the ECS Japan Section provided organizational and financial support for the meeting. The number of participants was 49. The 2014 Second Seminar for Young Electrochemists in Kansai was held at the Katsura Campus of Kyoto University, on October 18, 2014. The number of participants was 117 persons. In this seminar, three lectures were presented, and these topics were discussed actively. The 27th ECSJ Tohoku Branch Young Scientists Meeting was held at Sakunami Onsen on the night of November 28, 2014, following the 45th SEMI Conference. The purpose of this meeting was, by tradition, the participation of young scientists and students in the field of electrochemistry, electronic devices, and materials in the Tohoku Region. The participants thoroughly discussed related topics without worrying about the time constraints. The meeting hosted seven speakers from Tohoku University, Tohoku Institute of Technology, and Yamagata University, with more than 60 participants. The topics discussed included cell and tissue engineering, biofuel cells, graphene transistors, lithium ion batteries, and organic photovoltaics. Active discussion on all the topics took place through the night and senior researchers gave useful comments to each speaker. At the end of the meeting, the 28th meeting was announced and will be held at Morioka in 2015. The ECSJ Tokai Branch appreciates the ECS Japan Section for participating in the activities of ECSJ Tokai Branch and subsidizing the Young Researcher Award. This year’s award was given to Munegazu Motoyama after careful consideration by the committee of the Tokai Branch.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Volume 66– C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s

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Division Awards

The Edward Goodrich Acheson Award was established in 1928 for distinguished contributions to the advancement of any of the objects, purposes or activities of The Electrochemical Society. The award consists of gold medal, wall plaque, and prize of $10,000, Society Life membership, and a complimentary meeting registration. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by October 1, 2015.

The Electronics and Photonics Division Award was established in 1968 to encourage excellence in electronics research and outstanding technical contribution to the field of electronics science. The award consists of a scroll, prize of $1,500 and expenses up to $1,000 or payment of Life Membership in the Society. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by August 1, 2015.

The Charles W. Tobias Young Investigator Award was established in 2003 to recognize outstanding scientific and/or engineering work in fundamental or applied electrochemistry or solidstate science and technology by a young scientist or engineer. The award consists of scroll, prize of $5,000, ECS Life Membership, complimentary meeting registration, and travel assistance to the meeting of the award presentation (up to $1,000). Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by October 1, 2015.

The Energy Technology Division Research Award was established in 1992 to encourage excellence in energy related research. This award consists of scroll, check for $2,000 and membership in Energy Technology Division for as long as an ECS member. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 1, 2015. The Energy Technology Division Supramaniam Srinivasan Young Investigator Award was established in 2011 to recognize and reward an outstanding young researcher in the field of energy technology. This award consists of scroll, check for $1,000 and free meeting registration. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 1, 2015. The SES Research Young investigator Award of the Nanocarbons Division was established in 2007 to recognize and reward one outstanding young researcher each year in the field of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanostructures. This award consists of shall consist of a certificate plus $500.00 and free meeting registration costs to help the recipient attend the ECS meeting at which the presentation is made. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 1, 2015.


The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


ECS is proud to announce the establishment of the

Allen J. Bard Award in Electrochemical Science Award recipients will be honored for exceptional contributions to the field of fundamental electrochemical science and recognized for exceptionally creative experimental and theoretical studies that have opened new directions in electroanalytical chemistry and electrocatalysis. The first award will be given in Chicago at the 227th ECS Meeting.

Allen J. BArd is the Norman Hackerman-Welch Regents Chair in Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Director of the Center for Electrochemistry.

Allen J. BArd

Among Dr. Bard’s many awards are The Electrochemical Society’s Carl Wagner Memorial Award (1981), Henry B. Linford Award for Distinguished Teaching (1986), and Olin Palladium Award (1987); Priestley Medal (2002), the Wolf Prize in Chemistry (2008). He was elected into the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1990. In 2013, Dr. Bard was awarded the National Medal of Science, one of the highest honors bestowed by the U.S. government upon scientists, engineers, and inventors.

Special thanks to the generous support of our donors and advertisers, especially:

CH Instruments We need your help to ensure the award is fully funded in perpetuity, and we may also create a symposia in Dr. Bard’s honor. To help fund the award endowment and a continuing symposium in Dr. Bard’s honor, please donate online:

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


NE W MEMBERS ECS is proud to announce the following new members for October, November, and December 2014.

Active Members Arun Agarwal, Dublin, OH, USA Masanobu Aizawa, Osaka, Japan Ricardo Alcantara, Cordoba, Spain Jwaher AlGhamdi, Cambridge, MA, USA Seham Alharbi, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Frank Allebrod, Luebeck Schleswig Holstein, Germany Facundo Almeraya Calderon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Mexico Rene Antano-Lopez, Querétaro, Mexico William Aperador Chaparro, Bogota Cundinamarca, Colombia Juichi Arai, Iwata City, Shizuoka, Japan Masazumi Arao, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan Christophe Avis, Seoul, South Korea Osama Awadelkarim, University Park, PA, USA Byung Seong Bae, Asan Chungnam, South Korea Milan Balaz, Laramie, WY, USA Fabio Bassetto, Castello di Godego Treviso, Italy Ingolf Bauer, Dresden, SN, Germany Costana Bousquet, Cavaillon, France Glen Brown, Woodinville, WA, USA Lucian Buhalteanu, Bucharest, Romania Steven Burling, London, United Kingdom Giovanni Capellini, Frankfurt (Oder), BB, Germany Patrick Cappillino, North Dartmouth, MA, USA Gilberto Carreño Aguilera, Guanajuato, Mexico Carroll Casteel, Phoenix, AZ, USA Celso Cavaco, Leuven, Belgium Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng, Detroit, MI, USA Brian Chmielowiec, Cambridge, MA, USA Jason Cho, Fremont, CA, USA Jeong-Ju Cho, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Sungbo Cho, Incheon, South Korea Yoonhwan Cho, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Bokkyu Choi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan SuAn Choi, Daegu, South Korea Masayuki Chokai, Hihi-shi, Tokyo, Japan Aristos Christou, College Park, MD, USA Frank Coms, Pontiac, MI, USA Christina Crouch, Tadley, Hampshire, United Kingdom Samuel Cruz Manzo, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Francisco Cuevas-Muñiz, Querétaro, Mexico Rezan Demir-Cakan, Kocaeli, Turkey Gijs Dingemans, Heverlee, Belgium Kris Driesen, Olen, Belgium Val Dubin, Beaverton, OR, USA Ji-Yong Eom, Cheonan, Chungnam, South Korea Jaanus Eskusson, Tartu, Estonia

