CHEMICAL AND RADIATIONAL DIMENSION OF SECURITY
„It can even be thought that radium could become very dangerous in criminal hands, and here the question can be raised whether mankind benefits from knowing the secrets of Nature, whether it is ready to profit of it or whether this knowledge will not be harmful for it. The example of the discoveries of Nobel is characteristic, as powerful explosives have enabled man to do wonderful work. They are also a terrible means of destruction in the hands of great criminals who are leading the people towards war...“ Pierre Curie (1859-1906), Nobel lecture, 1903.
INTRODUCTION Many years after the distinguished monograph on biological weapon (Radovan Jovic, Andrea Savic: „Bioterrorism - Biological Warfare - Biological Weapons“,Institute for Political Studies, 2004) ,we have before us a manuscript of a new book, under the title: „Chemical and Radiational Dimension of Security“, this time on chemical weapon. Coauthor of both books is Professor Dr. Radovan Jovic, doyen of the State University in Belgrade, and one of the leading authority on exyugoslavian region when it comes to weapons of mass destruction. While the first book was a result of cooperation with author of these lines, the second one is a fruit of the joint research activity with predoctorate Dragan Nikolic, BA in Political Science – Master of Diplomacy and Security, who has very successfully defended his masters
thesis entitled „Security aspects of chemical weapon“, at Belgrade Academy of Diplomacy and Security, before a comeetee that consisted of Academic Professor Dr. Sinisa Borovic, Docent Dr. Branko Krga, and myself as supervisor. What can we say about this book? Perhaps it could have had a different title, like „Chemical or Nuclear Terrorism“ , „Chemical or Nuclear Security“ or „Chemicalradioactive accidents“? The authors have chosen this title (decided in favor of this title), by all odds, for several reasons. In the last decay there has been so many titles on terrorism that it would be declase to repeat or interpret so much present cliches of so called post(super) terrorism which is engaged in weapons of mass destruction on the whole, or at least in one of them, whether nuclear, biological or chemical weapon. An entire book could have also been written on war usage of chemical means or programmes of chemical arming, whether it regards the great powers or „acceeding “ contries in which some form of state terror (interior or exterior terror) from the inside or the outside is happening. Or on usage of chemical weapon in everyday, ordinary life and its negative consequences (besides the positive ones) on people's and enviromental health. There is a little bit of everything in this book. It also deals with terroristic aspect, but without going into theoretical disputes on phenomenon of terrorism itself. It also deals with the war dimension of chemical weapon, as in past, so - in primary indications – in the present. It is also an ilustrative small study on the NATOs agression on the then Yugoslavia. And so, it primarily deals with the safety aspect of a relitively little known phenomena of chemical means. But, from the point of view of chemical and radiational cause-effect relation, and its influence on safety of people and the environment. The chemical and biological cause-effect relation is bypassed in this book, since it was already discussed in the aforementioned book on biological weapons, but the midical dimension is very much present. The book, of course, is not perfect, and can not satisfy all the „gourmets“. It can be criticised with proffesional remarks, by the side of chemical experts or experts of the radiological, biological and chemical protection, or by the side of geopoliticians and
other theorists that are dealing with the actual trends of international and national security. It is not, therefore, comprehensive in all its segments, nor always abounds with the most recent data, which is understandable if we take into account the character of scientific secret military programs and civil investigations in this field. Nevertheless, the book deserves attention because it is one of the few books in its linguistic area, which opens up an under-reported phenomenon of chemical and radiational dimension of security. Its contribution in domestic theory will be measured by the extent in which it is inspirational for further investigations of this area.
Budva, July 2011
Prof. Dr. Andreja Savic
WORD OF THE AUTHORS
This monograph is the third release by the matrix of previously published books of the prof. Dr. Radovan Jovic, co-authored with colleagues or alone. This time, as an associate - co-author Dragan Nikolic appears, a graduated Political scientists master of diplomacy and security, who treated, within his researching master thesis, existing theoretical standards in this field with innovating with the new data from the literature, which is all embedded in summary form as the first part of the book.It includes the most important cases of the abuse of nuclear, radioactive and chemical (NRC) weapons of mass destruction and incapacitation of people, animals and ecosystems of biosphere, since 1945 (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) until the end of the so-called â€žCold Warâ€œ in 1990th (the Seveso-Italy) (Bhopal-India) and Chernobyl(Ukraine-USSR, 1986). Then we, agreeably, did (went trough) methodology of scientific research of radioactive means, depleted uranium DU-238 war application, accident RNC facilities and accidents in production, transport and stocking the described nuclear,radioactive and chemical agents, as recounted in the second (new) part of this book. Events and abuses of the NRC means, in a period since 1991. (the use of depleted uranium in the Gulf War) until 2011 (earthquake, tsunami and damaged nuclear power plant in Fukushima (Japan, 2011) are in the second part of the book.
In our opinion, offered manuscript provides current conditions section in this area and, as such, is subject to theoretical changes in accordance with the geopolitical movements in the world. We hope that the monograph will be of use to workers in this field, and all the well-intentioned (benevolent) criticisms and suggestions will be accepted gratefully. August, 2011
The scientific achievements have always been used in military purposes as means of coercion and violence. Today, military science has affirmed itself as leading multidisciplinary study which covers all forms of life and superstructure. Leading scientific institutions, with the most modern equipement and the most distinguished cadres, are working for the needs of armed forces. It is understandable that such institutions give valuable results which represent the motor force of all technical and technicologic progress of mankind. Many of those results are used very broadly and in the most humain purposes, even though they are products of researching lethal means. Vice versa, many humain efforts of science, technic and technology afforded an opportunity for man to use it against man, hence in war purposes and terrorism. Since the nineties and the ending of so-called „Cold war“, modern technological development (progress) has enabled changes in all significant aspects of global geopolitics in controlling crisic fokus of the world by the great powers, but also in new „technology“ of terrorism, so that we are facing, in XXI century, with metamorphosis of the classical-traditional understanding of war and terrorism into the postmodern, asimetrical or super form. In such context, any real or potentional use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biologic and modern conventional weapons) represents a special category of treat for mankind in the era of globalisation.
1.1. Weapons of mass destrucion – the safety approach
Even though human civilisation recognizes different weapons of great proportions, the term „weapons of mass destruction“ is recent. During XX century, several types of weapons have developed such destructive power, that they can be put in a special category: „weapons of mass destruction“ (WMD): chemical, biological and nuclear weapon. These types of weapon are the most inhumain of them all, because they can produce destruction of much larger proportions than any other conventinal weapon and have longterm and catastrofic consequences. The prohibition of strategic nuclear weapon usage or of the usage treat has caused that the great powers and the owners of huge arsenal of that selfdestructive weapon, not disowning its power, decide to use „silent and insidious“ neutron weapon – the ammunition filled with depleted uranium and radioactive materials – tactically harmless weapon that doesn’t kill, but just incapacitates men of the opposing side in war. It was the same tactics used in the sixties of the XX century when they introduced in formation armament psychochemical weapon, the chemical incapacients and pesticides, that are not prohibited as chemical warfare by the Geneva Proticol. The pathogenic mycroorganisms that don’t cause deadly infectious, epidemically spreading, diseases were extracted from the group of biological weapons. In that way, from the dangerous group of NBC weapons of mass destrucion – WMD, was inaugurated the harmless CBR weapon as tactical – human weapon that doesnt kill, but just temporarily disables the living force of the state attacked. This dangerous „game“ with invisible weapons of mass destruction has led civilisation into a continous „silent“ war with huge losses and sufferings, and it has poluted and incapacitated environment – all ecosystems – so much that it has become unbearable for life of humans, animals and flora. It has brought an umpteen of syndromes (The Vietnamese Syndrome, The Golf War Syndrome, The Balkan
Syndrome), new epidemies with HIV virus and ebola, radiational and dioxinal deformities at the newborns all away to the third generation, the geometric progression in the rise of the malignant illnesses, psychopathic disorders… In another words, it has globally led society to a universal socio-psichological, moral, political and economic crisis. The abuse of natures legality and epochal discoveries from that nature, in the hands of great criminals, can mean the downfall of our civilisation, as said by the greats: Nobel, Einstein, Pierre Curie. This weaponry is legally used by the armies of the great nuclear powers, and illegally by those from the other side of the law- the criminals, the extremists, the paramilitary formations, by the mafia and terrorists. Illegal trading with radioactive materials (239-RI, 235-U, 238-U) has already taken internatinal propotions, and nuclear terrorism is in sight, with nuclear weapon and with nuclear radioactive ordnance. First attempt to prohibit the use of WMD was the Geneva Protocol from the year of 19251, created as a result of using the chemical armery in the World War One. After nuclear bombs were used by the United States, in Japan, in the august of 1945, the nuclear era has begun, and the treat of the nuclear weapon usage will continue to be one of the main bone of contention throughout the XX century. The certainty of the universal cataclysm in case of global proporton war conflict , has influenced on a „fear balance“ in bipolar world functioning, led by the then superpowers, USA and USSR. In such a international context, by the system „hot and cold“, depending on the current geopolitical relations, international and bilateral activities in restraining and restricting all types of WMD have been going on successfully. The United Nations, as well as the entire international community were, undoubtably, decicive in their intention to make effective progress in the field of total disarmament,
The Proticol has prohibited the use of chocking, poisonous and other gases, as well as the war use of
method of killing by bacteria, but it didn’t manage to prohibite the research, production and the storage of these weapons. The United States and Japan have never agreed to sign this protocol.
including the prohibition and removal of all weapons of mass destructon, as well as prohibition of theirs development, production and storage. 2
When it comes to nuclear armament, 24. january 1946. should be mentioned, when The General
Assembly with its first resolution, invited on disposal of atomic weapon from national armaments, as well as any other weaponry suitable for mass destruction. In 1954, nine years after the Trinity Test (the first world nuclear explosion conducted in Alamogordo, state of New Mexico, USA, in july the 16th, 1945), the primeminister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, won the â€žtruce agreementâ€œ from nuclear testing. Beginning from the mid fifties of the XX century, USA i SSSR began conducting very numerous termo-nuclear tests in the atmosphere. Radioactive incidents that were the concequences of these tests gave occasion to increasing international criticism, which led to the first victory of supportes of testing prohibition: The Limited Test Ban Treaty is sign in 1963. and it prohibitated nuclear testing in space, the atmosphere, bellow the water surface, but not underground. And while this treaty reduced nuclear incidents, nuclear testings were not just continued but significantly increased. Significant step towards the nonproliferation of nuclear armament and disarmament was achieved by the side of international community and theUnited Nations by signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968. this treaty represents the only obligatory multilateral treaty , nad its goal was the disarmament of countries with nnuclear armament. Open for signing in 1968, it came in force in 1970. 189 countries in total ratified this treaty, including five countries with nuclear armament. More countries ratified this treaty than any other agreement on nonproliferation i disarmament, which only reflects the significance of this treaty. It also established the system of protection under the control of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
However, the great powers are keeping or developinng their strategic capacities, especially concerning the nuclear weapon, as evidenced by the actual development of the nuclear â€žshieldâ€œ in Europe by the side of USA, which is causing a lot of distrust at China and Russia. On the other hand, the reducement of nuclear potentials which is underway is welcome, but it must be born in mind that part of it is just disposal of the excesses. And even though the number of deployed soviet (russian) warheads and the american strategic nuclear warheads has reduced for 80 % during the last decay, and that american tactical nuclear weapon has been withdrown from use to a large degree, the WMD supplies still remain alarmingly high: some 27.000 pieces of nuclear weapon, from which 12.000 are still in active use. Over 90% of that armary is found in arsenals of the USA and Russia. Five state parties of The Non-Proliferation Treaty are in possession of that weapon: China, France, Russia, The United Kingdom, and the USA. The two states that have not access the agreement, India and Pakistan, have conducted nuclear tests and announced that they own such weaponry. Isreal, which is also not the state party, is believed to own the nuclear armament,
When it comes to chemical and biological armament, its important to mention the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention open for signing in 1972. simultaneously in Moscow, Washington and London, and which came in force in 1975, with 155 signatories. This convention prohibits the development, production, storage, buying and retention of microbiological and other biological substances and toxins which types and quantities can not be justified by the peacetime usage. It also prohibits weapons, equipment or means for delivering projected so as to use such substances or toxins in hostile purposes or in armed conflict. In 1992. the Chemical Weapons Convention was adopted which purpose was to prohibite the entire category of WMD by outlowing the development, production, buying, stockpiling, retention, disposition and use of chemical weapons. Its important to mention that the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the Chemical Weapons Convention, represent the three most important multilateral agreements on which the entire fight against the nonproliferation of WMD is based. Source: The United Nations Association of Serbia, e-mail: email@example.com
houndreds of pieces according to some estimates, although it was never officially confirmed. The threat of “The Armageddon” which would be a consequence of a total nuclear war, for now on is probably a distant possibility. The international nonproliferation regime has survived the Indian and Pakistan nuclear tests in 1998, hence the prohibition of nuclear tests de facto remained in force. CWC and BWC are not only giving a framework in the international low for prevention of proliferation of the chemical and biological agents, they are also useful diplomatic framework for finding the new ways of prevention of this weapons proliferation and usage. For example, The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is a new international orientation in preventing the illegal trading with materials connected to the chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. PSI also reflects the orientation towards the fight against the proliferation in international striving to prevent the chemical, biological and nuclear weapon proliferation. Although there were expectations that the danger that OMU represents will disapear with the ending of the Cold War, this types of armaments are still a safety threat. A certain progress was made in prevention of WMD proliferation, by enacting the CWC, the BWC, the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Initiative and by The Treaty of Moscow in 2002.3 however, despite the efforts of the international community, several states (Isreal, Pakistan, Iran, North Korea etc) and the non-state actors has cosidered the WMD as desirable part of theirs military arsenals. For some states, WMD removes inferiority in conventional armament, in comparing to stronger regional rivals or their allies. By threatening with the chemical, biological or nuclear war, such states might discourage the stronger opponents from considering an attack, defeat them once the fight is stired up, or even threaten with
There are opinions that the USA, with its allies, are the motor force of WMD nonproliferation, because owning of such weapon by the side of other, smaller countries, would limit the possibility of american control of the international safety situation. Source: Paul, T.V.,»Great equalizers or agents of haos?Weapons of mass destruction and the emerginginternational order”.- In: Paul, T.V., Hall, John A. (eds), International Order and the Future of World Politics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 373-387.
the inner opponents. WMD also represents the status symbol of otherwise insecure and authoritarian countries. The two greatest obstacles in the way of WMD nonproliferation are Iran and North Korea, not just because of theirs concerning military potential, but because of theirs recusancy of cooperation with the UN and the international community, especially in the field of disarming and nonproliferating the WMD. North Korea acceded to the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1985, a year after South Korea did. In 1992 the North Korean long delayed Nuclear Safeguards Agreement with IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) was put into effect and the IAEA began conducting inspections. The same year Northern and Southern Korea signed the Joint Declaration on denuclearisation of Korean peninsula. In that contract, signing parties have mutually agreed to not develop, conduct testings or procure nuclear weaponry, as well as to not keep in their possession the facilities for nuclear processing and enrichment of uranium (these facilities are necessary for producting plutomium and enriching uranium in military purposes). On the other hand, Irans longterm efforts to develop capacities for enriching uranium without informing the IAEA are conflicting with its accedence to the Nuclear Weapon NonProliferation Treaty. The UN and the IAEA are especially concern about the new nuclear facility in Kwon, which is not in concordance with Iran’s obligations. Iran also hasn’t suspended activities related to enrichment of uranium to a 20 % U-235. The latest resolution of the Security Council 1929 (2010) recognizes the problem international community is faced in Iran. Relying on the report of the IAEAs director, the Security Council notes that Iran hasn’t fulfill obligations set in previous resolutions, nor has he cooperated with the IAEA in actions necessary to remove the existence of the military dimension of the Iranian nuclear program. When it comes to non-state actors, a rising concern is present because of the possibility that these weapons might fall into the hands of the terrorists. The chemical weapon attack might kill thousands of people in some sports event, while a successful attack by anthrax might jeopardize hundreds of thousands of people. The “Dirty bomb”, a device that uses explosive of great destructive power for spreading radioactive contamination, might poison numerous city quarters. It would be extremely difficult, even for wealthy financed terroristic organization, to construct a
primitive, so called gun-type nuclear weapon, although international terroristic networks or even individuals do have the means and materials for constructing and using chemical, biological and radiological weapon.4 The WMD vary greatly in terms of theirs availability, deadliness, destructive power, and facility of production and use. Highly destructive, light WMD are one of the most sophisticated devices man has ever made, while some chemical and biological weapon are available for centuries. However, the thing that separates WMD from conventional weapon produced from explosive on chemical basis, is its ability to produce truly catastrophic proportions of death and destruction. And, because of their ability to show fear across the world, they are desirable as political instruments.5 Because the terrorists are relying on public publicity in performing the terroristic acts, the experts estimate that they could find WMD tempting, as evidenced by some terroristic events. Non-state actors have already used chemical, biological and radiological weapon, which causes anxiety about the future. Although the use of WMD was sporadic since the use of chemical weapon in WW1 (it was used only twice in WW2), and although national countries have abandon their chemical and biological arsenals, while terroristic uses of chemical, biological or radiological still remain in initial or hypothetical plane â€“ there are still some long-
WMD have been used in terroristic attacks, although with relatively limited outcomes. For example, in 1995. the chechen rebels set a radiological source (cesium-137) in Moscow park Izmailovsky, probably in order to prove to the russian government that they have the ability to make a â€ždirty bombâ€œ . Aum Shinrikyo cult (Aum Supreme Thruth) had experimented several times with a couple of toxic substances before performing theirs sarine attack in Tokyo subway in 1995, in which thousands of people were injured. Like the terroristic attacks on World Trade Centre an Pentagon in 11. september 2001, in the same year a person or a group used the american postal network to send letters contaminatted by anthrax, which was most likely extracted from materials delivered to the american weapon labarotories. 5
A miniature nuclear weapon can destroy a city: a fission device that destroyed Hiroshima made an explosive impact which intensity was around 20 kilotons (kt) of trinitrottoluol (TNT). The smallpox attack on an unprotected (unvaccinated) population could kill 30 % of its victims, and mutilate the rest for life.
term issues. Is there a taboo against the use of WMD? Have we all been just incredibly lucky?6
1.2. The Chemical factor
We can characterize our epoch, among other things, as an epoch of technological and technical revolution an of general rapid progress of science in all its branches and activities of a modern man. Itâ€™s chiefly reflected in the development of organic chemistry, which gave over 60.000 different chemical substances and compounds, and ten times more of different combinations and preparations of those compounds that men uses in science, agriculture, household and even in war purposes. To this date it is extracted or synthesized around 4.500.000 of different chemical compounds and chemicals, from which 60.000 is in wide, everyday use. Of this number, 1.500 chemical compounds and chemicals belong to a group of pesticides, around 4.000 are medicines, and some 5.500 are food additives. The rest of 47.000 chemical compounds and chemicals are intended for industry and agriculture, not including the pesticides. Only small circle of scholars is familiar to all the physically chemical, structural and elementary characteristics, the chemical and biological activities and the mechanisms of useful and harmful effects manifestations of such a large number of chemical substances, compounds and preparations, which are found in wide and everyday use in every household. It means that all, or a majority of chemical compounds and chemicals have came into the hands of average citizen, with an average (or less than average) technological culture and education. It is therefore 6
For further details, see: Wirtz, James, Weapons of mass destruction. In: Collins, Alan, Moderns security studies, (Wales Swanse), Oxford University Press, 2005
necessary to make at least the basic characteristics of these compounds and chemicals available to that citizen, working man, expert and practician, so that he could rationally use them with full safety to his one health and life, that is to efficiently protect himself and take adequate measures of removing consequences in case of uncontrollable contamination or abuse. The progress of chemistry, especially of military chemistry and technology, has given a series of new, previously unknown chemical matters, and of new CWs among them. In WW2, and especially in postwar period, several new CWs have been won and incorporated in formation armament of some armies. In this area, the most significant are the discoveries of organophosphorus compounds, from which Shredder extracted a new group of trilons (sarin, soman, tabun) in the period of 1936. till 1944; Ghosh and Newman synthetised fosforiltioholins (V-poisons), and Tamelin synthetised fluorofosforilholin (F-poisons) in 1952. In postwar period, it was intensively worked on toxins for incapacitating people â€“ new irritants and CWs with psychochemical effects. In 1963. some of these toxins were incorporated in formation armament of the great powers. It is realistic to expect that in eventual future war the great powers will not renounce the use of WMD (H/O) for destroying and incapacitating the life force, especially considering experience from the local wars fought after the WW2 â€“ in Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Angola, Iraq-Iran war, on the territory of ex SFRJ during 19911999 etc. On all these theaters of war, according to literature, the chemical factor had its place and significance in achieving tactical, and even operational goals. Simultaneously with developing of the chemical weapon in war purposes, the world is concern over the rising mass chemical contamination of environment and peopleâ€™s toxicating in peacetime, whether the chemical agents are reaching the environment spontaneously (in the process of agricultural chemicals use) or on purpose.7
According to UNs World Food Council (WFC) study, from the late 1979, the weeds, insects, and plant diseases are reducing the yieald of grain, fruits, vegetables and viands of animal origin , for 30-50% of real possibilities. The reducement means that weeds, insects, and plant diseases eat per year the amount of food that would be sufficient for nutrition of billions of hungry inhabitants of the planet.
Previous experience has shown that not even chemical weapon could break the enemy’s armed forces, devastate its economic potential and political system, and enable the aggressor to conquer and sustain its territory and break the people’s will for armed and other forms of fight and nationwide resistance in defending independence and freedom. So far, it couldn’t have been done with any weapon, and neither will the chemical. That fact is especially significant in a conception and doctrine of modern defense and security. There is no such human invention for which it has not been found defense and protection from its harmful consequences in times of war and peace. This book gives necessary knowledge in the field of chemistry, toxicology, deadly toxins in peace and war and removing the consequences of chemical contamination or intoxicating, after deliberate or accidental usage of CWs basic types and pesticides to a level that will satisfy the needs of highly educated experts, but also of a regular citizen, working man, high scholar and student. It’s not hard to conclude that we are here talking about problems that modern man is faced to every day and which he is trying to solve in his own favor. High level of modern man’s development has imposed an organized and systematic fight with these actual problematics. In case of the abuse of chemical and other WMD for destroying and incapacitating the living force and flora , or whether we are talking about safe and rational use of pesticides in households and agriculture in peacetime – “any danger that destroys human, animal, and the life of flora, is a crime” – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Also, this book is an attempt to provide some solutions, explain the genesis of some problems and of basic dangers of chemical contamination and intoxicating in war and peacetime. It deals with chemical weapon that can be used in war by an aggressor for destruction and incapacitating the living force, vegetational and animal Each year, new synthesis or old preparation modifications are presented, and the total amount of production and use is rising. However, health and lives of people are already significally threatened because of peoples and domestic animals intoxicating, and the rising mass contamination of environment, because of the inadequate, irrational and ill-timed use, stocking and preparation of pesticides preparations. The same year, The safe use of pesticides committee of the World Health Organization has disclosed the information according to which 500.000 of accidental deadly intoxicating of humans are caused by pesticides.
life, that is with appropriate problematics on dangers and protection from contaminating the environment, people, animals, and vegetational world by chemical agents (primarily by pesticides, but also by other chemicals) in peacetime. The greatest dander for humankind, since the beginning of civilization until these days, was war. It represented a necessary evil which people used to solve problems of mutual relations violently with the use of weapon and military force. After WMD discovery, the UN and the Security Council have pledged to forbid war as a mean of solving interstate relations. Besides the defensive war, de facto i de jure, was forbidden in the middle of XX century. However, since the end of the last century, terror and terrorism has become a global danger to peace and democratic development in the world. The terroristic actions, with all available explosives, have become more and more common. Secretly, the terrorists are also preparing to use the WMD. In addition, the diversions, sabotages, assassinations and the accidents on hazardous installations and by dangerous means (nuclear, radiational and chemical). Today, in XXI century, when talking and writing on the most inhumane terror or terrorism, the question is not whether, but when and in which form, where and with what devastating consequences will terrorists actions use nuclear, radiational, chemical and biological means from a family of WMD for destroying and incapacitating humans, animals, plants and all ecosystems biocenosis on planet earth? To that problem and to dangers that threaten the survival and safety of our civilization and environment, is this book dedicated. The abuse of the powerful chemical, biological, nuclear and radiational weapons and means, represents a special danger. In XX century, the wars have become more destructive, more devastating, and specially unlimited. They bring sufferings predominantly to civilians, children, old man, and to all those who are powerless to defend and protect themselves from winds of war, terror and terrorism by WMD.
Historically, chemical weapons are of the earliest use in war conflicts and still are the methods of warfare that have the most common and the most mass use, hence they are the first in the family of WMD that were given that name in WW1 (1914-1918). The effective principal of chemical weapon are invisible molecules that also have a retrograde effect, so if an aggressor is found himself on a bombed territory, he could suffer from the same weapon that he used against the defender. The actuality of this problematics is especially emphasized after the ending of “Cold War” and the process of globalization establishment. “Nothing is as it were” - is the most common cliché which is hyperbolically getting a status of a new conventional wisdom in the Anglo-Saxon literature. And if the history of terror and terrorism can help us to see the leading trends and new realities, it cannot yet be foreseen their future path (outcome). Will the future terrorists be turned to the WMD for destroying and incapacitating humans, the living world and the environment with all its attributes, or will it be the cyber terrorists that destroy the informational and system communications, which modern society is depending on? Or will it be something else, still unknown? That is the reason why we need a compass for travelling through the new, theoretical fields.8
1.3. The Radiational factor The results of a modern race in armament are warning on permanent intensification of danger hoop, which connects even the most distant points on earth in a form of concentric circles. Numerous scientific researches, in different scientific disciplines
Jović, R., Savić, A., Bioterorizam-biološki rat-biološko oružje, Institut za političke studije, Beograd, 2004
that are in conjunction with military factors, are showing the power of these hoops – that the speed of war dangers transfer, from one locality to another is proportional to the speed of information transfer. Besides huge nuclear potential, modern nuclear and radiational means are thought to be among the most dangerous means ever met and created by man.9 The possibility of these means abuse in war and in special operations give advantage to chemical and radiational means (besides the biological ones), and more less to nuclear. The mere existence of WMD and possible consequences of its effects, in war as in special diversional-terroristic actions, is causing justified fear and occupies the attention of world’s public opinion, especially of pacific world, the small and powerless countries and their people. The only use of nuclear weapon is the one by the USA on Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki10, which totally destroyed and made Japan capitulate at the end of
CS UN has developed a resolution that extends the work of a special cometee, formed in 2004, to 10 years. Its original goal was preventing proliferation of any kind of WMD – nuclear, biological and chemical. But in last few years, according to the experts, it shows more and more attention to nuclear materials. Its explained by the fact of increased risks of nuclear terrorism, and the continuation of the cometee work, as well as showing thet the UN continues to fight actively against international terrorism – is undoubtly a positive moment. It is especially emphasised in the Uns resolution that the actions of a special cometee are directed only on fight against terrorism and that they will not distract scientific-technical cooperation between countries , among other on a field of nuclear energetics. Source: website of radio station „Voice of Russia“, UN against nuclear terrorism, (firstname.lastname@example.org, available 21.4. 2011) 10
Hiroshima, a city on southeastern part of Honshu island, established in 1594, had population of 343.958 in 1941. On a day of 6. august , in 8.15 am its destroyed to its grounds by the American bomber B-29, a “superfort” that throwed the first “Little boy” atomic bomb, power of 13.5 kt. Bomb exploded on a hight of 600 m above ground. It instantly killed 79.400 people, and wounded 6.500 citizens, completely destroyed 6.820 buildings, and 56.111 burnt in a fire storm that developed several minutes after the explosion. More than 90 % of all buildings have made impossible to live in. Around the crater in city center, on a surface of 6.5 km2, all constructions were destroyed, and it remained only 50 buildings of a reinforced concrete construction whose interior was completely destroyed. From kille humanity, around 50 % suffered fromburns and carbonisation (termal energy), 35% of them from crumbling, dismemberment and kneading (the shock wave), and 15 % of them primary radiation (multiple deadly dose of radiation taken in the first 10 minutes from the moment of explosion). From the existing 43 hospitals, 40 of them were destroyed, burnt or incapacitated; from
WW2. This new, almighty weapon and its effects, has made humanity worried about its survival. According to the announcement of the Brooklyn Institute, in a period of November 1946 until December 1991, the USA considered and used their armed forces for achieving their political goals 245 times, and in 29 cases the possibility of WMD use was considered. In this announcement it is stated that all American presidents, from Truman to Regan and Bush, thought about or prepared to be the first ones to use the WMD in numerous armed conflicts. Back to late December of 1945, Truman indicated on a press conference that there is a possibility of the WMD use during the American aggression upon Korea. The nuclear threats of Eisenhower (Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower, 1890-1973) in 1953 against China are also well known. The Canady’s administration has considered the use of nuclear weapon during the Berlin crisis of 1961, as well as during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The possibility of using this weapon during the Lyndon B. Johnson time (Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1908-1973) was considered in Indochina in 1968, and Nixon’s administration (1969-1972) threatened with the nuclear weapon use in Vietnam. The time of Carter is characteristic (James Earl “Jimmy” Carter Jr., born in 1924) since he threatened in 1980 with the nuclear weapon use in Persian Golf, and in the following year the same was announced by president Reagan. 11 Clinton and Bush are also considering the use of chemical weapon, while implementing the use of radiational one – of the depleted uranium in Gulf War (1991), in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) and in SRJ (1999).
2000 docors, which had city of Hiroshima, 1800 of them were killed, wounded or disappeared. Three days later the atomic bomb “Fat man” was thrown, power of 22 kt, on city of Nagasaki which totally destroyed it, and had 50.000 of killed citizens in the first hour after the explosion. According to expert’s calculations, based on these effects of nuclear explosion, a loss of 13-18.000 people per km2, depending on density of a city, could be expected. Thirty years after these explosions, the number of losses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is doubled, and the malignant diseases for 30-50% as consequence of radiation. 11
Богданов Р.Г. Ядерное безумие в ранге государственной политики, М.Политиздат,1984, с 240.
