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Liturgy for a Bach Passion with hymns and motets from Vopelius 1682 Edited by John Butt


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Order of Service   OPENING LITURGY Organ Chorale Prelude – Da Jesu an dem Kreuze Stund, BWV 621 Congregational Chorale – 9 verses, odd=congregation in unison, even=choir   PASSION - FIRST PART Organ Prelude – Buxtehude Praeludium in F-sharp Minor (Extract) Passion – Bach John Passion, Part 1 Organ Chorale Prelude – O Lamm Gottes unschuldig, BWV 618 Congregational Chorale – 3 verses, odd=congregational in unison, v. 2=choir   SERMON SECTION Introduction to sermon, up to biblical passage Organ Chorale Prelude – Herr Jesu Christ dich zu uns wend, BWV 632 Congregational Chorale – one verse, unison Sermon Intercession   PASSION - SECOND PART Organ Chorale Prelude – Christus, der uns selig macht, BWV 620 Passion – Bach John Passion, Part 2 Motet – Ecce quomodo moritur (choir)   CLOSING LITURGY Responsory, Collect and Blessing – Gott sei uns gnädig (choir) Organ Chorale Prelude – Nun danket alle Gott, BWV 657 Congregational Chorale – 3 verses, odd=congregational, v. 2=choir 

© Dunedin Consort 2012 All Rights Reserved / Alle Rechte vorbelhalten Any unauthorised reproduction is prohibited by law. Vervielfältigungen jeglicher Art sind gesetzlich verboten.


4 Reconstructing the Original Vesper Liturgy Of all the early reformers, Luther adhered most closely to the notion of liturgy as an effective way of organising worship. Yet, as is clear from his Deutsche Messe of 1526, flexibility was key: different approaches to the language, shape and musical setting of the liturgy were appropriate according to the needs of each locality and congregation. His liturgical prescriptions, and those that came from most of his successors, were all designed as a ground plan that could be modified in its details at any time. In Bach’s time there is a reasonable amount of evidence for the general shape of the Leipzig services, and while these adhere quite closely to the overall form of the traditional Lutheran liturgies it is clear that each continued to be a living organism, drawing from a range of historical possibilities. First, there are the church orders for Leipzig, which give the outlines for the standard services, the most important from a musical standpoint being the morning Eucharistic service on Sundays and other feast days, and the Vespers in the afternoon. Then there are some very useful notes by Bach himself from the beginning of his first two years in Leipzig – among many details, the use of the organ to ‘prelude’ the chorales and the main musical pieces is very clear, as is also the role of traditional motets in the liturgy. Finally, there is the sequence of detailed notes by Johann Christoph Rost, sexton of the Thomaskirche, from 1716-39, which were continued by his successors. This provides much useful information, showing the ways the liturgies developed over the years. Rost’s notes on the Good Friday Vesper service, at which the large oratorio-style Passions were performed, probably date from around the first time these were introduced in the two main churches (1721) and this form seems to have persisted for the whole of Bach’s Leipzig career. It is impossible to recreate the precise Passion liturgy for a specific year, but there is certainly enough material to create an ‘ideal’ liturgy out of the range of possibilities, so this seems a good opportunity to present this with an ‘ideal’ version of Bach’s John Passion, one cobbled from the revision that the composer began, but soon abandoned in 1739, and some of the modifications he made in the last performances of 1749-50. Just such an ‘ideal’ version is, in fact, what most of us have heard as the John Passion over the last few decades, since this is what Arthur Mendel constructed for his authoritative edition in the Neue Bach- Ausgabe. This is an amalgamation that has drawn considerable scholarly disapproval, but it seems eminently appropriate for a liturgical reconstruction that is likewise cobbled from various sources. We can therefore confidently state that this recording is a reconstruction of the 1739 performance, one that never actually took place. We do not adopt the textual changes made in the very latest version, but use the muted violins and organ for ‘Betrachte, meine Seele’ and ‘Erwäge’, since Bach did not use the violas d’amore and lute for these numbers beyond the first, 1724, version. Given that bassoons are mentioned at the opening of the 1739 manuscript, it seems reasonable to adopt the indications for a ‘bassono grosso’ from the 1749 version. ‘Zerfließe, mein Herze’ seems to have involved a violin in the last version and it is only here that the staccato marks are found; all woodwind parts are marked with slurs at these points. Here we therefore adopt the woodwind version without the staccato markings. What is the point in putting together the John Passion with its original Vesper liturgy? First, it is clear that the components of the liturgy provide a very interesting window into the context in which Bach was working when he composed his Passions. These had to be designed in two parts to surround the sermon – arguably the most important part of any Lutheran liturgy – since it was here that the pastor sought to bring Scripture to life and persuade the congregation of the priceless value of Jesus’s sacrifice. Not only was it important to cultivate faith, as the only human action that was completely non-negotiable, but it was also important to maintain this as a continual, regenerating state of mind lest the believer be struck down at precisely the moment faith wavered.