Sebastien Fantini, Toulouse Haute-Garonne, France Tim Fister, Lemont, IL, USA Christoph Floetgen, St. Florian, Austria David Foote, Concord, CA, USA Eric Fox, Annapolis, MD, USA Takeaki Fujii, Tochigi, Japan Citlalli Gaona Tiburcio, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico Jorge Garcia, San Luis Potosi, Mexico Aaron Gebauer, St Louis Park, MN, USA Vanesa Gil, Roskilde, Denmark Jeffrey Gilman, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Carol Glover, Swansea, United Kingdom Joshua Goldberger, Columbus, OH, USA Mike Gordon, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Charlie Gosse, Marcoussis, France Thomas Gries, Nancy, France Rahul Gupta, Newark, DE, USA Jonas Gurauskis, Roskilde, Denmark Wei Han, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Christian Hanisch, Braunschweig, NI, Germany Robin Harris, Leesburg, VA, USA Madoka Hasegawa, Thun, Switzerland Shin Hasegawa, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan Pouya Hashemi, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA Yu-Shi He, Shanghai, P.R. China Yolanda Hedberg, Stockholm, Sweden Olle Heinonen, Lemont, IL, USA Per-Erik Hellström, Kista, Sweden Thomas Henke, Dresden, SN, Germany Jon Henri, West Linn, OR, USA Carl Hensman, Seattle, WA, USA Pierre Hovington, Boucherville, QC, Canada Chi-Sun Hwang, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, South Korea Aldona Jagminiene, Vilnius, Lithuania Rafael Janski, Villach, K, Austria Ting-Chu Jao, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Sanghun Jeon, Sejong, South Korea Jiang Jiang, London, United Kingdom Sungnim Jo, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Arockiam John Jeevagan, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan Ray Johnston, St Paul, MN, USA Yong Joo, Ithaca, NY, USA Hun-Gi Jung, Seoul, South Korea Mohandas K.S., Kalpakkam Tamil Nadu, India Kazuhiro Kamiguchi, Yokosuka, Japan Gülfeza Kardas, Adana, Turkey Nikolaos Karousis, Athens Karousis, Greece Alexandros Katsaounis, Patras, Greece Ouzaouit Khalid, Marrakech Medina, Morocco Mohammed Zahed Mustafa Khan, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia Shinya Kikuta, Nirasaki City, Yamanashi, Japan Byoung Ju Kim, Pohang Gyeongbuk, South Korea


Changsoo Kim, Milwaukee, WI, USA DooHyun Kim, Sejong-city, South Korea Kyung Mo Kim, Daejeon, South Korea Sojin Kim, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea WonKeun Kim, Uiwang Kyounggi-do, South Korea Sven-Joachim Kimmerle, Neubiberg/ Munich, BY, Germany Masashi Kishimoto, London, United Kingdom Bill Kitchen, Pender Island, BC, Canada Jari Koskinen, Salo, Finland Dawid Kot, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany Kirill Kovnir, Davis, CA, USA Dmitry Kozak, Alexandria, VA, USA Yoshimi Kubo, Tsukuba, Japan Volker Kurz, Granger, IN, USA Mario Lanza, Suzhou, P.R. China Kyu Hwan Lee, Changwon, South Korea Kyu Tae Lee, Ulsan, South Korea Sang-Young Lee, Ulsan, South Korea Seok Woo Lee, Stanford, CA, USA Bin Li, San Diego, CA, USA Genong Li, Lebanon, NH, USA Ying-Chih Liao, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Rongying Lin, Toulouse, France Qizhi Liu, Lexington, MA, USA Darsen Lu, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA James Lu, Troy, NY, USA Antonio Luna, Bloomfield, CT, USA Manuel Macias-Montero, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom Dorina Manolescu, Burnaby, BC, Canada Corina Manta, Bucharest, Romania Monica Marinescu, London, United Kingdom Luigi Mariucci, Roma, Italy Tomoyuki Matsuda, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Yoshiyuki Matsuda, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Mariko Matsunaga, Tokyo, Japan Steven Miller, Gibbstown, NJ, USA Kamal Mishra, Sunnyvale, CA, USA Yayoi Misu, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Christophe Morin, Edison, NJ, USA Stephanie Moroz, Marcoola, Queensland, Australia Andrew Murchison, Los Gatos, CA, USA Enoch Nagelli, Cleveland Heights, OH, USA Vinod Nair, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Yoshitaka Nakano, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan Iris Nandhakumar, Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom Lis Nanver, Zoetermeer Zuid-Holland, Netherlands Florian Nitze, Göteborg, Sweden Janusz Nowotny, Woonona, New South Wales, Australia Suzana Nunes, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia Susan Odom, Lexington, KY, USA Marco Olguin, Silver Spring, MD, USA Andrew Parfitt, St Augustine, FL, USA (continued on next page)