The father of the first termonuclear bomb, an American scientist of the Hungarian origin, Edward Teller (1908-2003) pleaded for the atomic war and for attacking the Soviet Union back in the sixties of the last century. The man who perhaps knew the most about such a weapon was a patron of its use spoke publicly that the nuclear war can be survived. It was a complete irrational behavior of a scientist, and it is the best illustration of the atmosphere the world then lived in and of unjustified phobias that ruled in the West at the very thought that the Soviets are in possession of the nuclear weapon. The fact which is very relevant and which should be emphasized is that the Soviets never threw an atomic bomb on anyone, although there is no precise information on their intentions. The global peace on the planet is kept by the global fear of destruction.12 Scientific circles in the early sixties of the last century debated on three ways termonuclear war could cause the destruction of the world: 1. By dramatic change of climate – if bombs of huge force would explode above the Northern or Southern Pole, they would melt huge amounts of ice and snow and would bring a dramatic change of climate. The north hemisphere would be overwhelmed by terrible floods that would cause a genuine catastrophe! Would that be The Flood similar to the biblical one. 2. By burning all villages and cities – For a termonuclear bomb of 1000 megatons, it takes around 50 tons of heavy hydrogen in a liquid condition and, of course, a trigger called – the atomic bomb. If such bomb would explode at the hight of 20 kilometers, could burn the surface of 500.000 square kilometers, this is the state of the size of France. If such bomb would explode at the hight of 200 kilometers above ground, it would destroy the surface of the entire Western Europe. As said, explosion would cause a
A termonuclear bomb that would explode 20-200 km above the ground, would be a small artificial sun – which develops a temperature of million degrees Celsius, that would destroy (burn, sear) everything in a huge range (a big part of the Western Europe – 500.000 km2)
terrible fire storm, the air would rush toward the center faster than sound, while enormously high temperature would burn everything on its way. 3. Destruction oh the world by radioactivity – So many warheads are set at the ready on our planet, that just by pressing two buttons in America or Russia, accidently or on purpose, all human beings on earth would be possible to poison.13 This effect can be multiply increased by lining the termonuclear bomb with sodium oxide that would absorb neutrons and transmute into the sodium 24 (Na-24). Na-24 is highly poisonous, but it evaporates quickly and just after 15 minutes the radioactivity loses half of its strength. People could survive in deep shelters. It’s not the end of this story: man has gone even further toward limits of its destruction and added to such bomb cobalt-60 (Co-60) which is extremely radioactive and long-lasting. Its radioactivity stays very dangerous for years, so that the survivors from the intoxicating by sodium-24 would die of cobalt. There is no salvation there!
1.4. The nuclear factor
Nuclear weapon is a total WMD for destruction and incapacitating humans, animals, vegetation and inorganic world. The destructive force of this weapon comes from nuclear reactions, whether fission or much stronger fission, so that even a nuclear weapon with relatively small effect is significantly powerful than the most powerful conventional explosive. Besides the immediate destruction and killing of humans, animals and plants, the nuclear attack makes the environment inadequate for life, for a longer period of time (six weeks to six years). After the nuclear attack, the surviving population and 13
From five nuclear powers (The USA, Russia, China, Britain, France and China), the gross of total worlds nuclear arsenal is concentrated on rivals from Cold War – The USA and Russia as a succesor of the former USSR (95 % - from the ammount of 68.000 warheads, in bypolar order they came to the number of 20.000 )
organic world in general suffers hard consequences (because of the radiation) to its own life and to development and creation all the way to the third generation. Animals and vegetation are suffering from the same consequences for more than 10 years after the nuclear impact or some great accident like the one on a “Memorial nuclear power plant V. I. Lenin” in Chernobyl – Ukraine, 26 April 1986, or malfunction on a nuclear power plant in Fukushima after the devastating earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011. Man or organic world as a whole could hardly survive long-term and multiple nuclear bombing of some state or region in the nuclear war. These regions would be made into huge deserts without humans, animals and vegetation, with enormous craters that would be filled with water, creating new oceans with no living world In them. In fact, a total nuclear war would represent a cataclysm and the end of a life on the planet earth. Unlike the explosive, conventional weapon that demonstrates its effect immediately (all or nothing principle – it either kills or don’t), the nuclear weapon demonstrates only initial effect in a moment of explosion. Because of the radiational effect of the nuclear explosion, from that moment on, severe disorders start to develop, and such condition could last for years and decays.
1.4.1. Hiroshima 60 years later
At exactly 8.16 am, on August 6 2005, in The Peace Memorial Park, in front of 55.000 survivors and other citizens (image Nb. 1), among whom there were more than 30 ambassadors, a memorial service was held to commemorate 60 years from the nuclear sufferings of the Hiroshima citizens and entire region.
Image Nb. 1. The Peace Memorial Park Hiroshima
As every year, once again 1945 has been brought to mind, when 140.000 found death in ruins and fire storm. By the end of that, war year the total amount of victims killed both immediately and after the nuclear explosion – rose to the number of 242.437 Hiroshima citizens. During this commemoration, 5.375 names were added to the long list of A-bombs victims on Peace Memorial Parks plaque, deceased from consequences of the nuclear attack. Also, it was announced that 81.600 people who lived in Hiroshima to that day, were exposed to the atomic bomb effects, and that their average age is 73 years.14
1.4.2. The abuses of science – “Kisses of death” An American journalist and writer, Alan Velsom published a shocking book called “The Plutonium Kiss of Death”, which describes the use of people as guinea pigs for researching effects of radiation in the USA. The reaction of public opinion was so intense, that a congress commission which was to investigate these cases was
On that occasion, Dr Tadatoshi Akiba, the major of Hiroshima sent world a message: „ – to never again let this kind of tragedy happen…, and to OUN to finally and concretely implement objective set long ago – to finelly free the globe of nuclear weapon…“
immediately formed. A series of documents were discovered, describing hundreds of experiments in the spirit of medical experiments of the notorious Naci doctor Mengel. Certain people, “experimental rabbits”, were injected with plutonium 239 and 239, enriched titanium, they were exposed to radioactive clouds and massive radiation. The University of California and its associated hospital are in the centre of attention, for its researchers have continued with these experiments holding on to the selfproclaimed rule that says: “The experiments are allowed if two doctors-scientists inform patients on the type of experiment and he gives his consention”. It sounds reasonably, but no signature of patient is asked, only the doctors! More tragically, experiments were conducted on children as well. The Atomic energy Commission and The Quaker Plus Society financed researchers of The Harvard Medical and Fernard school (institutions for handicapped children) to mix radioactive iron and radioactive calcium with milk. Such prepared potion was given to children. Dozes were pretty high. During the second research, children were given a radioactive iodine. This immoral praxis of medical experiments in the spirit of the Nazi Buchenwald , was established by Joseph Gilbert Hamilton (1907-1957), the professor of the University of California’s hospital in San Francisco. Within the project ���Manhattan” and its successor “The contract 48-A”, people guinea pigs were injected randomly with tritium, polonium, strontium and radioactive iodium. Extremely dangerous experiments were conducted when an entire body of a patient was exposed to X rays in a dosage of 5, 10, 15, 20 rems a day, increasing gradually to 300 rems. According to a witness statement, patients were exposed to this treatment sitting with their legs spread and head band forward. That position imitated lethal position, and the doses given were the strength of a nuclear explosion! In projects “Manhattan” and “The contract 48-A”, 5.000 human guinea pigs were included. One of eight died, so it’s not hard to calculate how many of them survived. The document from 1978 speaks about injecting uranium in six victims. The object of this research was to determine a dosage necessary for provoking renal lesions, which
are, by the way, very hard to discover. The tests were conducted on prisoners. To some of them, only one part of a body was radiated – a testicle. The experiments were conducted on “volunteers” (usually their sentences were reduced or abolished) from 25-52 years. Allegedly, with their wife’s approvals. The dosage even reached to 600 roentgens. They were subjected to vasectomy “in order to avoid the possibility of giving birth to mutants in wider population”. However, a tithe of couples was isolated and they brought posterity to mutants whose health and life are under “caring” loupe of geneticists. They are isolated in so called forbidden zone in the Apache Mountains, where, away from the public eye, experiments can conduct without disturbance. Many physicians were convinced that their work would remain a secret, and that they would never be held responsible, considering that these were the states and national interests.
1.4.3. The Museum of Atomic Explosions
In the middle of the last century, the nuclear super forces were firing their atomic bombs directly into the atmosphere – from remote areas. Today, in a desert of American state of Nevada, tourists can visit one of such polygons. It’s a place above which atomic mushrooms often rose. The active use of polygon started in December 1950, when president Hary Truman moved the program of nuclear testings from Pacific to Nevada’s desert area. During the next four decays, 10.000 people worked on perfection of atomic bombs. Hundreds of nuclear bombs were fired above ground in Nevada, before such tests were forbidden in July 1962.15
„It has not yet downed, and it seemed like thousands of hundreds reflectors lit simultaneously all of a sudden. It fulgurated very briefly, for a part of a second, and then the fire ball started to grow“ – Roger Staley, one of the scientist that worked on these testings, said on „The Voice of America“ radio.
One of the stations of tourist guide tour, which is organized by The USA Department of Energy, is the crater Sedan. It is a giant hole created in 06 July 1962 by the explosion of termonuclear bomb weighting 104 kilotons, on a depth of 193 meters, during which 11-12 million tones of soil was driven out (the image Nb. 2) The atomic bomb that was thrown on Hiroshima weighted 15 kilotons.
Image Nb. 2. The Crater Sedan (visible even from the satellite – image on the right)
Underground explosions began since the aboveground ones were forbidden in an effort to stop the spreading of radioactive particles. The crater Sedan is now a touristic sight and, according to the firs visitors, one should see that hole with its one eyes to fully realize the power of nuclear explosion. The tour guides are retired workers and the experts that worked on the polygon on which 828 of underground explosions were conducted. They were terminated in 1992, when The USA, Russia and France signed the treaty on theirs prohibition. Today, the polygons for disposing the nuclear waste are still cleansing the material remained after perennial tests. One can still see the remains of two-storey wooden
„We often set besides one of the control points and watched explosions. Sometimes they didnt go as planned, and we then became nervous and disturbed. Whwn they were working all right, we were very excited and it took us a while to calm ourselves“ – said Bob Keller, the former worker on polygon.
building from 1955, built for measuring the effect of atmospheric testing of a bomb weighting 29 kilotons. The slow motion of testing, with cars and trees, seems frightening. The history of atomic testings is preserved in the Museum of Atomic Testings, in Las Vegas, which was found by the Nevada’s Historical Foundation of Nuclear Polygon. In the museum you can see the films on testings and objects used in polygon. The greatness and importance of the polygon has significally decreased, but its historical heritage is unquestionable. It also has the department of ecological renewal which measures the radioactive pollution of the ground incessantly. 1.4.4. The depleted uranium (DU) The nuclear terror in war and in different forms of military interventions is performed by the military and special units of ABH armies with nuclear weapon and radioactive battle means (DU-238), with its battle systems from land, see, or air, systematically and under the command of the military-state leadership, and that’s why it is characterized as state terror. In all the NATOs interventional wars, from “The Desert storm” in 1991, the war in BIH (1993/5), the aggression on the SRJ (1999), to invasion on Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003/4), a radioactive material in classical missiles was used dosed, targeted and well planned: a) using a special ammunition filled with depleted uranium (U-238) b) using of ballistic missiles (Tomahawk), which contained the depleted uranium in a form of constructive pieces.
The NATO is also under doubt to have been using special termo-lighting bombs, that contain, asides from the explosive, mixture of fine aluminum and magnesium powders, with the addition of certain amount of depleted uranium in a form of colloidal powder. During the explosion of such bomb, there comes to initial lighting of aluminum and magnesium. Such explosions release the bright, white light and
enormous termical energy, with a temperature reaching the 23.000 degrees of Celsius. Due to initial lightening and simultaneous decomposition of uranium powder, the temperature reaches the level of creating the low temperature plasma that then creates the alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The nitrogen and oxygen are ionizing during that process. During the silent and lightening discharging, these particles meet and a nuclear cloud is synthesized, creating the additional bright light of nitrogen and oxygen plasma with phenomenon of artificial lightnings. The incessant increasement of concentration of nuclear cloud in air is endangering the living world. This shows that almost “anything” can be inserted in classical explosive missiles, creating in such manner the new weapon of “low intensity” for mass destruction and incapacitating people, the living world and environment, and enabling this type of terror to avoid sanction for a long period of time. Namely, for making the nuclear bomb an uranium ore is extracted (the natural uranium) which is then cleansed of the dirt and uranium remains by grinding. The concentrated uranium given in such manner is called “The yellow cake”. By diffusing the yellow cake, a mixture of two isotopes is obtained, U-235 and U-238 in a mass proportion 0.7: 99.3. However, after the diffusion, there remained some 0.2 % of isotope U-235. The isotope U-235 was used as fuel in nuclear centrals and for production of nuclear weapon from 1945-1960. The USA practically didn’t know what to do with enormous quantities of depleted isotope U-238 (supplies of 1.3 billion pounds of radioactive waste) which was stocked underground. The waste from the uranium industry is toxic and radioactive and the process of its stocking (disposal) in the abandon salt mines is very expensive. To cut down the costs, the uranium industry has offered depleted uranium to everyone who is interested, and – for free. Soon, they came to an idea to create the uranium ammunition for destroying the Soviet tanks. The American industry has excitedly greeted and accepted the free offer of this waste, and started making in the seventies of the last century, missiles filled with depleted uranium (U-238). The mass production of various types of ammunition started in 1977, by companies like
“Honeywell”, “Aerojets”, etc. The cruising missiles “Tomahawk” are produced by “Boeing”, “Rayton”, “Huges Aircraft Co.” and others. Also, today, this ammunition production is developed in Great Britain and France. The export to other countries members of NATO is also not excluded, as well as to Japan, Australia and New Zealand. According to some informations, the Pentagon has already sold this type of ammunition to Thailand, Taiwan, Bahrain, Israel Saudi Arabia, Greece, Turkey, Kuwait, South Korea and to some other countries.16 During three years time (1975-1978) in an airbase, a research of ammunition with uranium nucleus was conducted. However, the armament that used the depleted uranium ammunition had not been massively use until the nineties. The USA used this ammunition massively during the Golf War in 1991, in which the American army used missiles filled with depleted uranium (OU-238) in Iraq and Kuwait. This is long kept as “top secret” – as secret invasion.17 Hence, since1991, we are encountering with the war use of DU ammunition. Although some records show that even before that, the army of the former SSSR used DU in restricted amounts in occupied Afghanistan in the eighties of the last century, still the Golf War marks the beginning of mass use.18
The nation, October 1996, page 82.
For example, in the „Desert storm“ operation, the US army M1A1 Abraham tenks and Britain army – Chalinger, fired a thousands of great calibar missiles; American snipers fired the ammunition of 7.62mm nad 0.5mm calibar. The US tenks fired missiles with DU and destroyed tenks armor of the Soviet production T – 72 from a distance of 3-5 km. With this weapon, The USA and The UK destroyed in Golf War 3.700 tenks of iraq army and disabled 1.400 of them.
The quantity of fired ammunition with DU in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iraq in the operation „Desert storm“ was: out of tank guns-9.640 missiles and 50.95 t of DU238, from airplanes-850 missiles and 243.15 t of DU238. Besides that, in an accident (a fire) in a storage house of this ammunition together with motor vehicles of the US army base in Doha, Kuwait, there burnt: 9.720 aeroprojectiles with DU and 660 of tenks projectiles with DU, so precipitating some 6.4 t of DU from the atmosphere to the ground and objects in Kuwait. According to precise estimate on used DU ammunition, in the Golf War:
According to military experts, since then the military doctrine and war strategy has become dependable on DU ammunition, as a weapon of priority in leading the modern wars. It is used for mass contamination of the environment, with long-term and immense consequences to civilians and the living world. It is used for destruction of everything â€“ from light armored vehicles and bunkers to tanks. While winning the Iraq (2003), the invasion forces of the USA and Great Britain hit the defenders from a safe distance with DU ammunition, so as to cut down their own, and increase the losses of the enemy. In this relatively short term war, the land forces and the aviation fired at least 127 tones of DU by their missiles.19 How many DU missiles were used by the marines is still not determined.20 Less than a year after the war, in March 2004, 442 troops of military police (that were not participating in combat actions, but was in charge for escorting convoy and training the new Iraq police) were brought back to the USA before the regular replacement deadline. It is determined that four members of this unit were
940.000 missiles were fired from air
14.000 missiles were fired from land in war time
7.000 missiles were fired on tenks of Iraq
During practice in Saudi Arabia, 4.000 missiles were fired, and the rest 3.000 of them burnt in an accident.
And so, it is estimated that the total of 310-350 t of DU was precipitated, with the total radioactivity of 12 to 13.5 TBq and of l-activity of 4.5 to 50 TBq. According to these estimates, to concequences to people (the Iraqis) could be disasterous â€“ if only 5% of exemped uranium particles is inhaled, that could cause the death of 500.000 people! 19
Once they explode, the DU missiles are permanently contaminating their object and its environment with radioactive material of low intensity. Because f its concentration the DU is superior in penetrating tanks and fortified objects of the defender. 20
The NATOs use of DU ammunition in 1991, in Golf War, was revealed by the German professor, the Doctor of infectious deseases and epidemology, Siegwart Guenther from Berlin, who brought from Iraq a bullet with DU in July 1992. the German police took the bullet in protective foil and put it in a lead container. He was charged for illegal exposure to ionizing radiation, and the Berlin court sentenced him in 1993 for breaking the Attomic Energy Rule (The Law on Attomic Energy). The Iraqis found out for the use of DU in Golf War through press at the end of 1992.
irradiated.21 The expertise showed that they all inhaled the radioactive dust from exploded American missiles. When it comes to natural characteristics of DU weapons, it should be pointed out that the natural uranium ore consists of isotope uranium 238 in larger part, and 0.7% of isotope uranium 235.22 As isotope 235 is feasible, and is used for reactors, the uranium ore poor in this element must be enriched. The procedure implies enormous quantities of materials, hereof creating large quantities of DU that consists in the largest part of uranium isotope 238. The excess of uranium isotope 238 is called “depleted” because it has lower content of uranium isotope 235 than normal. The DU is rarely thick, a cm3 weights 18.95 grams. Because of its density, the types of missiles built from it have very great natural power, and are capable for penetrating trough heavy armored vehicles. The quantities of DU in the world are very high. The USA alone has around million tones.23
Four members of this unit were irradiated. The staff sergeant Remos, complained to the doctors: “I got sick immediately in Jun 2003…my health kept getting worse, with constant headaches, arm stiffness and stomach rash.” Dr. Asaf Durakovic, an expert in nuclear medicine, who examined and tested nine soldiers, ascertained that they all inhaled radioactive dust from exploded American missiles filled with DU. The laboratory tests confirmed the doubt , because a presence of uranium that is not found in nature was detected in the urine of four soldiers. Since these patients were not in the “heart of a battle”, the ones that did could be expected to have larger amounts of DU in urine. This Dr. Durakovics constatation was confirmed by Dr Tomas Fejsi, the pathologist and an expert for DU, emphasizing that the health of the irradiated will get worse in the future with uncertain final prognosis. Professor Axel Garbesh, the geologist on Goethe University in Frankfurt, reached the same conclusion when conducting the research and determined that four soldiers were irradiated by the uranium isotope. 22
The natural uranium has U234, U235, U238, U236 isotopes. The isotopic content of the depleted uranium is. 238U over 99%, 235U 0.2%, 234U 0.0008% and 236U 0.003%. The depleted uranium is radioactive. The half-life time of 238U is 4.5 billion years. U238 is emitter of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Its descendents are also radioactive(234Th, 234Pa ) By extracting 235U from natural uranium creating depleted uranium. It is depleted because the presence is negligibly low, but is enriched with 238U. The DU is a lowradioactive by-product of a nuclear fuel cycle. As such, it should be disposed in warehouses of radioactive waste. In fast nuclear reactors (briders) 238U can transform in 239Pu, creating nuclear fuel. 23
Pantelic P: Monitoring of radioactivity on Serbian territory, Collection of works, Budva, 1999.
As shown on American example, the production and the use of DU ammunition is the cheapest way for releasing more than 500.000 tones of this radioactive waste. Approximately the same ammount of DU is found in other nuclear facilities for uranium enrichment. To this should be added annual amaunts that are created during work of nuclear facilities for producing the electrical energy planet wide. The depleted uranium is used in production of hydrogenic bomb. The hydrogenic bomb (termonuclear) uses DU in the last phase. In the first phase there is a standard implosion of 239Ru which initiates initial chain reaction which then releases X rays. In a second phase, spreading shock wave of X rays is heating the lithium deuteride 2D, in which a fusion is started then. In the third phase, fast neutrons from lithium deuteride are spreading and passing through the bomb shell and reaching the DU. The fast neutrons are creating new wave of fission that gives 50 % of a final megatonage of a bomb itself, hence making the DU an important part of every standard X-bomb. The neutron bomb is a hydrogenic bomb (the X-bomb) without the DU shell. Because of its small output power, a neutronic bomb destroys the living force with neutrons, and without damaging the objects. Also, the DU can be used in fertilizing reactors for producing plutonium for atomic bombs. Inside the reactor, uranium is constantly bombed with neutrons and first becomes neptunium, and then plutonium. Huge supplies of plutonium are created in such way, originating from U238 radioactive waste.24
1.4.5. The defining of radioactive material
Among many dilemmas of modern civilization, the significant place has the entry in article 4 of International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 25, which says: â€œThis convention doesnâ€™t refer, or can be interpreted as
Dr Michio Kaku: Depleted Uranium: Huge Quantities of Dangerous Waste, Metal ofDishonor page. 17.
The resolution was adopted by the General Parliament of OUN nb. 12/210 in 17 December 1996.
referring, on any way, on question of legality of nuclear weapon use or use treat by the side of state”?! Since clause 1 of this convention is defining “the radioactive material” i.e. the nuclear material and the rest radioactive substances that contain nuclides that are spontaneously decomposing, emitting one or more types of ionizing radiatings (the neutrinic particles and Gama rays), which can, because of its radiologic or fissile characteristics, cause death, serious injuries, or significant damages on property or environment. The DU is for sure one of such means, which is today used as DU ammunition by the NATO Alliance. Since the bombing with DU ammunition contains a part of processed radical nuclear material charge which comes from nuclear reactors, we are here giving an approach to defining the radioactive material, as well as some technical characteristics of radionuclides. According to the American Department of Transport26 the radioactive material is “any material that has the specific validity (activity) larger than 0.002 micro curies per gram of mass”. The specific radioactivity of radiological core means: “The activity of radiological core per slug (unit of mass) of that core”. Simplifying, the micro curie is a radioactivity measurement unit. When radioactive material emits over 0.002Mc per gram of material which is actually weight measurement unit, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transport. The National Radiological Commission (NRC) regulates the radioactive materials and wastes that are disposed in special objects. The radioactive material is legally used in medical practice, nuclear plants equipment, and scientific research (reactors), agriculture, industry, and consumer goods. Approximately 100 American submarines and 5 ships are working on nuclear plant and are belonging to the army of America and its allies (NATO). 47 nuclear reactors are primarily located on the USAs colleges and universities, and their work has been
Burke, Robert, Counter terrorism for Emergency Respounders, Lewis Pybliohers, New York, 2000, pp 139-164.
approved by the NRC. Although slight likely, but if terrorists come in possession of nuclear reactors, a significant damage can be caused. A nuclear detonation implies released energy from nuclear fission reaction, that is termonuclear reaction of nucleus fusion of light elements. The energy released from nuclear reactions is by hundreds and thousands times stronger than the energy produced by a chemical reaction. When it comes to types of radiation, the majority, if not all products of fission reaction are radioactive, and so the question is actually what is radiation and radioactivity? The radiation is ionizing energy that is spontaneously emitted by a material or a combination of materials. The radioactive material is then a product that spontaneously emits the ionizing radiation. There are two types of radiation, ionizing and non-ionizing. The ionizing radiation includes particles and wave energy that travels in wavelike form. The examples are the alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays, neutrons, ultraviolet waves and microwaves. The nonionizing radiation consists also of wavelike energy. The examples are ultraviolet light, the radar waves, the radio waves, visible light, and infrared light. All types of radioactivity travel linearly. There are three types of radioactive emission from the radioactive atoms nucleus. The first type is alpha particle that resembles a helium atom without its electron cloud, which means that two protons and two neutrons are remaining in nucleus. They are hold together by the nuclear forces in nucleus. The alpha waves are positively electrified and are emitted from nucleus of some light elements. When an alpha particle is thrown away from nucleus, it is followed by one or more types of energy in form of radiation. Hard elements, such as radium and uranium, for example, usually emit alpha particles when in half-life period. The others may decompose by spontaneous fusion whose result is the neutron emission. Alpha particles are large, and thatâ€™s why they cannot penetrate or travel as far as beta and gamma radiation. Alpha particles travel 3-4 inches and cannot penetrate the skin. The complete RN equipment includes a mask, an ulster, and gloves will protect a person from alpha rays. However, if alpha rays enter the body through food or
water, or through skin injury, they can cause great damage in internal organs (internal contamination). The beta particles are negatively electrified, smaller, travel faster and penetrate deeper than the alpha particles. The beta particle is around 1800 times smaller in size than proton, and approximately of equal mass with electron. The beta particle is actually formed a neutron is transformed in proton and electron, in nucleus. The proton remains in nucleus, while beta particle in electron gets thrown away from nucleus. The beta particle has less ionizing power than alpha particle, but, because of that, it can penetrate further that is deeper. Light elements emit beta particles harder. Beta particles will penetrate the skin and travel 3-100 feet. Full equipment and the individual set for respiration will protect from the alpha particles penetration, but it will not provide full protection from beta particles. The present radiation causes contamination of personal and equipment that came in touch with it. The personnel and citizens that report to have been exposed to radiation from detonative device for radioactive material dispersion-are subjected to decontamination, i.e. it is obligatory to perform decontamination upon them. The efficiency of decontamination can be controlled with radiation measurer. The waves of radioactive energy cannot contaminate anyone or anything. It is probable that elements that emit alpha and beta particles are also emitting some gamma and xrays. Gamma and x-rays are the main causes of ionizing radiation that is produced by nuclear explosion. Gamma and x-radiation is actually identical form of rays, different only by its source. The gamma photons are products of atoms nucleus decomposition, and x-rays are products of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. The third type of radioactivity i.e. the radioactive particles does not occur in nature. The neutron particle is a result of atom splitting in nuclear reactor or accelerator, and it can also be produced by termonuclear explosion. During fission process, released neutrons represent the mrimar quantity of the entire radiation released by that reaction. When an atom is splitted by fission, the neutron particle gets thrown away. Somebody would have to find himself inside the nuclear reactor to be exposed to neutron particles. Even if one would be exposed to neutron particles from
termonuclear explosion, he wouldnâ€™t have had to worry, because they would either vaporize from the heat, or get torn by the explosion pressure! The gamma radiation occurs in nature in a form of highly energetic electromagnetic waves that are emitted from the atomic nucleus. It cannot be found in nature and has great penetrating power. The gamma radiation has the highest energetic level and is the most dangerous of all usual forms of radiation. The examples of other electromagnetic waves include ultraviolet, infrared, microwaves, visible light, radio waves and x-rays. The gamma rays travel at the speed of light, or more then 298.000 kilometers per second, and penetrate the skin causing injuries on internal organs. There is no such close that could protect us from the gamma radiation. The gamma radiation protective shield requires several inches of led, or other hard metal, several feet of concrete and several feet of land. The gamma radiation does not cause any contamination because the gamma rays are not radioactive particles but just energetic waves. There is a slight difference between x-rays and gamma rays. The xrays are made in the cathode Ray tube. In order for someone to be exposed to xrays, there has to be an electrical power on a machine that produces those rays. If there is not such power then there is no x-radiation.
Table 1: Protection against radiation. The assessment of the usual materials safety Material
Half-estimate of the density
2.37 – 3.15 inches
2.38 – 4.72 inches
2.39 – 8.66 inches
Table Nb. 2: Classification of the radionuclides according to the level of toxicity Group I
of very high radiotoxicity ( Sr-90, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228,
Ac-237 and all isotopes of Pu)
of high radiotoxicity (Na-22, Ca-45, Co-60, Sr-89, J-131,
Cs-134, Cs-137, C-144 etc)
of medium radiotoxicity ( O-15, Na-24, P-32, K-42, Ca-47, Fe-59,
Co-58, Sr-85, J-132 i td.)
of low radiotoxicity ( C-14, Ci-38, Cr-51 etc)
Table Nb.3: Overview and characteristics of radionuclides Radionuclide
The way of
Time of appearance after an accident
Sr – 89
Sr - 90
He – 133
lungs, fat tissue,
muscles Cs – 134
beta minus, gamma
Ru - 103
bouns Ru – 106
bouns Nb – 45
Cs – 137
tract gamma Kr – 87
lungs, fat tissue,
bones Zr - 95
There is a large number of radionuclides that are found in radioactive cloud after the releasement from damaged nuclear facilities or after the nuclear explosion. It’s a
dynamical process of fast transformations which is moving uncontrollably in the environment. The scheme of the most important radionuclides, their half-life time, way of decomposing, critical organs and tissues that they attack, and the time necessary for them to show up in the atmosphere, in soil, and environment after the accident â€“ is summarized in table Nb. 3. As it can be detected, the existence of enormous potential of this weapon and nuclear fuel, almost on every continent and larger countries (not only the ones that are known to possess this weapon) represents great danger because of the possibility of war and peace abuse, whether talking about states, terrorists or criminals. The use of depleted uranium from radioactive wastes that is used to fill the artillery, aircraft, tank grenades and missiles in the armament of NATO and its leading members. They use it in war and interventional armed conflicts since 1991, with a certainty of future use, with rising uncertainty of consequences. When it comes to the effects of the depleted uranium ammunition, health aspects of its use should be pointed out. The aerosol deposition lasts up to 2 weeks, of what time 3-4 hours from its creation are the most intense. In that time range, there is a possibility of inhalation and ingestion of these aerosols, with manifestation on organism the effects of hemotoxicity, as well as radiotoxicity. In case aerosols are solubles (the metal uran or UF6), hemotoxicity dominates. The part of the DU missiles that burns while hitting the target is 0.9-70 %, which depends on the range of penetration, the missile speed, and the density of the material. The impact of 155 mm missile releases 2.4 kg od depleted uranium aerosol. Half of DU aerosol particles produced during 105 mm missile testing was of respirable dimensions in range. These particles reach the nonciliary parts of bronchial tree. Another study showed that 70 % of aerosol particles of DU while impact are smaller than 7 ct in average, therefore that they are considerably respirable. The aerodinamical equivalent diameter (AED), from distance of 10 m from the place of
missile impact, is considered as nonrespirable, from distance of 5m is respirable in 25 %, of 3.5m 50 %, of 2m 100 m. The particles larger than 7 um, even the very small ones under 0.2 um donâ€™t have inhalation risk. During respiration, such particles can keep in lungs causing local radiational damage, or they can be deposed in targeted organs after the absorption in circular system. The retention is determined by the concentration of particles, their density, size, shake, and breathing type of the person exposed. Soluble components of DU are penetrating the bloodstream very fast, manifesting toxical effects primarily on kidneys, chiefly of chemical and then of radiological nature. The nonsolulable components stay in lungs with the biological half-life time of 120 days and represent the radiational danger to alveolar tissue. It is considered that 60 % of nonsoluble uranium is kept in lungs during 500 days.
