Automate: Increase Labour Skills
Industrial Control Protection: What To Know
O&G: Strong Leadership September 2011
MICA(P) 011/07/2011 | ISSN 0219/5615 | PPS 1561/06/2012 (022743)
Automate: Increase Labour Skills | Industrial Control Protection: What To Know | O&G: Strong Leadership
System 800xA Extended Automation The Power of Integration
Profitable collaboration. Operational excellence can only be achieved through collaboration between people and systems. ABB’s System 800xA Extended Automation platform provides the collaborative environment necessary for various organizations and departments to work as one. Utilizing System 800xA’s patented Aspect Object Technology, information is integrated from various plant systems, applications, and devices and presented as one plant-wide view enabling informed, real-time decision making. That’s the power of integration. For more information visit www.abb.com/controlsystems
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contents september 2011
ISSUES & INSIGHTS
Case Study: High-Tech Furniture Production
The Truth About Robots
Logistics applications in which palletising robots are the 'prime movers' are growing in importance in the furniture industry. For years, the firm Huttenholscher has been integrating Kuka robots in systems used. By Stefanie Senft, Kuka Roboter Contrary to popular beliefs, companies that have chosen the route to automate are actually increasing the skills of their employees. By Lim Say Leong, ABB
SCADA Security: Challenges And Solutions
Shining The Way To Industrial Control Protection, For Engineers
Examining the factors that have contributed to the growing vulnerability of control systems, and presenting standards designed to protect critical infrastructure, contributes towards a more secure SCADA system. By Philip Aubin and Metin Ozturk, Schneider Electric
Industrial control protection is highly specialised and the ramifications of failure can have major economic and life threatening results. By Douglas Bellin, Cisco Systems (Asia Pacific)
SOFTWARE & NETWORKS
Case Study: Embedded Systems On The Basel Nordtangente
Running in tunnel for most parts, the Nordtangente requires the integration of various embedded systems to provide crucial data to both road users and authorities. Contributed by David Chia, Beckhoff Automation (Asia Pacific)
Instrumentation & Measurement
Overview Of An AXIe 1.0 Instrument Module
Agilent's Measurement Forum 2011
An insight into the electrical design aspects of an AXIe 1.0 compliant instrument module, with particular focus on power considerations. By Kenneth Lim Kuo Wei, Agilent Technologies IAA met up with Lawrence Liu, regional sales manager for Agilent Technologies electronic measurement group, at its annual measurement forum event. In an exclusive interview, IAA discusses the eventâ€™s significance and the areas of growth and opportuntity for the company in Asia and its emerging economies. By Mark Johnston
Certification Requirements In Oil And Gas
Safety and subsequently certification requirements are highly important in the oil and gas industry. By Stuart Carruthers, Advantech Industrial Automation Group 2â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
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contents september 2011
Strong Leadership In Oil & Gas
Transformational change occurring at NOCs requires strong leadership. By Arthur Hanna, Colin Sloman and Johan Nell, Accenture Energy.
Planting The Seed For Better Performance
Choosing the right lubricant and a proper oil analysis program is key to maximising hydraulic system performance. By Dr Ian Davidson, Mobil Industrial Lubricants
Case Study: Energy Self-Sufficient Heart Cardiac Massage Unit
Polymer plain bearings are an important element in the reliable operation of a mechanical reanimation unit. By Aw Kai Hua, Igus Singapore
Beating Cyber Threats That Target Mesh Networks
In today's increasingly electronic age, security is a major issue of concern among the technology industry. By Trent Nelson, Idaho National Laboratory, and Jeff Becker, Honeywell Process Solutions
Five Essential Components For Highly Reliable Data Centres
Ensuring continues operations with an integrated, holistic technology strategy that provides high availability, increased visibility, and insight through information. By Yeow Mun Chong, GE Intelligent Platforms (Asia Pacific)
Mission Critical Design Seminar 2011
The Manufacturing Show Asia 2011
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Piezoelectric Elements In Medical Devices
As the demand on medical devices grows increasingly complex, piezoelectric elements are progressively finding their way into the sector, in part due to the many unique and beneficial characteristics they possess. By Shahnawaz Abdul Hamid
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As markets mature and different markets come into focus, we see new paradigms in the way new business functions. In history, business practices have changed and ‘the business’ is seeing rapid fluctuations in the way it functions. In the Internet age, ‘big business’ is being accomplished in record time, with, in some cases multi-million or multi-billion dollar organisations being formed in a matter of years. However, the life cycle of these new organisations can be short as this rapid growth and expansion leads to constant change. With any industry, either innovate or get left behind. With today's changing landscape, this process is shorter with innovation being required to adapt quicker and stay ahead, and not get left behind. Change in any industry is one of necessity aimed at staying ahead and winning valuable customers. The change that quickly sweeps any organisation is global economic hardship, and whether you are an SME or a big multinational, the formula for staying ahead and thriving in a constantly changing environment is the same. The most successful and long lasting organisation are those with the flexibility to innovate quickly and reinvent themselves when needed. The automation industry is in many ways unique, given its breath. Spanning the medical industry, oil and gas, green technology, robotics, and sensors and wireless technology. Diversifying an organisation can be challenging and is done quickest by making strategic acquisitions, and building on a clear vision. In this issues of IAA we touch on robotics, have a look into SCADA and security, plus features on the oil and gas industry and medical devices. As always, we appreciate your feedback and kind suggestions for our publication. Do get in touch!
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ENQUIRY NO. 248
Welding is one of the markets that Con-vey Keystone has gained entry in, with the use of DELMIA simulations.
Singapore: Dassault Systèmes has announced that Con-vey Keystone of Roseburg, Oregon, has invested in the Digital Enterprise Lean Manufacturing Interactive Application (DELMIA) Robotics solution for simulation of its automation processes. Originally applying the solution to its core competency of designing material handling s y s tems for the wood products industry, the company has recently used the DELMIA simulations to gain entry into new markets such as food and beverage palletising, welding and drilling. “We are closely tied to the housing market, which has been a little soft,” said Scott Patterson, sales engineer, 8 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Con-vey. He continued: “By applying our material handling and simulation expertise via DELMIA Robotics to other markets, we have been able to diversify our company and gain new customers.” Con-vey worked through DELMIA channel partner EOS Solutions of Rochester, Michigan on the purchase and training of the solution and has embedded the DELMIA Robotics solution into its strategy as a standard part of the sales process. The company believes that simulating its systems in a 3D virtual environment provides an advantage over its competitors by proving to customers that they can achieve their goals in an optimal way.
Prior to purchase Dassault Systèmes’ DELMIA, Con-vey was implementing a particular robot manufacturer solution, which often resulted in long lead times. The DELMIA solution, which comes with a large robot library, as well as the ability to add in new robot models as needed, provides greater breadth of capability to the company. Additionally, the solution has the flexibility to import 3D models from various CAD systems. The solution is being used for cycle analysis, throughput and robot reachability/collision analysis. Patterson believes they have just scratched the surface of the solution’s capability and hopes to expand into inertia analysis.
Alejandro Macías, Aguascalientes, Mexico
Con-vey Keystone Leverages DELMIA Robotics To Enter New Markets
Przemyslaw Szczepanski, Wloclawek, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Poland
APAC Will Be Building Automation Systems Growth Engine As Demand Response And Financing Become Critical
Singapore: Global revenue for Building Automation System (BAS) products, solutions and services will top US$32 billion this year, growing to about US$37 billion by 2016. North America and Europe are the largest markets to date by far and will remain so in the coming years, growing in alignment with their respective GDP growth rates. However other regions are active as well. Australia, for example, as part of its National Strategy on Energy Efficiency, has set up a National Buildings Framework to work towards consistency in how buildings are assessed and rated for energy efficiency. This framework applies to new and existing commercial buildings and will steer demand for BAS equipment and services to meet the increasing minimum performance standards being developed. ABI Research industry analyst Kelvin Chan notes: “Emerging markets such as Asia–Pacific will see the highest growth rate over the next few years, but this region is starting from a small base. With China’s announcement that
FICO Xpress Optimisation Suite Races Ahead In Benchmark Speed Tests
Dan McConaghy, president and GM of FICO Asia Pacific.
energy efficiency will be a key part of its economic plans in its12th Economic five-year plan, building efficiency will be vital to meet its targets.” Prac tice direc tor Sam Lucero adds: “An important evolving market is Demand Response (DR), where intermediary companies incentivise building owners or occupiers to enable their properties to be connected and controlled for DR. A key player in this market is EnerNoc, which targets commercial, institutional, and industrial organisations with its energy management offerings. Its recent acquisition of Energy Response, a major demand response provider in Australia and New Zealand has given it a strong foothold in the Pacific’s DR markets.” Johnson Controls, a traditional Building Management System (BMS) vendor has also just finalised its acquisition of Energy Connect Group, a provider of smart grid response services and technologies. Likewise, Honeywell made a similar manoeuvre with Akuacom in 2010.
Singapore: FICO, a provider of analytics and decision management technology, has announced that the latest version of the FICO Xpress Optimisation Suite has beaten other optimisation software packages on established benchmark tests. The company’s Xpress Optimisation Suite 7.2, released in August 2011, achieved fast speeds on benchmarks that test how fast optimisation solvers can execute different types of problems. Optimisation tools are used to find the best solutions to massively complex problems, involving thousands or millions of variables and billions of feasible solutions. Advances in optimisation software can drive dramatic improvements in operational efficiency and effectiveness. The latest benchmarking tests show the speed advances made by the company’s latest release. In tests, the company’s Xpress Optimisation Suite 7.2 ranked fastest on three of four critical benchmarks and tied for fastest on the fourth. “In Asia Pacific, optimisation solutions are quickly gaining traction,” said Dan McConaghy, president and GM, FICO Asia Pacific. He continued: “Australia, Singapore, Korea and Japan have historically led the way in utilising optimisation tools to improve decisions. And now we see increasing awareness and adoption in Malaysia, India and the Philippines, particularly within logistics, manufacturing, airlines operations and energy markets.” September 2011 | industrial automation asia 9
Siemens Collects Over S$203,000 For President’s Challenge 2011 Singapore: Siemens has raised more than S$203,000 (US$166,622) in its fundraising efforts for this year’s President's Challenge, a community-driven charity movement initiated by President S R Nathan. The donation will go to four beneficiaries chosen by Siemens: child at street 11 childcare centre; Movement for the Intellectually Disabled of Singapore (MINDS); Singapore Association of the Visually Handicapped (SAVH) and Singapore Heart Foundation. This is the ninth consecutive year the company has been supporting this year-long fund-raising campaign by rallying its staff and partners to help the less fortunate in Singapore through various activities. This year, it partnered one of its selected beneficiaries, SAVH, to offer the company’s staff massage services in exchange for a donation. Forty-five percent of the proceeds went to the masseurs of SAVH’s mobile massage
team, and the balance was added to the president’s challenge donation pool. In addition, many of the company’s employees volunteered their services at MINDS’ various centres, offering them much-needed labour, skills and friendship. They also brought children from child at street 11 out on fun excursions. One of its key fund-raising activities, the Siemens-President’s Challenge charity golf event, was held at the exclusive Sentosa Golf Club this year. The event attracted over 140 golfers, who spent an afternoon hitting the greens for a good cause. This was followed by a dinner graced by President Nathan. “I am very glad that Siemens has been a faithful supporter of President’s Challenge since 2003. Apart from mobilising its employees to raise funds for President’s Challenge, Siemens also works with its selected beneficiaries to provide much-needed voluntary work
and publicity avenues. This effort is commendable as Siemens recognises that while funds are important to the beneficiaries, they are also constantly in need of volunteers to serve and help raise their profile, and support their activities,” said President S R Nathan. Mr Lothar Herrmann, CEO of Siemens said, “Siemens has a long standing history in Singapore and we believe in giving back to society by playing our part as committed corporate citizens. This is in line with the corporate values and beliefs of Siemens and we encourage all employees to participate actively in various volunteering activities such as the President’s Challenge, one of the many sustainable activities we organise throughout the year. For us, sustainability means acting responsibly on behalf of future generations to achieve economic, environmental and social progress. Therefore, we are proud of our continued involvement in the president's challenge and have helped make a difference in the lives of underprivileged Singaporeans.”
New Rockwell Automation Southeast Asia Regional Headquarters Opening Singapore: July 28, 2011 saw the opening of the Rockwell Automation Southeast Asia regional headquarters at 2 Corporation Place, Singapore. Partners and friends of Rockwell Automation attended the event, hosted by regional director Scott Teerlinck, who gave an opening address before a ribbon cutting ceremony. The new offices give the company a strategic location with all its Singapore operations under one roof, and occupying the same building space as Rockwell’s Asia Pacific Business Centre that was set up in 2006. They also give the company double the space as their previous office in Revenue House with a much improved work environment and facilities. 10 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Scott Teerlinck, Southeast Asia regional director, cutting the ribbon with Steven Goh, Asia Pacific marketing director, at the opening of Rockwell Automation's new southeast Asia regional headquarters.
Honeywell Provides Integrated Automation Solutions To South Korea Gas Corporation’s Terminals
Seoul, South Korea: Honeywell has announced that it has been selected by government-owned Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) to provide comprehensive automation solutions for its Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals. The company’s solutions will ensure the seamless and efficient performance of the facilities. This marks another multi-million dollar project order with Honeywell Process Solution (HPS), and is the latest milestone in a partnership that started in 2000. KOGAS, the world's largest LNG
importer and the nation's sole provider of LNG, is expanding the TongYoung Terminal and PyeongTaek LNG Terminal II to meet the rapidly growing demand for natural gas in the country. The terminals will serve several functions, including the receiving, storing and regasification of LNG, and will deliver vaporised natural gas via high-pressure transmission mains to gas users. HPS’s Overall Management and Automation System, which includes the Experion Process Knowledge System and Unisim, offers KOGAS a complete
process control system, which allows them to implement the latest safety measures such as emergency and process shutdown, disaster prevention, plant information, and operator training. An integrated Experion system, as well as on-the-ground simulation training provided by the company, ensures that the terminals operate with maximum security and performance. “We needed a partner who could integrate the different aspects of our system to guarantee a smooth process, from supply to supply chain management,” said a plant engineering team leader at KOGAS. “In recent years, global demand for natural gas has risen sharply. With the implementation of HPS’ solutions, KOGAS can optimise the performance, security, and cost effectiveness of its terminals, and in doing so, achieve a significant competitive advantage in the expanding global LNG market,” said Kim HyounJoong, lifecycle service leader, Honeywell (South Korea).
Spectris Acquires Omega Engineering UK: Spectris, an instrumentation and controls company, has announced that it has signed an agreement to acquire the Omega Engineering business. The purchase consideration of US$475 million, on a debt and cash-free basis, will be met from cash and new bank facilities and is subject to routine balance sheet adjustments. Omega is a privately-held business which provides a broad range of process measurement and control instrumentation to customers in industrial and academic markets, selling directly to end users in these sectors via catalogue, telephone and internet. The company has a differentiated customer service model with emphasis
on providing high levels of quality, availability, customisation and speed of delivery to a large base of customers who want a convenient and reliable source for their small-scale process and automation n e e d s a n d R& D r e q u i r e m e n t s . Head quar tered in St amford, Connecticut, US, the company has five manufacturing facilities, two distribution/sales facilities and employs around 700 people. Founded in 1962, Omega has grown steadily and now offers a diverse range of process measurement and control products to measure temperature, pressure, flow, level, strain, humidity, pH and conductivity. The company had sales of US$168 million in 2010 and adjusted
operating profit before interest and tax of US$39.6 million and was cash generative. The value of gross assets acquired as at 31 December 2010 was US$84.4 million. The acquisition is expected to enhance adjusted earnings per share in the first full financial year of ownership. We expect the acquisition to complete in Q4 on satisfaction of customary closing conditions including US and German antitrust clearances. John O’Higgins, CEO of Spectris, commented: “We are delighted to have reached agreement to acquire the Omega Engineering business, which will bring a significant strategic growth platform to our Industrial Controls segment.” September 2011 | industrial automation asia 11
Invensys Inks Automation Contracts With Russia’s TNK-BP
London, UK: Invensys Operations Management, software solutions and consulting services to the process and manufacturing industries, has signed two contracts with TNK-BP, the third largest oil company in Russia and among the top 10 private oil companies in the world by production volumes. Under the terms of the agreements, the company will provide automation solutions and services to help drive control, environment and safety excellence at TNKBP’s Saratov oil refinery in western Russia. The seven million tonnes per year refinery markets more than 20 products, including
high-quality gasoline, low-sulphur diesel, naphtha, vacuum gas oil, fuel oil and bitumen. The company will supply its Foxboro I/A Series distributed control systems and Triconex emergency shutdown and critical control systems, as well as Foxboro measurement, instrumentation and control devices for the refinery’s hydrofining and isomerisation units. It will also provide project management, documentation development and other services, including engineering, delivery, installation, testing and start-up, as well as a full range of training courses for
the systems, covering development, commissioning and maintenance. “Our main priority in the refining segment is to ensure steady growth and to meet the requirements of Russia’s latest technical regulations on sulphur content in products,” said Alexander Romanov, general director, Saratov Oil Refinery. He continued: “These two projects will help us to minimise environmental impact, sustain and improve plant safety and maximise profits.” “The hydrofining and isomerisation units are critical parts of the refinery’s development programme and the competence of vendors was a critical issue for refinery management. TNK-BP needed a complete enterprise control solution that offered not only technical excellence, but long-term business benefits,” said Boris Muratov, general manager, Invensys Operations Management, Russia. He added: “Our eight-year experience with Saratov meant that we had a solid understanding of the company’s needs, and were able to offer a high-value, low-risk solution that will help TNK-BP achieve control, environment and safety excellence.”
ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute Hosts ISA100 Technology Implementation Seminar In Tokyo, Japan North Carolina, US: The ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute (WCI) has announced the success of its ISA100.11a technology implementation seminar in Tokyo, Japan. Yokogawa, Yamatake, Fuji Electric and Nivis hosted the seminar. More than 20 engineers from automation suppliers attended the oneday event that highlighted the status of the ISA100.11a-2011 industrial wireless standard, provided an introduction to the standard, the system architecture and beneficial characteristics inherent in the standard. The seminar included a training session on product integration tools available for the ISA100.11a technology and how to develop products based on the standard. 12 industrial automation asia | September 2011
“The interest from the Asia Pacific region has been incredible, and we will continue to offer seminars and training as the need dictates,” said Toshi Hasegawa, manager of industrial automation wireless marketing, Yokogawa, and district leader of ISA100 WCI Asia Pacific Region. He continued: “We are thrilled that major suppliers from this region are currently developing or looking to develop products supporting the ISA100.11a-2011 standard and expanding the portfolio to include products such as liquid analysers, gas analysers, flowmeters, level meters and control valves.” The seminar provided an overview of ISA100.11a technology, covered application and installation examples,
and included hands-on development exercises using the ISA100.11a Application Program Interface (API). Several suppliers who participated in the implementation seminar will showcase prototype products at the November 2011JEMIMA show in Tokyo, which will feature an ISA100.11a device interoperability demonstration. “The success of the training session we hosted was beyond our expectations,” said Scott Johnson, VP product management, Nivis. He added: “The room was filled with product suppliers excited to learn more about how to implement ISA100.11a wireless communication technology into their products.”
ExxonMobil, Pertamina Move Forward With Banyu Urip Full Field Development Contract Texas, US: Exxon Mobil Corporation said that the development of the Indonesian Banyu Urip field in the Cepu block in East Java has achieved a major milestone with the award of the first of five engineering, procurement and construction contracts for work on major facilities at the development. “The excellent performance of the early production wells and facilities adds economic value to the overall project and is supportive of the Government of Indonesia's priorities to safely and effectively develop the Cepu Block oil and gas resources.” ExxonMobil’s Mobil Cepu Ltd (MCL) is operator of the Cepu block with 45 percent interest. The other co-venturers are Pertamina with 45 percent interest and four local government companies holding the remaining 10 percent interest. “This is a major milestone in the development of the Banyu Urip field,” said Neil Duffin, president of
ExxonMobil Development Company. He continued: “Based on appraisal drilling, we have increased estimates of the recoverable resource under full development to 450 million barrels. This multibillion dollar project continues to benefit from the strengths of both Pertamina and ExxonMobil and provides the foundation for a strong partnership between the two companies, as well as with the local government companies.” Full field development is planned to produce 165,000 barrels of oil per day from facilities that include 49 wells on three well pads, a central processing facility, and a 60 mile (95 kilometre) pipeline to transfer the processed oil to a 1.7 million barrel Floating Storage and Offloading (FSO) unit in the Java Sea. Tankers will load crude oil from the FSO for transport to domestic and world markets. Construction is targeted to be completed in 36 months and the start-
up of full field production is expected afterwards, pending regulatory approvals. Early oil production on the Banyu Urip development commenced in 2009 from facilities with demonstrated capacity of greater than 20,000 barrels per day. Mr Duffin said, “The excellent performance of the early production wells and facilities adds economic value to the overall project and is supportive of the Government of Indonesia's priorities to safely and effectively develop the Cepu Block oil and gas resources.” Affiliates and predecessor companies of ExxonMobil have operated in Indonesia for more than 100 years. ExxonMobil is actively working on exploration and development opportunities to increase its participation in Indonesia’s oil and gas industry. The company supports long-term and sustainable community initiatives around its areas of operation. ExxonMobil’s investment in Indonesia since 1968 is more than US$19 billion (190 trillion rupiahs).
“IVC is extremely satisfied with the quality and performance of Advantech’s products. Their rugged PCs provide an ideal platform for our IVC and Longwatch camera management software,” stated Clarke Esler, director of marketing, IVC. He continued: “They are particularly
attractive to customers deploying our camera systems in remote locations. We can preconfigure the Advantech PCs with our software to offer our customers solutions that are essentially turn-key. Additionally, their certified product line dovetails nicely with our certified camera line.”
Ohio, US: The Industrial Automation Group of Advantech and Industrial Video and Control (IVC) announced their partnership to provide video surveillance solutions. As a manufacturer and provider of industrial and embedded PC platforms, Advantech provides IVC customers an industrialised embedded platform for remote, ruggedised industrial applications. Advantech’s embedded platforms can support both analogue and IP-based camera technology as well as offering class 1, division 2 UL certified solutions.
Aleš Cerin, Ljubljana, SI, Slovenia
Advantech Forms New Partnership With Industrial Video And Control
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 13
US: UL, a global independent safety science company, has announced the execution of a definitive agreement whereby UL will acquire the Quality Assurance business of STR Holdings, an Enfield, Connecticut-based company. The acquisition is part of UL’s strategy to expand its offerings to global retailing and manufacturing customers. UL will pay an estimated US$275 million in cash for the business. “The acquisition of STR’s Quality Assurance business will be a major milestone for UL as we continue to significantly expand our business and the services we can offer our customers,” said Keith Williams, president and CEO of UL. “STR’s Quality Assurance business complements our electronics and electrical expertise by enabling us to offer retail customers a complete suite of services for apparel, toys, food, private label brands and other general consumer merchandise,” said Sajeev Jesudas, President, UL Verification Services. He continued: “We are pleased that STR’s Quality Assurance business will allow us to significantly increase our testing capabilities in the fast growing consumer products market and enables us to deepen our relationships with global manufacturers and retailers.” Under the terms of the agreement, UL expects to make an election under IRS rules to treat the transaction as a sale of the assets. The Boards of both companies unanimously approved the purchase a g re e m e nt a n d i t i s s u bje c t to customary closing conditions, including any regulator y approvals. Upon completion of the transaction, which is expected to close in the third quarter, STR’s Quality Assurance business will become part of UL’s Verification Services business. 14 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Drake Software Acquires Copanion's GruntWorx
Emin Ozkan, London, UK
UL To Acquire Quality Assurance Business Of STR Holdings
North Carolina, US: Drake Software, a tax preparation software vendor, has acquired the Copanion GruntWorx produc t line — the SaaS -based paperles s ta x work f low sys tem. Acquiring the line of products firmly positions the company within the cloud technology space and further augment s their current produc t offerings.
J o h n S a p p, V P o f s t r a t e g i c development, said: “GruntWor x allows us to rapidly expand our offerings into the cut ting-edge document automation technology arena. This enables us to provide tax professionals with a true end-to-end paperless tax solution and deliver extremely high accuracy rates.” The product family offers advanced scan, organise, and populate paperless tax workflow technology for the accounting profession. The solution automatically identifies, organizes, and labels scanned tax forms into a single bookmarked PDF file. Data from the PDF can be seamlessly imported into tax preparation software for automatic population of the tax return. Scanned data can also be ported to a spreadsheet. Drake will continue to serve Copanion customers, while simultaneously rolling out the product line to its customers and the broad profession. The advanced features and functionality of the produc ts will continue uninterrupted, including integration with the tax software applications in use by professionals today.
Avnet Increasing Its Technical Expertise In Asia Arizona, US: Avnet announced that it has acquired Prospect Technology Corporation, an electronic components distributor with operations in Taiwan. The company provides technical support, module solutions and circuit design support to help customers expedite product development. The company generated revenue of approximately US$157 million during the 2010 calendar year. H a r l e y F e l d b e rg , p re s i d e n t , Avnet Electronics Marketing Global, commented, "The combination of
Prospect Technology's technical expertise and Avnet's scale and scope gives us a strong competitive advantage as we continue to grow profitably in Asia. This transaction complements our organic growth initiatives by expanding our value proposition to our customers through enhanced design capabilities and technical expertise while reinforcing our critical role in supply chain services." This acquisition is expected to be immediately accretive to earnings and achieve Avnet's return on capital goal of 12.5 percent.
Over 10 Million High-Power RFICs For Wireless Infrastructure Shipped In 2011 Arizona, US: Optimistic forecasts, by ABI Research, for the penetration of high-powered RF integrated circuits into the mobile wireless base station market continue to be borne out by the latest market developments, which project over 10 million high-power RFIC units will be shipped in 2011. Lance Wilson, mobile networks research director, said: “Compared to the discrete devices they can replace, high-power RFICs take up less circuit
board space, are easier to use, and cost the same or slightly less.” This new breed of high-powered RFICs is primarily intended for use in base stations for cellular and other wireless infrastructure. Although conventional wisdom suggests relatively modest and stable growth for these chips, for several years they have been taking an increasingly significant share of the market. It is expected that the pace of this market adoption will only increase
over time. The role of high-power RFICs is also changing as the explosion in wireless data continues. The rate of growth in shipment numbers and revenue are expected to move upward between 2011 and 2016. Both will show a solid single digit compound annual growth rate for the five-year forecast period. By far the lion’s share of these revenues will go to just three large vendors.
Quebec, Canada: The US market for home automation systems and devices are expected to go beyond US$5.5 billion in 2016. This is according to a research by Electronics CA, the electronics industry market research and knowledge network. The US market for home automation systems and devices was worth approximately US$3.2 billion in 2010. It is expected to grow to almost US$3.4 billion in 2011. In the longer term to 2016, the forecast is for strong renewed growth in the home automation market, which is expected to exceed US$5.5 billion in 2016, a CAGR of 10.5 percent between 2011 and 2016. Lighting, home entertainment, and security systems accounted for nearly 58 percent of the US home automation market in 2010. It is estimated to be around US$2.1 billion in the year and further to reach US$3.8 billion by 2016 at a CAGR of 12.2 percent. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and energy management made up for the remaining 42 percent of the market. It is expected to reach US$1.7 billion by 2016 at a CAGR of 7.4 percent between 2011 and 2016.
Supply & Demand On the demand side, rising incomes and
US Home Automation Systems Market To Exceed US$5.5 Billion
standards of living have combined with increased concerns regarding energy and security to increase the attractiveness of technologies that promise to enhance the owner's quality of life, while also making the most efficient use of energy (especially electricity) and providing a sense of security. The drop in construction of homes as a result of the financial crisis has dampened the demand for home automation systems, but in the longer term, many would-be homebuyers, who are technologically savvy, could create a
favourable market environment. On the supply side, the declining cost and complexity of these products is helping to attract new buyers. Until a few years ago, the cost of quality home automation components was prohibitive for all but the enthusiast market, but now prices are dropping. The report's overall goal is to provide readers with an updated understanding of the business opportunities for providers of home automation technologies over the next five years, taking into account recent economic and technical developments. September 2011 | industrial automation asia 15
Steps ThreeSufficient Even with simple real-time applications, a synchronised, low-jitter data exchange can be realised via Industrial Ethernet interfaces with very little system expenditure by using a Profinetcompatible device and an intermediate driver. Due to its dominating position in the Office world and in industrial applications, the Ethernet interface is of special importance. Most intelligent automation devices are therefore also available with an Industrial Ethernet connection. This standard is equally suitable for small, individual applications, as Ethernet is often the common denominator of a cost-effective implementation. An asynchronous d a t a e x c h a n g e i s t h e re f o re possible. But what happens to the cyclical data exchange if no automation system such as PLC or motion control takes over this task?
Synchronous applications are easily realised using the Profinet Isochronous Realtime (IRT) protocol. cycle. With identical cycle times, this produces up to a five-fold improvement in the reproducibility of the process events. For simple applications with manageable communication participants and not unusually extreme performance requirements, the configuration of a Profinet IRT communication protocol requires few technical resources: one or two standard Industrial Ethernet interfaces, which must be reserved exclusively for the Profinet IRT application, as well as a hardware device equipped with the IRT technology. This takes on the role of the master in a communication topology configured according to the master/slave principle.
Profinet with IRT is suitable for applications with precise cycle times such as paper machines
Profinet IRT Protocol Provides High Deterministic System
In this case, the use of the Profinet IRT protocol is the remedy. This synchronises the communication of all participating devices in a precisely maintained cycle within which the read and write processes of all participating devices take place. This reduces the maximum jitter when recording an asynchronously occurring event onto the length of a basic 16â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
Synchronisation on an IRT-Domain
Coordinated communication cycles guarantee a fast and deterministic process.
Configuring a real-time compatible Profinet communication requires three basic steps. The first step determines which device is the master and organises the cyclical communication in the application. In principle, any Profinetcompatible device is suitable for this. All other devices are slaves. The master ensures compliance with the sequence of send and receive processes specified by the Profinet protocol. I n d o i n g s o , i t p re v e n t s d a t a g r a m ’s c o l l i d i n g — a n essential prerequisite for the high deterministic of communication required. Prerequisite: Matching Drivers
In the second step, the correct p re re q u i s i t e s f o r re a l - t i m e processing must be created on the driver side. Under Windows and most Linux operating systems, the standard drivers of the network interface only support asynchronous data traffic. In order for the application software to access the transferred process image directly and without delay, the real-time data must be filtered out from the data traffic of the Industrial Ethernet interface or returned to it. One simple option for this i s o f f e re d b y t h e Wi n d o w s
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS). It permits intervention between the protocol implementations on the side of the operating system and the driver of the Industrial Ethernet module. Only a hardware-independent NDIS intermediate driver is required for this. It extracts the real-time information of the Profinet IRT protocol from the incoming data of the respective interface, synchronises the user program and transmits the data distributed by the user program in the response datagram of the IRT cycle. Parameterisation Of Synchronous Communication
The third step involves parameterisation. For a simple application, the process image of an application lends itself to being considered as a unit in each cycle. The distribution of the parts of the process image determined for the individual communication partners must also be established. The software required for this is installed on the device with the master function. In each cycle in the output direction, the device with the l o n g e s t p a t h i s a d d re s s e d first. In the input direction, the communication partner with the shortest path may transmit first,
then followed by the others. The configuration of the communication and the protocols from the controlling PC takes place via asynchronous communication. Profinet basic protocols are defined for this, which can also be used independently from IP-based operation. Engineering System For High-Performance Profinet Communication
In order to fully utilise the performance of the Profinet IRT protocol, homogeneous components are required, which are equipped for Profinet IRT operation. Different vendors supports the use of Profinet with IRT through automation systems in which isochronous real-time communication is provided as a system-based service of the engineering tool and the device firmware. The use of the Profinet protocol is therefore just as financially and technically attractive in mechanical and plant engineering as well as in industrial applications as it is for simple, small-scale applications. Profidrive — Identical Profile For Profibus And Profinet
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 17
Takes-Off In China In 2010, Schneider Electric introduced its control system strategy for OEM machine builders. In Qingdao (China), the French enterprise presented the MachineStruxure campaign to its Chinese customers: More than 400 OEMs participated in the twoday event, in which the control system strategy has been explained in detail. One important part of the strategy is CANopen. It is one of the supported network technologies. Except high-speed motion control applications, CANopen is the standard embedded network for PLCs, HMIs, I/O devices, frequency inverters, and servo drives. The Summit In this summit event, the company introduced its MachineStruxure machine automation platform, which suits the Chinese OEM market. With the SoMachine software a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d h a rd w a re platforms, as well as the tested, validated, and documented architecture and function modules, the companyâ€™s MachineStruxure platform can realise efficient energy management and improved machine performance. Based on this flexible and extendable structure, as well as its technologies and expertise, the company is able to provide its 18â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September May 2009 2011
Delegates on stage in Qingdao, China.
users with customised solutions that will optimise the performance of the machine and prolong its life cycle. Moreover, MachineStruxure can help users speed up the research and development of new machines, reduce equipment failure rate, lower the risk during the development process, and cut the inputs of capital, time and human resources. The company also organised several sub-forums for OEMs from different industries to discuss about how its solutions can optimise machine performance and produce quality devices. It also provided training courses given by experts in relating fields, aiming to help OEMs to learn to set their machine within a shorter time and make it more flexible and energy-efficient during
the operation, and also to impart knowledge about the application of cutting-edge technologies to all of its customers. Independent of the chosen n e t w o r k t e c h n o l o g y, t h e MachineStruxure compliant devices are all configured and programmed by the SoMachine s o f t w a re . T h e s o f t w a re i s based on IEC 61131-3 languages and implements the Codesys software. This single software solution uses the FDT/DTM device description technology, which reduces the complexity of device commissioning. With the tested, validated, and documented software function blocks, the OEM may save up to 50 percent of design and implementation time. The provided application function blocks are
pre-programmed for generic and dedicated applications (packaging, hoisting, conveying, textile as well as lift and escalators). For the OEM, the CANopen network is embedded. This means, the software hides the CANopen details. Nevertheless, the experienced OEM may even optimise the CANopen communication by means of the provided tools, if desired. Mike Hughes, VP, Schneider Electric (China) said in Qingdao: “As we try to maintain a high reliability and improve business performance, we realise that it has been increasingly important to provide our customers with machines and equipment that are more energy-efficient. Therefore, the company is now dedicated to providing the latest information and technologies as well as customised solutions for all of our OEM customers to help them spot more effective, more productive and more reliable machine platforms. In this way, we can help them solve all kinds of problems which they have been or might be faced with in the market.” During the Qingdao presentation, Jintan Jinwang Packaging SCI-Tech specialised in chemical packaging machinery stated that they will go with the introduced control system strategy. They will use the MachineStruxure architecture in
Pyramid showing the position of the SoMachine software on top of MachineStruxure compliant devices.