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

NE W MEMBERS (continued from previous page) Cheol-Ho Park, Ansan, South Korea Sangjin Park, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Tien-Chih Pei, Tainan, Taiwan Martin Peters, Garching bei Muenchen, BY, Germany Patrick Phillips, Chicago, IL, USA Enrique Quiroga González, Puebla, Mexico Matthew Raiford, Carrollton, TX, USA Maria Teresa Ramirez-Silva, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de México, Mexico Samuli Rasanen, Kokkola, Finland Maria Rau, Pfinztal, BW, Germany Frank Rauscher, Brussels, Belgium Rosa Rego, Vila Real, Portugal Gemma Reguera, East Lansing, MI, USA Laurianne Religieux, Massy Essonne, France Sergey Reshanov, Kista Stockholm, Sweden Jun Ki Rhee, Uiwang-Si Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Kungwon Rhie, Sejong, South Korea Francisco Rodriguez, Pedro Escobedo, Qro, Mexico Tate Rogers, Raleigh, NC, USA Harm Rotermund, Halifax, NS, Canada Jacques Rozière, Montpellier, France Gary Ruland, Pine Brook, NJ, USA Won-Hee Ryu, New Haven, CT, USA Ken Sakaushi, Potsdam, BB, Germany Antonio Samarelli, Glasgow, Scotland Mariyappan Sathiya, Paris, France Kari Schjølberg-Henriksen, Oslo, Norway Volker Schulz, Mannheim, BW, Germany Justin Searle, Swansea, W Glam, United Kingdom Leon Shaw, Chicago, IL, USA Scott Shaw, Iowa City, IA, USA Andrey Shchetinskiy, Ekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Region, Russia Zhongning Shi, Shenyang Liaoning, P.R. China Alex Shiao, Ellicott City, MD, USA Takaaki Shibata, Tokyo, Japan JeoungChill Shim, Dresden, Germany Buddha Shrestha, Dusseldorf, Germany Søren Simonsen, Roskilde, Denmark Dave Smith, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Katherine Smith, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom Afonso Solano, Neu-Isenburg, Vilnius, Lithuania Dee Strand, San Diego, CA, USA Chinmayee Subban, Berkeley, CA, USA Nalini Subramanian, Cupertino, CA, USA Samia Suliman, University Park, PA, USA Yan Sun, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan Akhilesh Swarnakar, Leuven, Belgium Michal Swietoslawski, Krakow, Poland Marnix Tack, Oudenaarde, AE, USA Hideki Takagi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Hoe Tan, Canberra, ACT, Australia Greg Tao, Sandy, UT, USA Ying Tao, Shandong, P.R. China Yassein Temerk, Assiut, Egypt

Yin Ting Teng, Singapore, Singapore Sampath Thothathri, Bangalore Karnataka, India Kenji Toda, Niigata, Japan John Tolle, Phoenix, AZ, USA Shu-Yi Tsai, Tainan, Taiwan, Taiwan Ulderico Ulissi, Ulm, BW, Germany Pirmin Ulmann, Giubiasco, Switzerland Juho Valikangas, Kokkola, Finland Gintaras Valincius, Vilnius, Lithuania Paul Van Valkenburg, Whitefish, MT, USA Alberto Varzi, Ulm, BW, Germany Marcos Vera, Leganés, MAD, Spain Heidy Visbal, Kyoto, Japan Eric Vogel, Atlanta, GA, USA Hans von Kaenel, Zurich, ZH, Switzerland Mitsuru Wakisaka, Kofu, Yamanashi, Japan Chuan Wang, Holt, MI, USA Jessica Weber, Farmington Hills, MI, USA Yingjin Wei, Changchun, P.R. China Olivia Wijaya, Singapore, Singapore Hendrik Wulfmeier, Goslar, Germany Xiaomei Xi, San Diego, CA, USA Hui Xia, Nanjing, P.R. China Junli Xu, Trondheim, Norway Katsunobu Yamamoto, Sumida-Ku, Tokyo, Japan Xingbin Yan, Lanzhou Gansu, P.R. China Eui-Hyeok Yang, Fort Lee, NJ, USA Zhiwei Yang, East Hartford, CT, USA Nulati Yesibolati, Astana, Kazakhstan Lee Yonggun, Suwon, South Korea Hana Yoon, South Korea Jin-Sang Yoon, Yongin-si Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Yh Yun, Anseong-si Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Kai Zhuo, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

Member Representatives John Gustavsson, Ljungaverk, Sweden

Student Members Ahmad Abedin, Stockholm Kista, Sweden Mahmoudreza Aghighi, Montreal, QC, Canada Andrew Akbashev, Philadelphia, PA, USA Bhaskar Akkisetty, Hyderabad Telengana, India Thekrayat AlAbdulaal, Fayetteville, AR, USA Jorge Aldana, México, Distrito Federal, Mexico Caleb Alexander, Austin, TX, USA Sattar Al-Kabi, Fayetteville, AR, USA Charles Amos, Austin, TX, USA Evan Andrews, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Christopher Anwyl, Lancaster, United Kingdom Ali Asadollahi, Stockholm, Sweden Gaurav Assat, Austin, TX, USA Selcuk Atalay, Norfolk, VA, USA Aldona Balciunaite, Vilnius, Lithuania