5 Therefore, traditional liturgical shapes were adapted to provide this focus, and the hymns were placed as pillars around the liturgy, drawing out enduring theological points. Following the Roman tradition, psalms were sung in the early part of the service (replaced by a cantata on special occasions), and the principal Vesper canticle, the Magnificat, was sung after the sermon. On Good Friday both the psalms and Magnificat were simply replaced by the two halves of the Passion. Also removed at Passiontide were the sequence of prayers and long intercessions. This makes the role of the meditative, poetic aspects of Bach’s Passions (mainly arias, but also the opening and closing choruses) especially important as substitutes for the prayers – subjective, personal, utterances that belong more to the worshipper than to characters within the Passion story. The service begins with the congregational chorale set in the archaic Phrygian mode, ‘Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund’. This is almost a meditation in its own right, since it is a Lutheran paraphrase of the ‘Seven Last Words’ of Jesus, long a vehicle for musical expression and often heard in its own devotional setting in both Lutheran and Roman Catholic traditions. This is essentially the collection of all Jesus’s last sayings, drawn from all four Gospels and thus recalling for the informed listener the different characters and emphases of each account. This leads into the specific Gospel chosen for the year concerned, which covers the first half of the story (in this case, quite short, since John’s account begins with Jesus’s arrest, and runs up to Peter’s denial). Then comes the next congregational ‘pillar’, ‘O Lamm Gottes’, which is an early Lutheran paraphrase of the Agnus dei, which emphasizes the central message of Jesus’s sacrifice redeeming the sins of the world. Now comes the sermon, preached on a specific text, relevant to the service. The announcement of the chosen text is preceded by the single verse of the sermon hymn, ‘Herr Jesu Christ dich zu uns wend’. While we possess no Passion sermons directly connected with Bach’s services in Leipzig, there are several appropriate ones from his environment. For this reconstruction we have chosen Erdmann Neumeister’s sermon (published in a collection from 1720) on 2 Timothy 1, 10, about Jesus overcoming death and bringing life and immortality through the Gospel*. Neumeister is a particularly appropriate choice since it was he who so trenchantly supported the notion of the operatic aria-recitative structure as the musical vehicle for meditative texts (Bach set some of his libretti in cantatas). He was also associated with the Weissenfels court, for which he wrote this collection of sermons (and where Bach occasionally worked, met his second wife, and also acquired an honorary title of Kapellmeister), and he commented ruefully on Bach’s failure to obtain a job in Hamburg on account of his not being able to pay the customary sum required for the privilege. Not only was he therefore exceptionally supportive of music in the liturgy but, in this particular sermon, chose as his secondary text verses from the chorale ‘Jesu, deine Passion’, one of the most important chorales employed in Bach’s John Passion setting (the verse, ‘Jesu, der du warest tot’, is therefore heard in both the sermon and in Bach’s aria, ‘Mein teurer Heiland’). The sermon is followed by a short intercession, bringing to a conclusion the only spoken section of the service, and this is followed by Part Two of the Passion (introduced with another traditional chorale for Passiontide ‘Christus, der uns selig macht’, set in the Phrygian mode and thus complementing the very opening of the service). This – much longer – half contains the long and dramatic trial scene in John’s account: Jesus’s crucifixion, death and burial. While concert performances of this Passion end on a wonderful note of hope and joy, with the chorale ‘Ach Herr, laß dein lieb Engelein’, in the Passion service this would have been followed immediately by the traditional funeral motet by Jacob Händl Gallus, ‘Ecce quomodo moritur’. Thus Bach’s chorus of lament, ‘Ruht wohl, ihr heiligen Gebeine’, is balanced by this motet, with the uplifting chorale as the centre point of what is essentially a triptych. The service closes with a short sung responsory, collect and blessing, which lead to the final congregational chorale, ‘Nun danket alle Gott’, a famous hymn that provides a remarkable sense of joy in the atonement achieved through the Passion. One might almost come away with the idea that Easter is an afterthought; certainly, in the Lutheran tradition, Passion music always seems to be far more intense and significant than anything produced for Easter itself.