their automated packaging line, including bottle feeder, filling, capping, labelling, sealing, printing as well as Carton erecting, packing, and sealing machines. Also JS Machine, another Chinese OEM, has developed machinery with Altivar 71 drives and is committed to the new one-software strategy. The MachineStruxure architecture is par t of the EcoStruxure initiative. This energy management strategy is focused on energy saving, which also includes the optimisation of control systems. The company is organising similar MachineStruxure events for OEM customers in September 2011, in Munich (Germany) and in November 2011, in Orlando, Florida (USA). CANopen Seminars CiA, the non-profit organisation for CAN-based solutions has established, at the beginning of this year, an office in Guangzhou (China). Carol Li operates the office. She organises seminars, manages the CiA stands at exhibitions (the next one is the IAS in Shanghai), and keeps contacts to all parties interested in CANopen technology. In July, there were CANopen seminars in Beijing (with Windhill) and Shanghai (with Kvaser). More joint seminars will follow in December 2011, eg: with Selectron introducing CANopen applications in rail vehicles including Metros and other urban transportation. Other planned seminars will deal with CANopen in wind power systems to be co-organised with Leine & Linde, a manufacturer of encoders, and construction machines. In November 2011, the Chinese version of the CANopen book by Holger Zeltwanger, CiA’s MD, will be realised. This will give Chinese engineers first-hand information about CANopen. ENQUIRY NO. 6102
Elsewhere In Germany… The nonprofit CAN in Automation (CiA) group has established the CANopen SIG (Special Interest Group) ‘IEC 61499’. The group’s scope is the development of a framework specification for CANopenbased systems using an IEC 61499 compliant programming environment. During the inauguration meeting, the experts from Epis, Isagraph, NXP Control, and Weidmüller agreed to provide a proposal at the SPS/ IPC/Drives exhibition in November. It is intended to support a migration path from IEC 61131 based decentralised control systems to distributed control systems using IEC 61499 function blocks. A function block in the IEC 61499 standard is the basic building block from which entire applications may be built. There are two types of function blocks: basic function blocks and composite function blocks. A composite function block contains other composite function blocks and/or basic function blocks. A basic function block contains algorithms and an Execution Control Chart (ECC). Each function block has event inputs and outputs as well as data inputs and outputs. In a basic function block the execution of an algorithm is triggered by the occurrence of an input event. The executed algorithm from the input data then produces new output data. When the algorithm has finished executing, an output event is generated. This output event might then be the input event to another function block. CANopen comprises the application layer protocol (EN 50325-4) and profile specifications defining a list of parameters (process and configuration data as well as diagnostic information). CANopen is based on the CAN (Controller Area Network) protocol, internationally standardised in the ISO 11898 series. CAN and CANopen are designed for distributed control systems. ENQUIRY NO. 6103
September May 2009 2011 | industrial automation asia 19
ETG Member Meeting Japan held In Yokohama The Japanese ETG Member Meeting was held in Yokohama in the same building that now also hosts the ETG Office Japan. More than 130 representatives of Japanese ETG members attended the event, where the ETG Task Force Japan reported about EtherCAT activities in the country. The Task Force is active: it meets once every month and organises joint trade show booths as well as EtherCAT seminars and workshops. Furthermore, Task Force members have translated the EtherCAT specifications and several other key documents into the Japanese Language. Several current Japanese EtherCAT projects were presented at the member meeting, including humanoid healthcare robots and several machine applications. The regional member meetings in South Korea and Japan
More than 130 members attended the ETG member meeting Japan held in Yokohama.
are held annually in order to provide a technology update as well as an overview of ETG activities. ETG meanwhile has exceeded 450 Asian member companies and is still growing at an unprecedented pace. ENQUIRY NO. 6104
Motion Control In Focus At ETG Member Meeting Korea
Lee Myung Bok explains the EtherCAT growth rate in South Korea at the ETG member meeting held in Seoul.
EtherCAT enabled motion control was a highlight of the EtherCAT Technology Group (ETG) member meeting Korea recently held in Seoul. Higen Motor — a South Korean supplier of motion control
20 industrial automation asia | September Dec 2010/Jan 2011 2011
products, which was spun off from LG-OTIS — gave an insight into their EtherCAT drive development. Motion control is also of key importance for robotic applications, eg: RedOne Technologies introduced the EtherCAT implementation of an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) Project, which was recently featured in South Korean television. Lee Myung Bok of Tri-TEK Corp presented the various ETG activities in South Korea; such as trade show booths or implementation training classes. The meeting was well attended with over 80 South Korean ETG members joined. Besides Korean EtherCAT applications and ETG events they also learned about the latest EtherCAT technology developments driven by the various Technical Working Groups. ENQUIRY NO. 6105
More Than 1,000 Visitors Visit The EtherCAT Booth In Japan The ETG booth at the recent Techno Frontier Show in Tokyo, Japan, was busy. In the three days of the show more than 1,000 visitors wanted to learn about the technology, and consequently the introductory presentations held at the booth were crowded. Also, the room capacity for the EtherCAT seminar held in parallel with the show was not sufficient, as such, additional chairs had to be brought in to accommodate the participants. The feedback indicated that many companies in Japan that, until now, had been studying the technology have now decided to adopt EtherCAT, and have started implementation projects. ENQUIRY NO. 6106
Fieldbus Foundation Certifies Foundation
Trainers Under FCTP Program
The Fieldbus Foundation has certified several new fieldbus technology trainers under its Foundation Certified Training Program (FCTP). This program establishes uniform standards for fieldbus educational curriculum and instructors around the globe, and defines acceptable levels of learning for students of the technology. Recognition under the FCTP means that a certified instructor teaches foundation fieldbus training courses at a certified training site, using certified curriculum. The core instructional content, developed by a team of qualified instructors from various institutions worldwide, is consistent across all the training facilities. Through the program, educational institutions, curriculum and instructors are all audited to ensure they meet standardised educational requirements. The FCTP currently offers three types of certification: Foundation Certified Professional, Foundation Certified Support Specialist, and Foundation Certified Technical Specialist. Additional certifications may be added in the future. Any certified trainer can teach all of these certifications. The five new Foundation certified instructors include: • Dr Bindert Douma, STC Brielle, The Netherlands. Dr Douma has a background at Shell Global Solutions. • Ed Williamson, SAIT Polytechnic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Mr
Williamson is an instructor at SAIT with a lengthy background at Opti Canada. • Mark Tarrant, SAIT Polytechnic, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Mr Tarrant has extensive process automation experience with companies such as Emerson Process Management and is the lead Distributed Control System (DCS) instructor at SAIT. • Yoshiharu Amano, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. Dr Amano is a professor at Waseda University whose areas of research include analysis and optimisation of energy systems and development of autonomous mobile systems. • Yoshitsugu Morioka, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. Mr Morioka has many years of experience with Yokogawa and the Fieldbus Foundation, and is currently a visiting researcher at the Waseda University Research Institute for Science and Engineering. Knowledge Transfer Fieldbus Foundation President and CEO Rich Timoney congratulated the new cer tified trainers. “The dedicated technology instructors participating in the FCTP will make a significant contribution to the growth of foundation fieldbus and the future of a skilled automation workforce,” said Mr Timoney. He continued: “By attending training courses at an institution that is included in the FTCP, students will gain access to skilled trainers possessing knowledge of the basic
and advanced principles of Foundation technology.” “The goal of the FTCP is to identify and work with qualified training sites and personnel to deliver theoretical and practical hands-on instruction in the design, engineering, operation and maintenance of systems, instruments and valves utilising foundation fieldbus in a consistent, comprehensive and quality assured manner,” he added. For educational institutions, there are rigorous procedures for gaining FCTP status, and for certifying course instructors and curriculum. Certified training centres are required to maintain multiple hosts and devices onsite in order to demonstrate competence with fieldbus technology. They are also audited to ensure their course material adheres to set instructional standards covering fieldbus segment limits; device replacements; commands, icons, menus and screen designs of different software packages; and communication, scheduling and function block assignments enabling configuration. In addition, certified instructors are audited to see if they have achieved specified Fieldbus Foundation training goals. Instructors must demonstrate expertise in areas such as HumanMachine Interface (HMI) tools, fieldbus troubleshooting, simple device configuration, and device deployment and functionality across a fieldbus network. ENQUIRY NO. 6107 September 2011 | industrial automation asia 21
issues & insights
Gadiri, Czech Republic
High-Tech Furniture Production Logistics applications in which palletising robots are the ‘prime movers’ are growing in importance in the furniture industry. For years, the firm Hüttenhölscher has been integrating Kuka robots in systems used. By Stefanie Senft, Kuka Roboter
or kitchen manufacturer Nobilia, Hüttenhölscher has developed systems for the order picking of cabinet side panels for tall units and base units. Installation of the system under a platform with a usable shop height of only 2.5 m and the position of the existing supporting columns were the determining factors for a new system concept incorporating Kuka robots. Their flexibility and ease of integration gave them the edge over the commonly used gantry robot. In the first system, four of the company’s palletising robots order-pick and stack a wide range of different cabinet side panels on the basis of order lists. The side panels differ in their dimensions and colours. Following successful completion of the first project, a further order-picking system with two palletising robots was put into operation in Plant two at NobiliaWerke J.Stickling. The end customer’s higherlevel production management system specifies the production sequence. Based on this, the system controller is sent a stack list, which the system uses to collate the different variants of side panel stack. This ensures that assembly and production can
22 industrial automation asia | September 2011
flow smoothly. “There are 80 different input stacks for the tall unit side panels, from which the Kuka KR 100-2 PA robot order-picks an output stack,” explains Norbert Jürgenhake, technology and development m a n g e r a t H ü t te n h ö l s c h e r Maschinenbau. “The composition of the stacks, sorted by colour and height, is determined by how the cabinets are to be assembled at the end of the production chain,” adds Daniel Hüttenhölscher, MD, Hüttenhölscher Maschinenbau. Logistical Tour De Force The robots move on linear axes developed by the company. They have access to an unlimited number of side panel stacks. The overall system requests the necessary input stacks via the higher-level logistics controller — in this case, directly from the responsible fork lift truck driver. Once the panel stack has been handed over to the feed system, the stack is transferred fully automatically within the system via roller conveyors and transverse shuttles to the robots. The palletising robots are coupled to ‘tender’ carriages, on which the robots collate the panels to form order-specific stacks.
In the transfer station, the stacks are transferred to the connected conveyor system and made available for production. “A logistical tour de force,” remarks Mr Hüttenhölscher. Palletising Variants For Every Payload Category Kuka offers palletising variants covering the whole spectrum of payloads, from 40 through to 1,300 kilograms. “All palletising robots are characterised by extremely short cycle times and long reaches. In this way, they guarantee high throughput — which is the main requirement in those sectors using palletising robots,” explains Frank Zimmermann, key technology manager, Kuka Roboter. “Our palletising robots have a very large working envelope, maximising possible stack heights and enabling use of even the largest grippers,” he adds. The KR 100-2 PA palletising robot, which is also integrated by Hüttenhölscher, is suited to use in logistics centres. The carbon fibre composite material CRP makes the robot light, without sacrificing high stiffness. The robot has a fouraxis kinematic system and a reach of 3,200 mm. Palletising Robots With BuiltIn Environmental Protection The palletising robots are also energy efficient. One indicator for the energy efficiency of a robot is the ratio between its moving mass and its payload capacity: less material to accelerate and move means less energy is required. As the robots use lightweight components of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic, the KR 100-2 PA is one of the palletising robots with a reduced moving mass. This not only increases its performance, but also significantly reduces the energy consumption. ENQUIRY NO. 6201
ENQUIRY NO. 309
issues & insights
Truth About F
Contrary to popular beliefs, companies that have chosen the route to automate are actually increasing the skills of their employees. By Lim Say Leong, assistant VP, marketing, discrete automation and motion division, ABB
24 industrial automation asia | September 2011
or businesses to manage expansion and growth, especially in basic operational processes like picking, packing and palletising, the reliance on low-skilled labour can be risky — wages are rising unpredictably in low-cost countries, and the ease to hire low-skilled labour is also dependent on immigration and economic policies. For Singapore’s manufacturing sector, the government and its various agencies are also helping to answer calls to organise resources or introduce technology to move businesses toward productivitydriven growth. The traditional piecemeal type of automation that has served businesses well in the past few years may no longer be sufficient. Historically robot applications have been limited to the automotive and electronic sectors. Over the past decade, the trend has been to recruit more robots into the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. The reliance on labour to increase output is critical, together with associated costs like wages and the need to train staff to adapt to new technologies. Some industries have chosen to relocate to stay cost competitive, and this becomes a perpetual chase for locations where labour cost is affordable. Companies that have chosen the not-so-easy task to automate, in reality, are increasing the skills of their employees, continuing to stay relevant, and are often at the technological forefront.
Robots In Vogue In Material Handling In wa rehousing a nd distr ibution systems, the use of robots for material handling is among the fastest growing applications in flexible automation, alongside packaging. Robot in operation at ABB’s T his is b e cau se Robotics Application Centre manufacturers and distributors respond to the demands of their retail customers — particularly large and influential ones — who require that products are delivered to their facilities in customised pallets, which had been difficult to execute in the past. To day u si n g rob ot s a l so v a lue - add by allowing mixed load pallets in the most efficient manner — meeting the expectations of the supply chain process. The Fear To Recruit Robots The myth of high cost of investment and threat of employment redundancy are fears for both business
owners and workers. Today robots have evolved to become an off-the-shelf purchase item and the cost of common robot models from major manufacturers have also declined due to increased sales volumes. The performance and range of applications that robots can be used have also increased exponentially due to mechanical improvements made by robot manufacturers and technical advances made in control software to allow for features such as long arm handling, and movements at appalling speed. Robots can also be fun for workers to operate, instead of working on manual repetitive tasks. While there are views that recruiting a robot makes workers redundant, it has to be understood that workers rather work with robots than engage in repetitive or physically strenuous tasks. Often, businesses that adopt automation retain their staff strength but have made productivity gains and are able to serve a larger market more competitively, increasing profits. By upgrading a worker’s skill through vocational or post-education training, which is neglected in many economies, we will ensure the worker stays employable as businesses adapt to fast-changing market demands. The best way to deliver robotic automation is to forge alliances with its system designers, builders and integrators to help industries create customised
solutions. In this way, businesses will ensure economic benefits are met, overall life cycle costs are reduced, and we would develop a motivated workforce to fit into a productivity-driven economy. ENQUIRY NO. 6202
Robotics Application Centre ABB’s Robotics Application Centre (RAC) in Singapore opened in September 2010 to serve as a platform outside of Europe, for customers, business partners, institutions and industries to gain and to benefit from the leading edge technology that ABB offers. The centre enables visitors to experience and understand the features and capabilities of automation, and allows the visitors to witness how robots can perform beyond their expectations in important areas like energy efficiency, footprint, hygiene, quality, safety, and productivity. In the RAC, the robots provide picking, packing and palletising solutions, commonly known as the 3P’s solution, D id Robo You K through software integration with tic n gettin applicat ow? io A B B ’s p i c k m a s t e r t h r e e a n d in the g more p ns are opula f o o d pickmaster five programs. r a nd , bev p e r ag ha r m e indu aceutica strie l s.
ENQUIRY NO. 6203
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September 2011 | industrial automation asia 25
Examining the factors that have contributed to the growing vulnerability of control systems, and presenting standards designed to protect critical infrastructure, contributes towards a more secure SCADA system. By Philip Aubin, senior telemetry system architect and Metin Ozturk, firmware developer, Schneider Electric
uper visor y Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are typically used for monitoring and controlling geographically remote operations. I n r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y, these extensive control systems perform behind-thescenes. They collect sensor measurements and operational data from the field, processing and displaying this information, and relaying control commands to local or remote equipment. Although SCADA systems are employed around the world in numerous industries, the average citizen is unaware of their critical importance. However, this is quickly changing, as more information about the cyber vulnerabilities of utility SCADA systems is publicly available. There is good reason why these systems are getting the attention of hostile governments and competitors, terrorist groups, 26â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
disgruntled employees, and other malicious intruders â€” they offer the huge potential to acquire confidential data and disrupt operations. The systems control some of the most vital infrastructure in industrial and energy sectors, from oil and gas pipelines to nuclear facilities to water treatment plants. Critical infrastructure is defined as the physical and IT assets, networks and services that if disrupted or destroyed would have a serious impact on the health, security, or economic well-being of citizens and the efficient functioning of a countryâ€™s government. One does not have to look far for examples of disruptions that have cost organisations time, resources, and possibly lives. Added to this is the fact that many SCADA systems are vulnerable. It is therefore imperative that system security and risk mitigation be at
the forefront of the minds of all system users. The Growing Vulnerability Of Control Systems Historically, security concerns over control systems were limited to physical attacks. SCADA system operators rationalised that if the management consoles were adequately isolated and only authorised personnel had access to the network, the system was intrinsically secure. There was little risk of tampering since few people had technical expertise of the system and the data communication paths remained isolated. The modern system has evolved significantly. Utility companies recognise the lower costs, easier accessibility, and improved efficiency gained through connecting their TCP/IP networks to their SCADA systems. These next generation systems, integrated
Miguel Saavedra, Coruna, Spain
1 The networking of control systems — Enterprises have increased connectivity through the integration of their control systems and enterprise networks. Breaches in enterprise security can arise if appropriate security controls are not put in place for both networks. 2 Insecure remote connections — Access links such as dialup modems and wireless communications are used f o r re m o t e d i a g n o s t i c s , maintenance, and examination of system status. If encryption or authentication mechanisms are not utilised, the integrity of the transmitted information is vulnerable. 3 Standardised technologies — Organisations are transitioning to standardised technologies, such as Microsoft’s Windows, in order to reduce costs and improve system scalability and performance. The result is more people armed with the knowledge and tools able to attack a system, and an increase in the number of systems vulnerable to an attack. 4 Availability of technical information — Public information about infrastructures and control systems is readily available to potential hackers and intruders. Design and maintenance documents and technical standards for a critical system can all be found on the Internet, greatly jeopardising overall security. With so much riding on
SCADA systems, it should come as no surprise that shortly after September 11, 2001, government of ficials found evidence of terrorist groups visiting websites that offer software and programming instructions for the digital equipment that run power, water, transport and communications grids.
