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Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutritional and Functional Properties of Moringa Leaves − From Germplasm, to Plant to Food, to Health Moringa and Other Highly Nutritious Plant Resources: Strategies, Standards and Markets for a Better Impact on Nutrition in Africa 16 − 18, 2006, Accra, Ganna

Ray-Yu Yang, Lien-Chung Chang and Virginie Levasseur Nutrition Unit, Plant Breeding Unit, West Africa Office AVRDC − The World Vegetable Center


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Coexist of underweight and overweight: overweight is on the rise Percentage of population 25

Underweight Overweight

20 15 10 5 0 Global

Source: FAO, focus 2004

Least Developing Economies developed countries in transition countries

Developed market economy countries


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Per capita fruit and vegetable supply (kg/person/year) Fruits

Vegetables

Total

Total: 146 kg/capita/yr Veg: 73 kg/capita/yr

Developing countries in Africa Developed countries

Developing countries in Asia Developing countries


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

AVRDC multi-strategies to improved nutrition and health Consumption •

Nutrient/ bioactive compound density

X

Increased vegetable availability and consumption

Improved nutrient and phytochemical density

= •

X •

Bioavailability

Enhanced iron bioavailability

Health outcome

Assessing the benefits from the consumption of vegetables on health and overall economic development.


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

AVRDC Vegetable Genetic Resources

• • •

The most diverse collection of vegetable germplasm in the world. Contains about 55,000 accessions of 334 different species from 151 countries. More than 300,000 seed samples distributed to researchers in 180 countries over 30 years


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Hidden Treasures in Indigenous Vegetable Garden


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutrient Content Ranges

In 100 g FW

N

Min

Max

Mean

SD

Protein, g

243

0.2

10

3

1.6

β-carotene, mg

241

0.0

22

3.1

3.3

Vit. C, mg

243

1.1

353

70

77

Vit. E, mg

243

0.0

71

2.6

5.6

Folates, Âľg

90

2.8

175

51

40

Ca, mg

243

2

744

121

136

Fe, mg

243

0.2

26

2.1

2.6

Zn, mg

27

0.17

1.24

0.49

0.24

Total phenol, mg

241

17

12,070

444

940

AOA, TE

243

0.63

82,170

1383

5648

Specie no.: ~120


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Vegetable distribution for β-carotene

Frequency

140

115

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

57 32 0 <0

<2

<4

<6

14

12

6

1

<8

<10

<20

<30

b-Carotene, mg/100 g fw


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Frequency

Vegetable distribution for Iron 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

88 78

38 8

<4

<5 <10 <20 <30

0 <0

<1

<2

<3

12

11

Iron content (mg/100 g fw)

4

1


AVRDC The World Vegetable Center

â&#x20AC;˘ Daily consumption of 200 g vegetables is not enough to achieve sufficient nutrient intake. Must also include nutrient-rich vegetables. â&#x20AC;˘ Nutrient-rich vegetables are underutilized and merit greater attention. Additional investigations will likely uncover even more nutritional value in these treasures

Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

10


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Criteria for vegetable selection Criteria

Chinese cedar

Moringa leaves

Vitamin A

****

*****

***

***

Iron

***

****

****

****

Fresh market

***

***

*****

*****

Postharvest handling

****

**

****

****

Processing

****

****

*

*

Health promoting factors

****

****

****

***

Phytochemicals

*****

****

***

***

Low input

****

*****

****

****

**

*****

*****

*****

Tropically grown

Sweetpotato Amaranth leaves


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Moringa Leaves from to to to

Germplasm Plant Food Health


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

From Germplasm Nutrient and phytochemical contents among four Moringa species


Moringa drouhardii

Moringa oleifera

Moringa stenopetala

Moringa peregrina


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Moringa samples Sample number

Species

Tree age

Part for analyses

Groups

Origin

MO27

oleifera

3 yr

Leaf, stem, seed

Slender tree India

MO28

stenopetala 3 yr

Leaf, stem

Bottle tree

Kenya, Ethiopia

MO30

peregrina

3 yr

Leaf, stem

Slender tree

Arabia, red sea area

MO31

drouhardii

3 yr

Leaf, stem

Bottle tree

Madagascar


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutrients in four Moringa species 100 g fresh mature leaves

β-Car mg

24

Prot. g 5.7

stenopetala

24

peregrina drouhardii

Specie

DM

15

Vit C mg 459

Vit E mg 25

Iron mg 9.2

Ca mg 638

olerifera

5.8

13

400

18

5.4

711

21

2.9

5

264

28

5.6

458

29

5.0

11

388

14

8.7

745

• No stachyose or raffinose were detected in leaves • Low in oxalate (~25 mg/100g, only 5% of oxalate in spinach)


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Dominant Antioxidants in Moringa leaves