6 In all, we get a sense of a largely symmetrical, formal event, into which Bach’s music is woven rather than imposed. It unfolds with something of the same sense of inevitability as does John’s story, which of all the Gospels renders the Passion virtually as a timeless event, established at the beginning of time and recurring on an annual basis. The congregation participates only in the four main chorales that in themselves almost constitute a complete Good Friday sequence. The communal aspect of the devotion is recalled by Bach’s own settings of chorales within the Passion narrative, and models for prayer, played out over the course of the complete musical setting, occur in the arias. Each component in the entire event provides a means of interpreting the others, so there is the potential for the experience of renewal and deepening understanding within a formalized frame of time. As with the 1739 performance of the John Passion, we can be confident that the service presented here never took place. After all, we do not have a guide to the precise version of the melodies used for the chorales. The principal source of hymns is the Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch, compiled by Gottfried Vopelius in 1682. This is essentially a ‘cantional’, a collection of the complete service music with nearly 500 pieces (largely chorales, but also including motets and chanted components of the service). Although it was reprinted several times and supplemented by other books, the first edition is the only one to contain music (much of it in several voices), so it is an indispensable source of service music for Bach’s time in Leipzig. However, we have no idea of how the melodies might have changed over time, and the repertory of Bach’s own harmonised chorales and chorale preludes shows that he encountered, perhaps even instigated, a number of variants. Traditionally, chorales were sung in unison without accompaniment, the organ’s main role being to provide the so-called ‘chorale prelude’ that set the mood, mode and melody of each hymn. However, towards the end of the seventeenth century, many institutions began to introduce organ accompaniment, and it is interesting to see the appearance of figured bass in the bass lines of Vopelius’s settings. Some of Bach’s early Arnstadt chorale preludes are written in the style of elaborate accompaniments, so these might be representative of the sort of practice in a small church. Whatever practice was adopted in Leipzig, Rost’s notes tell us that the organ was not used in Lent (does this include Passiontide?), so stark, unaccompanied singing seems appropriate. But does this mean that the organ also did not provide the customary preludes? Given that Bach left such a rich collection of chorale preludes it seems clear that he must have expected these for Passiontide, at least at certain stages of his career. In Leipzig these would almost certainly have been improvised by the church’s own organist (and not by the cantor, or director of music, Bach himself), so his own settings (drawn here from the Weimar collections, particularly the ‘Orgelbüchlein’) would not have been used. Vopelius provides us with simple harmonizations, for use in places ‘wo die Music im Schwange’. Settings such as these would have been very common in school singing practice and traditionally these could be sung in alternation with the congregation’s unison. While it is likely that the alternatim practice had died out by Bach’s time, it is worth hearing it applied here, not least to show how extraordinary and elaborate are Bach’s settings within the Passion itself, compared with the ‘norm’. Finally, this recording sets out to demonstrate the different levels of singing cultivated in the church and school environments of Bach’s time: at the most basic level, all pupils were taught to sing chorales so that they could perform these not only in school but also lead the singing in the associated churches; more advanced pupils learned to sing chorales in parts and also began to cultivate motets in the traditional Renaissance style (which were generally sung with several singers to each part). Only the very advanced pupils proceeded to the soloistic performance of the elaborate music composed by Bach himself. In all, then, there is a sense that all singers are accommodated in the liturgy of Bach’s time; what we hear in concert performance is only the tip of a much larger iceberg, a culture of singing and participation that can only be fleetingly evoked in a modern reconstruction. © John Butt, 2013 This reconstructed liturgy, together with its sermon, would have been entirely impossible without the help of Prof. Robin Leaver who has done so much to promote the understanding of Bach’s liturgical practice and the associated theological concerns.