Furthermore, it has since been proven that the inner controls of critical infrastructure systems have been the target of cyber attacks. Most recently to shake the cyber security world was the ‘Stuxnet’ malware, discovered in June 2010. On Nov 29, 2010, Iran’s president Mahmound Ahmadinejad publicly disclosed that the Stuxnet cyber-
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with corporate networks and the Internet, face many challenges in their quest to becoming secure. Several factors have contributed to the growing vulnerability of control systems, including:
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 27
threat had affected his country’s uranium enrichment efforts. It is believed that the code was designed to sabotage nuclear plants, specifically targeting an individual company’s configuration software and control devices. Although no serious damage was caused to any utility sectors, this malware highlights the risks modern SCADA systems face with respect to connectivity, insecure remote connections, standardised technologies, and readily available technical information. Proactive Cyber Security Is Smart Business Ensuring cyber security in control systems may at first seem like a daunting task, as it requires a commitment from the entire organisation. Upper management needs to recognise the numerous benefits of a secure SCADA system. These advantages include ensuring system uptime, reliability and availability. There are many resources available now to help critical infrastructure SCADA systems enhance their security. For example, the standard ISA99 — Industrial Automation and Control Systems Security, establishes best practices, technical reports, and related information to define procedures for implementing and assessing electronically secure systems. Compliance with this standard can improve manufacturing and control system electronic security, help identify and address vulnerabilities, and reduce the risk of compromised confidential information and system degradation. Government regulations also exist and continue to evolve with the goal of securing critical infrastructure industries. The most ambitious for influencing government policy is the nonprofit North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) – Critical Infrastructure Protection 28 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Billy Alexander, Charlotte, North Carolina, US
Security is a top priority in many control systems
(CIP) standard. Known as NERCCIP, this standard has its roots in the ‘Electricity Modernization Act,’ which is part of the ‘US Energy Policy Act’ of 2005. Within the ‘Energy Policy Act’ of 2005, there is a section, which dictates that the NERC-CIP standard requires all power plants and electric utility facilities to develop cyber security systems and procedures in accordance with a three-year implementation plan. There are eight different CIP standards covering everything from security management control and critical cyber assets, to incident reporting and recovery plans. Each one of the eight standards defines a series of specific requirements. The standards are: • CIP-002-1: Critical Cyber Asset Identification • CIP-003-1: Security Management Controls • CIP-004-1: Personnel and Training • CIP-005-1: Electronic Security Perimeter • CIP-006-1: Physical Security of Critical Cyber Assets • CIP-007-1: Systems Security Management • CIP-008-1: Incident Reporting and Response Planning • CIP-009-1: Recovery Plans for Critical Cyber Assets Now that we are seeing congressional action and government penalties for noncompliance, SCADA cyber security is being taken more seriously.
Encryption And Authentication In order to meet CIP-005-1 and CIP-007-1 standards, encryption and authentication are critical elements in a comprehensive cyber security solution. Typical SCADA security measures consist of physically securing the hardware and transmission media, and employing common cyber security defences such as password protection and anti-virus utilities. Communication security measures are harder to enforce since modern day hackers can easily identify confidential phone numbers, decode proprietary protocols, and bypass firewalls and gateways. Encryption and authentication are highly effective methods to reduce some of these cyber threats to SCADA communications. There are two open standards for SCADA communications available on the market today that were developed to provide security through encr yption and authentication: • IEEE6189 suite — Also known as AGA 12 incorporated in IEEE 1711, these standards secure SCADA equipment communication. • IEC62351 suite — Secure Authentication for DNP3 communication is based on this standard. Encr yption is the act of manipulating information until it appears almost meaningless to the casual observer. Decryption is the process that takes place to restore an encrypted message back to its previous readable state. In a typical SCADA system, messages are sent using a given protocol format, such as MODBUS or DNP3. Anyone who can see the messages being transmitted can decode them and see what information is being transferred from device to device. On an encr ypted SCADA
challenge responses use their key to create special digital signatures. The mathematics used in authentication is similar to that of encryption, but a smaller amount of data needs to be manipulated. This means that authentication is computationally far cheaper than encryption and typically uses the IAA_June11_NTRON:Layout 1 copy
structure of the original SCADA protocol for better communication e f f i c i e n c y. A u t h e n t i c a t i o n prevents malicious parties from controlling a secured SCADA device, but it will not stop them from intercepting messages and reading their content. 5/17/11
ENQUIRY NO. 6301 Page 1
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communication system, messages are transformed into a seemingly garbled sequence of bytes. Short messages are stuffed with extra random data to make it difficult to estimate the size or type of the messages being transmitted. A casual obser ver can determine little more than the fact that a message has been sent from one device to another. Encryption makes spying on and tampering with SCADA networks much more difficult. Like many forms of physical or electronic security, encryption uses a key. This type of key is a secret sequence of data that determines how the information being sent between devices is obscured (encrypted). Keeping this key secure is a fundamental part of SCADA security. It is therefore important to reiterate that employing a diverse range of security measures will always prove more effective. The other layers of security, like physical locks, operating procedures, and separately secured corporate and SCADA networks are necessary to protect encryption keys, and the system as a whole. Authentication is the process by which one part of a SCADA system proves its identity to another. A SCADA device receiving a critical message, such as a command to perform controls or respond with data, can challenge the sending device’s identity. The sending device must then provide the challenge response. If the receiving device is satisfied with the challenge response then it will act on the original command. Like encryption, authentication requires the communicating SCADA devices to have a mutually know secret key. Whereas encryption uses its key to transform entire messages into an encrypted data stream, authentication challenges and
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 29
Shining The Way To
Industrial Control Protection, For Engineers
Dimitri Castrique, Belgium
Industrial control protection is highly specialised and the ramifications of failure can have major economic and life threatening results. By Douglas Bellin, industry lead, Cisco Systems (Asia Pacific)
n d u s t r i a l C o n t r o l / S C A DA Security Issues of the mu lt iple se cu r it y ce nt re d issue s surrounding Industrial Control and SCADA there are three primary talking points that this article will focus on: the potential of 30â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
severe impacts should the systems be breached; the long lead times aligned with system upgrades; and the infancy of the SCADA security space. The challenge is large but must be presented in a balanced manner so as to
avoid the perception of leveraging fear excessively. The severity of potentia l breache s in a n industria l environment are potentially life threatening. Publicly available news reflects the history of severe events and nation state angst of potential consequences. For the sales engineer it is best to emphasise the technical issues with a focus on protection. Identification of the industrial systems to be protected; mapping the assets to protect to signature protection; and IPS sizing and positioning for asset protection are activities that show positive activities to threat resolution. Societyâ€™s dependence on these systems essentially exist in a 24/7 context. The expectation is that these systems are always on in the case of utilities and certainly highly reliable in industrial scenarios as well. The timelines for these systems are not the three to five year replacement cycle common in the information technology space. These will run for a decade plus without replacement or patch/maintenance and thus update cycles are thus likely to be annually. As the discovery of vulnerabilities accelerates, the patching backlog increases and thus the threat knowledge to system security gap expands. The Sales Engineer should investigate t he op erat i n g w i ndows for potential changes and the close proximity network. Understanding the elevated up-time requirements of these environments is critical to deployment success. Given the severity of a n intrusionâ€™s impact and the long periods between updates, the industry has not fostered an open exchange and publishing of vulnerabilities. A device owner with an 11 month wait for their next possible update does not want knowledge of potential exploits made public as any interruption
Industrial Control And SCADA Basics Industrial Control is a superset of computer managed devices. S CA DA ge nera l ly re fers to monitoring and management of larger scale processes. An older and more device specific system are DCS; such systems may be present for unique functions but is generally being subsumed by SCADA. Note that there are other industrial/machinery controlled subsets not yet discussed in this primer. An IC and SCADA system monitors and controls their a s so c iate d mac h i ne r y a nd devices. A typical system is comprised of a collection of subsystems such as:
• Communication infrastructure – connects RTUs/PLCs to the Supervisory system. Focus Area: Protocols Many industrial control and SCADA protocols are vendor specific but for interoperability purposes some de g re e of cross - over interoperability has taken place. Certain protocols have greater participation in certain industries due to the sponsoring vendor’s dominance. Our initial release will start with these protocols: As of July 27, 2011: TCP, Telnet, FTP, SNMP, MODBUS, DNP3, MMS Focus Areas: Deployments Logical security design dictates that industrial control systems should be separated from regular computing environments and networks. Further it would make
• Human-Machine Interface (HMI) these are the programs through which an individual operator views and manages the state of the devices under control. • Sup er v isor y syste m – a possible extension of the HMI or independently gathers data on the devices under control and sends commands. • Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) – converts sensor signals to digital data which is forwarded to the Supervisory system. • Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) – general use equivalent of an RTU – less device specific than an RTU. IndusoftAd.indd 1
sense to separate a sensing environment from the controls as well. Efficiency and reduced i n f ra s t r u c t u re i nve s t me nt s however will often bring these networks together. The control environment of any particular customer can vary and a mix will not be unusual. In almost all cases however the throughput capabilities of these networks should be low. Should the IPS be sized according to this overall bandwidth then you will need to both err on the side of a larger throughput device and actively look to optimise for the target environment. Industrial control signatures are purposely detailed and thorough and thus their performance will be slower than other signatures. ENQUIRY NO. 6302
ENQUIRY NO. 310
to the system to correct the problem can have millions of dollars of economic impact. For these reasons the full details of the signatures are not visible outside the security research team lest they contribute to the exposure of little known vulnerabilities. This may create a lack of visibility in mapping threats to signature protection but there should be enough detail to satisfy most prospect’s needs.
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 31 8/18/2011 9:28:53 AM
software & Networks
Running in tunnel for most parts, the Nordtangente requires the integration of various embedded systems to provide crucial data to both road users and authorities. Contributed by David Chia, MD, Beckhoff Automation (Asia Pacific)
Basel Nordtangente N
early 50 years after the start of planning and 13 years after the first shovel hit ground in 1994, the main section of the Nordtangente in Basel, Switzerland was opened to traffic in June 2007. A year later this urban expressway was fully opened. As a result of the long period of time over which construction took place, modifications were often made regarding both the technology and range of products available. Technical installations implemented in 1999 were already being reworked and replaced in 2003. Due to major accidents that had occurred in other European expressway tunnels, a fundamental
32â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
reassessment of the safety concepts took place in 2000. The tunnel ventilation requirements also had to be reworked after the introduction of catalytic converters and the resulting reduction in exhaust emissions. The ventilation concept, originally only conceived for normal operations, had been redesigned for event mode, particularly in the event of fire. Integration Of Functions The General Technical Specification (GTS) prepared by the Basel Federal Highways Civil Engineering Office includes guida nce documents for the planning and
execution of information flow, signaling concepts, and control of the Nordtangente. It explicitly describes the requirements on the hierarchically ordered operations, process, group management and field levels. In particular, these contain the process computers (master computers and group computers), including the linking of processes to the supervisory management s y s te m (n o d e c o m p u te r s). Furthermore, the GTS elaborates on the connection of the actuators and sensors at the field level to the group management level. The concept differs from that of other tunnel facilities in terms of
Complex Network Concept The process ma nagement system is structured in a strictly hierarchical manner. The reason for this hierarchical structure lies in the desire to establish autonomy for the individual levels, ie: each level cannot be dependent on the fundamental functions of the level above. This ensures that in the event of failure at one level, the functionality of the level below is not affected. If normal operation of a system fails, a contingency level immediately takes over the functions. In addition, individual systems for lighting, ventilation, safety, traffic management and energy supply have been specified for the project in six electrical plants. Related individual systems are brought together in supervisory systems, but operate autonomously as much as possible. Three different networks constitute the infrastructure for all of the Nordtangente systems: • Ethernet ring with a data transfer rate of 10 Gb/s • 100 Mb/s Ethernet ring for the contingency level (a second redundant communications route with its own optical fibre links) • 100 Mb/s Ethernet ring for each of the six system controls with its own optical fibre links On the basis of the specifications established by the Basel Federal Highways Civil Engineering Office,
all computers coupled to the 10 Gb Ethernet network have been linked via TCP/IP with a virtual local area network (V-LAN) for each system. Each system has access to its own network; the electrical plants are electrically isolated from one another. Communications on the operations management level take place via Ethernet using the
Process Visualisation and Control System (PVSSII). Communications between the systems level and the operations management level, and also within a level, take place via TCP/IP Ethernet/Fast Ethernet using OPC and the Beckhoff TwinCAT ADS software. From the systems level to the group management level communications similarly
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consistent implementation and integration into a complete system with functions and components that are aligned with one another. For the safety of road users and the optimal flow of traffic, all electromechanical equipment and traffic management technology for both the Basel Nordtangente and Osttangente have been brought together and integrated into the supervisory management system.
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 33
software & Networks
changes its status to that of a redundant server and no longer executes any active commands or switching procedures. Should, for whatever reason, the first server not alter its status, it is locked out by the second, ie: two servers never execute automatic sw itching comma nds at the same time.
Communication Architecture of the Master and Group computers
take place via Fast Ethernet and TwinCAT ADS. Hardware & Software Redundancy I n te r m s o f s o f t w a r e , t h e communication links are all structured in accordance with the client-server principle. This means that the communications client links with the communications server. The server is able to manage a number of links to several clients simultaneously. A second ser ver collects the relevant data, independently of the first, and executes the corresponding functions. The redunda nt system stops short of activating the components that a re already active. A monitoring procedure detects any failure of the computer that is in control; in this event the second computer takes over the functions of the first. The first computer 34â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
Robust & Reliable Control Platform The operations management level with its node computers repre sent s t he super v isor y management system that enables the central control, visualisation and monitoring of all the other systems. Each IS node computer is therefore equipped with a local visualisation capability. The systems level is structured in technical data terms as a systems network with TCP/IP Ethernet, and encompasses the master computers. Control of the systems takes place at the systems level in an autonomous and decentralised manner, ie: even in the event of a failure at the operations management level, the master computers autonomously execute control of the processes
that are subordinate to them. The group management level positioned below the operations management level consists of Beck hoff CX9 0 01 Embedded PCs. Via TCP/IP Ethernet they control the actuators and sensors connected to the Beckhoff bus terminals, such as relays and contactors. Windows CE is the operating system for the CX9001 group management computers with TwinCAT as the software PLC. At the group management level there are 185 CX9001 Embedded PCs with implementation of nearly 40,000 physical data points. The field level consists of installed bus terminal stations. The features of the bus terminals used include, a longside the a na log bus ter mina ls, DA L I communication terminals that are used to control the lighting. All measurement inputs have been implemented as extensively as possible in terms of current inputs (4 to 20 mA), with the objective of creating clearly measurable interfaces. Proven In Daily Operation The hierarchical structure, as well as the distributed concept of
System overview of the Nordtangete safety system
Tunnel Control Package One of the central elements for safety is the control of tunnel ventilation. The safety of the tunnel user and the sequence of events that occur in the event of fire are contingent upon ensuring the best possible flow conditions.
The measuring units in the tunnel provide information to the control system at all times concerning the current flow and pressure conditions. From this data the control system calculates the necessary switching procedures for the 82 jet fans in order to achieve the optimal pressure conditions. In this manner the escape routes are maintained to be free of smoke in the event of fire, and any migration of smoke into the adjacent service tunnels can be prevented. The safety system records all information relevant to safety for the police. Similarly, the control system for the lighting plant makes available all the relevant information that is necessary for operating the various lighting systems. Light sensors measure the external level of brightness and regulate the
adaptation level of the lighting so that the human eye can become accustomed to the reduced light levels when entering the tunnel. A complex traffic management system undertakes the control of the traffic, so that all issues that occur can be dealt with without causing any difficulties for the road user. The signaling system serves to perform tasks such as closing the tunnel, warning the road users of a variety of hazardous situations, or transferring people or vehicles to the adjacent service tunnels. Finally, the â€˜Energy Supply/ Miscellaneousâ€™ system monitors all infrastructure systems of the electrical plants, such as fire alarm systems, system safeguards, energy inputs, measuring units for the central building and infrastructure systems. ENQUIRY NO. 6401
ENQUIRY NO. 311
the solution, proves themselves daily in terms of trouble-free operations. The process images of the control system represent the individual systems and contain the appropriate graphical elements for status displays and interventions, instigated by sensor signals from the field level. The systems, while acting autonomously, also work together with the control technology in an optimal manner: important alarms and faults are forwarded via remote alarm systems.
September 2011 | industrial automation asiaâ€ƒ 35
instrumentation & Measurement
Overview Of An
AXIe 1.0 Instrument Module An insight into the electrical design aspects of an AXIe 1.0 compliant instrument module, with particular focus on power considerations. By Kenneth Lim Kuo Wei, hardware design engineer, Agilent Technologies
XIe is a standard based on the Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA), commonly written as AdvancedTCA. AXIe heavily adapts the technology used in ATCA for test and measurement purposes. There are three kinds of modules that can be used in the AXIe chassis, a system module, an instrument hub module and an instrument module. The focus here will be on the AXIe 1.0 compliant instrument module. AXIe 1.0 states that Zone 3 connectors are not used. Power Management One of the biggest advantages that AXIe has over other modular chassis standards such as PXI is its sheer power per slot capability. This extra power would resolve power budgeting issues on PXI modules if those PXI designs were migrated on to an AXIe platform. Regardless of standards, most product chassis are capable of supplying more power than the requirements outlined in their respective standards. However, for the purpose of comparison, the table below infers baseline power dissipation per slot based on each individual standard’s recommended cooling capability per slot.
Zone 2 Connectors P20
Locations of the Zone 1 and Zone 2 connectors of an AXIe instrument module slot on the backplane.
The power for the AXIe module comes from the Zone 1 connector. The main DC voltage supply off the backplane is nominally -48 V. However it is a firm requirement that all AXIe modules must be capable of functioning normally within the voltage range of -53 V to -45 V. Power is channelled in by two feeds; Feed A and Feed B. Feed A must be connected while Feed B is optional. Feed A and Feed B may be from the same voltage source or a different source. Different sources are a requirement for ATCA compliance, but optional for AXIe. However, it is still common to hook up both feeds on the AXIe module’s voltage scheme. Of the 38 pins on the Zone 1 connector, 18 pins are not connected, as these are ATCA features not used on AXIe.
Class Type Cooling capability (Watts)
PXIe Hardware Specs Rev1.0
PXI Hardware Specs Rev1.0
AXIe1.0 rev1.0 and PICMG3.0 Rev3.0
Table 1: Power dissipation per slot capability comparison between PXIe and AXIe based on cooling recommendations per slot as per individual standard specifications.