An experimental model showed that 25 % of particles are deposed in bronchial tree, 20 % is expectorated immediately, gets relocated in nasopharynx and swallowed, after what is subjected to mechanism of gastrointestinal absorption or elimination. The intestinal absorption of DU is negligible, while the respiratory ways are in the first place by exposure to radiotoxical risks. One of therapeutical procedures during internal DU contamination must include relocation of the particles inhaled on extrapulmonary ways. The depositing of DU particles on alveolar surfaces will result in their absorption in concordance with their solubleness, in about 10 % of particles kept in lungs, which inevitably penetrate the system circulation. The remaining 15 % is climbing towards nasopharinx by expectoration or ends up in gastrointestinal tract by swallowing. The soluble components of uranium absorbed through the lung tree are deposed in skeletal system during several weeks with a biological half-life time in lungs of 120 days. Significantly longer pulmonar retention of 1.470 days is expected in cases of uranium-oxide inhalation. When it comes to military aspects of DU use, it is important to ascertain that the penetrational power of antitenk ammunition of smaller calibers (up to 30 mm), especially when it comes to tenks, is relatively small, while larger calibars penetrational power is similar to the adequate calibers made of other materials.
From the economic point of view, the DU is cheaper than other materials that are used for producing grain of similar penetrational power, considering that it is found as a lowradioactive nuclear waste (it is estimated that the USA alone possesses around a million tons of this waste). In ecological terms, a country that produces this type of ammunition is getting rid of the radioactive waste by transferring it in military conflict on an opposing side, damaging the environment for a long period of time, on a place of effect. The psychological effect of this ammunition use is not negligible because of the permanently present fear of nuclear radiation. Weak knowledge about it in a population that is found in such circumstances makes it easy to manipulate with the attacked country’s public opinion. After ending the war effects, the deposits of the depleted uranium are legally treated the same way as peacetime accidents, all the way to theirs removing. Completely other dimension of radiological danger represents the possible presence of DU in cruising missiles. Based on the information from literature, the DU is used in cruising missiles as counterweight, and that of 11 to 20 kg, in order to improve the flying performances of aircraft, but also in production. 27 In war against SRJ in 1999, the depleted uranium was used by the side of NATO forces. Since the DU is a nuclear waste material, it represents a radiational danger to the army, civilians, animals and floras, i.e. to the entire environment with all its attributes. On the Iraq example, after The Golf Wars „Desert Storm“ (1991), it was found out that the USA had supplied and used pyridostigmin-bromide (PD) as an antidote to
The Cargo Jet, of Israel airline company „Israel El Al“, crashed in 04.10.1992, on an airport in Amsterdam, and 43 passengers died in this accident. A year later it was published that crashed airplane had in its construction a counterweight made of DU238. The news disturbed population of Bijlmer (suburbs of Amsterdam). It turned out that each BOING 747, has 1.500 kg of counterweight made of tungsten and DU. The crashed airplane had 380 kg of DU in back rudder, and so 150 kg of DU was extracted and transported in Holland national waste agency of ra material, and the land surface depth of 40 cm was removed from the place of the plane crash. The group of experts has moderated the scenario of the hypothetically hardest crash of BOING 747, with 450 kg of DU and determined that some 250.000 people would have health problems, which would be a consequence of inhaling the uranium-oxide particles.
poisonous gas soman (which should have been used by Iraqis) at 250.000 soldiers of ally forces. The soman attack never happened. Still in 1999, PD was pronounced guilty for so-called „Syndrome of the Golf War“, that around 30.000 of American soldiers got ill with. These soldiers and members of their families gain right on court for material redress. While winning the Iraq (2003), the invasion forces of the USA and Great Britain hit the defenders from a safe distance with DU ammunition, so as to cut down their own, and increase the losses of the enemy. In this relatively short term war, the land forces and the aviation fired at least 127 tones of DU by their missiles.28 How many DU missiles were used by the marines is still not determined.
In the mid 1995, the NATO aviation acted upon military positions of the Serbian Republic and its vital objects by using the DU ammunition. In course of the operation “The decisive response”, more precisely the “Unlimited power operation”, that started on 30 August 1995, there were 3.515 take offs from a base in Italy and from an aircraft carrier in the Adriatic against the military positions of the Serbian Republic. The Serbian positions within a diameter of 30 km from Sarajevo were hit with the DU ammunition. Military and civilian targets were hit, and the main targets were Milici, Vlasenica, Ham Pijesak, Sokolac, Pale, Vogosca, Rogatica, and some other settlements. The positions of the Overhaul Institute in Hadzici, in Vodosca and Blazaj, were hit with the ammunition APIPGU – 014/V from an airplane 10 Warthog. It is considered that only caliber 30 mm was used in bombing of Bosnia, and it is estimated that ten thousands bullets were fired. In course of bombing of the Serbian part of Bosnia, a radioactivity was measured in craters of the bombs exploded. Based on the data on the strength of y-radiation absorbed doses, it was concluded that the intensity of radioactivity in comparison
Once they explode, the DU missiles are permanently contaminating their object and its environment with radioactive material of low intensity. Because f its concentration the DU is superior in penetrating tenks and fortified objects of the defender.
with regular was increased. Measurements were conducted on same localities of the Doboj region, where NATO alliance had the most performance. The increased strength of y-radiation absorbed doses is measured especially around missile craters and in craters themselves. There was an observed case of the increased radiation in a street in Doboj that was remediated by the forces of IFOR. It is presumed that the remediation of the street driveway was done using radioactive material. The gamma spectrometric analysis that was conducted after the effects of NATO alliance in the Serbian Republic, has shown a certain level of radiation in that area. The increased radiation was noticed on the area where caliber 30 mm bullets were found. In April 1998, SR Yugoslavia came out with an announcement as a reaction on Western Forces claims that DU is harmless and that it represents a humane weapon: “During bombing of settlement in Serbian Republic, the NATO forces used missiles filled with DU (DU235), which is a product of natural uranium (DU238). The DU is actually a radioactive waste. According to regulations in our country and to international standards, uranium is toxical, belongs to II class of radionuclides of high radio-toixicity and therefore its use is prohibited. Because of those reasons, we will send our protest to the UN, OEBS, EU, The IAEA, and other political and humanitary organizations – members of the Yugoslavian expert team that analyzed mentioned missiles concluded recently.” It was noticed that, as a consequence of DU ammunition use (as well as the use of different chemical agents), the wounded or population exposed to its effect had: exhaustion, sluggishness, severe headache, stomach aches, cough, weaker blood circulation, anxiety, sweating, muscle fatigue, shortness of breath , inflammation of throat and lungs, eye tears, somnolence, insomnia, weaker apetit etc. In doctors reports, all these simptoms occured after the bombing. A loss of hair and leukimia was also noticed. Also, because of the DU ammunition use, some changes in vegetable and animal world were noticed:
on animals: mamals - immobility, listlessness, inability to concieve (especially cows and pigs), miscarriage, loss of apetite, diarea, death etc.
On vegetable species – fruit blossoming was accelerated and was not followed by the presence of bees and other insects, and flower drop was not progressive, but sudden. The blossoming of acacia was so exuberant that even the oldest didnt remmember something similar, but flowers did not smell, and therefore did not have any bees or insects on them. Fruits of these threes dropped in their infancy. Leaves of garden plants withered, and in most cases it was bored as well as the leaves of park threes;
On birds – the migratory birds are very rare, some species vanished (for example, crow an dow etc). It was noticed that some new species have appeared that were not found in this region (for example, a specie of owl). Also, it was noticed that birds avoid standing on threes;
A number of rodents increased (rats, mice), as well as the number of reptiles, especially snakes, that were not registered in this region before (in a village of Boljanic, the Doboj region, a number of snakes increased. Peasants found many snake eggs, and householders had their poultry dying massively. In some chicken coops, all poultry died suddenly. And in the region of Derventa, strange events were recorded: a game warden found near village of Osinja tree red snakes (that were never seen before in that area), and also cockroaches, different insects and new species of mosquitos were noticed)
A number of big and small game of all species was reduced;
It had came to the climate disorder – precipitations are often and temperature changes big and sudden. Jovo Prajic, one of the rare people that decided to write on the influence of “the American rains on nature, people and animals”, said: “After the exuberant spring rains on mountains of Ozren and Maljevica that had bomb rains poured on them, there was no usual freshness. Instead of ozone, an unbearable swelter was felt which made breathing impossible. Fruits
also started acting strange since springtime. Many blossomed, but bees did not fly down on the ones with flowers. ”
There are still no collective data in the Serbian Republics health services on the evidential increase in the number of those diseased and died of cancer.29 However, the BIH Federation published in 1997 that that year had 10.000 new registered were diagnosed with carcinoma. Also, that in thousand citizens of BIH, 4.3 of them are diseased, and in parts of Sarajevo up to there are 7.2 newfound malignant diseases: cancer of the uterus, kidneys and thyroid, leukimia, and aplastic anemia. These harsh diseases the most often attack children, of the age 1-14. in the Serbian Republic, there are only individually described cases of the radiational diseases. Dr. Milenko Mitic from Hadzici said that he treated many people with malignant carcinoma, that had fast pace of fatal outcome, and were radiated after the bombing with DU238. In Doboj hospital a large increase in the number of those that have virus Herpe illness – zoster, theoryasis, a hair loss, high fever and different infections of the upper breathing ways of lungs. The DU ammunition is intended, therefore, for hitting the armored battle means and warehouses. It is made in many different calibers, from 20 mm and upwards. Until now, the ammunition of caliber 30mm was used most often, and it was fired from airplane A-10 guns, or from tenks. This ammunition has great penetration power – the 30 mm caliber penetrates the steel of 6 cm thickness. In Golf War, over 940.000 missiles of the 30 mm caliber was fired, and around 14.000 missiles of 105 mm and 120 mm caliber, which is about 320 tones.30 A 30 mm caliber was mainly used in
In Bosnaian press an article was published which stated that many children that lived on the territory of the Serbian Republic where the aviation had effect, had fallen sick with the unknown syndrome, which is characterised by a weaken imune system, muscle pains, skeleton pains, headache – up to 600 of them had to seek hospitalisation. In course of 1997-1998, the local media published that a dramatical increase was recorded in the number of those who are deseased of cancer, both among children and among adults, as well as the deformities at the newborns. 30
Orlic M.: „The environmental pollution with DU in our country”, Proceedings, Acta Vertinaria, Budva 1999, page 137
Bosnia and it is estimated that thousands or tens of thousands of missiles were fired. The uranium core of these missiles weights around 300 grams (the missile number x 300 = total mass of the radioactive DU). There are no precise information on the quantity of the ammunition fired in the SRJ. The estimates are in limits of 9 â€“ 30 tons. The DU is used in producing certain components of the ballistic missiles (rockets). In order to make the rocket stabile and precise during its flight to target, stabilisators and counterweights of high density materials are used in its production. It is estimated that around 20 kg of DU is found in a rocket. The DU radiotoxicity is manifested as internal or external radiation. The external radiation is important in cases when an entire striker of this ammunition (which is made of alloy in which the DU dominates) or a part of it, is found near people. If it comes in a direct contact with skin, because of the presence of the alpha radiation of the striker surface, skin will develop changes within 80 hours. These cases are very rare and can easily be avoided with appropriate protection procedures.31 The internal radiating is more dangerous and significantly harder to avoid. The aerosol inhalation in immediate environment of the object hit represents main danger to human, especially to tenks crew. In initial phase, aerosol influence is dominant in air, and later on territory and in waters. In immediate surroundings of the place hit (object), the environment contamination is the most intense. The DU migrates through soil, water, air and ecological chains, and there lies basic danger to environment and living world. It is well known that the USA brought in the DU (U238) missiles (ammunition) as a part of its own armament and the armament of the armies members of the NATO alliance in the second half of the eighties of the XX century. This unconventional
Orlic M.: â€žThe environmental pollution with DU in our countryâ€?, Proceedings, Acta Vertinaria, Budva 1999, page 138
weapon of mass destruction and disabling the opponents living force and civilian population is prohibited by the international conventions. Still, this weapon is massively used by the NATO alliance in: “The Desert Storm” – NATO alliances aggression upon Iraq in 1991, in civil war in BIH and Croatia in 1992 till 1995, in invading the SRJ in 1999, and in American and British invasion of the Iraq, again in 2003.
Image Nb. 3: The impact zones of missiles with the depleted uranium
This book is a result of a long research and study of the chemical danger development, and abuses in peacetime problematics, and especially in case of a war
that would be led with this weapon as the nuclear, radiational, and/or chemical terror. The basic characteristics of the chemical, radiational and nuclear weapon are also given, as well as the dangers that follow those weapons abuse: a) by threat and use of these weapons in war and peace b) by threat and use of these weapons in the diversional, and especially terroristic actions by the side of terroristic and criminal groups and organizations, in peacetime and war c) by material damage and human losses that have been happening to this day: in the nuclear facilities accidents; on nuclear missiles aircraft carriers, in nuclear submarines, warehouses; during thousands of nuclear testings and experiments, that all had consequences on humans, the living world and the environment. d) by the DU abuse in war purposes and its immediate and subsequent consequences on humans, the living world and the environment. e) consequences of the effects of the ionizing radiation on humans and animals. f) the radiological contamination, and g) the international prohibition of nuclear and radiational weapons use, and international convention on preventing the nuclear terrorism acts. Besides, it was the basic motive to write this book, which is intended to the professional public, as to all those who want to have more information on chemical weapon, i.e. the war terror with this weapon, chemical and radiational terrorism and abuses.
2. THE HISTORICAL REVIEW OF CHEMICAL MEANS USE AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS WEAPONS
The idea of using chemical means in war purposes is as old as the history of mankind and wars itself. However, the choice of means and the technology of its production and use stood in direct dependence on level of scientific development and concrete social and economical order. Even in ancient times there were well known attempts of coating arrow heads with strychnine, cocaine end poisonous plants extracts, such are nightshade (Atropa belladonna), monkshood (Aconitum napellus), squill (Urginea maritima), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), or with snake poison and corps extracts. People of ancient China and India also used poisonous smokes and inorganic poisons. Beside the open (public) use of poisonous smokes, poisonous plant extracts and inorganic compounds in wars, the ancients were faced with a mass secret use of chemical means in assassinations and diversional actions against public figures, generals and dynasties of the chattel slavery system. In mythology, history and ancient literature, a large number of such secret actions and assassinations were recorded. Well known are attempts of assassinations with poison on great generals and statesmen: Alexander Macedonian the III (battle at Gaugamela in 1.October 331 b.c) and Julius Ceasar (lat. Gaius Iulius Caeser; 13 July 10. b.c â€“ Rome, 15 March 44 b.c.) in year 47 b. c. Among the represents of the oldest civilizations, the Sumerians, assassinations by poisoning were widespread in mutual reckonings of rulers and their families. The middle ages have similar characteristics when it comes to the use of chemical means in war purposes and assassinations. In wars of the Middle Ages numerous examples of the use of smoke of raw branches, raw wood, and wet straw were recorded, for suffocating the enemy who possessed towers, fortresses and caves that made it impossible to conquer him by the means of warfare. There are also well known attempts of sulfur gas use and of wet straw smoke, and in some cases of arsenic compounds (realgar) alone, or in mixtures with materials that develop strong smell by burning. The landed gentry, the nobility, ecclesiastical figures, generals,
court – all could not sleep peacefully and lived in fear that their vine, cake, soup, and potions might contain the cyanogen, arsen, mercury, or some other poisonous substance. In struggling for power, inheritance, property, social and political affirmation, the individuals or groups led a secret war with poisons against the individuals or groups that held the mentioned things in their arms. The drug potions were skillfully prepared in that time, made of henbane, nightshade, and opium poppy, that have influence on behaviour and consciousness of people. It is an interesting fact that Belgrade was rescued from the Turkish overrunning in 1456 with a help of poisonous cloud. During Turkish intrusion in Europe from the Asia Minor, a well known chemisist of the time, Glauber (Glauber, Johann Rudolf, 1604-1668) suggested the production of ammunition filled with turpentine and niter that by splashing make suffocating smoke and fog. According to a military note from XVII century, Zimovic claims: „in todays war, one cannot die of one reason, but of three, that are: iron or poison, and poison or fire“. Charles XII (1682-1718), the Swedish king and general, in a so called „Northern War“ 1700-1721 successfully used in 1700 a smoke of the wet straw for hidden crossing over the river Narva. During the Napoleon wars, an English chemisist suggested making the artillery grains filled with prussic acid. At least, while winning the North Africa, the commandant of the French troupes, marshal Pelisier (Aimable Jean Jacques Pelissier, duc de Malakoff, 1794-1864) suffocated in 1845 the Arabic insurrectionary tribe Kabili (1.100 people) hidden in cave by the use poisonous raw wood smoke. At the same time with this visible progress in the use of the chemical poisons and methods of an open war, poisons were massively used in calculations between dynasties and other social structures of the Middle Ages. Around the year of 900, Byzantine emperor and military writer, Leo VI the Wise (886 – 912) in his book: „The Summary Review of the War Crafts“ considered, among other things, the question of secret war. Some fragments were preserved which state that: „narks with hidden arrows, that have poison in their heads, can commit assassinations of generals and other dignitaries“. Numerous murders in secret were recorded, that were performed
by putting the inorganic poisons (arsen, cyanogen) and special cocktails of the plant extracts in potions, cakes, and other alimentary articles. Many of these cases were extolled and described in capital works of the thens literates. Still, it can be ascertained that the Christian and Islamic religion prohibited such undertakings. Under the pressure of Christianity that encouraged mysticism and preached the eschatology of Hope, was rich in symbols and had noble religious rituals, developing gnostic understandings, there never came to drastical examples of the poison uses while performing diversions and assassinations in Byzantine. Such cases were sporadic, because the Christian church anathematized with its ethical codex â€žunclean undertakings, which included urges for destruction of human lives by vicious meansâ€œ. 32
The Islamic religion, which is based on a religious book Kuran prohibitates the use
of poisons in fighting against enemies, and for killing people in general. Many of the ancient people used psychoactive substances in war times, in order to induce in their soldiers a higher degree of courage. For example, before going into battles, the old Vikings took especially made hallucinogenic mushrooms to encourage courage and heatred towards enemy. Testimonies of the famous world traveler, Marco Polo, in his returning from Persia, describe soldiers of Prince Hassan, that were famous for their courage and cruelty towards enemy. With the assignments of killing important Persian figures, they also fought against Crusades. There are two versions of the hashish use among them. According to one of them, the beastlike murders were committed under the influence of hashish, and according to another, hashish was given to them as a reward for the committed work. Irresistible desire for artificial paradise made them blindly obedient to their prince Hassan. These testimonies can be taken as the first known historical information on drug use in political i.e. political purposes. From historical point of view, diversions and terrorism by chemical means first appeared in a form of assassinations by poisoning.33 They are typical emergent forms
N. V. Ouspensky: Sketch of Byzantine history, p. 52-144, Medfiz, Moscow, 1952.
Robert Harris and Jeremu Paxman, A. Higher from of killing, Chatto and Windus, London, 1982
of the diversional-terroristic acts, in which chemical means (weapon) are used for violent threatening and endangering health and taking people’s lives – of the real or potentional, personal, social or political opponents in war and peace. Period since the WW1 brought qualitatively new accomplishments in a field of use of the chemical methods and means of warfare. Also, first measurements and the production of means of personal and collective OPCW34 were organized. However, the idea of different chemical substances synthesis and their use in war purposes did not abandon the military experts of the XVIII and XIX century. Different poisons for explosion devices and ammunition filling were suggested, such are mercury, arsenic, sulfure, led, and poisons of the vegetable origin. One of such ideas of that period (around 18000) came from the Prussian general and military writer Scharnhorst (Scharnhors, Gerhard Johann David, 1775-1813). Thirteen years later, the Austrian field marshal Bubne gave assignment to chemistists of QA Office in Vienna to find suitable poisons that could be used in war purposes. 35 During the Crimean War, 1853-1856, in course of Sevastopol invasion in 1854-1855, the British government was suggested to take over the city by the use of sulfur-dioxide. In Franco Prussian War time, in 1870-1871, it was suggested to fill the artillery missiles with the alkaloid veratrin that has high toxical characteristics. At the end of the American civil war, 1861-1865, John Doughty, New Yorks resident, wrote a letter to Ministry of War in which he gave a recipe and suggested the liquid chlorine production for the artillery grains fillmant. In 1887, in lectures on organic chemistry in Munich, professor Bayer spoke on the possibility of tear gas use in military purposes. The conception of the German emperor and the Prussian king, Wilhelm Hohenzolern the II (1859-1921) and his chancellor, Betmen Holvega (Teobold fon
OPCW – Protection against chemical weapons
Serbian Gazette. 41 of 22 IH 1813, printed in Vienna, the World Health: A Study of War, Chicago, 1971
Betmen Holveg, 1856-1921) on secret weapon and ways of its use includes the use of chemical substances in war, and especially in diversions.36 During the Boer War (1899-1902), the British army used the artillery missiles filled with picric acid (also known as acrasin, lidi, melinit). Poisonous gas was spreading when these missiles exploded. Shortly before WWI, information was published that in 1912 the French police introduced in its armament hand grenades filled with CW tear gas – chloroacetophenone. Therefore, many military experts consider this as the beginning of organized and designed use of the chemical means as weapons for keeping the police order in proper country, and in war for destroying and temporarily disabling the living force. Namely, tear gases are used in peacetime in some countries as police poisons and for PCW training. However, designed and organized use of CW and first beginning of PCW, started only in course of WW1. Although it can be concluded, from mentioned examples, that the chemical means and methods of warfare, the diversions and assassinations – are all known from ancient times, the fact is that they were used only occasionally, sporadically and unsystematically, in small amounts and with no significant and decisive results of their effects. Still, the idea of the chemical war is very old, but it was possible only with the development of science in the beginning of the XX century, in a period of industrial, technical, technological and biological revolution. Defending itself from pain and sufferings that come before death of chemical poisoning, the public never approved such way of warfare and resolving conflicts among people. From ancient times, the use of chemical means in war purposes was categorized as a crime that is incongruous with the rules of war and chivalry. By the end of XIX and the beginning of the XX century, preparing itself for the imperialistic conquests, the Japan inserted in other countries, especially in Russia and the USA, great number of its spies – the future diversants. Most of them even
М. А. Ševčenko: Истории вооружения и бојевој техники капиталистических государства, Москва, 1978, стр. 64-121
became citizens of those countries and its legitimate members. Germany did the similar thing before the WW1 by sending its agents in France and England. They were all also trained for chemical means use in diversional actions. The WW1, 1914-1918 had all the characteristics of world proportions chemical war. Germany took the first place in leading the chemical operations on front against allies. The chlorine gas, the first deadly poison, was released from steel cylinders, as poisonous wave carried by wind of suitable direction towards the enemyâ€™s front. Even before that, Germany had used irritants, but with little success.
Image Nb. 4: Creating the poisonous wave by obsolete method of CW use with steel cylinders under pressure
The period of WW1 is considered as the beginning of the organized protection against chemical weapons (the PCW). Before it started, chemical units were formed in armies of Germany, France, Great Britain and Russia. It came to the first war use of CW in this war: the Germans used on 27 October 1914 at New Chapelle, 3000 of 105mm missiles filled with sneezer dianisidines chlorine sulfonate; then on 31 January 1915 at Bolmov they used tear gas xylene bromide against the Russians, and in March against the French. However, the Germans did not accomplish significant successes with these chemical forays (raids). Later on, they added new poisons â€“ bromoacetone and brommethil ethyl ketone to the then tear gases and sneezers. On 1 March 1915, the French used hand and riffle grenades filled with tear gas benzyl iodide. However, these CWs also didnâ€™t give the desired results. On 22 April 1915,
the Germans tried to stop the war stagnation (deadlock) by mass use of asphyxiator chlorine, releasing it from 5.700 steel cylinders on a 6 km wide front between places called Bixote and Langemark in Belgium (image Nb. 2). 15.000 French were poisoned with this poisonous wave, 5.000 of them lethally. The Germans were surprised with a result, and did not use a hole in the enemyâ€™s order. This attack is considered to be the beginning of the modern chemical war. The British did their first chlorine attack against Germans on 25 September 1915, and the French, against Germans again, in February 1916. At the beginning of 1916, belligerents began the mass use of the artillery chemical grenades. On 21 February 1916, at Verden, the French used asphyxiator phosgene, and three months later, on 19 May 1916, at Shatankur the asphyxiator diphosgene. In June and July 1916, the British had over 100 poisonous waves attacks, using mixture of chlorine, phosgene, and hydrogen sulfide. On 1 August 1916, the French were the first ones to use prussic acid with some admixtures called vensenit, but with no special successes. At the end of 1916, the Russians were the first to use chloropicrin. And so, the 1916, was marked by a definitive introduction of diphosgene in the formational CW37 in German army, and of phosgene in the armies of France and Great Britain. At the beginning of 1917, Germans found a new CW (clark I) which was the first solid CW. With the explosion of the grenade it transformed in gaseous state, manifesting the effects of sharp tear gas and strong asphyxiator. The Austro-Hungarian army was the first one to use blood poison bromcijan, in September 1917, also against the Italians. The USA developed lewisite and dichloromethyl arsenic, but were never used. Also very significant was the long-term vesicant mustard gas that was first used at Ipere, on 12/13 July 1917 by the German side. It was solid on grounds, and protective suite was necessary, because iperit also attacked skin. The Ententes losses from CW by the end of the war were mainly attributed to the mustard gas in over 85 % of cases, even though it was quantitatively less used then other CWs.
CW â€“ chemical weapon
The use of CW in WW1 kept rising: in 1915 – around 4.000 t, in 1916 – around 15.000 t; in 1917 – around 38.000 t; and in only 9 months from then in 1918 – 65.000 t. These amounts of the CWs used in war caused around 1.100.000 poisoning, that is from each kilogram of the poison used one soldier died, which makes around 5.5 % of all losses in the war.
Image Nb. 5: The Bulgarian chemical attack on Serbian armies positions and (a) settlements (b) in surroundings of Bitolj
Around fifty types of different CW were used in WW1. Asphyxiators were mostly produced and used. From the total of 122.000 t produced CWs, around 112.000 t were asphyxiators, and 90.000 t of that was used. Considering the weak effect of nonlethal CWs – irritants (sneezers and tear gases), further orientation (until 1917) was on lethal CWs from the group of asphyxiators (phosgene, diphosgene and chlorine pikrin), and from 1917 the orientation was on vesicants that achieved eight times bigger losses then asphyxiators during first war use only. This effect was possible to achieve because of the chemical nature of vesicants and inefficient PCW.
The Bulgarians also used CWs in this war, on Serbian army positions in Macedonia which were bombed, as well as the settlements surrounding Bitolj, with grenades filled with CWs.38 The mass use of CW on all WW1 fronts caused powerful moral and psychological effects on people and inflicted great losses to belligerents. The forces of the Alliance were surprised and unorganized for the efficient PCW, and so they suffered great losses. In period in between two world wars, intense preparations were conducted for WW2. In the area of chemical weapon, new formulations of the given CW and synthesis of new highly toxical compounds were researched. Belligerents entered the WW2 with modest amounts of chemical weapon. They were all, chiefly, well known CWs that had already been used in WW1 their use was prohibited again with conventions in 1922 and 1925, but the development and use were continued. For example, in attacking Ethiopia in 1936-1937, the Italians wetted settlements with mustard gas. In a period from 1922 to 1942, Japan performed several diversional actions with chemical means. In this action, poison was put in wells and food of vegetable and animal origin was contaminated. Every second Chinese that died in that war, suffered from consequences of the Japanese use of chemical means. Mustard gas, nitrogen mustard, cyanogen chloride, phosgene, diphosgene, phosgen oxime, chloroacetophenone and adamsite were intensively used. Theirs operational use was possible with artillery grenades of aircraft bombs and special containers. Prior to the occupation of France, German secret agents and diversants tried inserting poison in Paris waterworks twice, and several attempts of food intoxication were recorded. In course of 1935, Chrader and associates took over a large project of researching insecticides from a group of organophosphorus compounds in Germany. In only two years of this team work with its well known experts in the area of chemistry, biology and medicine, around 3.000 of new, highly toxical organophosphorus compounds 38
A group of authors: 35 years of NBC, The Military Publjishing Institute, Belgrade, 1980, pg. 15
were synthesized. Even today, it’s the most powerful group of pesticides in fighting against insects and other pests, for increasing grain yield, viands of the animal origin, and protecting people’s health. Three (tabun, sarin, soman) of that times most powerful CWs with neuroparalitic effect on humans, that are known as joint name of trilons, were extracted from this synthesis. In 1938, Hitler had few kilograms of the newly produced CWs. That fact was kept in strict confidentiality, and it represented objective danger and risk that the end of WW2 takes the characteristic of the chemical war. The WW2 (1939-1945) never officially had the characteristic of the chemical war.in Germany, a successful synthesis and industrial production of the third member of the trilons – soman (in 1944), and in 1941 in Great Britain – of the CW that had structure similar to trilons and was known as Disopropil Fluoro phosphat – the DFP. In May 1943, in Germany, an industrial production of the new CW – tabune started. Supplies of tabun of around 12.000 t, of sarine around 10.000 t and of certain amounts of soman. In International Military Court in Nirnberg (on 20 November1945- 1 October 1946) Albert Speer, the minister of industry in Third Reich, stated among other things: „I don’t know if a beginning of the chemical war was predicted, but from different comparisons I concluded that the use of two of our new CW was considered – of sarin and tabun.“39 The use of chemical weapon in WW2 was occasional and individual. In spring of 1942, on a battlefield in Kerch, the Germans used CW against the Soviet units and population, causing the death of around 3.000 people. In German concentration camp, by the order of Himmler Heinrich, prisoners were massively subjected to experiments with old and newly synthetised CWs. Wounds caused on people with mustard gas in a Nacvajler-Struthof camp were infected with streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, and phosgene poisoning in purposes of researching the prophylactic value of hexamethylene tetramine were performed in a Sachsenhausen camp. 39
Vojvodic, Vladimir: Toxicology of chemical weapons, Military Institute, Belgrade, 1981, page. 174
The German and Italian occupation forces on a Yugoslavian battlefield in a period of 1941-1945, disposed with chemical weapon, chemical artillery ammunition, aircraft chemical bombs, and equipment for perfusion with poisonous smoke boxes with tear gases, and chemical fugasas. By the end of the war, various toxical means were confiscated that were meant for training and diversional use, in a form of ampules, tablets, and ceramic bottles with poisons. There was objective danger that the occupational forces and their helpers, publicly or by diversional methods, will contaminate the territory, sources of drinkable water and edible food. According to the statements of the participants in a so called IV offensive, in a sector of village Sujice in Bosnia, the Germans poisoned food and contaminated sheets and objects in rooms with mustard gas, and several soldiers were poisoned. There is also information that the Germans contaminated its own armament with vesicants when they had to abandon it. After the WW2, 20.000t of CW was confiscated in Germany, or almost two times more than the total amount of CWs used in WW1. The largest amounts referred to neuroparalytic chemical warfare. After the WW2, research and production of new CWs was continued. Between 1950 and 1961, a series of new chemical compounds was investigated, among which phosphryl choline were extracted, as future military poisons, some herbicides and synthetical psychochemical CWs. At the same time, a group of neuroparalythic poisons was synthetised, as F-poisons, i.e. fluoro phosphoryl choline.