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BLANK PAGE


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Vi-

7

° bb & b nœ œ ˙ - - ri

ju - sti tol - lun -

b &b b œ œ ˙ - - ri

œ œ ˙

ju - sti tol - lun -

b & b b œ nœ ˙ ‹ - - ri ju ?b œ ˙ ¢ bb œ - - ri

œ œ ˙

˙ tur,

˙ tur,

œ œ ˙

˙

- sti tol - lun -

tur,

œ œ ˙

˙

ju - sti tol - lun -

tur,

Œ ˙ et

Œ ˙ et

Œ ˙ et

Œ ˙ et

˙

œ

œ ˙

œ ˙

Œ œ

ne - mo con - si - de - rat:

a

Œ ˙

œ

œ ˙

œ ˙

ne - mo con - si - de - rat:

˙

œ b˙

œ ˙

ne - mo con - si - de - rat:

˙

œ

œ ˙

œ ˙

ne - mo con - si - de - rat:

œ a

Œ œ a

Œ œ a


10 10

° bb j & b œ™ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ fa - ci - e

˙

i - ni - qui - ta

-

b & b b œ ™ œj œ œ œ œ ˙ fa - ci - e

tis

i - ni - qui - ta

-

tis

b & b b œ ™ œJ œ nœ œ ˙ nœ ˙ ‹ fa - ci - e i - ni - qui - ta - tis ? bb œ™ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ¢ b J fa - ci - e

˙

i - ni - qui - ta

-

tis

Œ ˙

˙

œ œ ˙

sub - la - tus

Œ ˙

˙

Œ ˙

sub - la - tus

e - rit

Et

e - rit

œ œ œ Œ œ

est ju - stus:

œ œ ˙

˙

Et

œ Œ œ œ œ

est ju - stus:

œ œ n˙

sub - la - tus

Œ ˙

est ju - stus:

bœ œ ˙

sub - la - tus

œ œ œ Œ œ

Et

e - rit

œ Œ œ œ œ

est ju - stus:

Et

e - rit

13

° bb œ ˙ œ j œ œ™ œ œ ˙ & b in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

j œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ™ œ œ ˙ ˙ Œ œ

e - jus,

et e - rit

in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

U ˙

e - jus.

U bb œ ˙ j j b Œ œ œ œ ˙ & œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ ˙ in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

e - jus,

b œ ˙ œ œ bœ ™ œ œ ˙ b & b J ‹ in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a e ? bb œ ˙ œ œ bœ ™ œ œ ˙ ¢ b J in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

et e - rit

in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

e - jus.

œ œ œ ˙ œ œ bœ ™ œ ˙ Œ œ Jœ ˙ - jus,

et e - rit

in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

e - jus.

˙ Œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ bœ ™ œ œ ˙ J

e - jus,

et e - rit

in pa - ce me-mo - ri - a

U ˙ U ˙

e - jus.