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Seyedeh Banishashemian, Fayetteville, AR, USA Zach Bare, Fayetteville, AR, USA Thomas Bayer, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan Clément Berne, Toulouse, France Shoham Bhadra, Princeton, NJ, USA Amruth Bhargav, Indianapolis, IN, USA Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Moshiel Biton, London, United Kingdom Matthew Bohan, San Francisco, CA, USA Clément Boissy, Lyon, France Kelsey Brereton, Durham, NC, USA Erinn Brigham, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Joeseph Bright, Johnstown, PA, USA Zachary Brown, Halifax, NS, Canada Brianna Burgess, Norco, CA, USA Jose Caballero Gomez, Bogota Cundinamarca, Colombia Chi-Hao Chang, Austin, TX, USA Alina Chanysheva, Auburn, AL, USA Lin Chen, Chicago, IL, USA Leong Chio, Taipa, Macau Anuradha Chowdhury, Fayetteville, AR, USA Yi Cui, Indianapolis, IN, USA Lukas Czornomaz, Ruschlikon, ZH, Switzerland Zachary Darr, Fayetteville, AR, USA Anthony Emerson, Bella Vista, AR, USA Gebrekidan Eshetu, Frankfurt, Germany Mohsen Esmaily, Gothenburg, Sweden Carlos Espinosa, Merida, Yucatán, Mexico Jose Estrada Tiempos, Santa Ana, CA, USA Ruishu Feng, University Park, PA, USA Gilberto Flores, México, D F, Mexico Jennifer Flores, Brea, CA, USA M. Mehdi Forouzan, Provo, UT, USA Abbas Fotouhi, Bedford, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom Angel Garcia-Esparza, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia Camille Gazeau, Orleans, France Jan Geder, Singapore, Singapore Seyed Amir Ghetmiri, Fayetteville, AR, USA Srinivas Kumar Gowranga Hanasoge, Atlanta, GA, USA Martha Gross, Austin, TX, USA Shaohua Guo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Dafne Guzman-Hernandez, Ciudad de México, D F, Mexico Dominik Haering, Garching bei München, BY, Germany Pauline Han, Austin, TX, USA Iman Hassani Nia, Evanston, IL, USA Ran He, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Misun Hong, Wako, Saitama, Japan Dai Horiguchi, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan Christopher Horoszko, New York, NY, USA Chau Hua, Westminster, CA, USA I-Wen Huang, Columbus, OH, USA Aniruddha Jana, West Lafayette, IN, USA Changshin Jo, Pohang Kyungbuk, South Korea Sukhraaj Johal, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom 69

NE W MEMBERS (continued from previous page) Benjamin Jones, West Fork, AR, USA Ishan Joshipura, Raleigh, NC, USA Wenbo Ju, Garching bei München, BY, Germany William Judge, Halifax, NS, Canada Thanatham Julaphatachote, Bangkok, Thailand Eswaramoorthy K Varadharaj, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Veerabhadrarao Kaliginedi, Bern, Switzerland Mehmeth Karakya, Anderson, SC, USA Alireza Kargar, San Diego, CA, USA Vyacheslav Karpov, Ekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Region, Russia Babak Khalaghi, Trondheim Sør-Trøndelag, Norway Md Foysal Zahid Khan, Fayetteville, AR, USA Elo Kibena, Tartu, Estonia Haegyeom Kim, Seoul, South Korea Jae-Hong Kim, Seoul, South Korea Jimin Kim, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea Sang Ok Kim, Austin, TX, USA Yongbin Kim, Jeonju Chonbuk, South Korea Kento Kimura, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, Japan Shawn Kirby, Huntington Beach, CA, USA Bon-Min Koo, Palaiseau, CEDEX, France Nina Kostevšek, Ljubljana, Slovenia Janvier Kwizera Masabo, Fayetteville, AR, USA Steven Lacey, Hampstead, MD, USA Chan Kyu Lee, Suwon-si Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea Jongju Lee, Joenju Jeonbuk, South Korea Seung Eun Lee, Seoul Seongdong gu, South Korea Wonjae Lee, Pohang Gyeongbuk, South Korea Bey Fen Leo, London, London, United Kingdom Dongjiang Li, Eindhoven, Netherlands Haofeng Li, Hanover, NH, USA Haomiao Li, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China Jiangtian Li, Morgantown, WV, USA Der-Hsien Lien, Berkeley, CA, USA Callum Littlejohns, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom Haidong Liu, Muenster, NW, Germany Siyang Liu, Austin, TX, USA Gianluca Longoni, Milan, Italy Maria Lopez, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, Mexico Berenice López-González, Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico

Huiran Lu, Stockholm, Sweden Maria Lukatskaya, Philadelphia, PA, USA Yue Ma, Uppsala, Sweden Ankesh Madan, Durham, NC, USA Sudheer Malik, Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, India Dmitry Maltsev, Ekaterinburg, Russia Erin Martin, Bloomington, IN, USA Janvier Masabo, Fayetteville, AR, USA Leanne Mathurin, Fayetteville, AR, USA Mahsa Mavchoubeh, Fayetteville, AR, USA Maxine Mieszala, Thun, BE, Switzerland David Miller, Durham, NC, USA Tatsuya Mizusawa, Hodogaya, Yokohama, Japan Mamello Mohae, Fayetteville, AR, USA Elizabeth Montiel-Macias, Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico Janghyuk Moon, Seoul, South Korea Seung Jae Moon, Asan, ASA, South Korea Myreisa Morales, Arecibo, PR, USA Abdollah Mosleh, Fayetteville, AR, USA Aboozar Mosleh, Fayetteville, AR, USA Asanka Munasinghe, Fayetteville, AR, USA Omar Muneeb, Corona, CA, USA Mike Musil, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan Sankararao Mutyala, Karaikudi Tamilnadu, India Heedo Na, Seoul, South Korea Yannick Nabil, Montpellier Herault, France Tsuyoshi Nagasawa, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Kelly Nguyen, Orange, CA, USA Tomer Noyhouzer, Montreal, QC, Canada Njideka Okoye, Cookeville, TN, USA Kevin Olson, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abayomi Omolewu, Fayetteville, AR, USA Albert Painter, Laurel, MD, USA Paul Panikulam, Calgary, AB, Canada Jaehyung Park, Storrs, CT, USA Manan Pathak, Seattle, WA, USA Linda Pham, Santa Ana, CA, USA Piret Pikma, Tartu, Estonia Jamin Pillars, Albuquerque, NM, USA Catherine Pitman, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Benjamin Pohl, Muenster, Germany Petar Radjenovic, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom Balaji Raman, State College, PA, USA Adam Rausch, Oakland, CA, USA Jens-Christian Riede, Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany Fausto Rodriguez-Acuña, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Erika Rodríguez-Sevilla, México, D.F., Distrito Federal, Mexico Allen Rodriguez-Silva, Athens, OH, USA Juan Sanchez Monreal, Leganes, MAD, Spain