Table Nb. 4: Development and adoption of certain chemical warferes The group of
Lethal dose of
Representer of the
were first synthetised
(1.00) chloroacetophenone (0.30) SC - gases
(16.6) mustard gas
(500) HCN, Cyanogen chloride
(2500) Vh â€“ poisons
(4160) F - poisons
Psychochemical poisons Herbicides
There was a very intensive work in a postwar period in a field of chemical CWs for temporary disabling (so called incapacitant chemical warfare). The emphasis was on psychochemical active substances (narcotics, hallucinogens, hypnotics and psychostimulants) whose effect was known in smaller and wider range since the XVIII century, but were mostly used in medicine, and in rare cases were abused by addicts. The idea on these means use an potential CWs was born in the USA in the fifties of the last century. It was a period of a sudden development of technology and industrial production of synthetical psychochemical active substances from a group of hiniklindinbenzilata in the USA and Europe. Through development programs of the sixties, a synthesis of psychochemical compounds was created as potential CW for temporarily disablement of the opponents living force in war. The Americans called
this group of CWs humane poisons, and as such, they were tested on chemical polygons in Indochina, 1961-1968. Parallely with psychochemical CW, a new formula of irritants was developed, the ortho chloro-benzylidene (the CS poisons), that were also widely used in Vietnamese liberation war (1960-1975), along with herbicides from a program of humane, ie CWs for temporarily disablement. Table Nb. 5: Short overview of use and efficiency of chemical poisons in wars Period and
animals Prehistoric period
the struggle for
(plants) and animals predominance
and inorganic compounds Middle ages â€“
Individual and rare
The struggle for the
sulfur and saltpetre WW1
Sneezers, tear gas,
The first chemical
world of war
asphyxiator, real poisons and vesicants 150,000 t
Mustard 415 t,
asphyxiator 236 t
10% of total losses
More than 50 % civilians
More than 50 % civilians
1931-1945 Germany â€“ in gas
chambers â€“ the internees
WW2 Vietnam Liberation
Over 80 % civilians
1960 - 1975 irritants 7.000t
According to some incomplete dates, even after the WW2, CWs were used in smaller or larger proportions in almost all local wars. In comparison with CW supplies that allies had in WW2, an increase in number of poisons with lethal effect and CWs tor temporarily disablement is characteristic. A group of new CWs for temporarily disablement in the armament of some foreign armies consisted of: -
dihlorbenzilidenmaonodinitril (the CS -poison), synthesized in Great Britain and introduced in formation armament from 1958 until 1960. it was massively used in the Vietnamese liberation war, from 1964 till the end of the war;
dibenzoksazepin (the CR-poison), synthetised in Great Britain in 1962, and standardized for the police use;
three hinuklidin benzilate hydrochloride (the BZ-poison), a represent of synthetical CWs with psychochemical effect.
From a group of lethal poisons, the most hope is put in organophosphorus compounds â€“ neuro paralytic CWs of the phosphorilholin and phosphoriltioholin type. Military scientific centers and scientific research institutes of many countries are still working intensively on finding new poisons and perfecting the chemical weapon. In the last decays of the XX century in a bipolar world, and especially in the arsenal of the great forces chemical armament, a large group of the following poisons is found.40 Table Nb. 6 Note: (i) obsolete, residual amounts, are awaiting destruction; given in column 4 are special tags of the former USSR The US mark
Group classification and the
name of CW USA
K-toxin (not specific in literature)
Deadly CW Chloropicrin
Table by: Robinson, Julian Perry: Chemical Weapons and Chemical Arms Control,
Carnegie Endowment for Intl Peace, New York (June 1978).
Mustard gas and its forms
H, HD, HL, HT
+ (+ L)
VR - 55
Natural toxin botulinum toxin
2.1. Warfare and destruction of nature by chemical and radiological weapon (means)
The destruction of environment for the sake of subjugating the war opponent is wellknow and practiced since the ancient times. According to the legend, the mythical character Samson let loose 300 foxes with burnings into the woods so that the fire would banish the enemy from the land he intended to occupy.
The Scythian leader, Daria applied the burnt land technique in war with Palestinians (512 b.c) in order to stop the Persian intrusion. The Hun invasions from west Asia to central Europe were marked with devastating, burnings, crops and settlements destruction that caused mass migration of population. And so, according to the available records:
1) burnings, robbery, and destruction of nature and objects, led to the fall of Rome in a.d. 455. 2) The Tatar and Mongolian conquests in 1213-1224, from Asia to Europe, under the leadership of Genghis Khan, were followed by burnings and desolating of crops and cattle, and by destructing the irrigation systems on a river Tigre, they caused enormous damages to the Mesopotamian agriculture. 3) The Thirty Years War between Catholics and Protestants (1618-1648) in central Europe, with its robberies, burnings, and destruction of crops and agriculture, caused enormous damages and human losses. Germany lost in that war around 6.000.000 people, and the Czech Republic almost 75 % of its population. 4) The Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678), during which the Duchy stopped the Ludwig XIV* punitive expedition by destructing the sea mounds and flooding their own territory. This event was inscribed in the history of warfare as â€œThe Dutch Watchâ€? as having the defensive purposes. 5) The Napoleon Wars (1796-1815) with their desolation, burnings and violence (burning of Moscow) caused around 17.000.000 victims! 6) The Tai-Ping Rebellion in China (1850-1864) brought enormous destruction and desolation which brought death to 7 % of the total amount of China population.
7) The American-Indian wars were followed by destruction of cattle herds, crops, fruits, and water sources, with a purpose of subjection of the natives by the immigrants. 8) The American Civil War (1861-1865), that started with the attempt of 11 southern states secession made the southerns destroy crops in Shenandoah valley (Virginia) on a surface of 700.000 ha, in only two months. Around four millions of fertile land was destroyed and desolated in Georgia. 560.000 people (around 2 % of the total amount of population) was killed or died in this war. 9) In The Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), while retreating, the Boers applied tactical land destruction by floods, in order to deprive the English of their lives. 10) The WW1 (1914-1918) was marked as the chemical war. With the advent of the aviation, this war was characterized with ruinations and burnings, as well as the destruction of forests, fields, crops, and of civilian population. The frontal-trench war between the belligerents became a limitless was between front and deep background. 11) The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) is known by the Chinese mining of the Hua Kai dam and mounds on river Hwang Ho in 1938, in order to prevent the Japanese onrush. They flooded the entire Kiangya province, destroyed crops, forests and fertile land on a surface of million hectares, flooded 11 cities an thousands of settlements, with enormous amount of victims, especially in the rural population. 12) The WW2 (1939-1945) had a mark of a distinctly destructable war, on a large space (three mainlands and two oceans), with around 50 million of the dead, and at least three times as much of the war invalids; crops, dams, mounds and forests were destroyed, cities were ruined, communications brokenâ€Ś By destroying sea mounds in 1944, the Germans caused the flooding of 200.000 ha (17 % of the arable land and pastures); In order to prevent the allies
progression in Germany and Normandy, they destroyed around 1.2 millions of ha; In 1943, the English bombed two dams in Ur valley and flooded 125 of factories. ..The forests of Poland, Norway, SSSR and Yugoslavia were especially harmed – around 20 million hectares was cut or burnt. Fires were special form of destructive effect in this war. During allies* bombing of Holland and Dresden, a “fire storm”, carried by the blowing speed of 45 m/s, burnt everything on its way (35 km) The WW2 ended with the USAs nuclear impacts (6 and 9 August 1945) on Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for the first time in the history of warfare. This novelty gave, for the first time, an immediate disorder of ecosystem on Isles of the Pacific Ocean. Summerising the above-mentioned, the following can be ascertained: a. the WW1 was performed with classical battle means (and with the participation of the aviation for the first time), as well as with chemical weapon (chemical warfare) on a space of 4.1 million square kilometers. b. the WW2 (nuclear) was performed with to the utmost perfected conventional weapon, on a space of 22.6 million of square kilometers (around 5.5 times larger space than the WW1) The second half of the XX century has special significance when elaborating our subject – war with natural and living world. In a period from 1947-2004, more than 300 wars were led, from which we will analyze only small number from the aspect of losses.41 Losses in wars led in XX century are clearly reflecting and announcing what will, or might happen in future wars, at least when it comes to WMD. The structure of losses shows that: 1. the chemical weapon had significant place in causing losses in the WW1 – chemical warfare (11%) and spontaneous infectious diseases and wound
There is an interesting information that in average 26 kg of explosive ammunition per 1 ha was used in WW2, while 120 kg /ha were used in the Korean War of the fifties, and in Vietnamease War of the sixties and the seventies 190kg/ha were used
infections (37.5 %). The relation of losses of soldiers and civilians was: 59.0% to 41.0% (see table Nb.7)
Table Nb. 7: Structure of losses – the WW1 Weapon (cause)
Losses – number (%) Soldiers
2. Even though chemical warfare were not officially used in the WW2, in gas chambers and experiments on prisoners, more than five million were executed in Germany, which makes 10 % of the total losses. At the end of that war, the USA used in Japan, for the first time in history of warfare, the nuclear weapon (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 6. and 9. August 1945) which caused immediate death of some 200.000 residents. There were more than hundreds of thousands of additional losses in humanity, as well as the high percent of the invalidity (see table Nb. 8)
Table Nb. 8: The structure of losses – WW2 Weapon (cause)
Losses – number (%) Soldiers
23.000.000 (53.4 %)
Civilians 20.000.000 (46.6 %)
Total 43.000.000 (86.1 %)
150.000 (99.3 %)
151.000 (0.35 %)
1.200 (0.10 %)
5.048.800 (99.9 %)
5.050.000 (1.10 %)
800.000 (44.5 %)
1.000.000 (55.5 %)
1.800.000 (3.60 %)
26.297.800 (52.40 %)
50.000.000 (100.0 %)
Nagasaki, A-bomb, 1945 Chemical warfare agents (chamber gas) Zyklon B. (hen) B – infectious diseases and wound infections Ratio of losses
A tendency of an increase in the number of losses of civilian population in the total amount (52.4%) is already visible in the WW2. When it comes to the WMD (NBC)42, the predominance is even 55 to 99 %: 0.1 to 44 % at the expense of civilians. Since NBC weapons participated only symbolically in a structure of losses and usages (around 14 %), it can be assumed what kind of sufferings would a total nuclear war (99.3%), the chemical war (99.9 %), or biological (88 %) bring. However, the new and perfected conventional and sophisticated weapon have significant special effect in wars after the WW2. With partial and well dosed use of radiational and chemical weapon, a tendency of increased mass civilian sufferings is shown, as for example:
in Korean War (1950-1959), around 82 % of civilian losses
in Vietnam War (1961-1975), the number of civilian victims in comparison with soldiers reached 90% : 10 %
The Vietnam War (1961-1975) represents a typical example of modern imperialistic wars in which the primar goals of attack were not armed forces but civilian population (genocid), the living world and the environment (ecocide). The USA army conducted mass aviobombings with classical explosives, chemical weapon, flamable 42
NBC – nuclear, biological, chemical weapon: WMD – weapons of mass destruction
means, mechanical operations and Roman plows43, within the „find and destroy“ operation in Vietnam. The bombings were performed throughout the entire territory and the living world, crops, forests, forests, communications, with an object to show effects similar to nuclear weapon on this war polygon, from which they gave up to avoid a risk of nuclear war, and public conviction that they have started the nuclear war first. The mass avia bombings were performed from heavy bombardiers B-52, from a hight of 10.000 m. In eight years three times more bombs were thrown (21 million) and of mines (229 millions), than all the WW2 fronts. 7 million tones of explosive bombs were thrown in a zone of „free fire“, which was pronounced on the three quarters of Vietnam. In average, 93 bombs were covering the surface of 65 ha, creating a „rug“ on 26% of the entire Vietnamese territory.44 This war is also characteristic by the mass use of herbicides as chemical warfare against vegetation, by the side of the USA army. 50.000t of the herbicides used destroyed forests and cultivated plants on 10 % of this country’s surface, or on 2.126.170 ha, from which number 90.5% goes to destroyed forests (1-924.170 ha), 9.5% to crops (202.000 ha). 1.500.000 people (peasants) were poisoned, from which 1.622 died immediately in the first 5 days, and the survivors remained invalids, that died after 5-10 years of liver cirrhosis, malignant diseases etc. A high percentage of innate defects at children of poisoned parents appeared. In this war, other new weapons were tested, such are psychochemical CWs, botulinum toxin and mycotoxins, with an unknown number of incapacitated and killed. That is why this war is called „the chemical ecocide war“ in literature. It should be mentioned that, even in 1950, English colonizers used against Kenya and Malya harbicides for destruction of large forest, overgrowth and crops complexes, and for subjugation of the population that was exposed to a total starvation, and left with no drinkable water. That is why a bomb aviation was used that simply flooded the grounds and overgrowth with dangerous poisons – herbicides.
Вавилов, М. А.: Экономические последствия вооружение, Москва, 1988, стр. 141
Ralph Lapp, Arms Beyond Doubt: The Tyranny of Weapons Technology, New York, 1970.
In Korean War (1950-1959), the Americans destroyed the irrigation systems of North Korea by aero bombing and flooding the large surfaces of arable land and rice fields, that created large swamps. The civilian population (not the army) was exposed to starvation, diseases, and mass victims. The second Indo-Chinese War (1961-1975) turned into a polygon of military force for investigating of the „new“ weapons efficiency, by the USA interfering in civil war on south of the Vietnam. That is, they explored the possibilities of replacing the almighty nuclear weapon with chemical and biological weapon. The use of warfare strategy in a space where environment attributes and eco-systems become the primary objects of battle actions, is becoming the most efficient method of subjugating and submitting people in modern day war. The war between Iran and Iraq (1980-1987) was characterized with pollution of water, earth, destruction of flora and fauna i golf and deserts, as well as with destruction of oil facilities and tankers (around 450) – causing mass contamination of territory, headwaters, atmosphere and the living world. The American-Iraqis conflict (1991), also known as „The Desert Storm“ led to ecological and chemical catastrophe, and for the first time, the DU ammunition was used against fighters and civilian population. This new strategy and tactics of radiational weapon use was continued in war in former SFRJ, in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1993-1995), in aggression on the thens SRJ (1999), and again in aggression and occupation of Iraq (2003).
2.2. The chemical means in diversional and terroristic actions
The consequences of warfare with weapons and means of mass destruction are twophased â€“ the acute (immediate infliction of losses) and the late (permanent consequences on peopleâ€™s health, survival of the floral and animal world). It is a historical fact that society and environment, after an age-long war with conventional weapon, was recovering in average of 3,2 years, i.e. in about 4,6 years. In modern wars, with the use of WMD, the recovery of the nature is much slower, in a diapason of at least 5 to 100 years, and more. With that, the war punishes at least three generations of human population. The modern militarism endangers in such way the most important elements of biosphere, endeavoring to enable the enemy to have basic conditions for life, work, and population development. The development of technique, science and technology dictated a new tactics and strategy not only of warfere, but of diversional effects. With the development of technology of synthesis and industrial production of chemical substances and compounds, a large number of inorganic and organic chemical compounds. In the year 1909, Germany adopted the convention on secret weapon and ways of its use in war and diversional actions. The framework of secret weapons consisted of the chemical means and chemical warfere, and biological weapon was also mentioned. Based on that conception, the work on preparing agencies and espionage webs was accelerated in the USA and Europe. Aside from Germany, governments of other European countries formed special agencies that sent agents in countries of Europe and America. Japan followed the trend. The German, Austrian and Japanese agents, inserted in France, Russia, the USA, England and other countries in prewar period before WW1, were trained and equipped for performing diversions and terroristic actions among other things - with biological and chemical means. War encouraged efforts to find new chemical compounds and substances of the highest biological activity for public war uses and secret use in assassinations and diversional and terroristic actions. The agentry performed in WW1, and before, numerous diversional actions with chemical and biological means. Numerous
examples of inserting poisons in food, especially in officers messrooms, and contamination of wells and reservoirs of drinkable water.45 In course of, and after the October Revolution in 1917, the agenture in Russia organized and performed large number of assassinations with chemical means. The attacked generals and political executives of Bolsheviks. Among others, Lenin was on target twice. The western agentures performed diversions with chemical means in 1918 and in 1919, and in a region of Arkhangelsk in Russia against the Red Army. In the WW2, there was no official – frontal use of chemical warfere, even though many countries had large supplies of prepared chemical ammunition – of all the classical CWs. Germany even had the newly synthetised nerve poisons tabun and soman. There are few records on diversional use of those poisons. It is a well known fact that in course of preparations for attacking France, Paris alone had over 40.000 German secret agents that performed many sabotages and diversional and terroristic actions. However, only two attempts of inserting poisons in city waterworks were recorded, and several attempts of food poisoning in stores and military massrooms. During war, on western front, there was a well-known German diversional action that failed, called „The Operation Eastern Egg“ within the counter-offensive in Ardens, in which chemical means should have been applied. Several thousands of German agents and and diversants in backgrounds of allies troups, should disorganize by the complex actions, a backgrounds of allies armies and provide more successful action of some 20 German divisions. However, the French intelligence office felt promptly this operation, and 28 groups of diversants were arrested (around 1.500 people). Among other material, groups had poisons intended for food and water poisoning, which were dosed in accordance with structure and amounts of food and water.
In September, the Serbian army 1915th captured the Austro-Hungarian officer, a Czech native, caught when attempting to poison the food that was prepared for the Serbian Duke Zivojin Misic, the then commander of the 1st Serbian Army.
At the time of the Anti-Fascist struggle in the first Yugoslavia, it was recorded that Germans and quislings tried to use poison at the end of the war, in order to behead the NOV Yugoslavia. The act of the infamous commando, the SS capetan Banko Gasparevic Gara, who should have cross over the river Drina in Serbia, more accurately, in Belgrade, where he would perform the diversional and terroristic actions. In order to complete this mission, Gasparevic send to his senior, Mandlu46, a radiogram of the following content: „Poisons are necessary, immediate and with late effect, and only the colorless and the ones easy to amputate in vine, coffee, soup, milk, and the similar. Send urgently by a Schwarc Gar!“ After receiving information that the channel was established for transmitting his group to Serbia, and that the poisons still have not arrived, on 27. January 1945. Gasparevic urges at Mondle with a new radiogram: „Schwarc must go immediately, I have to cross the river Drina while I still have the channel. I left the contact. Let him address to colonel Sergey. He will conduct him personally to me. Let him bring all things, and poisons are especially important. Four large communist functionaries should be liquidated...Gara “ However, the undertaking did not succeed, and neither did the Draza Mihailovic undertaking on 4. December 1944 when he published the „Regulation on structure of royal commandos“ and founded the school of commandos near Sarajevo and in Modrica. 168 of the chosen Chetniks finished the training and school, under the leadership of Dragoslav Pavlovic. It was predicted that the commandos transfer by groups in Serbia and act in four phases. In the first and the second phase they should connect mutually and with the remains of quinsling gangs, investigate the situation, and spread the propaganda in favour of the chetniks. In the third phase, they should start with open assassinations, diversions and sabotages. In the fourth phase, a comeback of Draza Mihailovic was expected and the rising of the rebellion, with
The SS Captain - Rupert Mandl was an organizer of an unsuccessful assassination attempt on JBTita in 1943/44.
counting on the external intervention. The diversant groups implemented in Serbia mainly through the river Drina, all the way to the May 1945. However, they were all promptly discovered and destroyed. 47 - Inserting the anthrax germ among cattle; - Inserting bugs in hotel linens; - Food poisoning and spreading their disulphide which gives a strong odor; - Inserting sneezers and tear gas into a crowd of people gathered at rallies; - Throwing dead cats, dogs and dead people into wells with drinking water; - Inserting sulfuric acid in mailboxes; - Planting poison gas (presumably tritons - sarin, soman and tabun) in wine, spirits, food, drinks and other drinks to prominent leaders and elders of NOR.48
The allies also planned and performed several unsuccessful diversions by chemical means on the Axis leaders. They repeatedly planned assassinations from 1942-1944, on Hitler, Mussolini, Himmler and Romel. The first idea was to insert an agent into the rooms where Hitler and Mussolini met, who would then pour in the flower vase liquid nitrogen mustard and disappear. The liquid poison would vaporize on a room temperature, causing tears, suffocation, eyelids burns and other forms of Hitler and Mussolini poisoning, with blindness as ultimate effect. However, the action did not succeed. According to another plan, an agent should make friends with Hitlers gardener and concierge, and to inject woman hormones into his vegetables (tomato and cucumber), before serving a dish to Hitler. These hormones consummation would cause a mutation of Hitlers voice into the alt, moustache loss and spacing of his beard, which would degrade him as a leader of Raich. But the attempt did not
R. Jovic, Military Gazette, nb. 6/1978.
There is also evidence that in the first few years after the war, larger amounts of cayenne pepper contaminated with three cresyl phosphate was found in Nis.
work out, nor did the following two on Hitler and Romel, because the agents were discovered and liquidated. Immediately after the war, the assassinations were performed with partially old and well known chemical and other poisons, and more and more with the newfound and synthesized poisons.
2.3. Experiments with chemical materials – potential chemical warfere
The research of chemical compounds as potential CWs were never interrupted. Despite the disarmament process, international prohibitions and restrictions – they were only more or less intensified. Each newly found and discovered chemical substance or compound is subjected to a longterm and complex laboratory testing. Only a small number of those compounds that shows good characteristics of possible CW in a phase of laboratory testing, is subjected to further efficiency research on polygons. There are no examples that a chemical compound was classified as CW in a weapon arsenal, without going through polygon testings. Such polygons are usually well secured, but there are cases of a „mistake“ that are warning on a danger from the environment contamination, poisoning of people and domestic animals. There are cases of „mistakes“ that are intentionally produced and cannot be treated as accidents in chemical industry, nor as poisoning of people and domestic animals because of the irrational and unskilled use of pesticides, fertilizers etc. Such „mistakes“are often planned and entire research plan is based on them. Essentially, they are unallowed research methods outside the polygons that are built, furnished and secured for those purposes. Researches of chemical compounds as CWs were very intense during WW2 in Germany. The most famous WW2 chemical polygon was in Spandau in Germany, under the leadership of cournel Rudriger. By the end of 1943, new CWs tabun and sarin were investigated on that poligon. The research team was led by Dr. Gerhard Scarder,
Ambos Oto, the director of the chemical industry in Germany, and colonel Rudriger. It is interesting to mention that the name of the poison sarin was given by taking the first letters of the research teams lastnames: Scrader, Ambros, Rudriger. The research on polygon was performed on domestic experimental animals, but also on war prisoners.49 It is also well known that the German experts were exploring the effects of tabun and sarin on people in concentration camps in Austria, Germany, and Poland; and that five millions of war prisoners were killed in gas chambers and concentration camps with prussic acid, under the name of â€žZuklon Bâ€œ. (see table 9) Table Nb. 9: Sufferings in concentration camps Name of the camp
Amount of poison in
The number of killed
In German and Poland factories for tabun and sarin production, 300 accidents were recorded, which caused the poisoning of hundred workers and scientists. 50 % of them died in a very short time, and the survivors were pensioned as invalids. In WW2, belligerents both used amphetamine against tiredness and exhaustion. In postwar period, when the all found out that the Germans were disposing with neuroparalitic CWs, researches for new lethal and incapacitating poisons began.
Because of these experiments, after the war, Oto Ambros was convicted on ten years of sentence, because mass murders were signed to him in experiments with new chemical warferes
There is a program that is especially interesting â€“ of finding poisons that could easily be used for performing assassinations, diversions and terroristic acts, within a special war. In this period, in 1947, the USA, Great Britain and Canada are signing the tripartite treaty on research and production of chemical warferes. Austria is accessing this agreement in July 1965. With this treaty, it is determinated that field researches be conducted in a free space in Canada, on Sufield polygon. However, in 1950, the USA formed their own research centre in Dugway Proving Ground, near Skull Valley, Indian Resercation, Hutah, and then a research station in Panama Canal zone for investigating poisons in tropical conditions, and arctic experiments on Alaska and Greenland with sarin. In a period of 1951-1955, a group of 20 CW experts from Porton performed numerous experiments with sarin and somo chemical ammunition, somewhere in West Africa. Similar experiments were conducted on polygons in Canada, Australia and India. There is a recorded data from that period that aviator Ronald Medison volunteered for experiment that included putting a single drop of sarin on his left upper arm. After eight hours, Ronald died in Portons infirmary. It was officially announced that he was too sensitive, and that otherwise, a single drop of sarin resorbed through human skin, is practically harmless. Feeling guilty conscience, the director of Chemical Defence department in Porton comitted suicide in 1953. In 1953, the factory in Nahcokoku (England) produced around 15 t of sarin, and all amounts were used in field experiments and laboratory research. Two accidents happened in this factory, one in 1958 when three officers were poisoned. The two of them died, and the third (Tom Grifits) survived after a six month treatment, but he remained invalid (mental disorder), and was pensioned in 37. year of his life. The second accident occurred in 1961, when Martin Trevog was poisoned with sarin, and was pensioned as invalid after five months of medical treatment. In 1952, Ranaight GoĹĄ found new, until then unknown liquid poison, while working on a program of the new pesticides research in Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) in England. By further
investigating of those chemicals in the USA, it is determined that this poison is much more toxical than sarin as the first representative of the new V-group of neuroparalytic poisons. The industrial production of that chemical warfere bagan in 1967 in New Port, the USA. (the capacity of 4000-5000 poisons per year). In a period from 1950-1961 in the USA and Great Britain, program was conducted of investigating psychochemical CWs that would humanise the war according to some experts idea. With modern substances â€“ the LSD-25 and later on the BKZ, several experiments were conducted on humans-volunteers in the USA, and around 140 of similar experiments in Port Town in England. The trust in LSD-25 as CW was very quickly lost, and so they sold to China some 400 millions of that poison individual doses. However, the American experts believed in its success and on 8. January 1953, they began conducting experiments on humans with LSD-25 and with new preparation EA-128 (later on known as CW under the code BZ). The victim of in vivo experiments with LSD and BZ compounds was Frank Olson, one of the civilians, an excellent chemisist in Fort Detrick factory. The leaders of the project injected him three days repeatedly with LSD and BZ. When he when home on Friday, he got sick. Still, he was courageous, and he went to work on Monday. The image of the acute depressive psychosis manifested in his case. The chief of the chemical department and the security officer colonel Ruvet, drove him in a psychiatric hospital in New York. There he was diagnosed with psychosis and delirium and hospitalization was suggested. Olson refused that, so the colonel Ruvet and the chief of the chemical department stayed with him in a hotel room. Before dawn of the following day, Frank Olson committed suicide by throwing himself of a window to a pavement. That happened in November 1953, and in November 1976, the truth was revealed that the CIA experts gave Olson large doses of LSD repeatedly. The director of the State Psychiatric Institute in New York, Dr. Harold Blear, accepted voluntarily to be injected with psycho poison and to dictate the changes that he is experiencing into the tape recorder. But after only six minutes he lost contact with the real world. First he felt cramps in skeletal muscles, and later paresis and limp relaxation appeared. He experienced hallucinations, delirium, general nightmare and mental derangement...Several hundreds of psychiatric
patients and addictes were then included in experiment, to which Dr. Blaer prescribed „therapy“ – preparation FA-1298 and LSD-25 – and led neat medical documentation. For this service, Bauers hospital and its director received 140.000 US dollars from Edgevord Arsenal. Paralelly with the described , another experiment was performed on 600 employees of military institutions that worked in chemical industry, and on 900 civilians „volunteers“ with the same chemical substances. Then, the experiment on 159 of the normal examinees, cooperators of Edgevord Arsenal, that detailly described change in behaviour and health problems as a consequence of the LSD-25 and EA1298 effects. In May 1953, the CIA hired certain George White within the project „Maksultra“. He was a former addict and drug dealer. As good connoisseur of the addicts and of the illegal web for distributing drugs, he accepted an offer to organize these events. Two apartments were made - one in Greenwhich Village, in a centre of New York, and one in San Francisco. They had special devices and equipment, numerous chambers, bars with beds and an abundance of alcoholic beverages. In and on walls listening devices were set, as well as double mirrors for recording. In these apartments-brothels, White invited his „friends“ on parties. There they had fun, organized sexual orgies and drank alcoholic beverages in which they put drugs: LSD-25 or EA-1298. Sessions were rotating on a weekly basis in New York and San Francisco. A total amount of the „examinees“ that had been in those apartments is unknown, but it is known that a same person could not had been invited to a party more than once. It is all filmed, the conversations were recorded on magnetofon tapes. Finally, the very well imagined and performed experiment failed in a summer of 1959, in San Francisco. On that day, specially trained CIA agents were „refreshing“ the air in the bar, dining room and of some bed rooms, with aerosols of LSD-25 with spray. Unfortunately, the day was very warm, and owner ordered to servants to open windows and doors, and the experiment failed. Based on those and many other experiments on humans and reach science documentation, the USA military experts patented the EA-1298, as psychochemical CW under a code BZ, in 1961. In a following year, a special factory was built, „Pine
Bluff Arsenal“ in central part of Arkansas. The factory produced 458.000 of BZ poisons in the following two years, within a „humane poisons“ program. In Rocky Mountain Arsenal, the head centre for sarin production, in 1960, a decision was made to perform an experiment with chemical ammunition in an abandon 3.657 m long tunnel that had connection with a subway to Denver. The experiment was performed after a month of preparations, and Denver has experienced the earthquake for the first time. Results of these researches were unknown. It is a well known fact that that research centre had in underground warehouse 749.000 t of nerve poison, older than five years. It is decided that poisonous cargo should board in a train and be transferred to the ocean and destructed. The news on that intention leaked in public, and a real panic began spreading among the population of the cities and settlements the cargo should had passed through. The public reacted sharply, and military experts gave up on this plan. What happened with this enormous stock of poison remains unknown. During 1968, military experts conducted a series of experiments with the Vh – poison on a polygon in Dugway Proving Ground (Hutah). The first one was conducted on 13. March 1968, and a “mistake” “happened”. Long prepared and well planned experiment, which journalists attended to, had an “undesirable” finishing. Namely, in the early morning, around 5.30 am, a plane, with 320 gallons of Vh-poisons in its tank, took off from a central polygon “The Phantom”. It was spraying liquid CW Vh in a form of aerosols from a hight of 600 m, with blowing speed of 35 miles per hour, of a certain direction and on the given route. However, during spraying, the wind had changed direction and increased intensity and speed, in discordance with experts estimates. And so, the poison reached on a field outside the polygon, in a place called Skull Valley The UK Animal Liberation Front (ALF) sent to The National Front Secretariat (extreme right-wing party) a package that contained capsaicin, the pepper derivative; The US postal service discovered „a suspicious small package that contained charge projected to explode while opening and release the nerve gas.“ The Arab terroristic organization was the suspect, according to the unspecified and undated reports on terrorist attempts to intoxicate the city waterworks.