36 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Zone 1 Connectors P24
For safety and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) purposes, the -48V rails that are received from the connector should be routed through an appropriate fusing and power-filtering scheme. After that, power management can be performed by incorporating it into an embedded controller or by using a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC). A BMC has more uses than just power management. There are various ways of converting the two -48V feeds off the backplane to points of load voltages on the AXIe module. Most schemes involve the usage of a power brick. Bear in mind that the power brick selected must be capable of handling input voltages ranging from -53 V to -45 V. If both Feed A and Feed B are from the same power source, although they may be routed like a two feed system, it is essentially a single feed system — similar to having only Feed A connected and Feed B disconnected. If this were the case, an Intermediate Bus Converter (IBC) or a slightly different kind of IBC, a Dual-input
Bus Converter (DBC) would work fine. If feed A and B are from two separate power sources, a DBC should be used. In general, while DBCs have two inputs and IBCs have one input, the output of the DBC is the same as the IBC. Depending on the brick used, the output of the brick can be a point of load voltage or an intermediate voltage rail. In practice, at present, most AXIe backplanes have both Feeds A and B coming off the same power source since AXIe, unlike ATCA does not demand two separate power sources. Using a DBC gives the design more flexibility than an IBC as it can be used in either a single or double power source model. AXIe architecture can support hot plugging of modules but this is not a firm requirement. Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) BMCs are commonplace in ATCA architecture and are recommended for inclusion into an AXIe module design. A BMC is a microprocessor that performs the following: 1 Communication and negotiation with the shelf manager on the system module 2 Temperature monitoring — via sensors 3 Device state monitoring and reporting 4 Voltage monitoring and management The BMC is capable of communications using various protocols such as I2C, IPMI and RS232. The BMC not only serves as a power management controller but also as a communication device between the shelf manager on the system module and the instrument module. Communication lines from the BMC connect to the system module through the Zone 1
Connector using an Intelligent Platform Management Bus (IPMB), which uses an Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI). Inserting some bypass circuitry to bypass the BMC enables an AXIe module to power up without having to negotiate with the system shelf manager. This acts as a good debug tool especially during first power on. Data Transport Data transport is done through the Zone 2 connectors. All lines are differential pairs routed with 100-ohm characteristic impedance on the backplane. Base channel interface communicates using the LAN protocol while the fabric interface runs on PCI Express or on proprietary serial protocols. From the AXIe 1.0 specifications, here is a checklist of all the Zone 2 connections: • 4 signal pairs for the base interface • 16 signal pairs for the fabric interface in 2 channels of 8 pairs each • 18, 42 or 62 local bus pairs (local bus pairs are counted differently – explanation below) • 12 signal pairs for the AXIe trigger bus • 4 signal pairs for the timing interface (FCLK,CLK100,SYNC and STRIG) In order to fully utilise the maximum capabilities of AXIe, all the lines off the backplane should be connected to the instrument module. However, as this may not always be possible or necessary, connections can reduced. For example, a module may not need to utilise the local bus, or may need only a few connections. The module’s local bus usage may be 0, 18, 42, or 62 pairs. With 0 or 18 pairs, there is no need for connectors P21 and P24. Local
bus pairs enable adjacent modules to communicate with each other without having to use system slot resources. It is up to the designer to decide how many lines and what protocols are needed. Clocking Here is a brief description of the timing interface signals: FCLK
100MHz PCIe reference clock.
Functions as the chassis clock. Slot-to-slot skew must be less than 100ps.
Trigger/clock synchronisation signal. Slot-to-slot skew must be less than 100ps
Direct connection for triggering between the system slot and instrument slot. Less than 20ps skew is allowed. Table 3: Clock interface signals and description
The FCLK, CLK100 and SYNC lines are driven from the system slot to the instrument module via a fan out buffer on the back plane. Each slot gets an individual line — it is a point-to-point connection. STRIG is also a point-to-point connection but the difference is that there is no fan-out buffer for this. Conclusion AXIe is a fairly new standard based on the architecture of ATCA. AXIe blends the power delivery capability of ATCA with the versatility of a modular platform. The AXIe architecture is an open standard that can be utilised to suit the high performance needs of instrument module developers. The AXIe platform can work in parallel to existing modular platforms such as PXI. ENQUIRY NO. 6501
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 37
instrumentation & Measurement
IAA met up with Lawrence Liu, regional sales manager for Agilent Technologies electronic measurement group, at its annual measurement forum event. In an exclusive interview, IAA discusses the event’s significance and the areas of growth and opportuntity for the company in Asia and its emerging economies. By Mark Johnston
Agilent’s Measurement Forum 2011 Lawrence Liu, regional sales manager for Singapore and emerging economies in South Asia Pacific, Electronic Measurement Group, Agilent Technologies
Agilent Technologies held its Singapore leg of their annual measurement forum at the Grand Hyatt Hotel, Singapore, on July 15, 2011. The event was well attended as were the many seminars by the company. T h e to p i c s r a n g e d f ro m Microwave/R F measurement, electrical characterisation of nanotechnology, and high speed digital. Solutions provided ranged from those for the aerospace and defence industry, to highspeed compliance testing, to nanotechnology applications in material science and physics. T he comp a ny compr i se s of three businesses, namely the electronic measurement, chemical analysis, and life science groups. The measurement forum is being driven by its electronic measurement group. The forum aims to showcase the company’s latest technological developments and product solutions. On the event, Mr Liu said: “The Agilent Measurement Forum (AMF) 38 industrial automation asia | September 2011
is an annual event held across Asia where we bring a team of global technical experts together to share with our customers the company’s latest products, solutions and applications.” This is the second year the company has held this event, with an average of 200 attendees in Singapore, each year, and 3,500 in attendance across Asia, including China (Shanghai), Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur & Penang) and Australia. This Year’s Focus In 2011, three key themes were clear; modular solutions, highspeed/data applications, and nanotechnologies. The products and solutions highlighted by the company were largely based around these key themes, and experts were keen to demonstrate their latest technology in these application fields, as Mr Liu explained: “The focus for this year’s event is on modular solutions, high-speed/data applications
and nanotechnologies, which are covered in three different tracks at the forum. The event also serves as a one-stop show where all our customers can be exposed to various different solutions at a single event in order to broaden their knowledge of the test solutions available. They have the opportunity not only to keep abreast of the latest technologies, but also to interact with our experts as well as participate in the hands-on demos.” Mr Liu also pointed out that t he compa ny ’s involve me nt i n m a i n st re a m co mp e t it i ve markets is a major driver and focus for the organisation, and is launching products catering to the low-end, mid-end, and highend product categories. The Products Three key products were highlighted by Mr Liu pertaining to their three key themes. The first was their 12-bit Arbitary Waveform Generator (M8190A),
targeted primarily at defence/ radar applications. The second was their high-speed DDR Logic Analyser (U4154A), targeted at high speed compliance testing. Finally, the third product highlight was their Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM), targeted at nanotechnology applications in material science and physics. Asia And Its Emerging Economies Many companies are seeing Asia as a high growth region with relative political stability in contrast to the economic and political instability in the US and Europe. The company saw 42 percent of its revenue come from Asia in Q2FY11, which ended in April. This is a 27 percent increase from the same period a year ago. On Asia, Mr Liu commented: “Asia has grown from strength to strength. Beginning with the manufacturing move into Asia, capitalising on the abundant labour and lower costs, we are now seeing major multinational corporations expand their R&D and validation into Asia as well. As we serve the entire electronics chain from design to validation to
Agilent’s vector signal analysis software for wireless communication application
manufacturing to deployment and maintenance, we have grown with Asia as activities in the electronics chain increase.” I n e m e r g i n g e co n o m i e s , such as Vietnam and Indonesia, improving infrastructure and political stability, coupled with tax incentives and low labour costs combine to attract major foreign investors into these markets. These emerging countries are also heavily investing in their R&D output and improving education sta nda rds to increa se their competitiveness in the region. S i n g a p o r e a n d M a l ay si a see increased focus on R& D, conformance set-up for RFID, and government investment and education. Elsewhere, India sees promising growth segments for test and measurement, including telecommunications, aerospace and defence, R&D, automotive, consumer electronics a nd education. Areas Of Growth F o r t h e c o m p a n y, m a j o r growth areas for measurement opportunities include telecommunications, consumer electronics (eg: tablets and cell phone s), a nd the education sector. M r L iu s a id: “ T he e ve rincreasing demand for faster Internet data services pushes the demand for mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. Take tablets for example, worldwide shipment by end of this year is projected to be 63.2 million, and increasing to 113.9 million by the end of 2012. Such trends drive the development of faster and more sophisticated technologies in order to keep up with the demand for higher data rates.” In terms of the education market, he pointed out that the education market presented a huge growth potential for the emerging economies, where the respective
governments have acknowledged the need for urgency in upgrading their education system a nd infrastructure. The impact of these trends will mean a greater focus on products, such as test instruments that have the accuracy, sensitivity and the flexibility to keep ahead of the latest developments and innovations, and can adapt to new and everchanging markets as new technologies arrive at an ever increasing pace. Mr Liu added: “On the other hand in manufacturing, timeto-volume is key. Having a test platform that is scalable, flexibility and lower total cost of ownership are key considerations of all operations managers.” To The Future The AMF event is the company’s premier annual measurement event, showcasing some of the company’s most recent innovations and solutions to the market. As a US$5.4 billion company with 18,500 employees worldwide, and with 10 percent of annual revenue invested in R&D, the company is diversifying into new and novel technology areas. Mr Liu explained: “As a company with electronics measurement, chemical analysis and life sciences expertise and technologies, we are able to develop new solutions like the Scanning Microwave Microscopy, where we marry our microwave design capability with our nano scale metrology capability. Another example is the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This is the hallmark of Agilent – combining a broad range of disciplines and core competencies to create new mea surement paradigms. And as technologies c o n v e r g e , w e c o n t i n u e to discover new synergies across our three businesses.” ENQUIRY NO. 6502
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 39
il and gas represents 60 percent of the total fuel used across the globe. To produce this quantity, there is a long chain of industries that need to be managed and monitored from exploration, through to drilling and production and the logistics of transportation and processing. Also, due to the inherently explosive nature of these elements, safety procedures have to be put in place. The following information outlines the specific procedures that should be implemented. Although these are US regulations they are some of the most stringent in the world and should be applied globally.
Overview Throughout these processes many locations are deemed to be hazardous and therefore require CID2 (Class I, Division 2) certification. Class I, there are three, refers to gases, vapours and liquids and Division 2, of two, means that the gases, vapours and liquids are not normally present but may accidentally exist, typically meaning less than one hour per year, for example in pump stations and monitoring areas. By their very nature, monitoring equipment needs to be installed in areas that have the potential for fires and explosions. According to the National Electrical
Certification Requirements In
Oil And Gas
Flavio Takemoto, Brazil
Safety and subsequently certification requirements are highly important in the oil and gas industry. By Stuart Carruthers, technical writer, Advantech Industrial Automation Group
40â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
Code (NEC), who defines the CID2 classification, a hazardous location is one ‘where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases or vapours, flammable liquids, combustible dust, or ignitable fibres or flyings.’ For a Class I location, which would be industries such as:
SlNGAPORE OCTOBER l8, l9, 20, 20ll
• Petroleum refineries, and gasoline storage and dispensing areas; • Dry cleaning plants where vapours from cleaning fluids can be present; • Spray finishing areas; • Aircraft hangars and fuel servicing areas; and • Utility gas plants and operations involving storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas. The illustrated example shows how this applies to the real world.
TRADE SHOW & DEMO ZONE l.C.S. / FORUMS & CONFERENCES BUSlNESS MEETlNGS lNNOVATION AWARDS & SHOWCASE TECHNlCAL SALES PRESENTATlONS JOB CENTRE
1 Class I, Division I Area 2 Class I, Division II Area
3 Non-hazardous Location
the whole composites
lnformation for exhibitors and visitors
ENQUIRY NO. 304
Technical Design Requirements In order for a product to meet Class I certification requirements it must be specially designed and built to be strong enough to contain an explosion should gas or vapours enter the unit and it must be able to operate at a temperature below the ignition temperature of the surrounding atmosphere. Since gases expand during an explosion the burning gases must be able to escape once they have cooled down and their flames have been extinguished, therefore the equipment must have several different flame paths. With a tolerance of 0.0125 mm the surfaces of the ground flame path are ground and mated, only allowing gases to escape once they have been cooled so that they will not light the volatile surrounding air. The threaded flame path, so called because the gas escapes via a threaded joint, cools the gas off by forcing it through a spiral, therefore increasing the distance the gas has to travel and allowing it time to cool down. In order to ensure that the products meet the exhaustive standards set by the National Electrical Code, the Nationally Recognised Testing Laboratories
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 41 JA11_80x240_IAA.indd 1
Class I: Gases, vapors, and liquids
A: Acetylene B: Hydrogen, gases or vapors of equivalent hazard C: Ethyl-ether vapors, ethylene, or cyclo-propane D: Gasoline, hexane, naptha, benzene, butane, propane, alcohol, etc.
1 Normally explosive and hazardous
2 Not normally present in an explosive concentration (but may accidentally exist)
temperature classes • T6 85 ~ 100˚ C • T5 100 ~ 135˚ C • T4 135 ~ 200˚ C
(185 ~ 212˚ F) (212 ~ 275˚ F) (275 ~ 392˚ F)
• T3 200 ~ 300˚ C • T2 300 ~ 450˚ C • T1 450˚ C +
(392 ~ 572˚ F) (572 ~ 842˚ F) (842˚ F +)
experiment with various mixtures of gas and air from a very small percentage of gas to a very high percentage to see which causes the greatest explosion. To gain certification, the equipment must not only prevent the escaping gas from igniting the surrounding air but, by using a hydrostatic test, it must withstand having high-pressure oil pumped into to test its strength. In order to pass the test the unit must be able to withstand pressure at four-times the amount found in the explosion tests. In addition to the testing above for Class I, division 2 classification, devices must also meet a third requirement. The groups below indicate how easily gasses combust, from A to G with A being the most dangerous and G the least. Therefore, in a typical refinery in which gases are normally contained, the most common area classification is Class I, Division 2, Group D. Applications Advantech’s CID2 certified product offering includes; HMI, Industrial Communication, Embedded Automation Computers, and Data Acquisition modules. These solutions are suited to fit the demanding requirements of various oil and gas applications. Furthermore, the Group
Combustible process gasses containing more than 30 percent hydrogen by volume
Ethylether, ethylene, or gases or vapours of equivalent hazard
Acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, cyclopropane, ethanol, gasoline, hexane, methane, methanol, naphtha, propane, or gases of vapours of equivalent hazard with methane as the normal reference point
Combustible metal dusts
Carbon black, charcoal, coal, or coke dusk with more than 8 percent total volatile material
Other combustible dusts such as flour, grain, wood, plastic, or chemicals
North American hazardous locations classification in classes, divisions and groups. 42 industrial automation asia | September 2011
company standard product offerings can be used in non-hazardous locations, such as facility control and management for the oil and gas industry. • Oilfield Drilling Monitoring System An oil field is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum from below ground. Because the oil reservoirs typically extend over a large area, possibly several hundred kilometres across, full exploitation entails multiple wells scattered across the area. In addition, there may be exploratory wells probing the edges, pipelines to transport the oil elsewhere, and support facilities. Because an oil field may be remote from civilisation, establishing a field is often an extremely complicated exercise in logistics. This system helps to monitor the status of drills in an oil field, automatically alerting technicians if the torque, voltage, current or amplitude values exceed safe limits. • Pump Station Monitoring System The oil and gas industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing petroleum products, such as oil, which is transported through large pipes that can stretch across continents. The oil is kept in motion by pump stations along the pipeline, and usually flows at speeds of about one to six metres per second. This application was for a monitoring system placed in pump stations along a cross-continental pipeline. • Oil Pipeline Monitoring Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with inner diameter typically from four to 48 inches. Most pipelines are buried at a typical depth of about three to six feet. As crude oil contains varying amounts of wax, build-up may occur within a pipeline. Often these pipelines are
• Tank Storage Monitoring This application was set-up to help monitor a fuelling operation. The information and machine diagnostic data will be collected and sent back to the office and corporate headquarters. An accurate monitoring system not only measures fuel levels, but also temperatures and estimated volume information. A SCADA-based system for real-time data collection and transmission is essential for plant and personnel safety. A PLC is installed to handle local tank control. All control and monitoring data is processed by a DIN-rail PC and can be accessed from a central control room through an Ethernet switch. • Gas Monitoring System In many cities worldwide there are stations responsible for compressing gas into low pressure
for transfer to businesses and households. The interval between compressor stations is usually every 50 to 100 miles along a pipeline. Proper monitoring is critical to ensure safety, as natural gas can be dangerous and explosive if not controlled. Many compressor stations are unmanned, and require reliable monitoring systems. Powerful PAC is a suitable platform to perform data acquisition, logging and local emergency control tasks. Running programs on a controller system, which can obtain pipeline pressure and temperature data from a variety of sensors through analogue input modules, and send this data back to a central room. • Fuel Station Management This project implemented a gasoline pump control system for the dispensing, metering, and monitoring of gasoline tanks at a gas station. This fully automated system automated the process of dispensing gasoline and is supported by realtime connectivity between the gas station and its corporate headquarters. ENQUIRY NO. 6601
ENQUIRY NO. 313
inspected and cleaned using pipeline inspection gauges, used to detect anomalies in the pipe such as dents, metal loss caused by corrosion, cracking or other mechanical damage.
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 43
B S K, Jakarta, Indonesia
Transformational change occurring at NOCs requires strong leadership. By Arthur Hanna, MD, Colin Sloman, talent & organisation, performance lead, Johan Nell, upstream energy lead, Accenture Energy
In Oil & Gas
ational Oil Company (NOC) executives are transforming their businesses and, by extension, the energy industry. To execute growth strategies and outperform their competitors, NOCs are evolving their operating models — driving toward operational excellence, expanding in size and geography, enhancing research and development, and demanding local content investment. NOCs are on a formidable growth track, and they have the reserves and finances to back up their ambitions. The energy industry and across sectors worldwide have shown that the intensely transformational change occurring at NOCs requires strong leadership to achieve high performance over the long term. As more NOCs operate in an increasingly global environment, their leadership skills will likely be
44 industrial automation asia | September 2011
different than those required by purely domestic players. What Leadership Capabilities Do NOCs Need? Back in 2006, the company heralded the rise of the NOCs and their emergence on the global stage. Today, NOCs control more than 80 percent of the world’s oil and gas reserves and are expanding both at home and abroad. Although NOCs have different motivations and operate in a variety of styles, their
senior executives will face common challenges in the future, such as: • Leading large-scale business change. • Ensuring operational excellence. • Working with multiple partners. • Operating in new markets. • Managing a global workforce. • Financing joint ventures and mergers and acquisitions. • Building competencies in new, unconventional technologies.