Antioxidant content, _mol/g

(Âľmole/g on dry weight basis) 250

210

200 150 100

25

olerifera

20

stenopetala

15 80

94

100 74

88

65 70

5

0

0

Methods:

drouhardii

10

50

Phenolics Folin method, chlorogenic acid equivalents

peregrina

2.3 2.8 1.6 1.1

Ascorbate a-Tocopherol Colorimetric, HPLC measuring total oxidized ascorbate

1.1 0.9 0.4 0.7 b-Carotene HPLC


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Phytochemicals in Moringa oleifera Intens. [mAU]

100

50

Glucosinolates m/z 570

m/z 612

Quercetin-3-O6”-malonylglucoside

4-(α-Lrhamnopyranosyloxy)benxylglucosinolate

Flavonoids Kampherol3-glucoside

Quercetin-3glucoside

Kampherol-3O-6”-malonylglucoside

0

350 nm -50

Monoacetyl 4-(α-Lrhamnopyranosyloxy)benxylglucosinolate isomers

10 20 30 40 50 60 YG-24-05.D: UV Chromatogram, 350.4 nm YG-24-05.D: EIC 612 ±All

70 Time [min] YG-24-05.D: EIC 570 ±All


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Conclusion 1 â&#x20AC;˘ High nutrients, antioxidants and glucosinolates, and low oxalate contents are common features of the four M. species. â&#x20AC;˘ M. peregrina was the uppermost for antioxidant; M. oleifera has the highest nutrient values among the four.


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

To Plants Nutrient and phytochemical contents in Moringa leaves as affected by accession, harvesting season and leaf stage


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Effects of variety, leaf type and season on nutrient and phytochemical contents • Experimental design – RCBD – Factors: • Variety: 10 M. oleifera accessions, 3 field replications • Leaf type: mature, young shoots • Harvesting season: hot-wet (June), cool-dry (Jan), spring (April) • Analyses: – Protein, 3 vitamins, 2 minerals, phenolics, antioxidant activity (AOA)


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

High density planting and pruning enable convenient and continuous harvests of young shoots


Harvesting


Young shoots grows quickly after the harvest


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

40

Air temperature

16

35

Rain precip

14

30

12

25

10

20

8

15

6

10

4

5

2

0

0 Apr- May- Jun- Jul- Aug- Sep- Oct- Nov- Dec- Jan- Feb- Mar- Apr04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 04 05 05 05 05

Rain precip (mm)

Air temperature( _ )

Air temperature and rain fall


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutritional values of mature moringa leaves for three harvests 100 g FW

June 2004 (Summer)

January 2005 (Winter) Mature leaves

April 2005(Spring)

Dry matter, g

23.8 ± 0.9 a

21.4

±

0.7.b

21.4 ± 1.5 b

Protein, g

7.59 ± 0.35 a

6.59

±

0.30 b

6.46 ± 0.89 b

Fiber, g

1.83 ± 0.16 b

1.93

±

0.13 a

1.47 ± 0.11 c

Sugars, g

3.17 ± 0.41 a

3.04

±

0.22 a

2.59 ± 0.44 b

434 ± 66 b

448

±

48 b

481 ± 67 a

9.73

±

1.00 a

4.10 ± 2.35 c

Calcium, mg Iron, mg

6.24 ± 0.84 b

β-carotene

20.1 ± 1.8 a

7.8

±

0.7 c

13.8 ± 0.9 b

Vitamin C

244 ± 18 b

320

±

28 a

206 ± 21 c

Vitamin E

18.1 ± 3.6 a

17.4

±

2.6 a

14.8 ± 2.3 b

AOA, μmol TE

4380 ± 862 a

2341

±

205 b

4166 ± 1211 a

Phenolics, mg

558 ± 70 c

802

±

54 a

681 ± 51 b


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Nutritional values of moringa young shoots for three harvests Components.

June 2004 (Summer)

January 2005 (Winter)

April (Spring)

Young shoots Dry matter, g

17.7

±

1.5 a

15.4

±

1.7 b

12.2 ± 1.1 c

Protein, g

5.33

±

0.46 a

4.03

±

0.57 b

3.48 ± 0.35 c

Fiber, g

1.59

±

0.13 a

1.39

±

0.16 b

1.43 ± 0.17 b

Sugars, g

2.52

±

0.34 a

2.19

±

0.28 b

1.88 ± 0.34 c

88

±

20

84

±

49

Iron, mg

2.86

±

1.08 b

4.22

±

1.36 a

1.40 ± 0.34 c

β-carotene

6.96

±

1.15 a

2.75

±

1.00 b

2.56 ± 0.58 b

Vitamin C

256

±

25 b

294

±

35 a

Vitamin E

6.09

±

1.76 a

4.08

±

1.60 b

AOA, μmol TE

3381

±

449 a

2223

±

381 b

1307 ± 219 c

Phenolics, mg

552

±

68 b

731

±

100 a

461 ± 40 c

Calcium, mg

74 ± 9

183 ± 21 c 2.86 ± 0.45 c


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Conclusion 2 • Variation among 10 M. oleifera accessions for nutrient contents was small so breeding for higher nutrient content not worthwhile. Varietal selection should focus on horticultural traits. • Mature leaves were more nutritious than young shoots and could be quickly dried with minimum nutrient loss; however, young shoots exhibited better eating quality and more acceptable for the fresh market. • Seasonal effects caused 1.5 – 3x content variation for vitamin A, iron and antioxidants in moringa leaves; higher vitamin A was obtained in hot-wet season while higher iron and vitamin C were found in cooldry.