Terrorists successful chemical agents use (but that does not include the „mass destruction“) is evidenced in the following cases: -
Contamination of the Israeli fruit supplies for exporting in Europe, with liquid mercury by the side of the Palestinian terrorists, in 1977, 1978, 1979 intoxicated oranges were found in Holland, Belgium, Germany, Sweden and Great Britain. Europeans from at least three countries got ill consuming the Israel products – oranges, lemon, and grapefruit – that were contaminated with mercury, most likely inserted under rind by syringing;
A group that calls itself „The Arab Revolutionary Army of Palestinian Comandos“ in a letter to Holland government, announced that her objective is the sabotage of the Israeli economy. Nobody died because of this incident, and only small number of people were poisoned, but the damage to the Israeli exporters was done (export was reduced for 40 %).
Similar incident of smaller proportions happened in April 1989. in Rome, when a group that calls itself „The Organization of the Metropolitan Proletariat and the Oppressed“, warned the Italian government that it had intoxicated grapefruit imported from Israel. The contaminated fruit was found in Rome and Naples. The Italian health minister ordered immediately confiscation of all grapefruit and prohibition of its sales inside Italy, even though there were no reports on eventual deaths or diseases;
In December 1984, four people in England was accused of inserting weed poison that contained mercury into the turkeys that were selling in Grimsby stores. Earlier, the ALF took responsibility for this action by an anonymous phone call. Similar treats were made to stores in London, North Hampton, Coventry and Bristol. Pool intoxicating in California, and intoxicating of supermarket products left unexplained, without an indication whether the terrorists or criminals were responsible for these unusual incidents and its effects; 0612625356
Numerous incidents such are: stealing of the chemical secret in 1984, when a carbonate agent was added to coffee in Israeli military mass rooms; the using of „cyanide submerged in bullets“ by the side of the Liberation Army; the
Turkish TV station report from 1994 (which was denied later on), that the PKK performed gas attacks on a village in East Turkey, by killing 21 persons; different, unconfirmed journalist reports that claim that Sikhs and Kashmir soldiers in India use the chemical weapon; the incident in the Philippines in 1987, when 19 police recruits died and around 140 were hospitalized, after receiving water and candy from an unknown person; the death on the New Years Eve in 1994, when at least nine soldiers and six civilians in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, after drinking champagne enriched with cyanide, on a sale located close to the objects of the Russian peacekeeping mission; different reports on the poisoning of Iraqis dissidents with the use of food or drink contamination with talium. For example, the Iraqi that escaped to London and died in 1988 of talium poisoning, described this as the „well-known method of the Iraqis killer operation“ and „the Iraqi governments favorite weapon against its opponents.“ -
The telephone treat to the American embassy in Santiago, Chile in March 1989 that the Chilean grapes that the US imports were intoxicated with cyanide. After actul finding of small traces of cyanide (not sufficient to poison the adults) in two types of grape, the US, Canada, Japan, Denmark, Germany and Hong-Kong stopped importing grapes from Chile, and existing supplies were withdrawn from stores.
Off course, there were many other reported examples of product contamination, but perhaps the most infamous case is putting cyanide in Tylenol capsules, the pain medication, that caused seven deaths in Chicago in 1982. However, the enormous part of these acts was not done with political motives, and shouldn’t be classified as „terroristic“. Furthermore, in cases when political motive existed, there was no principal intention to cause death. In general, there is enough evidence that indicate terrorists interest in gathering the chemical agents and sending treats with these agents use. In some cases they actually succeed in obtaining these agents; sometimes they try to use it; and in some cases they actually „succeed“ in these attempts, although without including mass victims in this process.
2.5. The terrorists relation to the chemical means
Starting from the fact that enormous part of these acts shouldn’t be classified as „terroristic“, reasons of this phenomena should be pointed out. The insight in available literature shows that only small number of authors deals with reasons why terrorists haven’t use chemical agents in greater extent until now. According to Burk, who analyses different authors that deal with this problematics, numerous reasons are suggested. Some of them point out that the use of the chemical weapon is widely condemned by the public opinion and prohibited as a treat. Furthermore, there is a relation of the chemical weapon to the biological one (which is also considered as a treat, and a much dangerous one), and so the question why should the chemical weapon have higher specific gravity rises. Some considerations can be applied, at best, only on so-called “ecological terrorists”. Even more convincing explanation for the relative chemical weapon nonuse by the side of the terrorists, with citing Jenkins, the famous theorist of terrorism, and which is also referring to the biological weapon is: “With an explosion you hear the bang, and you
see the blood, and you can be sure of it, in case of the chemical weapon, there is a lot of uncertainty. Terrorists want to avoid uncertainty.” Other offered reasons are: the lack of the desire to kill large number of people, fear of the negative public reaction or the reaction of the political government, absence of the “sharp” dramatical action (in opposition to longterm sufferings caused by the chemical attack), as well as because of the lack of the “total explosion” or “blood”, the inability to control events, because of the unpredictability of the chemical
weapon, especially considering that only large amounts of agents give efficient results.
2.6. Modern chemical wars
Many world analysists have estimated that the terroristic attack on the USA, 11. September 2001, is an introduction to something much worse. They derived presumptions that terrorists could use weapons on mass destruction and incapacitation:
The chemical one
The biological one, even the radiological
The nuclear weapon and means
Since then, such possibility became more realistic and more dangerous than the “total” nuclear self-destructive war, that only great nuclear powers could lead. Especially considering that terroristic forces of the countries that don’t possess nuclear weapon could use the WMD. In fact, the chemical, biological and nuclear raw materials are not hard to obtain today, but it is very complicated to turn them into the useful weapon. (see chart 1)
Chart 1: Chemical and biological weapons-possession and programs from past and present50
efforts, but no evidence for production 
This chart shows the data available from open sources. It is impossible to provide accurate
assessment of weapons of mass destruction (WMD states, but they are classified into the following categories: • Known – states that declared their programs or there is a clear evidence of the possession of chemical or biological weapons. • Probable - states "probably" produce or possess chemical or biological weapon. • Possible - State may have chemical or biological weapons or CBW programs • Former - state ownership on the chemical and biological weapons stock, and / or CBW programs in the past. • weaponized agents - which are produced in quantity and / for weapon. The Chart distinguishes between past and present activities. • Research - potential agents, there is no evidence of weaponization. Source: CNS http://www.cns.miis.edu/ Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies (available 05/05/2011)
1941 -Lewisite 
-Plague Ended: -Salmonella 1945  -Gas -gangrene -RicinBotulinumtoxin 
(9) helds offensive (?) capabilities (10) Cuba
(11) research program  Egypt
-VX  capabilities (10) Ethiopia
agents: Started: 1921 Ended:
-The potato marten
 toxin Ricin- Germany
-Foot (WW 1) -Anthrax (WW I)
(Inactive -Foot and 1919 -
1939)  -Plague -Rinderpest -Typhoid -Yellow-fever potatoes -marten -Potatoes blight  India
program, but no
evidence of production  Iran
(27) Mouth Disease -Botulinum-
 -Ricin -Aflatoxin research: -Brucellosis -Hemorrhagic -conjuctivitis virus (enterovirus 70) -rotavirus -Plague (?) -Gas -gangrene toxin
with possible production funds  Italy
- Hydrogen cyanide
-Anthrax -phosgene -Plague -Mustard -Glanders -Lewisite -Typhoid Chloropicrin-cholera
-Lewisite 1945 
-Typhoid -cholera -Dysentery -Typhoid -paratyphoid
research: -Gas -gangrene -The flu -Tetanus -Tuberculosis -Tularemia S-almonella -Typhoid -Glanders -Tetrodotoxin  Libia
- Sarin program -tabun Ended: -Lewisite 2003  -Phosgene 
(47) (Burma) N. Korea
research, with possible production funds 
cyanide-Typhoid -Cyanogen Chloride -Phosgene-Sarin Soman
-cholera -Tuberculosis -Typhoid -Smallpox
-VX  Pakistan
toxin [51 01/13/93
 legitimate defense action  The Soviet
-Mustard -Lewisite -Phosgene -VX-
1926 Ended: 1992 
-Smallpox -Plague Tularemia-Glanders
-Venezuelan -equine encephalitis -Anthrax -Q-fever -Marburg -research -Ebola -The Bolivian haemorrhagic
fever -Argentine haemorrhagic fever -Lassa fever -Japan encephalitis Russianencephalitis BrucellosisMachupo virusMachupo virusYellow-fever -Typhoid -Melioidosis -Psittacosis -Rinderpest -African-Virus -CSF -Wheat-stem -rust -Rice blast  Chemical Country
(61) 1981 -Salmonella
Ended: -Gas 1993  -gangrene -Ricin -Botulinum toxin 
program (65) Sudan
possible -Ricin  production  Taiwan
Former program (73)
-Plague -Typhoid -Botulinum toxin 
-Venezuelean equine encephalitis
1956  -Q-fever
-Anthrax -Wheat rust -Rice blast research: -Brucellosis -Smallpox -Eastern and Western equine encephalitis -Argentine haemorrhagic -fever -Korean haemorrhagic -fever -The Bolivian haemorrhagic -fever -Lassa fever -Glanders -M -Plague
Yellow-fever -Psittacosis -Typhoid -Dengue -Rift Valley fever -Chikungunya virus Late-blight of potato -Rinderpest -Newcastle diseases Hen-fever staphenterotoxin B -Botulinum toxin -Ricin elioidodis
The arsenal of the lethal materials which represent the effective principle of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon, is today very rich and available to terroristic forces, mafias and weapons smugglers worldwide: a. radiational material: plutonium, cesium (the most smuggled material), cobalt (which is used in medicine) and uranium 235 which is a radioactive material in slag landfills of the nuclear power plants all over the world. b. biological agents: big arsenal of lethal jerms: anthrax, cholera, smallpox, yellow fever, Botulinum toxin and lots of others genetically modified causers of infectious diseases that are kept in American and Russian laboratories. c. chemical materials, such are the chemical warferes known since the WW1: hydrogen cyanide, phosgene, mustard gas, and all irritants: chloroacetophenone,
adaisit, and the new irritants CE-ES, a lethal group of nerve paralythic CWs discovered during and after the WW2: trilons (tabun, sarin, soman - Germany), BHpoisons (the USA); large group of psychochemical poisons and drugs, which were tested in Vietnam, from which tateriam is most commonly used by smugglers, mafias, and terroristic organizations. Sarin was used several times in Japan and the US in terroristic actions of sects and terrorists. In the US, Russia and many other countries today, there are enormous arsenals of hazardous materials and weapons of mass destruction and incapacitation: -
more than 40 thousand of nuclear warheads
more than 60 thousand tons of chemical warfere, and
undetermined amounts of biological weapon
The developed nuclear and chemical industry and mycrobiological engineering use and produce dangerous materials as raw materials for their production. It is all becoming an easy path for smugglers and terrorists to come to these materials and to abuse them. The USA alone has 850 thousand of places where dangerous materials are kept and stored. In Russia, 40 thousand tons of nuclear warheads are waiting to be dismounted, and some 40 thousand tons of chemical warfere is waiting to be processed into the non-toxic substances. ..it is a real paradise for terrorists and weapon smuggling, which is the most profitable business in the world. Smuggling of the nuclear and biological waste is already well-known. According to the international law, every abuse of the chemical weapon and means in war purposes and in terroristic actions must be treated as chemical terror i.e. terrorism. The chemical weapon was widely used in newer wars by the US, Iraq in fighting Iran, Israen In Palestine etc. Those crimes retaliated to the armies of states that led the chemical war, besides the sufferings of the attacked country population. In the US51 and some other Western countries, a belief prevails today that the question is not whether, but when will the terrorist attack with chemical,
„FALUDZA – the hidden masacre“ is a documentary film of the Italian production, that gives terrifing evidence on how the American troups sprayed this town incontrolably with dangerous chemical weapon during hard offensive, in November 2004 in Iraq. Film was made from documentary videos, photographies and testemonies of the former American fighters, vidnesses and Faludza citizens. They are reminding how the US used bombs from white phosphorus, and destroyed private houses in night houses and killed and wounded women and c hildren. Many vitnesses have seen have seen burnt bodies of women and children. Once it explodes, phosphorus is transforming into a cloud, and who ever founds himself in a radius of 150 m gets killed, suffocating in terrible misery. This dangerous chemical weapon was used conscientiously and with a plan – the phosphorus bombs were thrown on cities and civilian objects in huge amounts. The images of night slottary of civilian population caught in sleep were terrifing. Movie starts with archieve footage of an American soldier in Vietnam (1969), using the napalm bomb infamous since its terrifing destructive power. The Italian authors are accusing the Americans to have been using the MK77 in Faludza, one of the napalms forms, and killed many civilians, and left
radiological, and even nuclear weapon. These weapon s have the power to cause mass destruction, or mass victims. Certain experts are describing the future terrorist attacks with consequences in forms of catastrophical human victims, enormous material damage, the destruction of the animal and vegetable world, and endangering environment to a level of ecocide. It is not just a possible scenario, but a very likely one. According to a general belief, the possibility that the terrorists will use the chemical, radiological, and even nuclear means, will increase in the following decay. Although criminal and terroristic groups and organizations that have theirs international webs, mainly used the conventional weapon in their actions until now. With a beginning of the XXI century, an increase in the terroristic attacks with chemical and biological means is clearly noticed. There are claims that today, the technology of transferring chemicals, biological and radiological materials into weapon, is conquered and available to terroristic and criminal groups and organizations.52 In global, we can recognize three forms of terrorism with WMD: -
the use of nuclear, radiological, and chemical materials in terroristic actions against the civil population (the genocide form)
terroristic actions with NRB means against domestical animals and cultivated plants (the zoocide and fitocide form)
dramatical consequences on the health of the survivors, leaving some of them with permanent invalidity. Both napalm and white phosphorus were forbided by the UN convention. The USA signed this document, and that is the reason why they were constantly trying to destroy this documentary material. The movie premiere was on the first anniversaryof the invasion on Faludza.
Today, the formula for making terroristic weapon from the WMD family is available online. According To the FBI report from 1997, 77 criminal investigations were led that were connected with the WMD, and in 1998, there were 181 of such investigations.
battle and terroristic actions with NRB means against population and environment (The ecocide ie terracide form)
The first form has no special name in literature, the second one is treated as agroterrorism, while the third one is implied as the collateral damage of the terrorism with NRB means. Classifying the nuclear, radiological and chemical terror and terrorism on the basis of the ultimate and dominant effects on humans, vegetable and animal world and environment as a whole, has limited and mainly didactical value, because the nature of WMD is that it produces simultaneously produces all these effects, no matter the target of an attack. In that fact lays such huge danger from terror and terrorism with the WMD. With mass and successfully performed terroristic actions with chemical weapon (means) there are immediate and long-term, very hard consequences:
On the social, economic and health plan of population (genocide) in a region in which these attacks were performed, but the population of the entire country suffers;
Political and safety stability of the country attacked would be significally treatened, and politicians with their army and police could drow risky moves that would lead to local and regional wars with the use of the same means (WMD)
Social instability and insecurity because of the treatened safety of the population in a contaminated environment (ecocide), and destroyed fonds of cattle (zoocide) vegetation (fitocide)
Every targeted, direct, terroristic attack with WMD on agro and the animal world (environment) represents the indirect (essential) attack on human population,
treatening the health and lives, social and economical safety of population in the country attacked. According to a SIPRI study from 199953, the main reason for the use of chemical, radiological or biological weapon in military purposes doesn’t have to be causing victims. These weapons are used for field incapacitating; reducement of the enemies battle effectiveness by demanding that the units wear protective clothes and masks; reducement of the objects and equipments operativity, altogether with a need for comprehensive decontamination; causing terror and psychological exhaustion; exorcism of the enemies troops from forts; incapacitating and destroying harvests...The terrorists are not always interested for causing a large number of victims. Their targets often represent operative places that large part of the population is depending on, for example, railway hubs. For such purposes, stable chemical warferes such as mustard gas can be used. Releasing an incapacitant mean, the new tear gas, for example, into the airports ventilation system can successfully inhibit all activities that are performed there, without causing a single fatal case. The ones that are opposed to genetically modified food could use chemical poisons (herbicides) in order to destroy harvest. From a cause-mean perspective, there is a large number of chemical, radiological and biological means that can be used. Targets and effects would be limited, but if a terrorist group decides, the domestic production of these agents would be less demanding in terms of material basis of organization. What can be said about this study? It is weird that an institute54 that fights for peace and disarmament, can so skillfully justify and support the great forces positions and
Zanders, Jean Pascal: “Assessing the Risks of Chemical and Biological Weapons
Proliferation to Terrorists,” The Nonproliferation Review 6 (Fall 1999), pp. 17-34. 54
SIPRI is independable international institute committed to investigating of conflicts, the armament and disarmament control. Found in 1966, SIPRI provides information, analyses and references – based on open sources – politicians, researchers, media and interested public. It was found based on a decision of Sweden parliament, and receives a significant part of its founding from a budged, but asks for financial aid from other organizations for realizing the research program. It has 50-60 of employees, the chair board and director.
platform on the existence of „human“ WMD, and with a purpose to avoid international regulation of these weapons. As a remainder, this study is already seen on the line: in the sixties of the last century, the public was preoccupied with a story on „human psychochemical“ chemical warfere, on „human biological weapon“ - socalled Patricks cocktail made from the causers of Q-fever, the Venitian equine encephalitis, staphylococci, enterotoxin B. The message was that it is a humane weapon that incapacitates people, but doesn’t kill them...
3. CHEMICAL AND RADIATIONAL TERRORISM
3.1. Theoretical approach55
Set in Stockholm, the SIPRI provides unique platform for researchers from different countries to cooperate. SIPRI is maintaining contacts with other research centers and individual researchers worldwide. Institute has close cooperation with the UN and EU, and receives parliament, scientifical and state delegations on a regular basis, as well as the visits of researchers. Within the SIPRI year book, they are dealing, among other things, with the WMD (for example, with the control of nuclear armament and nonproliferation, and the decrease of safety treats from chemical and biological weapon, and the like). Source: http://sipri.se
Details about terrorism in the monograph: Jovic, R., Savic, A., Bioterrorism - Biological Means – Biological Weapon, the Institute for Political Studies, 2004, p. 9-34.
In the globalization era, we are facing a terrorism that is taking attributes of global evil. Modern technological development, which has set foot in the XXI century, enabled changes in all significant aspects of the „terrorism technology“ and made terrorism cross the doorstep that protection experts were expecting from it and sensed with fear for decays. Besides the generally known terrorism, we are facing more and more with so-called postmodern terrorism or superterrorism. This term is used in academic circles and praxis for signifying the WMD (biological, chemical, nuclear, radiological) use that is expected in the future. In this context, options for each individual weapon are considered, so that we can already talk about bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, nuclear, radiological, with the addition of cyber terrorism that signifies attacks on the informational and communication systems. Today, more than ever, there is a danger from nuclear and radiational terrorism. If it is not possible to create a small device with the nuclear charge, which terrorists could transfer in a car (even in a bag) and destroy an entire city. The production principle is simple. Only a certain amount of pure uranium and plutonium56 is necessary, and the rest is easily solved. That is why the world is more upset by the possibility that terrorists could get their hands on „pocket“ atomic devices, because then they could hold entire world in fear. Regardless of the numerous treaties and declarations on preventing and prohibiting the nuclear weapon and the armament race proliferation, it will not, in all probability, be stopped. It is a „curse“ of this civilization. A real control of armament is not possible. Nuclear forces are leaving warheads in depots, on shelves in keeping them in reserves. Nobody determined a precissed number of warheads that are kept in reserves. Unfortunately, they represent a real danger for country that is keeping them. In a case of the first impact or some spectacular terrorism, those nukes could cause self-destruction. And so, the nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants
They can be bought on the black market of nuclear mafia, steal from poorly protected nuclear
plants and hangars of the old nuclear weapons or by violence, diversional raid in nuclear power plants or old hangars the nuclear weapons of by, bribery and corruption of the expert teams…
became nuclear bombs on their own territory. The same effect of the nuclear and radiological terrorism, with no formal nuclear weapon possession, could be achieved with the classical explosives use, sabotages, or diversional actions on the research institutions, development and the nuclear energy use (nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants...), with the attack on stocks of nuclear warheads, stocks of nuclear radioactive battle materials...Then, by sabotaging during nuclear testings in submarines on nuclear drive, in aircrafts carriers of warheads, by lasers and laser ramps, military research nuclear institutions and other places, by the maxime: „Each nuclear power plant – nuclear reactor is an atomic bomb on its territory...“ Besides the war use in local and international conflicts, for a long period of time, professional public talks about the possibilities of the terrorists abuse and transferring from conventional means, such are explosives and fire arms, on biological, chemical or radiational weapon. Even though, from a historical perspective, they are not completely new types of armament, these WMD components represent a phenomenon that is not theoretically elaborated enough. Besides the well-known, explosive, traditional, terrorism, we are more and more facing with so-called postmodern and superterrorism. In the USA and some other western countries a belief prevails today, of governments officials and large part of public opinion that the question is not whether, but when a terrorist attack (incident) will happen by chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear weapon. This weapon has the power to cause „mass destruction“ or „mass victims“. Certain experts are describing the future terrorist attacks, with consequences in a form of catastrophic human victims, enormous material damage, vegetation and animal world destruction, and endangering the environment to the level of ecocide, not only as possible but a very likely ones. These experts are not detailly describing such terroristic attacks, but if there is a slight possibility that catastrophe of such proportions could happen, systematic measurements and plans for defense and protection must be taken. The possibilities that the terrorists will use biological or chemical materials (weapon), according to the general belief, will increase in the following decay. According to the
knowledge of leading American agencies of the Intelligence community, the interes among the nonstate „criminals“ and even among terrorists, in biological and chemical weapon, exists. A number of possible executors is increasing, and many such groups have international webs that are not depending on financial and technical support of sponsor in just one country. Until recently, terrorists often used more conventional weapons (explosives and fire arms) than biological and chemical weapon (CIA). In the last decay of the XX century, an increase in the number of terroristic attacks and treats with biological weapon is clearly noticed. It is claimed that the technology of transferring the biological and chemical materials into weapons is available today to terroristic and criminal groups. Biological and chemical compounds and agents can be produced even by the side of students and laboratory technicians, because the formulas for weapon making are available on the internet (FBI). However, the notion of superterrorism which lately prevails at western academic experts for terrorism, carries some other connotations which are different then todays classical, traditional understanding of terrorism. The postmodern terrorism acts by „playing the old game by the new rules“.57 Claims that the modern terrorism will inevitably lead to the use of weapons of mass killing and destruction, are based on, according to some opinions58, on the following premises: -
Terrorism is becoming more lethal (the number of terroristic incidents of such character shows the regularities since the nineties of the last century)
Terrorists keep trying to improve their technology
The number of killed and the use of the more and more newer technologies in incidents is their main criteria in rating
Laqueur, Walter: “Postmodern Terrorism: New Rules For An Old Game,” FOREIGN AFFAIRS - September/October 1996, pp. 24-36. 58
Claridge, David: Breaking the Myths of Superterorism, page 133-151 in: Taylor, Max. And Horgan
John (Ed): Terrorism in the Future, Golden Marketing, 2003.
With the end of the â€žcold warâ€œ, there is a more and more expressed WMD and cadre proliferation, with more significant likelihood of the amateur weapon production in conditions of the world globalization, especially of the biological and chemical weapon
Superterrorism does not require the possession of nuclear or radiological weapon (so far, such use was not recorded â€“ the word is about the combination of the powerful conventional explosive and radioactive materials, whose use contaminates the space for a long period of time with radio isotopes)
No matter the types of terrorism that the word is about, Machiavelli s thought that the cause justifies the means is more and more confirmed. Essentially, terrorism has the political mark, about which there is a consensus, when it comes to the modern use of this term. Inevitably connected with the government, it comes down to violence or the violence treat, directed to achieving the political goal or maintaining that goal. Treating terrorism as political notion is influencing importantly on its causes and motives understanding, as well as the typology and emergent forms of this phenomena. After the terroristic attack on the USA in 2001, the officials of the OUN and World Heath Organization especially, warned the world that such attack could be introduction into the terrorism with the use of WMD means (especially the chemical and biological weapon). A danger is imposed that the international terroristic organization could come in possession of such dangerous weapon in several ways: -
By buying from local criminal groups in countries of the former East Block; by stealing or corruption of the eminent chemisists, biologists and other experts that were left without employment
With the own synthesis of chemical warfere in illegal laboratories, in which, for a good profit, chemisists and pharmaceutist would work, who know the the technology and were working on such businesses in the top and wellknown chemical institutions.
Today is well known that the USA immediately after terroristic attack on September 11, 2001, took a series of moves: they withdrawn of the internet all its information on chemical agents and chemical warfere; agricultural sprayer planes were landed and strict control of their use was established, they activated the industry intended to produce protective equipment from RBC agents. A claim was launched that the WMD abuse by the side of the terrorists is more realistic than ever and that the terrorists will do that for sure! They reminded the people on terroristic attack with a nerve gas (sarin) in underground railway in 1995, in Tokyo and that Al-Qaeda is trying to make the WMD for years, that the big problem is that the mass of Russian engineers, chemisists, microbiologists, having left with no employments and salaries, went to â€œtemporary workâ€? in Iran, Iraq, China and North Korea, where they were engaged in WMD production, that numerous smugglings of the nuclear, chemical and biological waste are well-known worldwide! At last, that in the USA alone there are 850.000 places where hazardous materials are storaged and kept, which can be terrorists easy targets. Frequency of terroristic actions, especially after September 11, 2001, represents actual global danger to humanity, living world and the environment. Until now, the explosive means were mainly used in such terroristic actions. However, there are announcements, treats and individual cases of the WMD use. The attacks are getting more frequent and undefined accidents on hazardous installations and institutions, as well as thefts of the nuclear, radiological and chemical means. Forms of the terroristic jeopardizing of people, the living world, animals, vegetation and the environment with WMD, unlike the explosive means are:
Direct and immediate
Indirect and long-term (several years)
They contaminate people, animals, plants and the environment, water, food, soil, atmosphere, and so we can speak about the total jeopardizing, killing and/or incapacitating the entire living world and ecosystem. It practically means that NRC weapons have the genocide, ecocide and terracide, irretrievable effect. We should remain about R. Barnet s writing in the eighties of the last century. He said that the radiological consequences are exclusively a product of human activity. This American researcher of international problems claimed that the US would, in a total nuclear war, destroy entire history that was made for 200 years, and that the history of mankind would come to its end. 59 Eminent Slovenian professor, A. Bebler, wrote in the sixties: „The atomic war would be a war with only one outcome of total destruction of both belligerents.“60 The chemical and biological weapon would have similar effects. Consequences of the chemical contamination, and especially of the ozone concentration in it, were studied. It is well-known that the largest concentration of ozone in the atmosphere, that made life on earth possible, is at the hight of 30 m. If the composition balance in the atmosphere disrupts, there will come to the consequences dangerous to health of the living organisms and their survival. Numerous incidents worldwide and dirty technology showed that the balance has already been seriously endangered. The first ecological catastrophes appeared in the mid-twentieth century. Man s activities led to the dangerous entertaining of the ozone layer. It is estimated that decrease of the ozone layer thickness for 16 % results in the increase of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 44 %, whose main cause is chlorofluorohydrocarbon (chlorofluorocarbon products), under the commercial name of freon. Those are connections (compounds) that are not found in nature, and their presence in the
Ivaniščenko A.L., Pravo meždunarodnoj bezopasnosti, Sovetskoje gosudarstvo i pravo br. 6, Nauka, Moskva, 1985., str.102. 60
A. Bebler, Nuclear Energy and International Relations, the Yugoslavian Review of International
Law 1, Belgrade, 1960, page 3.
atmosphere has its origin exclusively in human activities. The atom of fluor from each molecule of freon destroys 10 to 100.000 molecules of ozone.61
3.2. The chemical terrorism
According to military literature, from the point of view of diversions and sabotages, the use of CWs can precede the war declaration. In this period, chemical weapon is set as a treat, moral and psychological pressure, covered strategy, subversion, and economic war. Sneaky effect of CWs makes them suitable mean for terroristic and diversant use. Once open hostility begins (war), then open and public use of CWs can hhok up to the subversive one, with all available CWs, or only with certain kinds. CWs with rapid reaction can be used in different ways, chiefly as a support to the offensive tactical operations on the battle field. The efficience of poison on a certain space, the ability of long retention on a target, constancy and causing the losses, with no larger material destruction â€“ can all be certain advantages of the CWs, in comparison with the fire support with conventional weapons. The nerve CWs with high efficiency in causing human losses are very suitable for importing and neutralizing of the relatively small formations of the enemy on fortified positions. For achieving such goals, the sudden, very intense, but short attacks, are very efficient because the enemy has little possibility to use the protective equipment. This technique was used by the British in WW1, by using Stokes mortars and Livens projector. Today, this could be achieved with tactical
Wark K. and C.F.Warner, Air Pollution-its orgin and control, N.Y., 1981., p. 72-74
chemical rockets, multi-tube throwers of the chemical rockets, airplanes with aerochemical bombs and sprayers, sudden artillery and mortar fire. Long-term CWs could be used on defenders positions that attacker would bypass with the intention to not occupy them for a while, or on interspaces, then for protection of own blocks, prevailing the reserve interventions from the depth and the like, and in â€žbackgroundâ€œ for obstruction functioning of war industry, social and rescuing activities. C3? CWs can be used for actions of disturbing the enemy. Occasional and extremely short attacks with chemical explosive missiles expose the defender to unexpected forms of poisons that are accumulated above their positions. It would make the defender use all the protective measurements, which would decrease total battle readiness and capability. In these cases, poisons for causing losses or chemical incapacitants can be used. It was one of the primar purposes of the chemical and artillery weapons in the WW1. The American forces in Vietnam were using irritant CS for incapacitating population on certain region, that was suspected of covering the members of the FNO, after what it would be easy to enter the field before the poison effect perished. Today, most of the ammunition with NCW charge, which is distributed in the American warehouses in Europe, belongs to the battle technique of the land forces. The most common are missiles of the calibar 105, 155 and 203mm, rockets of 115 mm and chemical explosive mines.