Respondents were asked to rank the readiness of their executives to handle current and future business challenges on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 5 being very well-prepared) Not prepared at all 1
(a) Individual leaders
Very well-prepared 3
To handle today’s business challenges
To handle Future business challenges 3.17
Figure 1: Readiness of NOC executives to handle future challenges.
Leadership Fundamentals The company defines leadership as giving purpose and meaningful direction that inspires and motivates a group to work toward a desired goal. Leadership is both an individual trait and an organisational capability. We briefly examine the three levels of leadership that we believe need to be addressed to achieve high performance (see Figure 2). These are individual (skills and behaviours), collective (how individuals come together to work) and supporting leadership systems and processes in the organisation (how leadership development is operationalised). The company’s research into leadership has shown that leaders tend to demonstrate one of three leadership styles: the visionary who sees the possibilities and inspires others toward their vision; the manager of execution who provides the structure, discipline and priorities to deliver; and the relationship builder who enlists the support and capabilities of others. These ideal styles are useful in understanding a leader’s natural way of working as well as the balance of styles required to succeed individually, as a team and as a wider organisation. However, individual leadership competencies alone are insufficient to build superior leadership capabilities. Many are needed to effect useful change in today’s large organisations. The most successful business leaders align and configure individual, team and leadership
characteristics with their business goals and strategic intent. Leadership In NOCs Versus IOCs Although the fundamentals of leadership are the same, NOCs operate to a different set of stakeholder expectations from their IOC counterparts. For NOCs, the
key shareholder is the government, and this creates a set of demands that exceeds the need simply to maximise shareholder returns. For NOCs, the more holistic concept of ‘value creation’ (along commercial and social lines) is more important. These expectations of value creation are codified in a ‘national mission,’
ENQUIRY NO. 294
The company’s research found that NOCs feel better prepared to handle today’s challenges than those they will face in the future (see Figure 1). Accordingly, as NOCs strive to achieve their ambitious growth agenda, they will need to shift or rebalance the leadership attributes of those at the top.
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 45
• Demonstrate initiative • Create strategic focus • Serve as an inspirational role model
• Build structures and systems • Be decisive • Create and manage accountability
Leadership systems and processes Collective/team leadership Individual leadership
• Build teams • Create buy-in
Figure 2: Accenture’s leadership framework-leadership styles.
which is typically developed with the government body responsible for value creation in the energy sector (such as a ministry of energy) and strongly influences how NOCs manage their natural resources, workforces and interaction with the wider economy. Underpinning the key leadership attributes of visionary, relationship and execution is a requirement that all leaders not only have strong technical skills, but also soft skills, such as effective communication capabilities, business acumen and change leadership know-how. Soft skills will become increasingly central to NOCs’ success as they transform and take advantage of their vast reserves and relatively cheap capital to grow at home and abroad. NOC leaders must therefore build their commercial acumen, communication skills and international experience to make the right decisions and exploit opportunities. NOCs will need to take an integrated approach to the identification and development of their leaders at all levels, to meet the changing balance of required 46 industrial automation asia | September 2011
skills. Targeted actions can be taken in the short and medium term, but leadership development has a long gestation — taking up to 10 years from recruitment to simply reach competency (not leadership levels) in the oil and gas industry. A specific focus on the team rather than the individual will enable NOCs to leverage the strengths of each individual, creating the right balance of capabilities. This approach will support NOCs in the short term as they build the capabilities of their current and future leaders and help mitigate the impact of losing key individuals. Establishing a performance culture supported by appropriate talent management processes, including succession planning and the development of high potential employees, is critical to success. Leadership For Different Types Of NOCs Not all NOCs are the same. Although often grouped together as one ‘segment’ of the energy industry, they exhibit wide differences in reser ves and production, government involvement, level
of internationalisation and operational capability. Looking at these differences reveals four key NOC archetypes: • National champions • Resource operators • Constrained seekers • Independent operators Each of these archetypes will require a different combination of the three leadership styles: visionary, relationship builder and manager of execution, which will vary according to the growth journey each NOC type is undertaking. How Do You Best Build NOC Leadership Capabilities? The company’s research and experiences suggests five key ways NOC leaders can build the skills to achieve high performance and successfully deliver their national mission. 1 Understand individual leadership style Apply tried-and-tested tools to give NOC leaders an understanding of their individual leadership styles and how they work with others, enabling them to reflect and set out practical improvement actions. 2 Learn through experience Embed experiential-based learning at the heart of a comprehensive leadership development program; plan experiences and equip candidates to reflect and learn from planned and unplanned experiences. 3 Build foundational soft skills Take immediate steps to put in place targeted soft skills training that incorporates experiences and role play, while at the same time embed soft skill development in career paths,
4 Develop collective/team leadership capabilities Develop a global mindset through focusing on increased diversity of the executive leadership team, and using peer group coaching and the latest technologies to build stronger teaming, knowledge sharing and collaboration skills. 5 Set the tone and establish strong leadership processes/ systems Establish a performancebased culture and actively cultivate the next-generation leaders through the rigorous application of performance management and succession planning, as well as putting in place a comprehensive, strategy-aligned, highpotentials program. Conclusion As NOCs transform their business models, extend their international footprint or diversify across the value chain, they will not only need to address building the right leadership capabilities in their management structures today, but also make sure they embed leadership capabilities within the organisation itself to ensure a healthy pipeline of leaders with the right competencies for the future. Some of the changes may be difficult to adopt, as they may go against the existing practices and culture of the company. As NOCs change, they will need to offer a more structured career path and create a more dynamic working environment as a value proposition to future leaders. NOC executives will need not only the skill but also the ‘will’ to be able to steer the company and the next generation of its leaders into the
next phase of its development. Our study showed that NOCs recognise the need for improved leadership skills, but accept they have yet to develop them. Despite their growing commercial strength, NOCs face strong competition in global markets, both against their counterparts in emerging markets and against IOCs. As NOCs
advance into future opportunities, they will need to respond quickly to ensure they have the right leadership with the right competencies to deliver their optimal growth strategy and help the NOC achieve high performance over the long term. ENQUIRY NO. 6602
YASKAWA TOTAL SOLUTION
YASKAWA ELECTRIC (SINGAPORE) PTE LTD YASKAWA ELECTRIC (THAILAND) CO., LTD PT. YASKAWA ELECTRIC INDONESIA VIETNAM-REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE YASKAWA ENGINEERING ASIA-PACIFIC PTE. LTD
: +65 6282 3003
Fax : +65 6289 3003 URL : http://www.yaskawa.com.sg Email : email@example.com
ENQUIRY NO. 315
expected competencies and training curriculums for the long term.
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 47
Choosing the right lubricant and a proper oil analysis program is key to maximising hydraulic system performance. By Dr Ian Davidson, global industrial marketing manager, Mobil Industrial Lubricants
Planting The Seed For Better Performance
oday’s globally competitive busine ss world drive s ma nufacturers to get the most out of their equipment. Even small increases in machine pro duc t iv it y c a n me a n t he difference between profit and loss. Additionally, environmental concer n s de ma nd fo cu s on sustainable business practices and energy efficient systems. In response, industrial and mobile equipment hydraulic systems have become smaller and lighter, and utilise higher pressures to achieve maximum system efficiency. Now, advanced hydraulic fluids are available to meet the demands of these systems, as well as to contribute to overall hydraulic system and energy efficiency.
Flavio Takemoto, Brazil
Hydraulic Efficiency H yd rau l ic s y ste m s conve r t mechanical energy input from an electric motor or internal combustion engine into fluid flow and pressure that can accomplish a specified amount of work. Hydraulic pumps convert the mechanical energy of the prime mover into fluid flow. Pressure is generated by the restriction of this flow in the system. Unfortunately, the hydraulic pump cannot be 100 percent efficient in this energy conversion. A typical hydraulic pump is only 80 to 90 percent efficient in this process. The energ y is lost in two main forms:
48 industrial automation asia | September 2011
• Mechanical losses — energy lost to fluid friction • Volumetric losses — energy lost as the result of internal fluid leakage (spillage) within the pump The amount of mechanical and volumetric loss in a pump is primarily a function of the fluid’s viscosity and lubricity properties. This can be shown in Figure 2:
Volumetric Efficiency: All Pumps have internal leakage paths • Axial piston pump - oil leaks through the clearance between the clinder and piston
CYLINDERS ROTATING SHAFT
Mechanical Efficiency: • Energy is Consumed to rotate pump and overcome fluid frictional losses
TILTING PAD PISTONS
Figure 1: Hydraulic Pump
Volumetric Efficiency ηVE
Poor Volumetric Efficiency Good cold start up properties Poor film thickness
Mech anica l Effic iency ηMe ch Over all Ef ficien cy η
Optimum Operating Range
High Frictional Losses Poor cold start up properties Good film thickness
Figure 2: Volumetric Loss
Mechanical losses are highest when fluid viscosity is high and volumetric losses are highest when fluid viscosity is low. Viewing these two curves on the graph illustrates a viscosity range for optimal efficiency. Because hydraulic fluid viscosity is high at low temperatures a nd decre a se s a s t he f luid temperature rises, staying within this optimal operating range is not simple. Specially formulated hydraulic fluids can reduce the magnitude of these losses by utilising a high viscosity index to maintain fluid viscosity in the optimum
range across a wide operating temperature range. Increasing system pressure also reduces hydraulic pump efficiency. Higher pressures generally lead to both increased mechanical losses (there are higher loads on the pump) and increased volumetric losses (higher pressures increase the amount of internal leakage). In addition to the hydraulic efficiency benefits from ma i nta i n i n g hydrau l ic f lu id viscosity in the optimum range, additional efficiency gains can be achieved through selection of optimal base fluids and additive technology to reduce traction
— the inherent resistance of the fluid to shear under Elasto Hydrody na mic Lubrication (EHL) conditions. Theory Into Practice Differences in hydraulic efficiency can be quantified by comparing two fluids in a simple hydraulic circuit. The circuit contains a hydraulic pump and the system pressure is controlled over a specified range. The mechanical energy input to the system and the flow rate from the pump can then be measured and used to calculate the mechanical and volumetric efficiency of two different fluids. The above demonstration shows the impact that fluid formulation a nd physica l characteristics ca n have on overa ll hydraulic efficiency. This additional pumping efficiency can translate into energy savings, as measured by fuel or electricity consumption, or into decreases in time to complete a work cycle in hydraulically powered equipment. (See Figure 3) Maximising The Performance Of Hydraulic Systems To help enhance the performance and durability of their hydraulic systems, companies should choose a high performance hydraulic lubricant and institute a proactive maintenance plan. T he lubr ica nt sele c te d should be designed to handle the lubrication requirements of both industrial and mobile highpressure hydraulic systems. The lubricant should also possess excellent oil life while maintaining hydraulic system cleanliness, enhanced system efficiency, and component protection in modern hydraulic systems. The lubricant should also help to keep hydraulic systems cleaner, extending machine reliability and helping increase productivity September 2011 | industrial automation asia 49
Overall Efficiency Results
150 Bar (3600 psi)
4.9 4 100 Bar (2900 psi)
150 Bar (3600 psi)
100 Bar (2900 psi)
150 Bar (2175 psi)
150 Bar (2175 psi)
% Efficiency Improvement
t h rou g h improve d mach ine availability. A lubricant with a high viscosity index and high shear stability enables hydraulic efficiency benefits and hydraulic pump protection over a wide range of operating temperatures. As a result, these lubricants provide plant managers and equipment maintenance professionals with maximum equipment protection at high and low temperature extremes. Hydraulic efficiency benefits c a n t ra n slate to i nc re a se d machine productivity or reduced energy consumption. Best Practices For Hydraulic System Maintenance When it comes to hydraulic system maintenance, there a few basic, but very important, tips that companies should follow, as noted below: • Ke e p I t C l e a n : Ke e p i n g hydraulic systems clean is a must for all environments. The combination of high pressures, small reservoir size and tight tolerance control systems make the exclusion of contaminants crucial in all systems. To keep the system free of contamination, storing and handling oil properly is a good place to start. H yd rau l ic lubr ic a nt s should be stored in a closed conta iner in a controlled temperature environment with 50 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Figure 3: The comparative data between a typical ISO VG 46 antiwear hydraulic fluid and specially formulated high VI test fluid. The test fluid demonstrates a hydraulic efficiency increase between three percent and six percent in this bench test. Note that as temperature and pressure increase, the efficiency benefit of the test fluid increases.
adequate spill containment. Tr a n s f e r r i n g h y d r a u l i c lubricants should be done through the use of a filter cart and dedicated, sealed clean oil dispensing equipment. Finally, the hydraulic system reservoir should have a quality desiccant breather and system filter, as recommended i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ’s guidelines. Some systems utilise aux ilia r y filtration systems, sometimes known as a kidney loop, that continually ‘polish’ the hydraulic fluid to maintain system cleanliness. • Oil Analysis: As part of routine ma intena nce, one should be rigorous in checking the ‘health’ of the hydraulic oil and the hydraulic system itself. Typically, it is advised that maintenance professionals perform qua r terly oil analyses and annual system inspections. For systems that are most critical to a plant’s operation or are subjected to challenging conditions, more frequent oil analysis should be considered. The oil analysis should include a measurement of fluid viscosity, water content, particle count and dissolved meta ls to determine how well the system is operating. Examining changes in the oil analysis data over time, also known as ‘trending,’ is necessary to assess the
condition of the hydraulic fluid. By trending oil analysis data it is possible to proactively address undesirable conditions before they become problems. • Visual Inspections: Beyond oil analysis, visual system inspections should be conducted regularly to check and document the condition of the hydraulic systems. Inspection data can be used to establish the optimum time to perform maintenance on critical hydraulic components such as filters, breathers, valves, hoses, heat exchangers and pumps. Comprehensive lea k detection should a lso be p e r for me d , e sp e c ia l l y i f excessive hydraulic oil usage is noted during a routine system inspection. Conclusion Today’s hydraulic units are far more sophisticated than their predecessors. These new, compact, highpressure hydraulic systems must be protected with fundamental best practices — such as using a high-performance hydraulic lubricant and implementing a proactive oil analysis program. The right lubricant and maintenance prog ra m c a n help i mprove productivity through efficiency benefits, more reliable equipment performa nce, a nd increa sed machine availability. By incorporating these key best practices and following the additional tips provided above, pla nt ma na gers, e qu ipment maintenance professionals and purchasing agents can make informed decisions that will help maximise the performance and life of their company’s critical hydraulic systems. ENQUIRY NO. 6603
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Heart Cardiac Massage Unit Polymer plain bearings are an important element in the reliable operation of a mechanical reanimation unit. By Aw Kai Hua, regional manager, Igus Singapore
ccording to experts, the number of patients who survive reanimation attempts outside clinics is less than five percent. The high physical effort involved in heart-lung reanimation and the lack of practice means that helpers tire quickly, making the lifesaving measures ineffective. Yet the spotlight will be more on heart-lung massage in future — as the latest studies reveal that defibrillators can be used in far less situations than was Design principle of previously assumed. the new reanimation T he re a n i mat ion u n it unit ‘Animax.’ ‘Animax’ is aimed at putting an end to this problem. It works on a purely mechanical basis and provides its own energy, automatically sets the respiration volume and pushing depth, and carries out the heart-pressure massage. “Maintenance freedom, fast set-up time, small size and low weight for mobile use, plus an affordable price for relief
52 industrial automation asia | September 2011
organisations” — these were just some of the requirements for development of the ‘Animax.’ The company behind this reanimation unit, AAT Alber Antriebstechnik, has launched a product on the market that can be recommended for the emergency services, and also for voluntary helpers in relief organisations. The purely mechanical approach means neither a battery nor an oxygen bottle is required as an external source of energy. A further distinctive feature of the ‘Animax’ is a gantry-type frame, which is used to attach the unit to the patient in seconds. It covers about 95 percent of all chest sizes and together with the foot paddles forms the counter surface for the pressure strokes. The frame is set up quickly and without much physical strength being required by means of a pushbutton on each handle. At the same time, the unit takes over many functions, such as the setting of the respiration volume or the pushing depth depending on chest size. The heart-pressure massage changes automatically to respiration, which makes reanimation much more effective.
Sophisticated Mechanism Down To The Tiniest Detail For the mechanism to work permanently and reliably, the individual components used also have to meet demanding technical requirements. In addition, they have to work economically and have a long service life. As far as the bearings were concerned, Stefan Seßler, ‘Animax’ project manager at AAT, decided in favour of plastic plain bearings. Mr Seßler stated: “We tested conventional steel sheath bushings with PTFE coating on the test bench. These bearings did not come up to the service-life standard we required, however. They also required too much space.” Today, 22 cylindrical bushings, nine flange sleeves from different model series and one thrust washer are installed per unit. • The switchover mechanism contains eg: two cylindrical plain bearings behind one another in three hollow shafts. The bearings are used to support the respective next inner hollow shaft. • The plain bearings of the ‘bridge’ component absorb the torques generated by the lever. • The frame is designed as a gantry-type frame with a total of four telescopic tubes. Each of the aluminium extrusion press profiles designed for this purpose has a plain bearing pressed in it. The thin-walled film plain bearings also allowed slimmer design profiles to be used, reducing weight and costs. • The whole lever mechanism is equipped with plastic plain bearings at all rotation points. This ensures a precise, solid and effective function.
also as insensitive to edge loads and impact, and are also suitable for extreme loads in particular. They are extremely wear-resistant, especially to radial pressures between 50 and 100 MPa in dry running conditions. The maximum recommended static surface pressure is 150 MPa while the short-term maximum temperature permitted is 310 deg C. The friction value only changes a little as load increases — as does wear resistance. The counter rotation partner has a more significant influence on friction and wear. Shafts that are too smooth, for example, reduce both key figures. The bearings used are relatively insensitive with regard to the shaft surface. A ground surface with average roughness of 0.4 to 0.8 µm is the most suitable for minimising friction, however. Whereas the wear rates of the bearings are similar to those of other materials in the lower load range, they exceed all other products in the upper load range. If a Cf53 shaft is used, wear is only 15 µm/km at up to 45 MPa. At low loads, the plain bearings wear less in swivel operation than in rotation. V2A shafts and hard chrome-plated shafts stand out in particular here. 0.5 mm is the lowest measured value with the shaft material V2A in swivel operation at 2 MPa. At higher loads, the ratio is reversed, but they still achieve excellent wear values even at 100 MPa.