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

to Food Nutrient and phytochemical contents in Moringa leaves as affected by processing temperature and simulated gastrointestinal digestion


Young shoots for fresh markets in Taiwan


Mature leaves for commercial products: Leaf extracts and tea bags sold in Taiwan


50째C oven dried moringa powder for nutritional analysis and animal studies


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Mild-heat drying maintained most nutrients/ phytochemicals in moringa leaves Per 100 g DW Protein, g Fiber, g β-Carotene, mg Vitamin C, mg Tocopherols, mg Calcium, mg Iron, mg Polyphenols, g Glucosinolates, mmol AOA, mmol TE

Freeze dry

50°C dry

28 8 154 582 169 1760 20 3 8.6 15.4

28 8 110 157 165 1670 21 3 9.9 17.3


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Temperature effect on antioxidant activities (AOA) of Moringa oleifera leaves Water soluble AOA 250

200

200

150 100 50 0 -20

25

50

100

150 SODE, 100 unit/g dry

250 ABTSw, TE/g dry

ABTSm, TE/g dry

Methanol soluble AOA

150 100 50

Water soluble super oxide scavenging

120 90 60 30 0

0 -20

25

50

100

-20

25

50

Treatments Freezing

Fresh

Mild heat

Boiling

-20째C / 4hr

RT, 25째C

50째C/10 min

100째C/10 min

100


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

AOA changes before and after simulated digestion AOA (TE, _mol/flask)

120 100

AOA of dialysate 30

AOA of remainder

80 60 40

21 74

87

80

Fresh

Digested

40

20 0 Fresh

Digested

ILP assay

ABTS assay


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

In Vitro Iron bioavailability of Moringa leaves 1.6 Raw

Dialyzable iron, ppm

1.4

Cooked

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Fresh leaves

50 _ oven dried


Effect Effect of of Selected Selected Vegetables Vegetables on on In In Vitro Vitro Iron Iron Bioavailability Bioavailability of of Mungbean Mungbean Dialyzable iron, ug

25

mungbean and moringa were boiled together fro 10 min

20 15 10 5

MB: mung bean, Cab: cabbage, Tom: tomato, DL: drumstick leaves (Moringa), SP: sweet pepper

MB+SP (MB +SP)

Sweet MB P

MB +Kale

(MB+Kale) Kale

MB

MB+DL (MB +DL)

Moringa MB

MB +Tom

(MB+Tom) Tomato

MB

MB+Cab (MB +Cab)

MB Cabbage

0


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Conclusion 3 • Boiling Moringa leaves in water enhanced aqueous AOA, and the AOA was maintained after simulated digestion • Cooking Moringa leaves increased available iron and raised total available iron of mixtures with mungbean. • Mild-heat drying maintained most nutrients/ phytochemicals in Moringa leaves and provides a way for long term preservation and continuous nutrient/antioxidant supply


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

to Health â&#x20AC;˘ As dietary micronutrients and antioxidants for human use â&#x20AC;˘ Added to fodder for livestock production


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Moringa leaves: â&#x20AC;˘ as a micronutrients and antioxidants in diets for human use â&#x20AC;˘ added to fodder as a potential bioceutical agent to substitute for antibiotics in livestock (broiler chicken) production


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Immuno-modulation activity of dried morinag powder in diet for human use â&#x20AC;˘ Intervention with a diet containing 5% moringa powder was investigated using a rat model and compared to a 5% common cabbage diet, and a nutrient-sufficient diet without vegetable. â&#x20AC;˘ The preliminary results after 3 weeks indicated that the moringa diet reduced blood triglycerides, enhanced immune response due to increased peripheral and splenocyte T-cell proliferations.


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Conclusion 4 â&#x20AC;˘ The study implies the consumption of moringa enhances the immune response of nutrient sufficient subjects. â&#x20AC;˘ In addition, consumption of nutrient and phytochemical-rich vegetables, like moringa, leads to a better immune response compared to consumption of vegetables that are rich in fiber but lower in nutrient or phytochemical content, like common cabbage. â&#x20AC;˘ Moringa should be promoted for greater consumption to improve nutrition and strengthen immune functions.


Moringa dishes


Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa. Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006

Acknowledgments AVRDC-The World Veg Nutrition Unit Center Plant Breeding Unit

Lab staff Mr. LC Chang

Genetic Resource and Seed Unit

Dr. L Engle

National Chiayi University, Taiwan

Applied Microbiology

Prof. B. C. Weng

National Chug-Hsin University, Taiwan

Animal Science

Prof. JC Hsu

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

Food Science Dep. and Adv Food Technology Center

Prof. TC Lee

Moringa Oleifera Tree

Nutritional and functional properties of moringa  
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