Image Nb. 6: Figure 6: Fallujah (Iraq) after the U.S. invasion of 2004
The terrorists relation to the chemical means in peacetime conditions evolves through history, but the interest for their use exists undoubtedly. With the insight in available literature, it is noted that a certain number of authors (Barnaby, Jackson, Joyner, Mullins, Bremer, Thornton etc) deals with the development trends of the chemical agents use by the side of the terrorists, evaluating the possibility of their use as more or less high. In short, such analysis give evaluations that the terrorist would rather choose chemical than biological or nuclear weapon, from a huge arsenal of WMD. Because the chemical terrorism is a real treat in the future, the choice of the terrorists must be taken into consideration. Considering the active programs of the chemical weapons in large number of countries, the use if the chemical weapon in the Near and Middle East, the use of the chemical weapon taboo has already became a clichĂŠ since the WW1. Perhaps the psychological barrier of its use by the terrorists has already been crossed. And so, maybe the path from â€žlegitimateâ€œ, coercive means to their terroristic use has already been crossed.
Especially apostrophed are some case studies from recent past: the Middle East, as the most dangerous region, offers large possibilities for chemical terrorism (the Abu Nidal organization, the Popular Liberation of Palestine Front – General Comand (PFLP-GC), The Hezbollah (Islamic jihad or the Party of God) ); the Western Europe, in which none of the individual terroristic group was pledging of the chemical weapon use, but there were options because of the radical ideology, as that was the case in the seventies with the Direct Action from France and the Party of the Red Army from Germany. Other trends indicate larger probability of the chemical weapon use as a pattern of terrorists. They include: increased number of less different attacks with a large number of victims, as it was in the mid eighties of the last century; „hard brutality“ of some terrorists with a goal of „a long fight against society or state“; increased public sensitivity in traditional methods of attacks, that have „larger degree of violence, with a goal of gaining the public’s attention“; bigger technical knowledge of some terrorists, as shown, for example, while using sophisticated time mechanisms for plain crashing; and increased sponsorship of the terrorists.
3.3. Nuclear-radiological terrorism
In context of relation between chemical and nuclear weapon62, there is a theoretical consent that it would be unprofitable for the terrorists to try and make a nuclear bomb, because if it would not succeed in releasing the maximal explosive potential, the strongest expected explosion would be of 100t, ie 170t of maximal potential, which is not even satisfying terrorists. To obtain a nuclear would be a lot harder than making your own, since the entire nuclear potential is in the military-states ownership, under the strictest control.63 The choice of the nuclear material (highly enriched uranium U-233x235, or plutonium P-239) includes for terrorists high jacking the remains of the nuclear fuel, obtaining on a â€žblack marketâ€œ or theft from secured objects. 64 Even if the terrorists were to obtain a nuclear bomb, it is slight likely that they have the possibility of receiving the access code needed for activating the bomb. They have a half-secured system that requires specifical codes before the device itself is activated. In a same way, the nuclear material must be processed in precise geometrical forms, with precise amounts of explosive set around the fuel, in
Burk, R. states that there are three realistic scenarios of use of nuclear weapons in terrorist
purposes, but that they are more hypothetical, because there are numerous and hard to solve constraints. For more details see: ibid, pp.139-164. 63
In the world of the 90's there were several nuclear "failures'', such are the arrest of smugglers
Czech Republic with 2.72 kg of highly enriched uranium, then in 1994 in Germany, and in St. Petersburg Russia. 64
If the material is enriched with 90% uranium, the isotope U-235, then it is sufficient
material for making an atomic bomb. For making atomic bomb, 20 kg of highly enriched uranium would be enough, but the University of California found that with 3 pounds of highly enriched uranium it is possible to make bomb : by computer modeling of nuclear core, an equivalent of the explosion of 100 tons was achieved with only 1 kg of highly enriched uranium.
order for nuclear reaction to happen in a short period of time. If these procedures are not followed, the bomb will not produce detonation, it would only seem like a device for spraying and scattering the radioactive material.65 Besides that, nuclear weapon is the second category of weapons of mass destruction that was potentially available to the terrorists. 66 The other form of potentional nuclear terrorism implies the use of the conventional explosive device that would spray the radiological material. It was a much realistic scenario than the nuclear bomb detonation. The terrorists would have simple task to â€žpackâ€œ the radioactive material around the conventionaal explosive. In that case, when the explosive device is detonated, the radioactive material would spray over a certain area, depending on the strenght of the explosive material. Double effect would be acheived in such way: -
Immediate injuring of people and destruction under the effect of the impact wave and heat releasement
Later or permanent radiological effects on population that was exposed to radiation (radiological burns or radiodermits, internal contamination that would be maniphested with signs of acute poisoning, and longterm aplastic anemia, leukemia or cancer). In this case, a major water and food supplies contamination could happen with particles of radioactive material, with even harder consequences on people.
This form of radiational terrorism is certainly the most realistic and substantiated with attempts or already performed terroristic actions with radioactive material.67
Any radioactive material can be used, when spraying. As a source of radiation
(fission products, nuclear fuel remains, low concentrate medical, research and industrial waste), scattering radioactive material using a dispersion device would cause widespread field of contaminated soil to the radius of mortality (about 1 km in radius).
Harmon, Christopher C., Terrorism Today, Golden Marketing, Zagreb, 2002, p.91.
The terrorists could obtain radioactive material on one of three ways: by legal buying from the corupted officials; by violating the objects with radioactive materials (nuclear attacks, nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants), that are not secured well enough. Most often, they would resort to bribing the guard or some other organ of safety, to sabotages and diversant actions; also, they could obtain it in the direct (natural) exchange of drugs and radiological material between mafia and smugglers of these materials. At the end of the last century, after the brakedown of communism, and the collapse of the USSR primarily, the world was very concerned and had doubt in the possibility of keeping the radioactive material. Also, the danger of this form of terrorism can be estimated on the basis of the consequences of the Chernobile catastrophy (1986), when huge amounts of nuclear material were released, and people and the environment are still traumatized by it. The possibility that terrorists could lay their hands on this type of radioactive material was also considered. The third possible type of nuclear terrorism is the one in which terrorists are setting as goals all objects that contain the nuclear material, chiefly the nuclear power plants. This type of objects also include: military installations, ships on nuclear drive, nuclear power plants, objects for nuclear waste, factory for fuel processing, research facilities (nuclear reactors) and facilities for weapon development. With the regard to two mutually connected incidents in the nuclear power plant “Three miles” (February 1, 1993) and in “STC” in New York (February 10, 1993), the American Nuclear Regional Commission (NRC) has taken special measurements for protecting nuclear power plants from the car-bombs. The experts of this commission have started from the assumption that nuclear plants could be attacked with a breakthrough of a car-bomb, and also that that bomb could be set in a vehicle outside the objects safety zone.
There is a well known action of the Chechen terrorists, in 1995. year, when they left conventional bomb which contained radioisotope cesium in a park in Moscow, but it was found before exploded.
And if it was because of high – security of power plant, a little probability for terrorists to challenge liberation of nuclear radiation, nevertheless the system security measures is developed: a) in the first phase, performed security measures to prevent the entry of vehicles or vehicle bombs; b) in the second phase, implement the action against the intrusion of large groups of terrorists using sophisticated weapons; v) nuclear power plants are highly trained and equipped armed forces of security, who protecting the reactor of the object. Patrols constantly touring the fence in scope; it is monitored by video systems and alarm devices; the security forces legitimize all the people and control the vehicles entering the facility or exit the facility.
3.4. Fear of our own poison
Russia and USA who owns the biggest quantity of poison, with a deadly effects, could kill, repeatedly, all humanity and wildlife on our planet. That thousands tons of „fear“, that these countries have made by the end of ’80s last century of mutual war and other military campaigns, now they represent a mortal danger to they own people and the environment. This problem is actualized ’90s, when the SSSR is dissolved and chemical weapons from the ″fraternal republics″ (member of the Warsaw Pact), transported in special warehouses 7 (in Bryansk, Kirovsk, Kurgan, Penzenskaya, Saratovska and in two storage at Udmurtia Republic). Although in Gorna, even in 1984, according to the decision of the Politburo and government of the USSR, factory N – 1202 is built for the processing of old mustard gas and lewisite in a non-toxic chemicals, capacity 3% of the total amount of Russian arsenal of chemical weapons, until than, she has not started working, so this storaging was, only postponing the problem. By international Convention to ban the use, production and storage of chemical weapons that Russia has signed and ratified only in 1993, Krmelj was accepted the obligation to, until the end of 2007, destroy all their supplies, respectively 40.000 t of poison gases. At that time, the USA have joined to Convention on the prohibition of chemical weapons and began to destroy their own supplies of 32.000 t poison gases, because they are the ones, who also faced with
the problem of safe storaging. These activities were in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).79 Russia has a problem more, because not only she need to solve the problem of seven storage of poison gases, she also must implement a program of cleaning the lake and the sea because of huge amounts of poison. According to researches of Russian chemists, at the bottom of the Baltic, and some other seas and lakes, long lay the old poison gases, for over fifty years. Fifties last century, old stocks of poison gas were thrown in the lake Mohovo near Penza. Present analysis show that they are in the water 70.000 times greater amounts of toxins than the maximum permitted. â€œUnfortunately, people swim in such water because hardly anyone looks at the board, on which was written a warning... It is clear how much a tragedy would be, if chemicals comes into shallow waterâ€? â€“ says academic Sergej Baranovski. Despite the good will of both countries to save themselves of this great evil, stockpile destruction progresses slowly. Russia has a total of 40.000 t stockpile, and only 700 t thereof was destroyed for 5 years. The main problem was at lack of money for the construction of seven factories in each area where the storage poison gas, because the law in Russia does not allow transportation of chemical weapons from place to place, because of the huge risk to humans and the environment. When, in 1993, the USA exerted pressure to Russia, who was in that time, in a serious crisis, to sign the Convention and the agreement on the destruction stockpiled of BOT, in Washington they claimed that they want only a good will from Russia, and the money will be provided. Then it is even mentioned figure of $ 20 billion, who the West will give to Russia for this job. From all this, only Germany has donated to Russia $ 3.5 million, in 1993. America has forgotten the promise, but to their own destruction, burning of poison gas, consumed instead of the planned three, even $ 30 billion. Russia, as from the support of Germany, and from its own funds, was able to activate the factory in the town of Gorna, 250 km away from Saratov, and that within it, processed 700 t poison gas, mustard gas, lewisite.80 It is very small and at this pace cannot destroy all stockpiles of chemical weapons, until certain deadline to 2012, without financial support. In the last ten years, in the regions where they are located a huge stock of chemical weapons in Russia (7), there is tremendous fear among the citizens and especially the green movement, which put pressure on the government to be rid of this evil. Concern that these toxins can be able to coming to possession of international terrorist groups and organizations, not to be underestimated, given the objective danger posed by modern chemical warfare, especially organophosphorus compounds.
Misuse of chemical warfares, stimulative and industrial chemicals from the side of government, various sects and terrorist groups and organizations are increasingly more common. About these cases that take place in secret, our findings may be late even 50 years. One such case, discovered in 2002, testified about Hitler's secret weapon to, with ‘magic pill’ get a soldier with robot stamina, towards the end of World War II. Faced with a more probable war defeated, the Third Reich embarked into the production of doping (coded pills d – IX, which contained 5 mg of cocaine, 3 mg eucodala and synthetic cocaine from ‘Merk’ company). This cocktail of psycho stimulator and eukodala origin cocaine, painkillers and relaxation were given infantry unit, controllers of the tanks, pilots and sailors, having received a positive evaluation tests on prisoners in the concentration camp Sachsenhausen in the fall of 1944. For three months a few hundred prisoners are ‘for 24 hours without rest after the received pill, at full load to (20 kg) marched with a forced march out of 90 km’. Dril was led by non-commissioned officers with batons and guns. 29 million pieces of pills was produced and delivered to the units, in strict secrecy. Allied military victory is in the spring of 1945, simultaneously with the completion of the Nazi regime, made a point to this monstrous idea. Otherwise, similar to the abuse of chemical poisons and drugs in psycho stimulus warring armies, known of World War I (German Army), Indo-China and the Vietnam War (America's Army), the NATO raids, as well as some paramilitary groups during the civil war in the former Yugoslavia (1991 – 1995) and others eight years after ‘Desert Storm’ in the Gulf War (at the age of 1991.) USA revealed that they now provide and implement pyridostigmine – promotion (PD) as an antidote to poison soman (which were supposed to use Iraqis), at 250.000 allied troops. It isn’t came to atact for soman, so at the age of 1999. PD was found guilty for so named ‘Gulf War Syndrome’ of which affected almost 30.000 American soldiers. This soldiers and members of their families have earned the right to get through the court material compensation. The German Bundeswehr has helped the Turkish army to form a chemical laboratory for the production of chemical weapons. This fact deserved attention for unsolved ‘Kurdish issue’ and occasional extremis actions of Turkish army to Kurds. In Liege region at the East of Belgium, in the middle of NATO base, after Military pipeline damage, who served for kerosene supplies military bases, appeared geyser with strong jet of more tens of tons kerosene in the air (high column of 15 m). Vulnerable population had become evacuated, and big quantity of toxic chemical are polluted air, soil and water. Danged of explosion was there, so soldiers and police against fire brigade were immediately engaged to neutralize this threat.
Mass poisoning in Japan, after of World War II, are also very common. When, the eight doctors of citizen hospital in Kyoto, form July at the age of 2002, litter in the bed because of tea and coffee poisoning, cooked at deliberately poisoned water, it’s clearly become that the people of human occupations aren’t immune to the temptations of easy mass murder. It was a about involve poison (insecticide), that the local power shared by free to households and institutions, like an apparatus for destroy the white ants, who attack tree and destroy Japanese homes, developed of tree contractions. At the beginning of the same year, the mass poisons in the city start to happened at one local ceremony. Poisson was placed to dish flavored with curry, and four persons was dead, and more then eighteen person was easier or harder poisoned and were treated in hospital, because of that. Until then, throughout Japan, like some infection, start to happened the mass poison insecticide, organophosphorus compounds and potassium cyan. In the Niigata city, happened the tree mass, intentional poisoning, at three different factors with twelve death cases and almost one hundred thirty-five poison persons, who are treated i saved for luck. Of the cases with death outcome, one was stands out, because the death outcome was about fifty-eight work – man, who drinks his tea from conserve. With expertise is detected that buying conserves was closed in the tea infected with cinckcalium. After this development, a hundred conserve was closed in Japan and in the end of sell, control at sores and at the street automatic had become extreme. Almost, it’s assumed that human voices cases of poisoning at one place, very fast at the second, too. In spring, at the age of 1993, the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, without control, passed compositions of train, and for that German was reported to Albania more than one hundred ninety-four tones of dangerous pesticides (chemicals for plant protection). From ours and international regulations, chemicals for plant protection could be transformed only with examining the waybill, without inspection of goods, which is done in Subotica, more than one times. In total, from Albania were transported seventeen wagons of German railways. Stored wagons were unwritten and the others were places at station of Bajze (on the shore of Lake Skadar), just 8 km from border, full barrels, bags and glass decanters, which is placed chemicales. From the beginning of the age of 1993, movement of Ecologists from Montenegro, posted: “Looming environmental disaster in the Skadar Lake in the border areas in Albania, Montenegro - municipalities Tuza”… Knowing that it is a dangerous chemical waste, mainly organophosphorus pesticides highly toxic and very stable chemical compounds, particularly concerned citizens and state authorities launched the emergency procedures. In this waste was and organophosphate ester type ‘demefon’ and ‘metacistoke’, which were used as chemical warfare in the Vietnam War. Cares was enhanced by the fact that these wagons to be free to come, as the Albanians used, so the green barrels handed
powdery poison in the lake and on the ground, and then the barrels used for the smuggling of petroleum products across Lake Skadar in Montenegro. Was a lot of dust pesticide that is dusted lake and a large area in the border area. On the lake appeared dead seagulls and fish ... When farmers were asthmatic disease occurrence, the process of the skin and others. According to one eyewitness, Bajza station is only 300 - 500 m from the Skadar Lake, and all the water flowing into the lake, and even underground, too. Itâ€™s known that chemical organofosfornog waste composition is very toxic, dangerous and resistant to climate change. Because itâ€™s deposited in the world as well as radioactive waste in containers, shall be reinforced - concrete underground structures. They can only be destroyed by burning in a special furnace at a temperature of 12.000o C. And if the burning is done at lower temperatures, are synthesized from toxic chemicals (burnt) venom. The use of chemical and possibly biological agents, psycho â€“ chemical BOt, defoil hibricside and aims, in all armed conflicts, temporarily breaking the fighting morale, causing panic, fear, and ejection from the machine overall formations and units of the armed forces and other subjective defense. Sabotage means and methods of their use have reached unimaginable proportions. They are the most diverse elaborate technical solutions in the field of physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics and electronics. Their effectiveness against unprepared population and the armed forces is large and varied usage and available in all shapes and forms of combat. Meanwhile, in the more remote places and targets, at each property and in all weather conditions.
3.5 From chemical terror to chemical terrorism
Terror of chemical weapons is implemented in all the wars in the XX century, has never defined the meaning therefore not sanctioned under international humanitarian law banning the production, storage and use of weapons of mass destruction and debilitation. 81 Also, production, research and development chemical weapons has not stopped, as agreed and signed the International Declaration of prohibitions and sanctions for violators of these provisions. Created a qualitatively new arsenal of chemical weapons that threaten and endanger humanity for their survival.82
In all this, there have been attempts, ‘attractive’ and plausible explanation placate public opinion and stifled anger. One of these efforts is to create a powerful chemical weapons for the deactivation, as ‘humane’, as incapacitates but does not kill! Created the so-called binary chemical weapons (which were introduced in some armies arming) variant known as the deadly Bot Sarina and Bh, which have been labeled G - B - 2 and Vx - 2, as well as a variant of Soman GD. The concentrations of these toxins such as to allow that, at the time of storage, the cost of compliance are separated (two components) is relatively nontoxic. These components only during the launch of the goal of giving poison gas (sarin, Bh, or soman). In addition to this way of ‘ad hoc’ synthesized from non-toxic components of poison gas, it can be time that is stored is of high toxicity and penetrates well into the body through the lungs and skin unharmed. With each missile control with this charge, it can be concluded that ‘it does not contain poison gas’, and therefore does not belong to the banned chemical weapons. The first means of poisoning occur earlier than six and no later than 36 hours after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Debilitating dose of botulinum toxins to humans is only 0.001 mg / man if contaminated food or water, taken by mouth, while the mean dose of approximately smrna 0.02mg / min / m3 air that is inhaled as bioaerosols. Tetrodotoxin and saksotokšin are about 30 times less toxic than botulinum - toxins. However, botulinum - the toxin is about 300 times more toxic than bot from group B. The use of chemical and possibly biological agents, pshicho – chemical BOt, and defoliante cherbicid aims to temporarily break the fighting morale, causing panic, fear, and ejection from the machine overall formations and units of the armed forces and other defense. Sabotage means and methods of their use have reached unimaginable proportions. They are the most diverse technical solutions in the field of physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics and electronics. Their effectiveness against unprepared and unnotifficate population and the armed forces is large and varied usage and available in all shapes and forms of combat. At the same time the more remote places and targets, at each property and in all weather conditions. Psychochemical physical and chemical warfare incapacities, by that logic, hiding the truth, in fact, ‘human’ poisons do not kill but only temporarily unfit. So, for example, herbicides and insecticides belonging to the poison plant protection and promotion of agricultural production, and are not harmful to bees, or even for the people... There are numerous examples of not sanctioning procedures in state of war under international law conflicts. Thus, for example, the USA impunity for crimes committed in the war against Vietnam (1962 – 1969) which have killed more than 2 million acres of forests and crops with herbicides, and killed more than a million
civilians, using poison gas. Similar to the last, with impunity, India, due to the combination of poison gases, flammable and resources in the year of 1971 war with Pakistan; Russians because of the application of chemical weapons in the form of socalled. ‘Yellow rain’ in the war against Afghanistan 1978th year; Vietnam in Vietnamese – Cambodians sending War, when he used poison gas Mustard gas and Tabun and others. The NATO war against Yugoslavia believed that the USA air force used, in addition to depleted uranium, and high - toxic chemical warfare agents, such as soman and some other, yet unidentified toxins in the form of ‘yellow rain’ and ‘blue gas’ that pollutes the long run soil and threaten the health of civilians, animals and plants. Today there is an enormous arsenal of chemical weapons, both large and small states. It is estimated that the U.S. has more than 50,000 t of modern chemical weapons, Russia more than 70,000 tons, even a small Albania has 16 tons of deadly BOt. The huge arsenal of dangerous chemical weapons scattered throughout the world, now poses a serious threat to the wildlife and the environment for two reasons: As stocks and stock of weapons in standby to be used in warfare or some accident of the release into the environment and cause catastrophic emergency event; and - There is a high risk of abuse of chemical weapons, if these funds are capturing a criminal or terrorist groups and organizations, which can themselves synthesize most of BOt-known in makeshift laboratories outside the control of state institutions. In the last twenty years, which coincides with the geopolitical changes in the world, especially after 11 September 2001 year, in addition to state terror promoted chemical weapons and chemical terrorism. In this regard, the World Health Organization, in September 2001 sent a warning: Terrorists may resort to poisons. It may be known or chemical warfare toxins, such as botulinus (one of the strongest toxins of bacteria, but it is managed and its synthesis in the U.S. - in) or ricine. And when it comes to terrorist attacks using chemical (or biological weapons), no one can predict how long it may take action or chemicals as they spread, and what the consequences might cause to humans, wildlife and the environment. -
3.6. Characteristics and application of nuclear - means the radiation sabotage - terrorist acts
In recent years, terrorists have repeatedly announced that they will resort to nuclear terrorism, to be presented to the public its desire for the highest level of violence. However, there has not occurred any incident that involves any form of threat of nuclear weapons, to which - presumably - affected by the fact that they are unable to achieve a ‘nuclear capability (capacity)’ devices through ‘domestic production’. Something different is the combat radiological materials and fuel, which could be done from radiological contamination areas, buildings, reservoirs of drinking water and food. There is only the question: how to get to the radioactive material? Realistically, there are three scenarios, which have already been discussed,83 by which nuclear material could be used for terrorist purposes: 1) Thermal Detonation - a nuclear device or bomb; 2) Conventional explosive device to disperse radiological material;84 3) The third type of nuclear terrorism, where terrorists set goals for facilities containing nuclear material and, above all nuclear power plants85. Terrorist use of radiological materials (resources) and the use of their destructive effects, with the aim of endangering the health and life of humans, plants and animals, and the environment and eco - systems in order to achieve political goals, sowing fear, defeatism and beheadings leadership attacked state, began even during ‘the cold War’, in the second half of the twentieth century.86 The development of modern nuclear weapons goes towards improving the quality of miniaturization. In the world there are hundreds of research reactors to produce electricity. Each year, they produce over 60 tons of plutonium, which is sufficient to support an adequate way of expanding the production of nuclear weapons for tactical use in sabotage - terrorist activities. Stocks of nuclear fuel more growth, primarily 239Pu and order sizes are over 600 tons. Able enrichment of recovered plutonium and uranium mixed with the ability to scale 1:4 aggravate control over the growing and expanding trade (illegal) this material. If removed from nuclear warheads 239Pu can be used as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors ... Only the Russian nuclear missiles removed the 50 t Pu 239 (Yeltsin in 1997)87. Perfected the means of dispersal N / R material88 and take only a few hundred grams of enriched Pu to kill tens of thousands of people. (100 gr. Pooh placed in the dispersion device and inserted into the city water tank - now 4 - the day appeared to be signs of acute toxicity in people; reservoir water could not be decontaminated and should be forever excluded from use). Making simple fission transmission - explosive devices (bombs) do not present a problem (with Emoze instructions found on the Internet), but it is necessary to obtain ten kg. nuclear
explosives (U235 or Pu239). Plutonium is more than radioactive more radiation per unit mass89.
U because it emits
Even then, chemical, biological and radiological agents, as well as mininuclear weapons classified as the most efficient weapon of terrorist activity. They are by nature, an almost ideal application for the secret funds without the risk that the perpetrators of the crime will be discovered and punished, primarily because of their insidious manifestation of the shelf and the effect on humans, animals and plants, the eco - systems, drinking water and food. And, when they are discovered only a statement of the consequences, which can be attributed to, and often it was happening accident or series of accidents that have caused the victims and not the terrorists. When it comes to weapons of mass destruction and debilitation is very difficult to distinguish between accidents (accident), as well as accidental or unintentional occurrence, from the deliberate, planned and villainy application for two main reasons: the political and professional â€“ scientific. Politically, deeply anti-human, the reason lies in the fact that this covert action, international and national law prohibited and is in the interest of the organizers (and often state) such actions reveal that women with the intention of causing such actions or even military operations this asset. A conviction would be, though moral, yet dangerous at the international level. Early detection of terrorist plans and actors with radiological material is directly dependent on the degree of achievement and professional methods and resources in the field of detection and identification of agents at the scene of the crime and the victim. Tragic facts about the community is that it is appropriate for the development of science in finding weapons of mass destruction of people and life in general in the current development of human society, ahead of the development of humanization of relations. This trend is necessary as quickly and decisively to stop it and this is possible only raising awareness about the dangers of global and timely implementation of preventive and other measures to protect human and returning science mission for the benefit of present and future civilizations. To date, all well designed, planned, and performed successfully masked terrorist action, may be treated as an accident (accident). Such covert action, carried out under circumstances and conditions in which accidents are possible, it is very difficult to prove as a terrorist act.
Three-dimensional simulation (computer) nuclear explosions conducted by American nuclear experts in national laboratory ‘Loren Livermore’ 2005th with the task: To maintain stocks of nuclear weapons secure and reliable, it is not out of control, and that if the president decides that it is necessary to use, nuclear weapons could work exactly as expected; To warheads as they are perfectly safe and reliable, with virtually no limitation - in a word to be eternal! Apart from this example simulation, we should point out that leading nuclear power is challenging tactical option terrorists. Such threats were reported IAEA - in, some western European countries, Argentina, Lithuania, South Africa. None of these countries did not have a plan to respond in the event of a potential attack on a nuclear power plant. Four countries have qualified for such attacks, as the likely sabotage which threatens their nuclear power plants.