High-performance plastics were used with high wear resistance and low friction values during dry running. High-performance thermoplastic materials are mixed homogenously with reinforcement and solid lubricants, exactly matched to the respective requirements. Whereas the polymers ensure high wear resistance over a long period, the filler materials ensure that the bearings can also cope with high forces or edge loads, too. The solid lubricants provide automatic bearing lubrication and reduce system friction without additional lubrication being necessary. This means regular maintenance is not required. Alongside the many positive technical features of the thin-walled plain bearings, this maintenance freedom results in enormous economic advantages — the total costs are up to 40 percent lower than with standard metallic rolled bearings.
Hitachi Variable Frequency Drives
SJ700B Series Advanced Industrial Inverter for Fan, Pump and Conveyor applications, Built-in Programming Function with VT, CT, SLV Control modes SJ700B Series 11kW~160kW (3-phase 400V class)
Also available: SJ700 Series (SLV)
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Hitachi Asia Ltd
WJ200 Series (Dual Rating) 0.1~2.2kW (1-phase 200V class, CT) 0.1~15kW (3-phase 200V class, CT) 0.4~15kW (3-phase 400V class, CT)
24 Jurong Port Road, #03-05 Office Block, CWT Distripark Singapore 619097 Tel: +65 6305 7400 • Fax: +65 6305 7401 • URL: www.hitachi.com.sg • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: +81 3 4345 6063
ENQUIRY NO. 266
Maximum Wear Resistance Under High Pressure Loads The plain bearings primarily used are regarded not only as bearings with a high thermal strength but
ENQUIRY NO. 6701
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 53
Piezoelectric Elements In Eugene Z, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Medical Devices As the demand on medical devices grows increasingly complex, piezoelectric elements are progressively finding their way into the sector, in part due to the many unique and beneficial characteristics they possess. By Shahnawaz Abdul Hamid
he use of automation in medical technology has been debated for as long as it has been practiced. Deterrents say it increases medical costs, leads to the deskilling of doctors and nurses, and, albeit rarely, results in avoidable deaths or injuries. Proponents claim it helps in timelier and more accurate diagnoses â€” allowing for less invasive and error-free treatment. Nevertheless, much is expected from medical technology today. The demands on the devices are becoming increasingly complicated. As such, it comes as no surprise that a recent study by Research & Markets states that the global top 10 medical devices market was estimated to be worth US$164 billion in 2010, and expected to grow to US$228 billion in 2015. Miniaturisation Part of the complexity arises from the miniaturisation of medical devices, a trend caused by the medical fraternityâ€™s growing need for portability and accessibility. This has been hastened by the development of new, high-density digital chips that allow the combining of multiple functions into a single electrical module. Miniaturisation has given the medical service extended scope beyond the hospital environment. Large machines have been reduced in size, giving caregivers the opportunity to work outside the walls of the medical facility, reducing the need for patients to travel. A popular example is the portable automated external defibrillator, which delivers an electrical charge through a cardiac arrest victim. Miniaturisation has also made it easier for doctors to monitor their patients. Devices are now wearable, and have greater applications with the capabilities to perform more thorough checks, with recorded data fed wirelessly into a computer. 54â€ƒ industrial automation asia | September 2011
Piezoelectricity Nevertheless, with the miniaturisation of devices, specifically those involving motors, comes the added challenge of finding a compatible drive solution. Ideally, the motor should be compact, generate as little heat as possible and deliver a higher torque. Fortunately, the latest advances in piezoelectricity appear to meet all of these requirements, and more. Piezoelectricity is a form of electricity created when certain solid materials are subjected to mechanical stresses. Conversely, these materials are known to bend slightly when electricity is passed through them. The principle behind the phenomenon lies in the presence of multiple interlocking domains within the piezoelectric material. These domains carry positive and negative charges, which are symmetrical within the material, giving it electrical neutrality. When deformed, the symmetry breaks, resulting in voltage generated. A unique characteristic of piezoelectric materials is the small displacement they exhibit when an electric current is passed through them. This displacement, known as the inverse piezoelectric effect, forms the basis of highly precise motion in piezoelectric actuators and motors. The most common usage of the piezoelectric material is the electric lighter. Pressing down on the piezoelectric material produces a charge, which is made to flow across a small spark gap, igniting gas. Other uses include in energy harvesting where piezoelectric generators produce electricity from the pressing of crystals. Piezoelectric sensors are used in the measurement of physical quantities such as pressure, acceleration and strain by converting them into an electrical charge that is then read off a voltmeter. Piezoelectric
Advantages Of Piezoelectricity This ability to provide accurate positioning is one of the main advantages of using piezoelectric materials in medical devices. When used in stepper motors, these materials are able to achieve resolutions as tiny as 50 picometres. Another advantage of piezoelectric motors is their intrinsic linear motion. Unlike regular electromagnetic motors that produce rotary motion and require additional gear trains to transform this into linear motion, piezoelectric motors generate movement in a straight line. This allows them to function without a large number of moving parts, reducing maintenance or the excessive generation of heat. This is further aided by the crystalline structure of piezo elements, which reduces the need for gears and bearings. In medical applications, this translates to being hardy at high temperatures, allowing for sterilisation. Piezo devices are known to consume less energy. This is partly because they consume virtually no energy when at rest, aiding in the prolonging of battery life by up to 10 times. Piezoelectric motors are known to be nonflammable and do not create electromagnetic interference. These characteristics make them especially useful when used in hospitals, which need to attain high safety standards. Nevertheless, perhaps no feature is more crucial to the piezo elementâ€™s use in medical devices than its compactness. Not only are they small in size, the torque generated by piezoelectric motors does not diminish as their dimensions are reduced. Presently, advanced versions of piezo motors are smaller than a matchbox and are used in autofocus devices for cell phone cameras. Devices That Tap On Piezoelectricity Piezoelectric devices are found in many different aspects of the medical industry from research to diagnosis and treatment. In the field of dosing, piezodriven microdispensers are used to generate perfect droplets, taking into account the viscosity and surface tension of the liquid as well as the dosing speed. The dispenser acts by using a piezo actuator to compress a polymer tube via a piston. The volume of dispensed liquid is controlled through the precise amplitude of the actuator. In addition, the piezo actuator is able to give a fast, repeated response, performing over millions of cycles. Another common device fitted with piezoelectric elements is the nebuliser, an aerosol spray typically
used in the administering of medication in mist form. The production of a homogeneous aerosol requires specially shaped piezo disks that act as ultrasonic transducers, exciting a perforated diaphragm to execute ultrasonic oscillations of up to several hundred kilohertz. In the use of optical microscopes, precise positioning of the microscope lenses and sample is often needed. This can be achieved through the use of piezo actuators and stepper motors with miniscule resolutions, as mentioned earlier. Furthermore, piezo drives are known to be energy-efficient, due to their linear motion and less complicated mechanisms. Future Of Piezoelectricity Piezoelectric devices have certainly proven to be adept and flexible in a multitude of medical applications from the clinical research and diagnostics to high-precision dosing. With greater requirements expected from medical devices of the future, especially in terms of increasing accuracy to generating less heat and being more energy-efficient, coupled with the continuing trend of miniaturisation, piezoelectric technology will continue to be an asset in this ever-booming industry. ENQUIRY NO.1 6702 2011_01_07_Triflex RS_Layout 1 21.01.11 11:04 Seite
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actuators, on the other hand, convert voltage into miniscule movements that are precisely controlled. An example is the piezoelectric motor.
September 2011 | industrial automation asiaâ€ƒ 55
Erkin Sahin, Ankara, Turkey
Beating Cyber Threats That Target Mesh Networks
In today’s increasingly electronic age, security is a major issue of concern among the technology industry. By Trent Nelson, cyber security assessment lead, Idaho National Laboratory, and Jeff Becker, global wireless business director, Honeywell Process Solutions
irele ss technolog y ha s aroused as much interest as it has skepticism within the industrial control systems industry. While many recognise the easier installation and reduced costs, others question the reliability and security of wireless networks. The principle requirement of industrial wireless technology is clear: it must be robust, reliable, cost-effective and completely secure. Despite the benefits, the adoption of wireless networks has been gradual in the industry due in part to security concerns. For industrial facilities, the increased vulnerability of the
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enterprise resulting from open wireless architectures, coupled with a rise in cyber attacks, has made electronic security a major concern. The integrity of vital assets, including operational processes, network architectures and business applications, can no longer be taken for granted. The Situation Today, cyber security threats against a site can take different forms and can be grouped into four categories: • Indiscriminant and potentially destructive — This is the most publicised category, malware;
which includes viruses, Trojans and worms attacks. • Performance impacts and potential safety issues — Network spoofing and ‘denial of ser v ice’ t h re at s have performance implications. For example, a denial-of-service attack can clog a network with spurious requests, keeping an operator from receiving a legitimate alarm which can result in degraded performance and/or safety issues. • C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y — W i t h eavesdropping and password cracking, protecting data from unauthorised use becomes a concern along with safety. • Integrity — This area includes data tampering, impersonation and packet modification and is especially hazardous if the intruder has malicious intent. The idea that a hacker could access data while it is being transmitted and stop certain operations at the plant causes great concern in the industry. Indeed, industrial manufacturers are becoming increasingly aware of the threats of industrial espionage and cyber terrorism. However, strong policies and procedures, proven encryption and authentication strategies, and proper wireless system design can guarantee a level of security at least equaling, or even surpassing, wired systems. Beating The Hackers I ndu st r ia l co nt rol s y ste m s employing wireless technology are subject to increasing cyber attacks from inside and outside the network infrastructure. Automation suppliers must recognise the risk to wireless network security, and understand how attackers can use wireless vulnerabilities to their advantage. Cyber threats to an industrial control system can be directed from within an organisation by trusted
users or from remote locations by unknown persons using the Internet. Attacks also can come from hostile governments, terrorist groups, disgruntled employees, and malicious intruders. To protect against these threats, it is necessary to create a secure cyber-barrier around the system infrastructure. Since the Radio Frequency (RF) medium is susceptible to eavesdropping and spoofing, care must be taken to ensure the wireless network is no less secure than traditional wired networks. To co mb a t t h e s e i n h e re nt vulnerabilities, wireless networks must have strong encryption and authentication technology, coupled with robust implementations and management. Security must be integral to the system design, and not an after-thought. For example, the security layer design must accommodate multiple security levels to satisfy
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gy hnolo P remier Provider in Cable Tec
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node does not compromise the data confidentiality or message integrity of communications sessions of which the compromised node is not a part. Specific requirements for the network security layer include: Data confidentiality: Application information exchanged through the network may be sensitive and must be protected against eavesdropping. To insure that a compromise of a network element does not compromise co n f i d e nt i a l it y, e n d - to - e n d encryption is a necessity. The encryptions algorithms should be well known and tested, of appropriate key length, and have the ability to be re-keyed as necessary. The current recommended practice is to use 128-bit AES encryption for all over-the-air communications. Entity authentication (device trust establishment): Before one node communicates with another, 7/18/11 the devices to be (chin).pdf 4:09:11need PM
es EPIC® Connectors
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various industry requirements. An application that requires a more stringent security necessitates more capable systems, including nodes of potentially higher cost or installation inconvenience. T he se cu r it y layer mu st be general enough to meet the needs of multiple applications and the underlying network layers. It must support both sensorto-control system and node-tonode communications, directly or through intermediaries. For industrial control systems, all of the communications paradigms of common field I/O protocols should also be supportable. The best security is in layers, with protection that ensures that a single security breach does not compromise the entire system through cascading attacks. The integrity of the security layer should not require individual nodes that will not be suborned, but should ensure the compromise of aProface singleOK
September 2011 | industrial automation asia 57
authenticated to each other. Entity authentication is the process by which one entity is assured of the identity of a second entity. This prevents unauthorised devices from entering the network. It is important that the authentication mechanism be cryptographically secure, using unique and timesensitive keys. The current recommended practice is to pass unique, time-sensitive, one-timeuse cryptographically secure keys though an out-of-band mechanism (such as Infrared transmission) in a manner that does not expose the key to human operations. Message integrity and sender authentication: Data integrity establishes that fault processes, such as noise or random error, have not altered a message b e t we e n t r a n sm i s sio n a n d reception. Message authentication establishes that an attacker has not maliciously fabricated or altered a message. Sender authentication e stablishe s that a me ssa ge originated from a limited set of authorised senders. Together, these features substantiate that received messages are not corrupted and have been sent by an authorised sender. This is essential, as compromised data could lead to invalid computation. Moreover, bandwidth and radio transmit energy should be minimised by not reacting to forged messages or denial of service attacks from unauthorised sources. Fault tolerance over the lossy channel: The low-rate wireless network used by sensors is lossy, as there is a likelihood of interference. The security layer must adapt to loss of packets, detect loss of synchronisation, and provide a mechanism for resynchronising the session endpoints. D at a f r e s h ne s s: G enera l data freshness is not a security layer goal. However, the security layer mu st prote c t a ga in st replay attacks. 58 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Low packet overhead: For efficient use of bandwidth and battery power, the amount of ‘overhead’ data the security layer adds to the foca l t ra n sm it te d/re ceive d data should be minimised. K e y e s c r o w : L o n g - te r m key escrow may be required to satisfy regulatory requirements or because of customer corporate policy. The key escrow mechanism may also be used for backup of keying material to support failure recovery. Remote key escrow must be supported. Firmware updates: Nodes may require firmware updates to repair software flaws or to add new features. Nodes must be protected so they do not accept corrupted firmware or firmware from an unauthorised source. F I P S 14 0 -2 c o m p l i a n c e : Cryptographic modules should be FIPS 140-2 compliant during operation. Nodes should be designed so they may be classified as ‘single chip cryptographic modules.’ Achieving this rating requires, among other things, that keys are encrypted whenever off-chip — in other words, keys are never exposed ‘in the clear’ off-chip. There must also be no easy way to read out the chip’s data (eg: debugging ports must be disabled). Availability: Availability means ensuring the services offered by the secured nodes will be available to legitimate users when expected. Attacks on availability are called denial of service attacks. The security protocol should attempt to ensure that the wireless network is not a force multiplier for the adversary, meaning that the magnitude of the attack is not magnified by retransmission through the network. The security layer design should also include features to mitigate batter y exhaustion (‘sleep deprivation’) attacks and flash memory wear-
out attacks. Protection against traffic analysis: Traffic analysis is a method of inferring node identities, node functions and probable system states from observation of the timing, lengths and unencrypted portions of messages. Protecting Your Plant Process engineers and operations management professionals often wonder if most of the cyber security concerns are not already handled by their company’s IT group. One of the best ways to determine this is to do a self assessment at your plant. Usually there are some definite differences between the requirements of the corporate network and the control network, all the way from: • Differences in goals between the two network organisations • Differences in assumptions of what needs to be protected • Understanding of what ‘real time performance and continuous operation’ really means • The nature of control systems and how some well-intentioned s o f t w a re - b a s e d s e c u r it y solutions can interfere with operations No matter which department addresses cyber security within the plant, it is crucial to be protected against both deliberate attack and human error. When it comes to security, the ‘best in class’ perspective is not a choice — it is a necessity. ENQUIRY NO. 6801
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Ensuring continuous operations with an integrated, holistic technology strategy that provides high availability, increased visibility, and insight through information. By Yeow Mun Chong, country sales manager, GE Intelligent Platforms (Asia Pacific)
Whrelf Siemens, Dordrecht, Netherlands
Five Essential Components
ccording to the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), power disturbances cost the US industry as much as US$188 billion per year in lost data, materials, and productivity. In today’s information driven economy, where system availability is imperative to operations, data centres and other facilities with mission- critical applications must ensure the highest level of reliability at all times. The negative business consequences of power interruptions can include lost data, lost profitability, lost credibility, and worst yet, lost customers — making any instance of dow nt i me u nacceptable . It is estimated that companies worldwide annually spend more than US$5 billion on backup power systems, according to industry analysts at the Darnell Group. While these backup systems alone may have delivered what was considered an acceptable
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level of reliability in the past, today’s data centres need holistic technology infrastructures that go beyond increasing reliability to virtually eliminating downtime — an opportunity that many facilities have yet to capitalise on. With the right combination of advanced technologies, data centres can maximise system reliability for continuous operations. Key Challenges Data centres ty pica lly have ‘ba seline’ infra str ucture technologies for reliability such as paralleling switchgear, standby power generation, alternative energy sources, automatic transfer sw itche s, U PS systems a nd chillers. However, these disparate technologies often do not easily integrate with each other or other systems, increasing the complexity of data centre operations. • Standalone Subsystems Many data centres do not have
visibility into the baseline infrastructures due to disparate systems, whereby failures are managed locally. It is difficult to collect, correlate, and analyse data from these various systems, which is critical to identify trends, uncover root causes and implement strategies for improvement. Without the ability to conne ct infor mat ion a nd compare this information to established baseline data and statistics such as resource consumption, operationa l efficiency and availability, there can be no true understanding i n to t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d associated operating costs of the data centre as a whole. • Inability To Scale Solution Scalability is a challenge with standalone subsystems because while adding redundancy may eliminate single points of failure and increase reliability, it also
â€˘ Proprietary Technologies Systems t hat levera ge propr ieta r y te ch nolog ie s genera lly face a higher likelihood of failure when these systems are interfaced with components from other manufacturers or software from third-party suppliers. Testing and maintenance are also more involved if there are compatibility issues between the components and subsystems, whereby risk can
reside at system interfaces. Five Key Components Of A Holistic Data Centre Strategy As downtime costs continue to rise, forward-looking strategies must address various infrastructure challenges and encompass both hardware and software solutions that are scalable, open, and tightly integrated â€” working together as a comprehensive system. Integrating existing infra structures with high availability control and advanced software capabilities such as monitoring or a la rming ca n significantly increase operational performance by reducing human error, improving system availability and performance, and reducing energy consumption. There are five key components that are critical to helping data
centres shift toward long-term maintainability, efficiency, and reliability for facility optimisation. 1 High Availability Control At the core of data centre performance is high availability control, which helps data centres ensure data protection, continuous operations, and recovery, in the event of an outage. Traditional high availability control solutions are designed to maximise uptime through the doubling of individual system components and the passing over of control from the active to the backup systems at the moment of failure. D eter ministic high - speed communications is another key capability for paralleling switchgear reliability that enables high-speed, low latency, data delivery and deterministic data transfers.