Raul Sanchez-Alarcon, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de México, Mexico Raymond Santucci, Charlottesville, VA, USA Steven Saric, La Habra, CA, USA Wasim Sarwar, London, United Kingdom Sayed Omid Sayedaghaee, Fayetteville, AR, USA Farbod Sharif, Calgary, AB, Canada Tetsuaki Shiono, Hatoyama Hiki-gun, Saitama, Japan Vandana Singh, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan Alvaro Soliz, Antofagasta, CHILE Dayaram Sonawane, Seattle, WA, USA Alexandru Sonoc, Kingston, ON, Canada Kelsey Sparks, Louisville, KY, USA Vahur Steinberg, Tartu, Estonia Kiruba Mangalam Subramaniam, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Kuukyi Sumala-ang, Accra Greater, Accra, Ghana Nguyen Thien, Daejeon, South Korea Do Le Hung Toan, Chung-Li Taoyuan, Taiwan Michael Tu, Los Angeles, CA, USA Ioannis Tzagkaroulakis, Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom Katherine Van Aken, Philadelphia, PA, USA Severin Vierrath, Freiburg, BW, Germany Tracy Vo, Westminster, CA, USA Tasso von Windheim, Wake Forest, NC, USA Nils Wagner, Trondheim Sør-Trøndelag, Norway Geon Wang, Ansan Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Honglong Wang, Auburn, AL, USA Jing Wang, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom Benjamin Weaver, Austin, TX, USA Benjamin Wilson, Saint Paul, MN, USA Min Wu, Indianapolis, IN, USA Shotaro Yamamoto, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Fan Yang, Indianapolis, IN, USA Fuling Yang, Auburn, AL, USA Tingting Yang, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Riley Yaylian, Sebastopol, CA, USA Eongyu Yi, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Yinghui Yin, Amiens, France Shuhei Yoshida, Agui-Cho, Aichi, Japan Yang Yu, Brookline, MA, USA Griselda Zambrano-Rengel, San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico Enbo Zhao, Atlanta, GA, USA Lang Zhou, Auburn, AL, USA Shiliang Zhou, Los Angeles, CA, USA Jingyi Zhu, Anderson, SC, USA

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Discover Your Community

Your ECS membership defines you as a leader in your field – as someone who believes in: • Disseminating scientific research in the most accessible ways • Advancing the science by bridging the gaps between academia, industry, and government

• Mentoring young people through networking and by providing quality training and education • Honoring our heroes of the past, recognizing colleagues changing our lives now, and seeking those who are designing the future of our field

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The ECS Member Article Pack—$3,300 VALUE—100 free downloads from all ECS journals giving you access to full-text articles in the ECS Digital Library, including the top publications in solid state and electrochemical science and technology: w Journal of The Electrochemical Society w ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology w ECS Electrochemistry Letters w ECS Solid State Letters w ECS Transactions w Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters


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Plus, you will be notified immediately as new member benefits, discounts, and opportunities are added!


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The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

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Questions about membership? Contact l 609.737.1902, ext. 100



Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi is currently a graduate researcher studying bioengineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Prior to joining Georgia Tech, Hasani-Sadrabadi attended the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, where he received the Excellence Scholarship that enabled him to develop microfluidic platforms for controlled synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles. Hasani-Sadrabadi’s fuel cell

research began in 2007 at Amirkabir University of Technology. In 2010, he established the Biologically-Inspired Developing Advanced Research (BiDAR) group as an international collaborative research team. His main research area of interest is the development of bioinspired nanomaterials for energy and biomedical applications. Hansani-Sadrabadi has published more than 40 peer-reviewed papers and has an h-index of 15. He has received many honors and recognitions, including the National Scientific Prize for Elites and the IFIA Top Inventor Award.

Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award Santosh Vijapur is a PhD candidate in the Department of Chemical and Bimolecular Engineering at Ohio University, working under the guidance of Gerardine G. Botte. Santosh’s doctoral research work involves development of graphene and amorphous carbon films using coal as a carbon source, with focus on detailed investigation of the growth mechanism by utilizing various spectroscopy, crystallography and chromatography techniques. He has also demonstrated the utilization

of these carbon films in various electrochemical applications. Apart from his dissertation work, Santosh is involved in coal electrolysis project for hydrogen production and synthesis of various nickel based nanocomposites for urea electrolysis. Santosh has received degrees from Ohio University and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University. His master’s thesis focused on enhancing the collection efficiency of pollutants containing particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm. Santosh has published five peer-reviewed papers, two conference proceedings, and has given five oral presentations. Further, he founded the Ohio University ECS Student Chapter and served as its secretary.