Table 10: Confirmed incidents of trafficking in nuclear waste (1993 - 2000)90 Type r / m years
1.Radioactive sources 2.Both
Without diminishing the danger and the risk of a possible nuclear attack and great work with the apocalyptic ending, the reality is today we have more to fear from the consequences of major terrorist attacks with nuclear weaker - radiation means, which may be at higher risk of severe nuclear attack nuclear and thermonuclear weapons. Analysis of the lethal nature of the threats has changed significantly, and today major nuclear powers and other states, special security forces and independent movements can take nuclear secrets - radiation attacks. There are many scenarios in which different types of NBC weapons and radioactive materials Ogu combat a lethal and harmful effects in relation to cases that occurred in connection with the World Trade Center in Oklahoma City and the Japanese sect Aumshinrikyo91. That's why many experts are correct in assuming that it is now conventional terrorist attack noticeably bigger threat than nuclear war high. In this connection, attention was given to the possible nuclear scenarios - radiation (N / R) acts of terrorism: 1. Radiation material in powder form is injected into the system air-condition several high-rise buildings (in which there are various jobs bureaus) in several cities, within a few weeks, and the first symptoms of disease were observed for days or weeks later. On the basis of these symptoms to identify substances (R / N), which is caused by a diseased state but canâ€™t assess their long-term lethality and have no decontamination. Residents of these buildings are fleeing to other parts of the city. These buildings demolished and in their place, after the distraction of the contaminated material in a secure landfill, the construction of new high-rise buildings; 2. In the state of X, a terrorist group backed by the government, for example, smuggled into the U.S.A. raw materials for a nuclear device in the mid-size truck. The
group uses the best of the Ministry of Defence of the impact of these weapons, choosing a city in the U.S.A. in order to maximize the impact... Terrorist groups looking for literature on the counter - measures cocoa to avoid the wind will attempt to â€˜answerâ€™ the most complicate and affect the maximum number of those who first comes to the aid. Several kilograms of bomb forces â€“ tons of exploding with a mild shock wave and no fire, but with a high level of radiation. The number of actual victims of serious and long-term mortality rate over time steadily increasing. 3. To state X, or terrorist group supported by the state X, expanding high concentrations of radiological, chemical or biological agents in different parts of the city. Likewise, these elements inserted into the local water supply systems. When symptoms occur, the terrorist group responsible for the attack, but only recognizes that contaminated the local water supply system. Authorities were forced to confirm the contamination of water and its resultant mass panic. 4. Vaccinated terrorists transmit small amounts of anthrax or similar biological agent, and insert them into the passenger plane, the Boeing 747 in Remer: they seamlessly spilling powder and then inflate the plane on landing place of the regular passengers. No airport detection system or airfare search did not able to detect the agent spilled inside the aircraft. Some 70% - 80% of passengers who flew that plane died of symptoms that appeared to have a few days after the flight. It takes even a few weeks to realize that the plane all the time, stay contaminated. 5. Several identical devices secretly taken out of some former Soviet republics. One of these devices is the secret of some former Soviet republics. One of these devices is disassembled to determine the precise technology and authorization codes for activating (Permissive Action Links - PAL), which allows users to trigger other devices. The weapon is then disassembled again, the ability to detect reduced to a minimum. Fissile nucleus is carried by ship, hidden in leaded wraps. Weapons are smuggled and then successfully apply to the periphery of the urban area, which is outside the formal security diameter. Base that has 10 or more kilotons explodes, destroying everything in the critical area, exposing the entire region fallout. 6. The same device is entered into one of the ports of the United States, the device is transmitted in a modified standard package, which contains protective detection and activating means that the device is activated when the container is opened in an area near or in the U.S.A. itself or device is set using the global system, so it is automatically activated when it reaches the proper coordinates. In this case, the important direct explosive effect, but if the device detonates at the customs, great damage and fallout will contaminate a wide surrounding belts. In addition to these possible scenarios and to the possibility of a hypothetical plutonium diversion to city water.
Today, the production of nuclear weapons is relatively easy, assuming that you have the necessary nuclear materials. Fissile Missiles (devices) can be produced with a few grams of plutonium, highly - enriched uranium235 or uranium233. Design and production of fissile simple transmission - an explosive device is not a difficult task cue, but it requires large amounts of nuclear explosives (ten pounds). Because the radiation weapons that dispersion, easy to produce, and they become the weapon of choice for special forces - the terrorist organizations, and even individuals. Among fissionable materials is probably the most efficient nuclear fuel uranium and plutonium, which are in quantities of a few grams to 100, can be placed in a simple device for dispersion and put in city water. Such a device for dispersion of plutonium, is inserted into the tank city water, could cause the deaths of tens of thousands of people in the first bout, and the effects of internal contamination with other people can be closed and ban its further use. it would have caused a great financial, social, psychological, and international implications. It should be noted that the group of most toxic radionuclides are plutonium isotopes (strontium, polonium, radium, aktinijum). Also, plutonium and its isotopes are a group of long-lived radionuclides. In recent years, increased interest in the use of plutonium in various branches of business and practical life (pace - mark Pu238). The occurrence of these elements makes the problem much more complex internal contamination than ever, especially as metabolic and toxicological properties of these radionuclides insufficiently explored, thus the efficiency of care and intervention is much smaller in the case of internal contamination. Given the way the penetration of contaminants into the body - contaminated drinking water - in this particular case, oral or gastrointestinal - intestinal internal contamination. The process of internal contamination of the body takes place in several phases: resorption of deposited contaminants into the body, distribution of contaminants throughout the body, depositing contaminants in the appropriate tissue or organ, eliminating contaminants from the body, and the redistribution of contaminants else. The speed and size of absorption of uranium and plutonium in the gastro intestinal system has not elaborated enough and it is believed that it is minimal, only trace amounts of 0.0026% of the amount ingested with contaminated drinking water. Determining the extent of internal radiation internally â€“ contaminated body and his degree of radiation damage are very complex process, so that only predictions dimensions possible damage following the elimination rate nuclide from the body. There are separate forms for the calculation of effective dose and time a half of evanescence at the gastro â€“ intestinal tract. Use of these forms in a given case of contamination of the public water supply, from which the drinking water supplies of 30,000 inhabitants mean effective
radiation dose for the first four days given to the entire population at the time ingested 1.78 liters of contaminated water. Thus, the acute toxicity of plutonium event can expect from the fourth day APOS derived diversion of 34% of the population of the city â€“ of approximately 10,000 people, mostly children and laborers who work in difficult jobs and high ambient temperature (increased fluid intake). However, internal irradiation would cause such damage would be manifested more weeks, months, and years after the diversion performed. The water tank would have to be closed off from use. Contaminated water, as well as the walls of the pool could not be effectively decontaminated. Therefore, there is a risk that the water from the pool used for technical purposes. It should be noted the appearance of a new crime in the last 20-odd years. It is the proliferation of WMD92, which certainly belongs to the top of the list of priorities security all of the great powers, especially with the advent of fundamental Islamic terrorism provenance. The use of nuclear energy for electricity production led to a large circulation material suitable for nuclear weapons in a different process nuclear fuel cycle. In late 1980 thousands of pounds of material for nuclear weapons were in the military - a private setting, and the free market, which has opened the possibility of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.93 In Russia and many former Soviet republics, because of the weakened state control and cessation of production of protective devices and equipment, maintenance and servicing of dangerous substances in the arsenals of weapons and radioactive materials, the '90s were not able to protect these dangerous radioactive sources and materials. Thus, for example, in the age of 1999, noted that about 70% of the security was impaired, and 20% were usable, 2 â€“ 3 years ago94. the U.S.A. Congress in February 2002. The CIA has said95 that the Russians regarding storing nuclear materials generally have a problem: the lack of money, lack of trained personnel in charge of security, and lack of equipment for the safe storage of such materials.
3.7 Characteristics of sabotage and terroristic actions by chemical methods
Sabotage and terrorism have much similarity in the methods of action, efficacy of action, goals and objectives attacks, equipment, weapons and use NBC96
means (weapons). They differ in the forces that carried out the action, the organization, command and control operations, as well as the ultimate effects. Diversion performed formational units of the armed forces, which have been specially trained, equipped and armed, and their actions in the war at a time of imminent danger and completed operations guided by commands and headquarters units comprised of Diversions are specific in offensive combat operations, in general, performed in uniform, in most cases, with appropriate signs and required weaponry. Members of these units act in accordance with the regulations of the international law of war, and have all the rights of soldiers in combat, so the scouts caught in the act cannot be judged, but they are treated as prisoners of war with the other. Terrorist acts carried out diverse irregular forces, and not entitled to protection under the international law of war. If you are caught in the act, shall be treated as criminals, terrorists and criminals for the most serious crimes of undermining the socio â€“ political system, the laws of the State in which the action performed ... Difference between terrorism and subversion lies in the timing of execution of actions and circumstances in which such acts are committed. Diversions are combat, offensive character, which is performed only during the war, just before the outbreak of the conflict. Terrorist acts and actions can be performed, and performed as acts of violence during peace time and crisis â€“ emergencies, but are a regular occurrence in time of war. Terrorism, in short, means the action of violence against innocent and vulnerable populations (genocide), police, armed forces, material and cultural resources, environment (ecocide), with the purpose of intimidating, sowing fear to panic, creating insecurity and killings and destruction. The terrorists are in fact used all available means, including NBC's resources.97 The action itself may not have serious consequences (such as large losses of mass destruction, etc..), But tends to have a large impact to the public98, as opposed to a diversion which is in the forefront of the real effect (loss and damage).99 To explore the relationship between terrorism and diversion of chemicals is necessary to determine its basic characteristics: confidentiality, comprehensiveness, aggression, means, methods, and strength. Secrecy is the essential characteristic of terrorism and acts of sabotage when it comes to the application of chemicals. It stems from two main reasons: -
The nature of terrorism and sabotage actions that must be prepared, organized and carried out in the strictest confidence,
and that the perpetrators remain unknown, in order to enable them to leave the scene of the crime, and - The fact that the chemicals and non-conventional weapons and prohibited for use in war and terrorist actions. So with diversions necessary to ensure the confidentiality of the application of prohibited substances in the sabotage action, and with secrecy terrorism must be protected because these actions are carried unregulated power and illicit means. Modern container engineering has contributed to the secrecy may perform these actions. This technique it is possible to transfer biological agents, chemical warfare agents and other chemicals in most remote areas - the target of the attack, in which a means of transport and launch of poisons and biological agents that perform sabotage and terrorist actions have a delayed effect. This means after inserting into food, water or direct poisoning and infecting people with duration of effect, you can not show any signs of poisoning or infecting. The first signs of intoxication occur until several hours after the attack. And the first signs of illness in infected appear after three or more days (incubation).100 In this silent period, terrorists - may commandos can be removed safely and unnoticed from the crime scene. Confidentiality of sabotage and terrorist actions biological and chemical means is provided so as to perform actions in the territories where there are natural conditions for the emergence of endemic diseases and poisoning people in the appropriate seasons, avoiding prosecution and conviction of the perpetrator of the crime. During the war, and especially in recent times, many countries as applicants UN and the World Health Organization that of their population was attacked by biological agents or chemical toxins. However, those charges were dismissed because they could not prove the crime, because of these properties of biological and chemical agents. That's why that unusual phenomenon proclaimed accidents or natural phenomena. Comprehensiveness is another peculiarity of sabotage and terrorist attacks using chemical and biological substances. This notion has two major components: - comprehensiveness in quantitative and - comprehensiveness in terms of quality. Given the possibility of secret attacks, it is the direct involvement of terrorists or saboteurs, or that the attack carried out by using modern tactical devices and application resources. In quantitative terms, it is possible to simultaneously or at shorter intervals encompass several areas and several buildings on the grounds. In terms of quality, large quantities of chemical poisons (or biological agents) would be affected at the same time not only a great space, but also many kinds of living things:
people, animals and plants. Disruption of ecological systems complements the qualitative component of comprehensiveness. Many casualties and disrupted the ecological balance in nature, inevitable causes fear, helplessness, disorganization, defeat, disruption of social and labor discipline people, cut-head of government and public services, which ultimately may cause complex aftermaths in the economic and political system of the affected areas or entire state. So upset the stability of the economic, political and defense - safe system of a country, providing favorable conditions for foreign aggression. Aggressiveness sabotage - terrorist chemical (and biological) and offender diversion of funds - terrorist acts is an important characteristic of these crimes against the people, the wildlife and the environment. Terrorists and commandos carry out such actions accurately, impeccably professional, bold, brazen and brutal. Aggression stems from the nature of chemical and biological means (weapons): a high biological activity, insidious effect, the rapid spread of infectious diseases and the current sudden appearance of a huge number of toxins. The combination of biological and chemical agents can attack the entire population simultaneously in several regions, contaminates and destroys wildlife and disturb the ecological balance and threaten the survival of wildlife in these regions.101 The forces engaged for carrying out sabotage and terrorist activities not at all and especially for carrying out covert actions prohibited chemical and biological weapons, such as NATO alliance are: forces for special forces - in the background effects scare opponents on land and sea; special forces to organize so-called guerrilla and anti-partisan operations, and special forces to carry out psychological propaganda operations. Forces with other similar applications exist for the names of other great powers (Russia, China and others). Special forces are easily transformed, serve or expand unofficially organizations dedicated special forces and other states, state agencies and institutions and even to terrorist groups and organizations. The major tasks of such formations is hidden behind the opponents effect, the predominant use of acts of sabotage and attacks on the headquarters, command posts, Cent connections, airports, warehouses, shelters, electronic devices, infrastructure facilities (especially chemical plants and nuclear reactors); perform sabotage, kidnappings, assassinations and hostage-taking. These units perform the guerrilla or insurgent actions and liberating - in fact rebel activities. Some of these tasks can be performed by individuals or small groups, while others require the involvement of the company or the water volume (detachment). Special units are chosen very bold, daring men and psychophysical stable, well-trained in the use of
firearms and bladed weapons, explosives and other sabotage NHB funds. Their training and preparation methods, equipment, and how to carry out tasks are kept in utmost secrecy. Terrorist organizations and groups in the modern economy are global, international or regional character. In the last decade, after 11 September 2001, they are predominantly Islamic provenance and increasingly advocate the so-called post terrorism or super - terrorism, which includes the use of weapons of mass destruction. For these reasons, terrorism in all national security strategy identified as one of the leading threats to, and on behalf of the global fight against terrorism by the USA â€“occupied Afghanistan and Iraq (because of unproven allegations that produce WMD). The means and methods of sabotage and terrorism means any dangerous means war materiel and weapons of mass destruction and debilitation. These products are the latest scientific findings and knowledge. Thanks to the development of science and technology, the misuse of these scientific advances and solutions in the fields of physics, chemistry, mechanics, biology and electronics, sabotage and acts of terrorism have reached unimagined possibilities and efficiency. Their destructive power and efficiency of destruction and debilitation of wildlife and the environment is vast and versatile method of application. To keep, just in technical solutions in the field of nuclear physics, physical chemistry, chemistry and biology, specifically on the battle poisons, pesticides, psychochemical substances and compounds and biological agents as a means of sabotage and terrorism. The current research programs of chemical and biological agents, as well as a already produced chemical and biological agents, help achieve maximum results, such as: ensuring maximum aggressiveness, persistence and adaptability; achieving the intended effect within the selected target; providing appropriate technical solution to transfer them to the finish line; - ensuring confidentiality of preparation and use, and storage and security of existing and required supplies. Methods of application of chemical and biological agents in the special forces or terrorist actions can be varied and generally will avoid repetition, but each method will be adapted to the purpose, requirements, resources, and the effects to be achieved. The objectives of sabotage - terrorist activities are essentially political - economic, but for tactical reasons can be reduced to: -
Systematic and rational attenuation national liberation and guerrilla movements and separatist - terrorist movements in the world;
Preservation and strengthening of monopolistic policies and military domination of the world powers; - Expanding the sphere of influence throughout the world; - Exercise and gaining hegemonic and neo-colonial position in the countries and regions of the developing and transition economies. Sabotage and terrorist activities, involving the use of prohibited weapons and RHB funds, which would include the so-called unconventional operations, while the goals were specific, such as: -
people, individually and en masse, military and political figures, commands, authorities and local self-government, political party leaders and others; - important buildings and institutions, the police, ordnance and weapons (warehouses, hangars, etc.), and - civilian population, agricultural and industrial buildings, crops, livestock, water, food and environment. As for the motives in the choice of chemical weapons, as well as the target of the attack, the present era of globalization and globalization trends that tend to characterize the rapid fulfillment of political goals. At issue is the terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction has become a matter of choice, regardless of the consequences. -
Motives and preferences in the selection of poison gas and other chemical compounds and substances for carrying out sabotage - terrorist activities could include: -
The high efficiency of these resources to achieve tactical and even strategic goals, through assassinations, mass poisoning of people farm animals, with high mortality and creating panic, general demobilization, defeatist behavior; Feelings of helplessness and general insecurity and the decline of morality and the will of the people for the defense, regardless of the level of preparation and training for protection against chemical; Able to conceal and justify the crime to the pressure of public opinion, and the denial of a waiver of their own participation in the performance of such acts of terrorism in peace and renunciation of belonging to special forces - the terrorist groups and the control of their country; Striving to maintain a constant tension in international relations and conditions in which they can hunt in troubled waters, and maintain obedience and support people in their own country, even though many disgruntled community service, economic and political solutions. Maintaining a state of no-war, no-peace policy in favor of the imperialist and hegemonic government in the modern world. That tension is maintained and spread fear of
weapons of mass destruction as well as the uncertainty related to the outbreak of war, which would be devastating to humankind, if it occurred in the N (R) HB weapons. The primary objectives of sabotage - the terrorist operations of chemical toxic substances and poisons deadly battle, in all emergencies, and war, would be: drinking water, food, plant and animal origin. It is well known that in mass disasters, emergencies, and economic crisis, especially in the war, one of the most difficult problems of the society is to provide sufficient quantities of safe drinking water and food of plant and animal origin. Such conditions were followed by shortages of drinking water and safe food, due to the destruction of disrupted supply contamination or chemical and biological agents. It is realistic to expect the appearance of many factors that will cause contamination of water and food, what happens when the state regularly, though far less. Pressed famine, the population will be forced to use water and food, regardless of their quality, correctness, or even contamination by chemical and biological agents. The lack of sufficient quantities of food conducive to appear counterfeiting of food, especially flour, spices, oils and fats, which would rationally exploit diversion a terrorist group. The falsification of foods commonly used to deadly chemical substances, including chemical warfare agents and organophosphate insecticides. This would be a relatively short time appeared a mass poisoning of people and especially children, mostly in big cities. No water in particular, and without food cannot be lived, so also because these media are ideal object of attack by chemical means. Foodstuffs and drinking water are critical items and in times of peace, especially in the case of economic crisis and a shortage in the market of basic human needs. Because the terrorists and saboteurs, and in times of peace sent to contamination of water and food, especially in large warehouses or central supply of large cities water reservoirs. Sabotage actions usually, in addition to water facilities, be exposed: food industry; domestic farm animals and poultry, warehouses and silos, dairy, and other central supply of foodstuffs. According to some accounts,102 all water facilities, as of those with a capacity not exceeding four hectoliters of water may be contaminated with a lethal concentration of toxin botulin toxin, and in one single action that diversion would cause an individual or a group of terrorists - saboteurs. A similar or even more serious is the situation with the food, because modern poisons, which would be used in sabotage â€“ terrorist actions, and mix well to dissolve all relations with the fat from the food, and simple pervasive and watering foods high in fats and oils. There are saboteurs and terrorists possibilities virtually limitless.
Poisoning of humans and domestic animals contaminated drinking water and food are among the most serious poisonings modern chemical warfare agents. It should be noted that the protection of internal contamination (introduction of toxins into stomach - intestinal tract) through water and food, the most complex of all the measures that can realistically be undertaken within the framework of protection against chemical.103 Given the strategic and vital importance of water and food to combat capability, we can expect their intentional contamination of all known and yet unknown chemical warfare agents during the war. In doing so, we can expect massive contamination of water facilities and food sources in the territory of the affected frontal chemical attack or just some selective properties of water and food to sabotage enemy operations. In addition to people, all contamination in food and water, are threatened by domestic animals, whose sensitivity to modern poisons are often more sensitive than men. Ultimately, the primary objectives of diversion chemicals are men. Such actions can be performed directly or indirectly. Indirectly killing and incapacitating chemical agents highly skilled people to contamination of water and food, and directly, injecting venom into the body of the people, ingestion of poison for suicide, or direct contamination of the skin and visible mucous membranes. Finally, diversion can be performed using aerosols and gases or toxins that spread through the air that one breathes. The sabotage - terrorist activities are commonly used glass containers and devices (bottle boxes, tubes, jars with airtight lids), then grenades, grenade launchers and boxes of free spraying. They are all hand tools. These devices are often designed as cigarette boxes, dolls, children's toys, cigarette case, a bottle of cologne, pens ballpoint pens, shaving machines, and other personal accessories of every man. In war paratroopers air raids or helicopter raids, often in groups and saboteurs who are equipped and chemicals (toxins), which could contaminate food and water facilities in the landing area, and used by residents. Chemical bot detection in water and food, it is still far from perfect and often useless in field conditions. All the weight problems of acute oral toxicity, therefore, falls to medical prevention and therapy. In order to sabotage contamination of food and water may be applied only by those poisons that meet the most stringent criteria.
3.8. Sabotage and terroristic use of chemical weapons
Sabotage and terroristic assets (weapons) are made, as a rule, filled with explosive, flammable, toxic or radioactive materials or biological agents, and often combined, which are used to destroy or disable the personnel, military equipment, vessels, aircraft, ports , factories, communication, and the contamination water, food and the environment in times of peace and in times of war. For easy detection of mines with a metal body, after the war to sabotage devices and resources are increasingly using plastic body. In preparation for World War II the Germans in 1936 synthesized more acid esters and fluoro-acetic acid, high molecular weight, of the general formula: F - (SN SOON). These compounds are highly toxic, highly stable in aqueous solutions, without taste or smell, and because of these properties classified as ideal sabotage chemicals. Fluoro-alcohols, Fluoroacetamide and their derivatives, are provided for the sabotage contamination of food and water. Americans are the 1955th synthesize a number of so-called subversive poison. These toxins have been used in the Vietnam War as the most effective for the diversion proved botulinus toxin, particularly contamination of food and drinking water. Using sabotage poisons enabled not only killing and poisoning of people and domestic animals, but it creates a psychosis general insecurity, fear and panic, a feeling of powerlessness. In the postwar period were selected and defined by all possible diversion of chemicals. Among the most suitable methods of sabotage and terrorist actions are: organic fluorine compounds and phosphorus, natural poisons of plant or animal origin, and organic compounds of sulfur, arsenic, antimony, lead, mercury and copper, and cyanide. During this period, the most progress in developing new toxin from a group of poison gas and natural toxins has been to until the age of 1965. Arsenal of deadly and debilitating poison gas, enriched with: V - poisons in 1957 in the UK and the USA; psychochemical incapacitates chemical warfare agents - BZ, in 1961 in the UK and the USA; herbicides as chemical warfare agents for destroying plants in 1961, the USA and CS â€“ toxins in 1965 in the UK and the USA. In addition to the previously known trilona (Germany, 1936.) and vesicant (Germany, 1917), these four groups, newly-made toxins simultaneously subversive
and terrorist group of chemicals. All these assets are classified as special weapons, special forces, army and police. This group of toxins should be added: selfish - toxins, borbin â€“ toxins, ricin and mycotoxins, with previously known botulinum - a toxin. This group represents a powerful natural poisons and contemporary sabotage â€“ terrorist chemical agents. Therefore, the potential special forces - the terrorist chemical agents which would include acids, bases, salts and heavy metals, some of the effects of the deadly poison gases, some of the poison gas for the deactivation and psychoactive drugs; reports; variety of pesticides and natural toxins. Content analysis of the literature, we found that the poisons used are described in 49 wars, in 28 acts of sabotage and assassination 45. Occurred in 23 accidents and carried out more than a hundred reflected on the people and domestic animals. In all wars of chemical weapons was 6.777 million people were killed and about 2 million head of domestic animals. In only 28 acts of sabotage (12 is successfully executed), 7025 people were killed, assassinated in 45 (24 successful), killed 24 people, in 23 incidents (accidents) 3487 people were killed and thousands more animals domestic animals and wildlife. Finally, in experiments on humans were killed around 3599 people and tens of thousands of patients have become permanently disabled. It is known that chemicals in addition to the physical and mental and physical debilitation killing intoxicated person, have a strong psychological impact on people who are not poisoned or contaminated, and is considered to be poisoned to each person there are at least three other people suffer because they are going to their or another family member or friend. And that fact should be used rationally, it ensures a drastic decline had attacked people, disorganization, defeat, fear and even panic. That's probably the real reason was that a man of the first knowledge of the possibility of abuse against this toxin warfare and billing. Such a reaction of the people led to a ban on the use of these funds in ancient times, and in more recent times are legalized and formal restrictions, under the protection of international law (Women's Protocol of 1925. years). In such a situation, the mystery and dosed selective application of chemical poisons - weapons is becoming more integral part of keeping operations. Therefore, it is probably as rich arsenal of poison has been included in the list of potential sabotage - of terrorist funds. These weapons, in order to gain such status, tested, tested, and used in local wars, staged accidents and sabotage terrorist activities since their invention to the present day.
The local wars, and these old toxins from the presented list were used to a greater or lesser extent: in China, 1945-1948; in Indochina, 1947-1948; in the Egyptian-Israeli war in 1949; in the Greek civil war from 1951 to 1952; in the Civil War on Cuba, 1957; in Algeria (Rio de Oro) 1958; in China - Kvemoj 1959; the Egyptian - Yemeni 1963-1967 war; in Iraq (guerrilla warfare) 1965; 1961-1968 in Vietnam, in Laos, Cambodia (Cambodia) in Afghanistan and Iraq - Iran war 19811987. year. However, there are almost no examples of a country that has these poisons applied in the most recent local wars and admitted it. Therefore it can be trusted or not trusted many accusations and charges United Nations, delivered by merciless with peoples and countries. However, there is some evidence and arguments, which cannot be denied.104 USA engagement in the Vietnam War was not totally, but limited in its aims and range of used chemicals. By objectives, they were prison camps, exile, dugouts, staff and the diversionary use of psycho-chemical poison gases, botulinum â€“ toxin and some irritant-asphyxiating. This application, in addition to disabling or even killing people, sirens is a psychosis of uncertainty and fear of contamination of water and food to toxic substances. In addition, it could be said that the vegetation and agriculture of Vietnam were the strategic objectives of the United States, which have made the herbicides: thus, in the period from 1961 to 1969, destroyed all the crops in an area of 1.924,170 hectares, on another 220.000 acres of crops were destroyed. Such activities have even caused the reaction of the American public. 105 In addition to the group of deadly poison gas effects, in the literature there are no data on testing and implementation of public and secret and other toxins from the group of pesticides, chemical warfare agents, psychoactive drugs and toxins from the group of disabling irritant and herbicides. Acute pesticide poisoning people with fatal outcome are relatively rare in time of peace, even though the United Nations in 1980 issued a statement that in that year there were 500.000 victims of the improper and irrational use of pesticides in the world. However, it is known that in people with long time working with these chemicals may appear chronic poisoning and severe damage to the physical and mental health. Already mentioned particularly serious consequences of pesticides after two major accidents in chemical plants: 10 July in 1976 in the Union (Northern Italy) and 2/3 December in 1984 in Bhopal (India), with around 3000 people killed and tens of thousands of poisoned persons. Debilitating concentrations of active fumes and gases were about 200 mg m3 in the air.
Incapacitating chemical warfare (psychochemical incapacitates and irritants), have been widely studied and used in the majority of local wars and the suppression of riots in countries where the ruling dictatorships where civil wars are conducted, or in which the great powers intervene. Finally, psychoactive drugs have literally flooded the world, starting in 1950, and there is a growing tendency for their expansion. Abuse of these drugs worldwide has grown into a serious epidemic and pandemic, as the white plague. As the white plague.106 Natural poisons are still at the level of experimentation, although there are indications of their secret - diversion from the application in 1978 in local wars. From the above it can be assumed twofold modern use of chemical agents from the group of chemical warfare agents and other toxic substances and preparations: Public and covert use of selective herbicides aerosol, irritant, even deadly poison gases, and - The secret, subversive - and deadly terrorist use of non-lethal chemical weapons, pesticides, drugs and other psychoactive toxin (bases, acids, metals, and others.). It is normal to expect that the great powers appear restraint when making a decision about the application of the chemical public funds in local wars, regional, and even in World War. However, sabotage - terrorist actions, which are, in fact, covert action, well organized and thought out, and the stock contractors trained to perfection, are the real output for covert action, ie, the application of chemicals. Actions chemicals usually would be done with the full moral and material and moral support of certain state structures, the so-called protagonists low intensity conflict to the states - the object of attack. -
The results of our study show that the successful implementation of poison gas and other chemical agents to sabotage - is terrorist activities, especially in the countryside, a tactical - technical and physical - chemical key advantages of these chemical compounds and pure substances. Based on the analysis of some examples of the former SFRJ,107 can be concluded that the poison must have almost ideal physical - chemical and tactical - technical features: -
To be highly toxic, with immediate or delayed effect, but that the ultimate effect of the death of a man drinking contaminated food or taken in normal quantities (to be strong); To be better soluble in water, alcohol, fats and oils, without having water, alcohol and fat in foods does not alter the organoleptic characteristics that a person with such a beverage or food takes to uncover the senses;
Do not have the striking aroma, taste and color (they are colorless and odorless), which would mean that the presence of toxins in the water, drinks and food cannot be detected organoleptically; - To be complicated, difficult or impossible without detection and identification of used poisons in water, food, drinks, and the mass that throws poisoned patient, because the toxicity of these toxins is very high and death is measured doses parts milligrams, and the existing apparatus and methods of detection have threshold sensitivity of these higher doses; - The toxicological analysis of biological materials and samples of tissues and organs of dead people after poisoning can prove toxic residues as a result of the low sensitivity of methods of toxicological tests; The physical - chemical be stable in adverse conditions, or that are not subject to degradation by chemical processes (hydrolysis, oxidation, neutralization, reduction) in the environment into which are inserted (placed by), such as drinking water, wine, alcohol, food, and other drinks; - That there is no effective antidote (antidote) for the treatment of poisoning with the venom ... The fact is that there are still no chemical agent that would meet all the listed requirements, so for practical reasons, as the best means of carrying out sabotage used it terror operations that meet the most stringent criteria of selection. The analysis carried out so far or just planned diversions and terrorist attacks by chemical means and knowledge of the physical - chemical and tactical - technical properties and toxicology of toxic substances and compounds in our opinion, realistic to expect that, in the contemporary and future sabotage - terrorist activities most commonly used substance, and the following compounds: -
a. From a group known deadly poison gases: - Nerve-paralytic chemical warfare (triloni, V - F and poisons - poisons); - Vesicants: mustard gas, nitrogen and sulfur, and their new formulations; - X, XD, XL, and HT, and viscous Lewisite; - True or blood chemical warfare (hydrocyanic acid and its salts).
b. From the group nonmortal poison gases: - Psychochemical chemical warfare (mescaline, psilocybin, thebaine, E8B - 25, JB, XNV-3, B2 and some organophosphorus compounds); - Irritants: CS-CR-Otto poisons, chloroacetophenone, and adamist;
- Psychoactive drugs (canabinoli, amphetamines, opiates, etc.).
c. From the group of pesticides: - All organophosphorus compounds, especially organic phosphorus insecticides origin (malathion, parathion, TER, creozan, etc.); - Some rodenticides and fumigants; - A large number of herbicides (contact and systemic).
d. From the group of natural toxins: - Botulinum-toxin, tetrode, and Saxe-toxin; - Mycotoxin (T-,,); - Ricin, a selfish – toxin, and Cobra – toxin.