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increases complexity and systematic risk, threatening reliability altogether. If a data centre needs to scale its technology infrastructure, ex tensive reprog ra mming and reconfiguration is often required, which also increases costs and time to solution.
September 2011 | industrial automation asiaâ€ƒ 61
Architectures with true dual redundancy have controllers with dedicated, redundant links to one another and operate synchronously with virtually no overhead added to the control application. They provide the ability to transfer all application variables, status, and I/O on every scan — increasing survivability and reducing single points of failure.
2 Advanced Data Collection The next essential component of a data centre support strategy is advanced data collection. Continuous operation a nd performance improvements of all data centre systems are only as good as the runtime data collected for analysis and action from all the infrastructure systems. A key challenge for many data centres today is the difficulty of integrating many disparate hardware and software systems and standalone products into a common data collection a nd ma na gement strategy. An advanced historian software solution is the foundation for increased insight, providing builtin data collection capabilities and the ability to capture large volumes of real-time data from multiple sensors and systems at high speeds; some historians offer up to a one msec resolution. It maximises the power of time series data and excels at helping data centres answer questions that impact real-time decisions such as root cause analysis of component problems or ‘out-ofspec’ conditions; optimisation of the cooling infrastructure to deliver the correct temperature, humidity, and pressure; and power and heat reductions to increase efficiency and reduce costs. 3 Advanced Analytics With the data collected, advanced analytics can then help extract 62 industrial automation asia | September 2011
knowledge from the data, which is critical to driving corrective action for maximised performance and reliability. With advanced analytics software, data centres can gain insight into the likely cause s of events or issue s, perform ‘what if’ scenario analysis, and identify opportunities for continuous improvements and the prevention of future problems. A d v a n ce d a n a l y t ic s c a n provide data centres with critical contex t to other w ise static historical and real-time data, increasing data integrity and enabling better decision making for improved facility management and performance. 4 Critical Alarm Response The fourth critical capability is the use of alarms to improve responsiveness and consistency. Leveraging next-generation alarm response management software can help data centres reduce costs and risk by ensuring the correct response to the small subset of critical alarms — increasing system availability and reducing liability exposure and costs. Alarm response management software can help operators make better decisions by providing information and guidance with the exact responses needed to address critical alarms. It also helps track performance and allows managers to review results and improve response instructions. 5 Integration Of All Systems Lastly, as improving efficiency of power supply systems is a key goal, it is only through an integrated, holistic approach that data centres can gain realtime views across systems and global comparative analytics for complete facility risk assessment. The ability to focus on all systems — as opposed to a select one or two — within a data centre enables the critical ‘big picture’
view of the operation’s reliability and efficiency. The selected technology for managing power supply systems and infrastructure should be open and flexible for seamless integration with a data centre’s current systems as well as its future technologies because integ rat ion enable s cr it ica l understanding into the overall state of the facility. It also allows stakeholders to drill down into functional requirements and root causes, leverage real-time and historical data to drive continuous improvements, and make better decisions. Conclusion Data centres need to capitalise on the real opportunity available to maximise their system reliability for continuous operations by moving toward an integrated and holistic technology approach. The foundation is a centralised, scalable, and open platform built on SOA that enables integration and interoperability — providing a single, yet comprehensive view of the facility. High availability redundant control, combined with a set of critical software capabilities, a llows data centre users to precisely monitor and control all critical systems; understand c ro s s - f u nc t iona l s y ne rg ie s, constraints, and performance and cost metrics; and immediately respond to critical events with corrective action. By implementing the right mix of enabling technologies that provide critical capabilities, d a t a ce n t r e s c a n p o si t i o n themselves to attain the highest level of reliability, availability, and operational efficiency — optimising the management of their facility for a sustainable competitive advantage. ENQUIRY NO. 6802
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a novice/beginner and expert tracks, providing opportunity for those who are expert in the subject to dive deeper into those topics. This is something that the company is planning on providing in 2012. Mr Mauck explains: “In the US, we only present in one language, and maybe we have another additional meeting room. So, we would have two tracks, novice track and a more expert track. I see us adding this additional deeper layer of details and expertise in the 2012 network design seminar.”
Mission Critical Design Seminar B e l de n held it s inau g u ra l Mission Critical Design Seminar for the Asia Pacific region at the Renaissance Hotel, Bangkok from June 28-30, 2011. The event was well attended, with 70 people from 11 countries at the seminar. Organised were 12 breakout sessions, with 14 different technical sessions and six hands-on labs. The event was aimed at giving the company’s customers an opportunity to deepen their understanding of the Belden/Hirschmann brand and more effectively reduce costs, installations time, and implementing a highly resilent network design. In addition, Keith Mauck, VP sales and marketing, Belden, said: “It is not a marketing event, it is not to be a Hirschmann commercial. It is three days of good information, where they take it in theory, in a classroom presentation style, and then they have the opportunity 64 industrial automation asia | September 2011
to go to the hands-on lab and execute that theory. The idea is to see it, understand it, and then go do it in the lab.” The US Edition The seminar had been successfully held previously in the US but with a key difference being the Mandarin tracks inherent in the Asia edition. The Mandarin tacks were a big advantage for the Chinese speaking guests during the three-day event. The addition of t he Ch i ne se t rac k s however, produced a scheduling limitation since the number of rooms, and slots, where limited. In the US there wa s no additiona l language track, freeing up their schedule and enabling addit iona l tracks, which include
The Success Of Asia Pacific W hat A sia Pacific ha s done better than its US counterpart is provide a wider range of technical expertise, bringing together all major technical personalities from the region, together with technical experts from Germany. “We have brought a lot of technical expertise to this event, and I think we have done it more comprehensively than the US. We have brought in a lot of technical expertise in the region from technical support to our technical managers,” said Mr Mauck. In Conclusion A s the first Mission Critical S e m i na r to b e he ld i n t he region, favourable feedback was important as a determiner to the company’s future plans for
the event. As the company looks forward Mr Mauck indicated a desire to put on two such events a year, one large event for the region, then one localised event for Australia and one for India every other year. Though as Mr Mauck acknowledged, their plans for next year will be based on feedback for the inaugural event. A mission critical network is a priority for many and the design of such a network needs to be clearly thought out. The difference between a mission critical and a non-critical network is that if a mission critical network fails, lives could be lost. June 28-30, 2011 Renaissance Hotel Bangkok, Thailand ENQUIRY NO. 6901
When Belden Bought Hirschmann IAA
What are the challenges you faced when Belden acquired Hirschmann?
Keith Mauck: As with any integration there are challenges. I think it was a challenge because we (Hirschmann) did not understand the Belden business, as previous to acquiring Hirschmann we never really owned an active component. They did not really understand the Hirschmann networking business, I personally came from AT&T so I had some understanding of the cabling buisness. Most of us from Hirschmann did not understand how cable companies thought. It is more manufacturing process originated, raw materials originated, commodity materials (eg: copper, raw metals) originated. It is definitely more of a operations company than being a cable company. I believe the challenges were primarily around acquiring a higher tech company, with active components, with routers, with network security, with wireless, having to do all the R&D, and the product development. It took some time for us to understand each other. ENQUIRY NO. 6902
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on technologies to empower manufacturing excellence • C h a n g i n g t h e f a c e o f manufacturing with in-memory computing • Powering production efficiency and operational excellence with automation
T e r r a pin n hosted the Manufacturing Show Asia, which saw over 200 senior leaders in the manufacturing sector gather to discuss their key priorities and challenges, share best practices and innovate for the future of manufacturing in Asia. T h rou g hout t he t wo - day program, attendees were equipped with ideas and strategies to achieve efficiency, boost profitability and attain manufacturing excellence. The quality of the speakers and audience from manufacturers across different verticals provided a setting that marked the show as a conference for C-level executives in the manufacturing sector. Key Conference Themes The project team took efforts to create an informative, relevant and industry-driven agenda with a good mix of keynote presentations and panel discussions that addressed ke y i s su e s a nd d i st i nc t i ve challenges that the manufacturing sector in Asia faces. The speaker faculty consisted of senior leaders from manufacturing companies, industry practitioners and solution partners. 66 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Some of the key themes were: • W h a t i s t h e f u t u r e o f manufacturing in Asia • How A sian manufacturers are dealing with the effects of globalisation, changing market dynamics and the need to be extremely cost competitive • CIO Discussion: Leveraging
Looking Ahead As the manufacturing sector in Asia booms, the organisations will continue to search for strategies and best practices that will enable them to operate much more effectively and profitably. As an annual conference, the show will continue to be positioned to serve as Asia Pacific’s conference for manufacturers to discuss challenges and find measurable, profitable solutions to them. ENQUIRY NO. 6903
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products & Services
Adlink Technology has announced the Adlink ASD Series of industrial grade Solid State Drives (SSDs) featuring a SATA 6 Gb/s (SATA III) interface. The company’s ASD Series is available in 2.5”, 1.8” and JEDEC MO-297 (Half-Slim) form factors. Product highlights include low latency with less than 1 ms access time, power consumption as low as 2 Watts, high reliability and high storage capacity. It is designed for use in rugged embedded applications, supporting a wide operating temperature range from -40 deg C to 85 deg C and with shock and vibration tolerance to 1,500 G, 0.5 ms duration and 3.08 Grms, 7-800 Hz, respectively.
Beijer Electronics´ HMI solution, developed in house, is now available in a more powerful combination, iX V1.30; in which upgraded software offer extended features. This includes even better functionality in development and runtime operation, quicker screen changes and project builds. Other improvements are a new scroll function, even better data uploads and downloads and Chinese language support. The iX Developer acts as a universal project-planning tool for all products of the iX Panel series. Its range includes touch and keypad units from 4.3-inch to 19-inch display sizes.
Solid State Drives
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Banner Engineering has introduced a version of its TM18 EZ-BEAM compact photoelectric sensor for use in heavy-duty environments. The sensor offers nickel-plated, die-cast zinc metal housing, as well as completely epoxy encapsulated electronics. Rated IP69K, the TM18 provides durability and resistance in harsh sensing environments, especially in high-pressure washdown applications. Featuring a compact, right angle shape, an 18 mm threaded barrel mount and integral all metal M12 quick disconnect, the sensor has the ability to fit in tight places and avoid sensor damage during machine assembly, transport, maintenance and operation.
Cognex has announced the addition of 3D vision in the release of VisionPro. VisionPro 3D delivers accurate, real-time, 3D position information to automate challenging assembly verification, logistics, and robot applications. It works with any number of fixed or robot mounted cameras for complete application flexibility. The vision camera uses multiple sets of 2D features found by alignment tools, including PatMax, PatFlex and other geometric pattern matching tools. These tools tolerate nonuniform lighting and remain reliable even when patterns are partly covered, ensuring accurate part location under the most challenging conditions. Application performance is enhanced by calibration tools that adjust for optical distortion and camera position, and synchronise cameras with vision-guided robots.
Enquiry no. 6905 68 industrial automation asia | September 2011
3D Vision Camera
Enquiry no. 6907
products & Services
Dunkermotoren extend their portfolio by a solution, consisting of a high current controller and a brushless DC motor for the use in battery powered applications (12/ 24V) or with low voltage supply. The single quadrant speed controller is matched to the brushless 3-phase BG motors by the company with an output power of up to 500 Watts. The controller’s continuous output current is rated for 60 A with peak currents of up to 100 A (2 s) at a supply voltage of 8 to 30 V.
Emerson Process Management has released the industry’s first digital DP level architecture, the Rosemount 3051S Electronic Remote Sensor System. The ERS System is a technology that replaces mechanical impulse piping with two 3051S pressure sensors linked together electronically. Differential pressure is calculated in one of the two sensors and is transmitted using a standard two-wire 4-20 mA HART signal. Applications for the System include tall vessels, distillation towers, and other installations that traditionally have required excessive lengths of impulse piping or capillary.
Low Voltage Supply Solution
Electronic Remote Sensor System
Enquiry no. 6908
Coating Thickness Measurements Fast, reliable and accurate, the Elcometer 456 is available in a range of models for measuring dry film thickness on ferrous and non-ferrous metal substrates. Key features include a 2.4” colour display, clear menu structure and large buttons making the equipment easy to use. The impact resistant gauge is also sealed against dust and water. With measurement capability to ± 1 percent on smooth, rough, thin and curved surfaces, the equipment produces repeatable and reproducible results and is backed by a twoyear gauge warranty. Enquiry no. 6909
Enquiry no. 6910
Bellow Grippers Festo has launched a range of bellows grippers that provide a suitable an ideal pneumatic automation solution to the problem of transporting or holding fragile workpieces. The DHEB series grippers employ flexible bellows, which expand in diameter when actuated by an integral pneumatically driven piston, to securely grip the interior surface of a workpiece. The company’s DHEB bellows grippers are suitable for a diverse range of processing and manufacturing industries, spanning the food, pharmaceutical, general industrial and electrical sectors. Typical applications include general handling, sorting and packaging of fragile workpieces such as glasses, bottles, cups, beakers and ceramic containers. Enquiry no. 6911 September 2011 | industrial automation asia 69
products & Services
Thermo Fisher Scientific:
The ecolink M8 connectors from ifm electronic have a patented profiled sealing ring which fits against the inner surface and front of the device plug exactly, providing an even contact pressure. As a result, the high protection rating IP 67, IP 68 and IP 69K is, for the first time, achieved with M8 connectors. A metal ring with saw tooth contour protects the coupling nut against unintended loosening in case of shock and vibration. This is proven in tests at 750 g and 1,000,000 cycles. The connectors are 100 percent compatible and fit on all standardised M8 plugs. Installation is done manually. Manual tightening of the nut is sufficient to guarantee a high protection rating and a high shock and vibration resistance.
The Thermo Scientific ARL SMS-2500 automation system, which provides an integrated, workfloworientated solution specifically designed for high-speed production control laboratories in the metals industries. By enabling direct access to the milling machine for the preparation of samples, processing time is reduced and expensive electromechanical sample transfer systems are eliminated. Customers can select the best milling solution, such as the Thermo Scientific Haas Mini Mill combined with the Thermo Scientific ARL PrepControl, depending on preferences, needs and budgets. The Haas Mini Mill, teamed with the ARL PrepControl, addresses the requirements of modern process control laboratories for rapid and reliable metals sample preparation.
Enquiry no. 6912
Enquiry no. 6914
Wilden Pump and Engineering:
Komet Group has developed the MicroKom BluFlex fine adjustment head, equipped with Bluetooth technology developed for wireless networking devices over short distances. This technology in the tool system means that the display has been disconnected from the fine boring head, thereby making it easier and more convenient to read off the data, available in both inch and mm with a display adjustment of 0.002 mm. With integral part balancing, the system can reach a rotational speed of up to 16,000 rpm. The modular ABS interface makes adjustment easier on both the spindle side and tool side. This fine boring system is available from diameter 0.5 – 215 mm, with universal ABS interface.
Wilden Pump and Engineering has two full-stroke PTFE (Teflon) diaphragms available for Wilden Advanced Series air-operated double-diaphragm pumps. By allowing increased product displacement per stroke, the full-stroke diaphragms produce greater flow rates and higher efficiency than reduced stroke diaphragms. Given the use of the same shaft and piston combinations as the company’s standard rubber and TPE diaphragms, they can be easily retrofitted to existing pumps with no extra components. The full-stroke PTFE diaphragms are available for the company’s 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 inch pumps.
Fine Boring System With Bluetooth Technology
Enquiry no. 6913 70 industrial automation asia | September 2011
Full-Stroke PTFE (Teflon) Diaphragms
Enquiry no. 6915
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| EC11-09E |
Robust and compact: The Embedded PC with Intel Atom for PC-based control. ®
The ﬂexible CX5000 series from Beckhoff.
www.beckhoff.com.sg/CX5000 The CX5000 Embedded PC series from Beckhoff for DIN rail mounting: for ﬂexible application as a compact Industrial PC or as a PC-based controller for PLC, Motion Control and visualisation: Intel® Atom™ Z530 CPU, 1.1 GHz (CX5010) or 1.6 GHz (CX5020) Durable and compact magnesium housing High operating temperature range between -25 and 60 °C (-13 and 140 °F) Fanless, without rotating components (Compact Flash as storage medium) I/O interface for EtherCAT Terminals and Bus Terminals Optional space for serial or ﬁeldbus interface Integrated 1-second UPS CX1020/CX1030 Embedded PC with Intel® Pentium® M CPU, 1.8 GHz or Intel® Celeron® M ULV CPU, 1 GHz
IPC I/O Motion Automation
ENQUIRY NO. 224
CX1010 Embedded PC with Pentium® MMX-compatible CPU, 500 MHz
CX9000/CX9010 Ethernet controller with Intel® IXP420 XScale® technology, 266 MHz or 533 MHz
CX8000 Fieldbus controller with ARM9 CPU, 400 MHz, e.g. for PROFIBUS, PROFINET, EtherCAT and Ethernet
Beckhoff Automation Pte. Ltd. Phone: + 65 6635 5000 firstname.lastname@example.org
ENQUIRY NO. 308