Student Chapter News University of Texas at Austin Student Chapter The ECS Student Chapter at The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin) was founded in 2007 to provide a forum for students interested in solid-state and electrochemical science and engineering. The chapter now has 38 registered members across the Cockrell School of Engineering and the College of Natural Sciences. Advised by Arumugam Manthiram, Director of the Texas Materials Institute at UT-Austin, current officers include Tyler Mefford (President), Alma Castaneda (Vice President), Martha Gross (Secretary), and Pauline Han (Treasurer). The student chapter organizes seminars, “chalk talks,” and outreach events in addition to providing support to events organized by the Center for Electrochemistry, the Texas Materials Institute, and the Cockrell School of Engineering at UT-Austin. On November 3, 2014, UT-Austin hosted a chalk talk given by senior doctoral graduate student and former ECS Student Chapter President, Netzahualcóyotl Arroyo Currás, on “Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Approaches to Study Slow EC Reactions.” Chalk talks allow members to give an informal presentation on their research, providing a unique opportunity to engage in friendly discussions concerning solid state science and electrochemistry. Currás’s talk highlighted many of the challenges in measuring slow EC reactions related to the stability of redox flow batteries. Members of the UT-Austin Student Chapter have additionally been volunteering with SciBridge to provide African university students with engaging electrochemical experiments on energy materials. One project (Interface, Winter 2014, p. 92) provided dye-sensitized solar cell kits to Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. The kits arrived in late October and the physics undergraduate students were very


Former UT-Austin ECS Student Chapter President Netzahualcóyotl Arroyo Currás presents on “Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Approaches to Study Slow EC Reactions.”

excited to learn how to assemble solar cells from natural dyes. The second project is focused on teaching battery science with aluminumair batteries. SciBridge students and ECS Student Chapter members have been working on designing high performance Al-air batteries that the students in Uganda can assemble themselves with effective

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


The University of Texas at Austin ECS Student Chapter and faculty advisor Arumugam Manthiram (front left) with the 2014 ECS Outstanding Student Chapter Award.

and affordable materials. The SciBridge project (www. SciBridge. org) is funded by the Materials Research Society (MRS) Foundation Grassroots Grant Award and the solar-cell experiment was designed at the University of California-Los Angeles. The student chapter continues to grow and sustain the strong tradition in electrochemistry and solid state science at the University

of Texas at Austin. This spring, we will continue to expand the electrochemical community at UT-Austin with a number of planned outreach programs and chalk talks. More information about the ECS Student Chapter at the University of Texas at Austin can be found at

Montreal Student Chapter The 4th ECS Montreal Student Symposium took place on June 13th 2014 at McGill University, Canada, sponsored by Pine Research Instrumentation, HEKA Elektronik, NanoQuébec, Centre Québecois Sur Les Matériaux Fonctionnels, McGill and Thomlinson Project in University-Level Science Education Fund along with DropSens. More than seventy participants from six universities in Montreal and

Quebec City, Ottawa, as well as a national research center took part in the annual symposium. The attendees enjoyed sixteen talks and twenty-one posters, including presentations by the two invited speakers, Evgeny Katz (Clarkson University) and Alexis Vallée-Bélisle (Université de Montréal). Prof. Katz’ talk entitled “Bioelectronics: From Novel (continued on next page)

Invited speaker Evgeny Katz from Clarkson University.

Students in discussions during the poster session.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS (continued from previous page) Concepts to Practical Applications,” discussed basic principles of bioelectronics and other developments in biofuel cells operated in animals. On a related topic, Prof. Vallée-Bélisle presented his recent research entitled “Adapting Nature’s Tricks to Engineer Better Biosensors” about the ability of using DNA as a switchable material for sensing applications. Prizes for the best oral and best poster student presentations were awarded to Mark McArthur from McGill University for his talk on “MWCNT-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Applications” and Kim-Ly Nguyen from Université de Montréal for her poster on the “Redox-induced Ion-pairing Between Anionic Amphiphile and Ferrocenylalkanethiolates Self-assembled Monolayers.” Further information about the ECS Montreal Student Chapter can be found at or visit us on Facebook. The 4th ECS Montreal Student Symposium attracted more than seventy students and staff from Montreal and Ottawa Universities and research centers.

University of Pittsburgh Student Chapter The University of Pittsburgh ECS Student Chapter was founded in fall 2014 and hosted their first event on November 6, 2014 with a seminar featuring long-time ECS member George Blomgren of Blomgren Consulting Services Ltd. of Lakewood, OH. Dr. Blomgren was recently recognized as an ECS Fellow for his contributions to The Electrochemical Society. Dr. Blomgren’s talk on “Recent trends in Battery Research and Development” discussed various battery technologies and their relevance/scope in the electrochemical energy storage market in the next decade. With over four decades of research and development in electrochemical energy storage systems, Dr. Blomgren shared his vast experience and insights on upcoming technologies like lithium-air and lithium-sulfur batteries in addition to lithium-ion batteries. The talk was attended by a number of chapter members including the faculty advisor, Prashant Kumta. Fruitful discussions on electrochemical energy storage with the students ensued after the talk.

George Blomgren (third from left) with the ECS University of Pittsburgh Chapter members (from left) including Bharat Gattu (Treasurer), Prashant N. Kumta (Faculty Advisor), Prashanth H. Jampani (President), Sameer Damle, Oleg Velikhokhatnyi, and Prasad Patel.

Look Out !

We want to hear from you! Students are an important part of the ECS family and the future of the electrochemistry and solid state science community . . .

• What’s going on in your Student Chapter? • What’s the chatter among your colleagues?

• What’s the word on research projects and papers? • Who’s due congratulations for winning an award?

Send your news and a few good pictures to We’ll spread the word around the Society. Plus, your Student Chapter may also be featured in an upcoming issue of Interface! 74

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Student Chapter Over 30 people, including undergraduate students, graduate students, chapter advisor David Duquette and other professionals, attended the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Fall 2014 Electrochemical Society meeting on October 29, 2014. This meeting featured Tom Angeliu of GE Global Research. Dr. Angeliu was educated at Michigan Technical University and the University of Michigan. He has over 20 years of experience as a materials and corrosion engineer at both GE Global Research and Knolls Atomic Power Lab. Dr. Angeliu spoke to students about interesting technical problems that he has tackled over the years (such as stress corrosion cracking). He also discussed his important career decisions and how he has found success in his career and in his life. Students also had the opportunity to speak with Dr. Angeliu after the meeting about career opportunities and advice. Tom Angeliu speaks to students about career opportunities after the presentation.