Secunda pars 17

° bb ˙ & b

˙

In

pa

œ ˙ -

b &b b Œ œ ˙ In pa

b ˙ &b b Œ ‹ In

-

Œ ˙

ce fac - tus

est lo - cus e - ius

et

œ ˙

œ ˙

œ

ce fac - tus

œ œ ˙

œ

pa - ce fac - tus

?b œ ˙ ¢ bb Œ In pa

˙

œ

œ ˙ -

œ

ce fac - tus

œ ˙

œ ˙

œ ˙

Œ ˙ ˙

est lo - cus e - ius

œ ˙

Œ ˙

est lo - cus e - ius

et

œ ˙

œ ˙

et

nœ ˙

Œ ˙

œ ˙

œ œ

in Si - on ha -

œ ˙

œ œ

in Si - on ha -

œ ˙

œ œ

in Si - on ha -

bœ ˙

œ œ

˙

est lo - cus e - ius

et

in Si - on ha -


11 20

° bb œ œ ™ œ ˙ & b J

œœ˙

˙

bi - ta - ti - 0

e

b & b b œ œ ™ œJ œ bi - ta - ti - o

bb œ œ ™ b & ‹ bi - ta ? bb œ œ™ ¢ b

œ ˙

- ius

et

in Si

˙

Œ ˙

œ ˙

ius

et

in Si

Œ ˙

œ ˙

ius

et

in Si

Œ ˙

œ ˙

˙ ius

et

in Si

w e

œœ J

w

ti - o

e

œœ J

w

bi - ta - ti - o

Œ ˙

-

˙ -

e

-

œ œ œ œ ™ œJ ˙ -

-

-

-

œœ

on ha - bi - tat - ti - o

œ œ œ œ ™ œJ œ

˙

on ha - bi - tat - ti - o

e

œ œ œ œ ™ œJ œ

˙

on ha - bi - tat - ti - o

e

œ œ œ œ œ™ œJ

˙

on ha - bi - tat - ti - o

e

23

° bb ˙ & b

˙

e

-

b &b b ˙

ius

˙

Œ

ius

-

b ˙ &b b ‹ ? bb ˙ ¢ b

œ Œ

˙

œ

œ

œ

˙

et

e - rit

in

pa

œ

œ

œ

˙

et

e - rit

in

pa

œ

œ

œ

˙

et

e - rit

in

pa

œ

œ

œ

˙

œ et

e - rit

in

pa

œ œ

œ -

ce

œ

me - mo

œ -

œ

ius

-

˙

Œ

ius

-

-

-

-

me - mo

œ

œ bœ ™

ce

me - mo

œ

œ bœ ™

ce

me - mo

ri - a

j œ œ

Ϫ

ce

Œ

j œ œ

Ϫ

-

ri - a

œ œ J -

ri - a

œ œ J -

ri - a

25

° bb & b˙ e

˙ -

ius,

b &b b œ œ ˙ e -ius,

b &b b ˙ ‹ e

˙ -

?b ¢ bb ˙ e

ius,

˙ -

ius,

Œ œ œ œ et

e - rit

Œ œ œ œ et

e - rit

œ œ Œ œ et

e - rit

Œ œ œ œ et

e - rit

œ ˙ in

pa

-

œ ˙ in

pa

-

œ ˙ in

pa

-

œ ˙ in

pa

-

œ œ œ™ œj œ

˙

ce me - mo - ri - a

e

œ œ œ™ œj œ

œ œ ˙

ce me - mo - ri - a

˙ -

ius.

e -ius.

œ œ bœ ™ œ œ J

˙

ce me - mo - ri - a

e

œ œ bœ ™ œ œ J

˙

ce me - mo - ri - a

e

˙ -

ius.

˙ -

ius.

-

-

-


Gott sei uns gnädig und barmherzig 12 Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) 1

° bb C & b W

W

1. Gott 2. Er 3. Es

b & b bC W Gott Er Es

b & b bC W ‹ Gott

W

uns uns uns

gnädig sein Gott

w sey lasse segne

uns uns uns

gnädig sein Gott

gnädig sein Gott

U W

w -

her leuch Gott

˙ -

her leuch Gott

˙ -

her leuch Gott

w

˙ ˙

Gott Er Es

sey lasse segne

uns uns uns

gnädig sein Gott

und barm Ant - litz un - ser

-

zig ten,

U W

w W

zig ten,

U W

w

und barm Ant - litz un - ser

zig ten,

U W

w

und barm Ant - litz un - ser

˙ uns uns uns

˙

und barm Ant - litz un - ser

˙

w sey lasse segne

Er Es

? bb C W ¢ b

w sey lasse segne

W

˙

her leuch Gott

zig ten,

2

° bb & bW W w

˙ ˙

Und Daß Es

geb uns seinen Got wir auf Erden erkennen segne uns Gott und geb uns

b &b b W W w Und Daß Es

geb uns seinen Got wir auf Erden erkennen segne uns Gott und geb uns

b &b b W W w ‹ Und geb Daß Es

uns seinen Got wir auf Erden erkennen segne uns Gott und geb uns

?b W W w ¢ bb Und Daß Es

geb uns seinen Got wir auf Erden erkennen segne uns Gott und geb uns

lich - chen sei - ne sei - nen

˙

˙

lich - chen sei - ne sei - nen

˙

˙

lich - chen sei - ne sei - nen

w se We Frie

W

W

-

gen ge den.