Research Triangle Student Chapter

Representatives from Pine Research Instrumentation shared their electrochemical equipment’s capabilities with local students during the 2014 RTECS Holiday Social.

Over the past few months, the Research Triangle ECS (RTECS) Student Chapter has focused on granting members the opportunity to network with both academia and industry with an emphasis on chapter growth. In November, Duke University’s department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science partnered with RTECS to host ECS Fellow and Drexel University Professor, Yury Gogotsi, where he presented on the novel usage of carbon nanomaterials with sub-nanometer pores for the next-generation energy storage devices. The RTECS then invited students from across the region to dinner with Prof. Gogotsi for an entertaining and informative discussion on advancements in electrochemical research and opportunities in academia. For another perspective on career opportunities, the RTECS held a holiday social on December 17, 2014 with industry partners Pine Research Instrumentation for all members to attend just before the holiday break. The social event gave members the opportunity to connect with other students and an electrochemical equipment manufacturer located right in the Research Triangle. Pine Research Instrumentation generously hosted the event and provided student members with valuable information on skills highly sought after by employers, in addition to sharing information related to their company’s products. The RTECS continues to strive to connect members between its three founding universities. Through these two events, and the numerous others throughout the beginning of 2014, the membership of RTECS has grown to approximately 70 members over the chapter’s first year with representatives from Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University. The chapter hopes to continue growing in the upcoming year through many future events. In 2015, RTECS members will get a chance to give back to the community by serving as judges for an upcoming science fair competition. Additionally, a professional development workshop day is planned for March. The RTECS student chapter is excited to get 2015 underway.

Students and faculty join Drexel University Professor Yury Gogotsi (center) for dinner during his visit to the NC Research Triangle area.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS University of California - San Diego Student Chapter The activity of the University of California-San Doego Student Chapter ended the fall 2014 semester and its first year of existence on a high note. The chapter brought together all parties interested in the advancement of electrochemical science and technology for a colloquium on December 4, 2014. Housed within the Department of Nanoengineering at University of California, San Diego, the UCSD chapter is fortunate to have the privilege of working with a former (2001-2002) president of The Electrochemical Society, Jan Talbot. Dr. Talbot gave an insightful seminar on her work involving electrophoretic deposition. Dr. Talbot discussed the fundamentals of electrophoresis for deposition of materials such as phosphors, zeolites, and single-walled carbon nanotubes, and applications of such materials for solidstate lighting and display screens. The students found her seminar intriguing because she discussed the bridge between fundamental research and developing it in industry. Her industrial affiliations through her research include Hughes Aircraft, Sony, and OsramSylvania, just to name a few. Those who attended the seminar were captivated by how influential Dr. Talbot’s work truly has been. This was a powerful seminar that gave insight on how research in academia influences industry to positively impact society, giving one a better quality of life. The founding members and active executive board of the University of California, San Diego Electrochemical Society Student Chapter are truly thankful to Dr. Talbot for giving a great seminar which brought students from various departments such as Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, and Nanoengineering. This is a motivational factor for the founding board members to provide high-quality events in 2015.

Jan Talbot and the founding board members of the ECS -UCSD Student Chapter. From left: Han Nguyen, Judith Alvarado, Haodong Liu, Jan Talbot, Jeremy Rosenfeld and Jimmy Mac.

View of the lecture hall during the presentation, with Dr. Talbot at the podium.

South Brazilian Student Chapter On Friday November 14, 2014, the South Brazilian Student Chapter at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre held the first members’ meeting to celebrate the re-inauguration of the chapter. Originally founded in 2010, the student chapter was reactivated through incorporation of new students that had the interest of collaboration and participation in the Electrochemical Society. The chapter members presented the results of their latest research at this meeting. Three main events were programmed for this meeting. First, in the morning, Sara Matte Manhabosco presented her work about the “Corrosion study using the SVET (Scanning Vibration Electrode Technique) in in-situ deformed galvanized steel.” Then, Isaac Rodríguez Pérez presented his work on the “Hydrogen production in NaOH by the corrosion of rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Si alloy using Melt Spinner technique.” And, finally, João Carlos Brancher Bartoncello presented the study of “The use of SVET for the evaluation of the corrosion of the friction stir lap joint of AA7050-T76511 on AA2024-T3.” The presentations were followed by Q&A session that allowed formulating a general summary of the meeting.


João Carlos Brancher Bertoncello presenting his research about “The use of SVET for the evaluation of the corrosion of the friction stir lap joint of AA7050-T76511 on AA2024-T3.”

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

T ST ECH UDENT HIGHLIGH NE WS TS This meeting allowed the information exchange between different members of the student chapter and also permitted dissemination of brand-new points of view about their current research projects. At the end of the day, all the researchers remained excited and delighted about the idea of having further meetings to permit the creation of a collaboration strategy for future research projects and improve the communication flow between all the members of the student chapter.

Informal gathering between the organizers of the meeting.


a Student Chapter!

ECS currently has 45 student chapters around the world, which provide students an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of electrochemical and solid state science, to have a venue for meeting fellow students, and to receive recognition for their organized scholarly activities. Students interested in starting a student chapter may contact for details.

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For more information visit The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •



Student Awards

ECS Student Awards & Fellowship Program:

Call for Nominations For more about the ECS Awards & Fellowship Program go to:

ECS student awards and fellowships are open to anyone who meets the ECS criteria for being a student. Specific information for each award, and information regarding rules, past recipients, and nominee requirements are available online. Please note that the nomination material requirements for each award vary.