-

w nW se We Frie

w se We Frie

-

W

W

-

gen ge den.

-

w ˙

W W

˙

lich - chen sei - ne sei - nen

W gen ge den.

-

se We Frie

-

gen ge den.


13

Nun danket alle Gott Johann Crüger (1598-1662)

1

œ œ œ œ ˙™

˙

&C Ó

œ œ œ Mit an Dem Im

œ

œ #˙

1. Nun Der 3. Lob, Und

dan - ket al - le Gott gro - ße Din - ge tut Ehr und Preis sei Gott, dem, der bei - den gleich

Her - zen, Mund und Hän uns und al - len En Va - ter und den Soh ho - hen Him - mels-Thro

˙

œ œ œ œ ˙™

œ œ œ œ #œ ˙

uns von Mut - ter - leib drey - Ei - ni - gen Gott,

und Kind - des - bei - nnen an Als der urs -prüng lich war

™™

˙ -

den den, ne ne

2

& Ó

1. Der 3. Dem

Œ

œ Un und

3

œ

œ

& zäh - lig ist und

˙™

œ

viel zu blei - ben

gut wird

œ

œ

œ

und noch itz - und

œ

W

it - zund ge - than und im - mer - dar.

1

° C & Ó

˙ 2. Der Ein

&C Ó

˙ 2. Der Ein

&C Ó ‹

˙ 2. Der Ein

?C Ó ¢

˙ 2. Der Ein

œ œ œ œ ˙™ e - wig - rei - che Gott im - mer fröh - lich Herz

œ œ œ œ ˙™ e - wig - rei - che Gott im - mer fröh - lich Herz

œ œ œ œ ˙™ e - wig - rei - che Gott im - mer fröh - lich Herz

œ œ œ œ ˙™ e - wig - rei - che Gott im - mer fröh - lich Herz

œ œ œ œ œ #˙ Woll uns bei uns - rem Le und ed - len Frie - den ge -

œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Woll uns bei uns - rem Le und ed - len Frie - den ge -

œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Woll uns bei uns - rem Le und ed - len Frie - den ge -

œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Woll uns bei uns - rem Le und ed - len Frie - den ge -

™™

˙ ben ben,

™™ ˙ ben ben,

™™

˙ ben ben,

™™ ˙ ben ben,

2

° Ó &

˙ 2. Und

& Ó

#˙ 2. Und

& Ó ‹ ? ¢ Ó

˙ 2. Und

˙ 2. Und

œ œ œ œ ˙™ uns

in

sei - ner Gnad,

œ œ œ œ #˙ ™ uns

in

sei - ner Gnad,

œ œ œ œ ˙™ uns

in

sei - ner Gnad,

œ œ œ œ ˙™ uns

in

sei - ner Gnad,

œ œ œ œ #œ ˙

Œ

Er - hal - ten fort und fort

œ œ œ œ œ #˙

Und

Œ

Er - hal - ten fort und fort

œ œ œ œ œ ˙

Er - hal - ten fort und fort

œ Und

Œ

Er - hal - ten fort und fort

œ œ #œ œ œ ˙

œ

œ Und

œ Œ Und


14 3

° œ & uns

& œ

œ aus

œ

uns

aus

& œ ‹ uns

œ aus

? œ

œ

¢ uns

aus

œ

al - ler

œ

œ

al - ler

œ

œ

al - ler

œ

˙™ Not

˙™ Not

˙™ Not

œ

œ

œ

W

Er - lö - sen

hie

und

dort.

œ

œ

œ

W

Er - lö - sen

hie

und

dort.

œ

œ

œ

W

Er - lö - sen

hie

und

dort.

œ

œ

œ

Er - lö - sen

hie

œ œ

˙™ œ

al - ler

œ Not

œ

œ œ

œ

W und

dort.


15

Dunedin Concerts Trust 77 Montgomery Street, Edinburgh, EH 7 5HZ, Scotland, UK t: +44 (0) 131 516 3718 w: www.dunedin-consort.org.uk e: info@dunedin-consort.org.uk Registered Charity SC025336 Registered in Scotland: Company in SC361385


16


17


Vopelius 1682