The Energy Technology Division Graduate Student Award was established in 2012 to recognize and reward promising young engineers and scientists in fields pertaining to the Division. The awards are intended to encourage the recipients to initiate or continue careers in this field. The award consists of up to two recipients chosen annually will receive an appropriately worded certificate as well as an amount of $1,000, payable to the recipient. In addition, the recipient will receive a waiver of student registration, and un-reimbursed travel expenses to attend the Spring ECS meeting, an amount not to exceed $1,000. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 1, 2015. The Georgia Section Student Award was established in 2011 to recognize a student who is pursuing a PhD at a University within the Georgia Section in any area of science or engineering in which electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology is the central consideration. The award consists of an amount not to exceed $500. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by August 15, 2015.


ECS provides a number of fellowships and awards to help students in our field become full-fledged professionals. This is an amazing opportunity to recognize and boost the career of the hard working students you know. Find out more about summer fellowships, awarded student membership, student division and section awards, and more.

Email questions to:

The Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Achievement Award was established in 1990 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in the fields of electrochemical engineering and applied electrochemistry. The award consists of a scroll and prize of a $1,000 for education expenses. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 15, 2015. The Industrial Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering Division Student Achievement Award was Established in 1989 to recognize promising young engineers and scientists in the field of electrochemical engineering and to encourage the recipients to initiate careers in this field. The award consists of a scroll and prize of a $1,000. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 15, 2015. The Korea Section Student Award was established in 2005, and is awarded to a student who is pursuing a PhD at a Korean University in any area of science or engineering in which electrochemical and/or solid state science and technology is the central consideration. The award consists of a monetary award set by the Executive Committee of the Korea Section not to exceed $500. Go to to learn more and start the nomination process. Materials are due by September 30, 2015.

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •


Attention Students! Joining ECS is quick and easy.

Student Membership Benefits

Annual Student Membership Dues Are Only $25 w Discounts on ECS Meetings–Save up to 20%

Valuable discounts to attend ECS spring and fall meetings

w Open Access Article Credit–$800 value

Receive a complimentary article processing waiver to publish a paper in an ECS journal as open access.

w Student Grants and Awards

Student awards and support for travel available from ECS divisions

w Student Poster Sessions

Present papers and participate in student poster sessions at ECS meetings

w ECS Member Article Pack–$3,300 value

100 full-text downloads from the Journal of The Electrochemical Society (JES), ECS Electrochemistry Letters (EEL), ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology (JSS), ECS Solid State Letters (SSL), and ECS Transactions (ECST)

w Interface

Receive the quarterly members' magazine with topical issues, news, and events

w Discounts on ECS Transactions, Monographs, and Proceedings Volumes ECS publications are a valuable resource for students

You May Be Eligible for a FREE Membership w ECS divisions offer awarded student

memberships to qualified full-time students.

w To be eligible, students must be enrolled

in the final two years of an undergraduate program or enrolled in a graduate program in science, engineering, or education with a science or engineering degree.

w Awarded memberships are renewable for up to four years; applicants must reapply each year.

w Postdoctoral students are not eligible.

Apply TODAY at!

The Electrochemical Society Interface • Spring 2015 •

Jo TO EC in DA S Y!

Questions? Contact 609.737.1902, ext. 100


ECS Institutional Members The Electrochemical Society values the support of our institutional members. Institutional members help ECS support scientific education, sustainability and innovation. Through ongoing partnership, ECS will continue to lead as the advocate, guardian, and facilitator of electrochemical and solid state science and technology.


AMETEK – Scientific Instruments (33) USA

Metrohm USA (8) USA

Benefactor Asahi Kasei E-Materials Corporation (6) Japan Bio-Logic USA (7) USA Duracell (57) USA Gamry Instruments (7) USA Gelest Inc. (5) USA

Hydro-Québec (7) Canada Industrie De Nora S.p.A. (31) Italy Pine Research Instrumentation (8) USA Saft Batteries, Specialty Battery Group (32) USA Scribner Associates Inc. (18) USA

Patron El-Cell (1) Germany Energizer (69) USA Faraday Technology, Inc. (8) USA IBM Corporation (57) USA

Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (10) USA Panasonic Corporation (7) Japan Toyota Research Institute of North America (8) USA

Sponsoring Axiall Corporation (19) USA Central Electrochemical Research Institute (21) India EaglePicher Technologies, LLC (7) USA Electrosynthesis Company, Inc. (18) USA Ford Motor Company (1) USA GS-Yuasa International Ltd. (34) Japan Honda R&D Co., Ltd. (7) Japan IMERYS Graphite & Carbon (27) Switzerland Medtronic, Inc. (34) USA Next Energy EWE – Forschungzentrum (6) Germany

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (7) Japan Permascand AB (11) Sweden TDK Corporation, Device Development Center (21) Japan Technic, Inc. (18) USA Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc. (15) USA Tianjin Battery Joint-Stock Co., Ltd (1) China Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. (34) Japan Yeager Center for Electrochemical Sciences (16) USA ZSW (10) Germany

Sustaining 3M Company (25) USA General Motors Research Laboratories (62) USA Giner, Inc./GES (27) USA International Lead Zinc Research Organization (35) USA Johnson Controls Advanced Power Solutions GmbH (30) Germany Kanto Chemical Co., Inc., (2) Japan Leclanche SA (29) Switzerland

Los Alamos National Laboratory (6) USA Occidental Chemical Corporation (72) USA Quallion, LLC (14) USA Sandia National Labs (38) USA SanDisk (1) Japan SolviCore GmbH & Co. KG (1) Germany

Please help us continue the vital work of ECS by joining as an institutional member today. To join or discuss institutional membership options please contact Dan Fatton, Director of Development & Membership Services, at 609.737.1902 ext. 115 or (Number in parentheses indicates years of membership)


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