3.8.1. Application of chemical warfare agents (Bot)
This is a group of highly toxic organic compounds quinquivalent phosphorus, which were adopted in arms as chemical warfare during and after the Second World War, and as a powerful insecticide, in the same period. Chemical, tactical – technical and physical – chemical, it's almost ideal chemical diversion means for contamination of water, food and environment. Among these chemical compounds, especially being: a) Tioholinski esters of phosphoric acid, which make up the group V or Vh poison gas: ethoxy - ethyltioethyl - tiomethyl - phosphine oxide - methyl - sulf ometilat (GD - 42). Basic Chemical - physical, tactical - technical and toxicological properties of these compounds are: -
Physical state at 200 S - Tecnos;
The persistence of very high, in the form of degradable retain full activity for several weeks; - Organoleptic be difficult to detect because they have no taste, odor and color; - Solubility in water is 1 - 5% without hydrolysis, and fully and quickly dissolve and mix in all relationships with fats and organic solvents; - Constant volatility them is 75.1 at a temperature of 200 S; - Vapor density relative to air increased six to eight times; - The maximum concentration of vapor at 200 S is 0.8 to 2 mg / l; - Specific gravity at 200 S, they were 1.05; - Wartime use: public in the form of aerosols and gases, and sabotage (secret) for contamination of water and food, in the form of liquids; - Maintenance of toxic concentrations of the active substance in the water and food is 1 - 3 weeks; - From the group of choline or trilona, most reliable poison gas for the diversionary use is Soman - methyl - Pinacolyl - oxy fluorescent – rophosphate. From the group of organophosphorus insecticides, which in structure and physico - chemical characteristics have significant differences compared to the poison of trilona groups, but significantly less toxic than them, were separated by free choice: 0,0 - dimethyl - 2,2 – dechlorine – phosphate (DDVP). -
Physical state – to 200 S to the liquids boil at 1670 + S, the maximum concentration of vapor 3.07 mb / l, specific gravity of 1.03 and 1.27. Organoleptic can be detected by its characteristic smell of additives and stabilizers or a pure substance containing cyan - ion, which smells of almonds. Otherwise, they are colorless liquids and flavors. Their vapor density is about 6 yellow higher than the air, it is possible to achieve the maximum concentration in the air of 10 mg / l. Solubility in water they were weak and is only 0.5 to 1% without hydrolysis. Excellent, fast, and completely mixing and dissolve in fats, oils, and all organic solvents. Persistence in water and food of the few plants to 7 days. All these poisons meet most stringent requirements that are characterized by sabotage chemicals, efficient and time-consuming contaminated water and food. These are the most toxic chemical compounds that are known to date and synthesized. It is sufficient to lead to over 5 mg nerve poison gas, so that after a few days of use of such water for drinking, report signs of severe poisoning or death of people and animals. According to some data from the literature and our own experimental research, the death of nerve dose of poison gases and organophosphorus
insecticides for people who have entered and wiped the organism contaminated water and food, would be as follows:
Table no.11: The median lethal dose (LD50) of some organophosphorus insecticides bot for humans (the results of research by the author) Trivial name of the poison
Triocholine (BOt) Wh – poison Organophosphorus insecticides
The data show that Bh – poisons are in particular danger of contamination of drinking water and food. In addition to the high toxicity, Bh – toxins are very stable in the water, especially during plant foods. They are very poorly hydrolyzed, and the products generated during the hydrolysis of the same many toxic molecules and preserved. Hence Bh – poisons, as the most perfect modern battlefield toxins and frontal OavnU and diversionary use of contaminated water, food and beverages. Organophosphorus insecticides are much less toxic than the potential neuroparalytic poison, but are more stable than W and X in water and food, and the poisoning of the war, especially in peace possible and are happening every day in our situation. Their beneficial use in time of peace is a very good cover for covert use proportionate means of contamination of food and water through a diversion and in times of peace.
4. MISADVENTURES, ACCIDENTS OR ADVERSITIES It was an unexpected surprise and dangerous occurrences or failures caused by "natural forces" such as technical - technological errors, carelessness and ignorance in the construction of hazardous installations and their operation or carelessness, negligence and carelessness of the human factor in the handling of hazardous materials production processes, their transportation, stocking and use. It is the misfortune of accidental and unexpected uncontrolled release of hazardous and harmful materials in gaseous, liquid or solid form generated in the process of production, use, trade, transportation (transfer), warehousing and storage, and may their characteristics and chemical (biochemical) reactions endanger human health and the environment. Ionizing radiation is a type of particle or electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionization in the middle of their passage through matter. Sources of radiation are substances or devices that produce or can not produce ionizing radiation. Accidents involving ionizing radiation is a special event in which there is a loss of control over sources of radiation, while directly or indirectly may be caused danger to life and health, the environment and property. Deserve our attention, especially industrial sources of radiological material.108 By the end of the Cold War, radioactive materials and nuclear fuel lost the status of strategic military equipment, which was strictly organized and monitored by the state government and specialized structures. After the 1970s. year, there was a six-times increase the use of nuclear material for peaceful purposes such as energy production, a number of nuclear power plants worldwide (see picture no. 7.): if it was built about 438 nuclear power plants to produce energy; about 651 nuclear reactors for Scientific Research and for other purposes, of which 284 in operation today; - there are 250 factories for the production and processing of fuels including uranium processing, enrichment, storage and the development of nuclear materials. The American Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued109 permits for 21,000 organization that use millions of radioactive devices in industry, healthcare, NIR. Average yearly about 300 of these devices is lost, stolen, or being left (especially isotopes of cesium, Americium, iridium and cobalt) and each of these could be used for terrorist campaign. In addition, hundreds of thousands of sources of radiation, which are used in everyday life, are left without legal controls, and their locations are not known. -
It should be recalled that the 01 March 1954. The United States conducted nuclear test explosion of the Marshall Islands. Thermonuclear bomb forces 15MT (750 times higher than the first test of nuclear bombs - made in 20kt Almagordu July 16, 1945.) exploded in the organization of U.S. Marines, who had previously cleared
safe area within a radius of 100 km from the center of explosion. However, it turned out that the "security zone" was 10 times less than the actual spreading radioactive fallout from "the mushroom" ... Thus, the Marshall Islands became the scene of horror.110 Among the most dangerous accidents, be sure to include nuclear and radiation.111
Picture no. 7. Nuclear power in Europe
According to one U.S. study, dating back to 1977 and the possible consequences of failure in nuclear reactors and power plants of high power capacity, the worst accidents could cause immediate death about 3.400 people and more difficult or easier to injuries inflicted by 43.000 people. Damage to property would be about 7000 million dollars, and the area of environmental contamination would be stretched to about 388,000 m2 (38m2). Such consequences could only happen in the event of major accidents, if there was a sudden explosion of a nuclear missile forces over 200kt or reaction to the collapse of the court in nuclear reactors and power plants. Until the 26th April 1986, such accidents at nuclear power plants was not. Then a devastating accident took place at the Memorial nuclear power V.I. Lenin in
Block IV, in Chernobyl - Ukraine. It was the largest nuclear disaster in the new history. The explosion occurred in the core of a nuclear reactor that is practically cracked and burned a huge amount of radioactive material, burst forth into the atmosphere, creating "a mushroom" over 1 km in height. The winds tore mushroom and the radioactive clouds are spread in all directions. Fallout covered the lethal concentration 20% of the territory of Ukraine, 1/4 of the territory of Belarus and Russia, in the area of radioactive contamination found in the first three days after the accident 14 regions with 4.343 settlements. The fallout was spread even further, so after 10-15 days arrived, and crystallized in the USA, Europe and Africa. In Europe, radioactive fallout hit the territory of Poland, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK. The intensity (volume) of Kiev, 120 km away from Chernobyl was 50 million rent (Ci) which corresponds to 400-500 nuclear bombs of 20 kt which the USA dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima 06 August 1945. From the result of the first attack after the explosion, were killed about 25,000 people of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Lithuania, a small town of 45,000 inhabitants Prypjat (town was built for the families of employees at the nuclear plant, which is only 3km) was immediately evacuated, and more never came back. It remained ghastly, dead city, surrounded by barbed wire. From the zone within a radius of 30km from the destroyed power plant has been evacuated 280,000 residents. This disaster has shown that the most pessimistic forecasts are outdated nuclear experts in quantitative and qualitative terms about the possible consequences of major accidents in nuclear power plants - to our sorrow. Hence, it is not strange saying those same predictions, after the event, that "nuclear is bombs" on its territory. And that they, may soon become a lucrative target of the attack in the war - conventional weapons and terrorists in peace conventional explosives. It should be noted that, unlike the nuclear explosion that has a strong effect: thermal (fire and fire storm) and radiation (primary and later) with only 15% of energy released in an accident at the nuclear reactors and power plants, primary adverse effect is manifested only by radiation effects (radiation and radiation contamination). Actually with nuclear weapons in the newspapers and their harmful effect is disastrous radiation and radiological contamination. Mechanical and thermal effects of nuclear weapons is the only quantitatively stronger than conventional weapons, and it is well known. With these weapons, and the nuclear radiation accidents, there is a new first seen, mass murder and endangering the lives of people and the planet. Handling of nuclear materials, weapons and even nuclear power plants and reactors can be very dangerous and deadly to humans and wildlife. Since the discovery when he defined the radioactivity Becquerel (1896) have begun to take
place nuclear accidents (adversity), which was later converted into individual and mass tragedy.112 Nuclear accidents that occur with nuclear weapons still held in strict confidence. Yet the famous American nuclear physicist Dr. Raf Lap in his book "Kill and kill again" described the case of damage the "B-52", which was carrying two bombs thermonuclear power 24MT - crashed in North Carolina 20km from the city Golsbro ... luckily no strange one bomb did not explode. Or, for example, the discovery of radioactive snails in southeastern Spain, near the fishing village Palamares 1996, in a place where there was a collision in the air, a bomber who was carrying three americans thermonuclear bomb and a plane with fuel. Since the bombs that exploded bomber wearing on the ground, spreading plutonium dust clouds in the vast area surrounding fields, contaminated soil is a high concentration of long-living radioactive isotopes of plutonium 1000 times higher than the permissible levels of radioactivity. Then the hundreds of tons of soil from the area of the accident have been removed and sent in containers - ship in the USA. On the territory of today are born crippled children, domestic animals and birds, and recorded a very high radioactivity, which requires a radical re-execute decontamination that will make Spanish and American radiologists and other specialists. Otherwise, it could on the basis of present knowledge of the risk and consequences that are already known, that the next nuclear war, terror and terrorism, especially important nuclear radiation accident on individuals at work, handling, experimentation, production, transmission, and storage nuclear agency, as a mass phenomenon and its consequences for people and wildlife: -
a) test of nuclear explosions; b) accidents on the launcher and aircraft carriers nuclear missiles, ships (especially submarines); c) the polygons for testing, transmission and storage of the stocks; d) the courts stocking level radioactive waste; e) nuclear reactors, power plants, radiological laboratories ... and others.
The latest example of that nuclear plants are extremely dangerous for the territory where they were built, is Janap and the last events that occurred during the most recent and most devastating earthquake that struck this country ever113. Near the town Onagavi, an earthquake caused a power outage and therefore is disabled reactor cooling "Fukushima 1" nuclear power plant. This has led to an explosion in a reactor, which led to a leak of radioactive material and forcing authorities to evacuate 300,000 people from the area of the first zone fearing the threat of nuclear disaster.
This disaster has shown that the most pessimistic forecasts obsolete nuclear experts in quantitative and qualitative terms about the possible consequences of major accidents at nuclear power plants, sadly enough. Hence, it is not strange statement of these same predictions, after the event, that nuclear power plants can be or already are "nuclear bombs" on its territory. And that they soon may become "lucrative" targets of attacks in conventional weapons and war into peace terrorists conventional explosives.
Picture no. 8: "Fukushima" nuclear power plant at the time of the explosion
It should be noted that, unlike the nuclear explosion that also has the effect of three types: mechanical (shock wave), thermal (fire and fire storm) and radiation (primary and later) with only 15% of energy released in an accident at the nuclear reactors and power plants, primary adverse effects are manifested only by the effects of radiation (radiation eradiation and contamination). Actually with nuclear weapons newspapers in his damaging and lethal effects is radiation and radiological contamination. Mechanical and thermal effects of nuclear weapons is the only quantitatively stronger than conventional weapons and that nuclear and radiation accidents, there is a new first seen, massively threatening and killing people and life on our planet. Handling of nuclear materials and weapons, including nuclear power plants and reactors can be very dangerous and deadly to humans and wildlife. Since the
discovery, when he defined the radioactivity Becquerel (1896) have started to take place nuclear accidents (adversity), which was later converted into individual and mass tragedy.114 Nuclear accidents that occur with nuclear weapons still held in strict confidence. However, the famous American nuclear physicist Dr. Raf Lap in his book "To Kill and kill again", a case of an accident the "B-52", which was carrying two thermonuclear bombs crashed in North Carolina 20km from Gosbroa. Strange fortunately no bomb explodes.
4.1. The causes of accidents and the consequences of RHN
In our studies the way back in 1992 in 102 companies and community organizations, we tried to discover the causes and frequency of accidents RHN.
Table no. 12: Recorded incidents NHR in the world (1980 - 1991) COUNTRY
TYPE OF ACCIDENT
Military â€“ Baxterlogical Laboratories
Experiments with viruses
1981 / 1983
Contamination is undetermined
Oil for food
Contamination of warfarin
Explosion and fire
The release of toxic gases
Methyl â€“ isocyanate
Fire in the pharmacological
Table no. 13: NHR causes of accidents in the world (1980 - 1991) Types of causes of accidents
The production companies
In social organizations
Total number and percentage
Cause - force majeure - a technical factor
The cause was negligence carelessness
The cause of the diversion - sabotage
The cause is unknown
No reply was received
d) Other accidents
Ionizing radiation is noble or some type of electromagnetic radiation that can produce ionization of the environment in which their passage through matter. The sources of this radiation are substances or devices that produce or can not produce ionizing radiation. Accident with ionizing radiation is an extraordinary event in which there is loss of control of radioactive sources, while directly or indirectly may be caused by life-threatening, and human health, the environment and material assets. This is helped by the lack of knowledge in handling the system, low technical and technological culture and education, and human frailty (alcoholism, drug addiction or pathological condition).115
After accidents in nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants comes to mass release and discharge of radionuclides, which causes radiation people and wildlife, as well as radiological contamination of the biosphere, and above all, air and land where things contaminated zone (KONZ). On this occasion, the International Atomic Agency to classify radiation emergency event.
Table no. 14: Types of radiation emergency event:
Associate radiation event
The radius of the circle around nuclear reactors in km
Of smaller-scale Large scale Very large scale Catastrophic radiological disaster
Area of contaminated zone (KONZ) in km2
to 5 km
about 800 km2
6 – 20 km
100 – 1200 km2
If we compare the results of previous research (content analysis) from the literature and the results of our research into patterns of accidents and their causes, we get the full positive correlation to the conclusion that accidents are much more common and much more dangerous consequences for the economy (manufacturing) labor organizations and institutions compared to non-productive social organizations and institutions and relationships as 2.2: 1 case. The most common forms of accidents as fire, and soon after accidents and explosions. The predominant cause of these accidents is the human factor (negligence) and then a technical factor (more power), which are the main causes of accidents and disasters classic. However, it must be noted that the two primary factors of the real causes of accidents (unintentional as the main characteristic of these phenomena) occupies 52% of all accidents investigated. Almost used accident cause is unknown, it is suspected to be a diversion, sabotage, or simply fails to answer the question. It is a fact that we are clearly observed in previous studies as well as in the research on our soil and in our workplaces. In all of these controversial cases he ”feels the presence of intentions, actions designed and planned disasters - accidents”. Such a suspicion is supported by many of the circumstances and the timing of the accident. Here are a few examples to support:
- Many accidents in which he never discovered the real cause occurred in series, one after the other, as was the case with Chernobyl, and soon after, two accidents in West Germany and one in France, the chemical disaster in Bophal (India), closely followed by Chile, Brazil, and at the end of series of accidents on the banks of the river Rhine (Sandoz, Gauge, BASF).
Table no. 15: Sources, types and levels of accidents FORMES
1.1. Nuclear fuel cycle
1.2. Institutions and the research, development and use of nuclear energy
1.3. Institutions that use p / s isotopes
1.4. Military and nuclear research institutions
1.5. Combat p / a matter
1. RADIATION Demolition disaster
2.3. Aircraft carriers nuclear missiles
2.4. Ramps and launchers launched nuclear weapons
2.5. Stocking storage and maintenance n.o.
2.2. Nuclear submarines
2.1. Nuclear test nuclear weapons - war application
3. CHEMICAL x
3.2. Basic chemistry
3.1. Oil refinery
3.3. Manufacture of pesticides
3.4. Production and processing of plastics
3.5. Storage of chemicals
3.6. Chemical waste facilities
3.7. Smelter and foundry
A war in which to avoid the application of N (R) H or assault weapons to producer institutions, transport or storage N (R) H hazardous materials would lead to intentional contamination causing massive RH and the environment with unpredictable consequences. The aggressor would have never admitted that he intentionally applied NO, but it is a collateral damage or an accident or accidents of nuclear missile carriers. Dangerous R (N) H substance can be defined as: 1. Ionizing radiation is a particle or certain types of electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionization in their passage through matter. Sources of radiation are substances or devices that produce or can not produce ionizing radiation. Accident with ionizing radiation is the event at which there is a loss of control over sources of radiation, whereby, directly or indirectly, may be caused danger to life, health, environment and material assets. 2. Dangerous and harmful chemical substances are gaseous, liquid or solid matter produced in the process of production, use, trade, transportation, warehousing and storage, and its properties can be chemical reactions and endanger human health or the environment. Chemical accident has extraordinary event was due to uncontrolled release, spill and dispersion of hazardous chemicals in production, use, transport, storage and preservation, which threaten the health and lives of people and the environment with all its attributes.
4.2. Chemical accidents
Accidents (accident or incident) the extraordinary event or series of events that occurred next release of uncontrolled spillage or dispersal of hazardous chemicals in production, use, transport, storage and preservation of causing damage to people and the environment.116 Sample the greatest number of accidents that are responsible for chemical laboratories and chemical industries as well as companies, storage and transport are: a) The human factor, the intent, the irresponsible attitude and disrespect for yield; b) Force majeure, technical and technological factors, irregular outdated technology and inadequate maintenance and servicing; c) Natural disasters and warfare. From these samples define the potential risks for the event and transport of dangerous chemical materials: The risk for the storage, handling and transport of dangerous chemical materials; The risk of technological processes and capacities and The risk to the health and lives of people, material, and other valuables in their working and living environment. Typical examples of serious chemical accidents are:
1. Chemical accidents in Bophal in Madhya Pradesh (India), when there was a big accident on the night of 2nd and 3 December 1984, in a chemical factory pesticide ”Junior Carbide”. On that occasion, the atmosphere is unleashed around 40t mixture heated toxic gases, methyl – isocyanate, phosgene and chlorine – ethylamine (poison gas in World War I). Poisonous wave affected an area of about 400km2, where there were about 400,000 inhabitants. From the first of two days of bop evacuated all 400,000 inhabitants that in the next 14 days returned to their homes only 4000 refugees. In the first 7 days of the accident died about 3000 inhabitants bop, and medical attention was sought over 250,000 people (2000 hospitalized); 50,000 citizens is difficult poisoned, and only 141,500 of them after the provided first aid returned to their homes. 2. Two years later, in Italy, in Sezevo, near Milan, on 10 July 1986, there was a serious chemical accident at the plant ″KMESA″ where the boiler exploded reactor - and the release of highly toxic compounds: 2,3,7,8 tetrachlor - dibenzol - o - dioxo, herbicide known as TCDD - Contaminated
surfaces about 320h of agricultural land, and the most vulnerable area A area of 230h carried out the evacuation of about 700 residents.117
4.3. Means and routes for the transport of dangerous goods
Chemical accidents and accidents occurring during transport and with the unexpected place and time when they will happen. Whole, tentatively called ″ecobombs″ (tank cars, car and tanker ships tankers) and an accident that occurred during their transport indicated a threat to the environment.
Table no. 16: Examples of accidents with chemical substances during transportation in the world and in the former Yugoslavia
Type of accident
The release of 76 tons
The release of 38 tonnes
Potcestrum (South Africa)
The release of 14 tons
Los Alfages (Spain)
Making 40 tons
Train Station (Zeleznik)
Valentine, Hakberi and Traksot, Arizona
affect more people
Isopropyl chloroacetate sodium metal
Vinyl chloride monomer
Train Station, Belgrade1
Table no. 17: large-scale chemical accidents in the world from 1980 to 1990 Year
Type of Accident
Explosion of gas
Contamination of the oil for food
Explosion of gas
The release of toxic gas
The release of chemicals
Fire in the industry and the release of the Rhine
The release of gas
4.4. Radiation accidents
Just nine years after the big communicated optimistic prognosis (1977) Safety and intact nuclear power plants and reactors118 in Ukraine (then USSR) in Chernobyl, there was the largest radiation accident on 26 April 1986. Then he recalled the forecasted probability of occurrence of nuclear accidents 10.000.000 to 9 years, and the other parameters of the probability of consequences of accidents increased by 7 times 394 years, and Chernobyl has become a symbol of the greatest disasters in the NE today ... even that happened to ″Fukushima″ in Japan, the 11th of March 2011 was not reached by the consequences of Chernobyl had.
Table no. 18: Consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1986): Consequences
In relation to prognosis (1977)
Chernobyl in 1986
1. Immediate consequences
Killed – 3,400
Injured – 43,000
2. The area of contamination
Approximately 380km2, 0
Sickened and died
3. Late consequences
The explosion occurred in the core of a nuclear reactor in IV block. Core is practically cracked open and a huge amount of radioactive material is left in the atmosphere, more than 1 km into space, and the wind broke the radioactive mushroom clouds are spread in all directions. Part of that radioactive cloud for four weeks and came down to the USA, and in Europe and Africa is due after 5 - 15 years, after the destruction of the reactor. Radiation power in Kiev, 120 km away from Chernobyl was 50 million curies (Cr), corresponding force 400 – 500 nuclear bombs (20kt), which the USA dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima in 1945. In Ukraine, the contaminated area around 100km2 or 1/5 (20%) of the total area of the country. Explosion of the first residents of the nearby town of notice erected by the families of employees of NE which is 3 km away. All 45,000 residents were evacuated and more the next day no one has ever returned. Today, it is eerily dead city surrounded by barbed wire.
The truth about the worst disaster that has ever happened in the world when it comes to NE â€łLeninâ€ł in Chernobyl (Kiev), has not reached the public yet, even 25 years after the event.
Picture no. 9: Nuclear power plant in Chernobyl after the accident
The 26th mated in 1986 after a fire broke out on the fourth block of NE was followed by a series of thermal explosions, after which they are destroyed reactor, a large amount of radioactive particles dispersed in the atmosphere, despite the former Soviet Union contaminated many countries in Africa, Europe, Asia, even to America. Radioactive contamination were exposed to 12 Ukrainian area of 50000 square miles, 19 Russian regions on the 60000 square km and 46,500 sq km of Belarus. Consequences of the accident were felt in 17 European countries in the area of over 200000 square miles, as well as on other continents.
Table no. 19: Quantities of radio nuclides in the environment due in 1986, originating from Chernobyl119 Radionuclide 90
70 P Bg
17160 P Bg
85 P Bg
6 P Bg
115 P Bg
According to a UN report from 1995, the number of direct and indirect victims of the disaster is nine million people, while International organizations environmentalists Greenpeace argues that only in the three most affected countries, about 200,000 people have died, and that in the future all over the world about 270,000 cases of oncological diseases have been caused by radiation from Chernobyl, and 93,000 will result in death. In the former Soviet Union to eliminate the consequences of accidents were engaged 250,000 people, of which the last 10 years, 70,000 died, 150,000 were disabled. Some experts believe that Russia will be only about 2056 years pass out the worst - those who die are irradiated in the first wave radiation, and Russia's main sanitary doctor Gennady Onishchenko said that the negative consequences of the damage felt for 300 years. From the zone of 30 km radius of the plant destroyed 25 years after the Chernobyl disaster NE, there was a new approximate disaster in Japan. In March 2011 Fukushima, who also received a degree 7 and Chernobyl, but according to many experts, the Japanese disaster with its consequences, however, was below ″7″ degrees and their maximum score would be ″6″.
Table no. 20: How the Fukushima differ from Chernobyl Categories
Date of accident
March 11, 2011
April 26, 1986
Details of damage
An earthquake measuring 9.0 Richter and tsunami caused damage and disabled the cooling system.
During testing of the system has been in an accident and broken chimneys on the reactor.
The level of incidents
Level 7, the highest level
Level 7, the highest level
Number of reactors
Six, but only three are a great threat to the environment.
Four, but only one was â€łinvolvedâ€ł in the incident.
Reactors with hot water, no combustible graphite core.
Graphite reactor with hot water. Graphite is highly flammable.
The released radiation
370,000 tera becquerels
5.2 million tera becquerels
Zone under the influence
60 miles northwest and 40 kilometers southeast
500 kilometers from the nuclear power plant
Officially, 20 kilometers, and an additional 10 for those who want it.
Tens of thousands of
Officially 64, unofficially much more
Radiation still erupts
The reactor is now sealed with concrete
Type of reactor
Displaced Death by Radiation
Chinese experts agree with the views of the Japanese, but they warn that it is registered immediately after the accident, still does not mean anything because you can not ignore the long-term consequences of the accident in Fukushima, which may be greater than Chernobyl. In addition to highlighting the flow of radiological materials into the ocean, likely to have a severe effect on the fauna and flora. Japan fails to stop the leakage of toxic elements in the ocean, air, soil, drinking water, plants and wildlife of the environment on a vast expanse. That is reported to be from the damaged nuclear plant, 137 km away from Tokyo, the air is blown even 10,000 tera becquerels per hour, which is a huge amount of radioactivity.
Table no. 21: After Accidents in 1979 Place and country
Year of accident
Tomsk - Siberia
Japan - Fukushima
The consequences of these accidents are only a small number of radiation workers and occupational diseases and vast damage, but severe consequences for the population and the environment was not. After Fukushima in many countries have stopped NE, as well as construction of new ones, because of the potential, the objective now fears that there is a serious accident and the consequences.
4.4.1. Stages of radiation emergency event
Acute or early phase (occurs immediately after a nuclear accident, takes about 6 weeks, also referred to as â€łiodine phaseâ€ł). Short-lived radionuclides are massively contaminated territory on this stage. Biological significance of the radionuclides 131J and 140Ba. Radiation accidents, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) were classified as: 1. melting of the reactor core, with or without damage to the biological shield - containment; 2. melting of the reactor core parts of the containment; 3. release of radionuclides from waste processing and enrichment (reprocessing) nuclear fuel; 4. release of radio nuclides from the plant for the production of plutonium fuel.
Table no. 22: Examples of radiation accidents State
Place of accident
3 mile island
Vinca (research reactor)
Table no. 23: Types of radiation emergency event
Associate radiation event
The radius of the circle around nuclear reactors in miles
Area of contaminated zone (KONZ) in km2
up to 5km
about 800 km2
6 â€“ 20 km
100 â€“ 1200 km2
Very large scale
> 10000 km2
Catastrophic or radiological emergency
> 60 km
> 100000 km2
Utilization of nuclear energy for civilian purposes raises two issues: security of nuclear facilities and nuclear pollution waste. Discussions on the first issue were revived because of the accident at Chernobyl and Fukushima. Opinion is continued to hide somewhere, and somewhere enacted a moratorium on the creation of new nuclear centers or exploitation of existing plants and in the OECD region (Austria, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, etc.). Nuclear waste is a special waste category due to their special character and which require specific treatment. It has not found an adequate way to its storage delay. The most common radioactive waste is disposed of in the sea. In London in 1993 signed an international agreement to ban everyone, everywhere to throw radioactive waste into the sea. Although the ecological
movements euphorically proclaimed this historic event, remained unresolved question of who will control the disposal of radioactive waste produced in vojnum industries for war purposes. Despite the convention can be said that the government of the planet eco-military dictatorship, no international organization has no detail on purpose or by accident sunken nuclear submarines and ships, breakdowns in the coastal warehouses and the like. The amount of nuclear waste is growing day by day, for example the United States in 1986 amounted to 11,000 tons in spite of all attempts, the disposal of radioactive waste is still not adequately solved. The rational solution is found to the USA radioactive waste into depleted uranium ammunition which has been discussed.
Scheme no. 1: Nuclear Power Plant, Slovenia â€“ 1. reactor; 2. reactor coolant pumps, 3. steam generator; 4. pressure regulator; 5. part of the high pressure turbine; 6. trubine of low pressure; 7. generator of electricity; 8. steam separator; 9. steam heater; 10. capacitors; 11. pump capacitors; 12. Heater low pressure; 13. feedwater pumps; 14. preheating high pressure; 15. cooling water pumps; 16. cooling towers; 17. pumps cooling towers; 18. transformer.
Nuclear waste is usually stored in an depths of 300 - 1200 m underground. In addition to large areas that include, and need substantial investment in their construction. You are ever present dangers that may arise due to erosion, earthquakes, burning soil around landfills and polluting drinking water. In the former Soviet Union nuclear waste have a depth of 500 to 1500 m with a constant showering to avoid warming. Many landfills are supposed to be in the sea (ocean), like the Japanese in their time planning the Pacific Ocean. Waste can be divided into four groups, namely: gas, low active, moderately active, and highly active. The greatest danger is from the last two types of nuclear waste. It is assumed that up to now there are about 300 landfills, housing niskoaktivni waste, while the number of landfills with other waste hides. That nuclear waste pose more danger to the environment, the fact that each flight has 1/3 removed, and it is about 17 tons. Possible damage to dump nuclear waste as result of the criticism that can cause an explosion and so threaten another way environment. What is the real danger of a growing accumulation of nuclear waste of industry, they will tell this: "even if the nuclear industry is stopped at this stage of development would need to find locations for burying waste 2 or 3 years to be placed all the accumulated radioactive waste, This would in turn require a carefully measuring the amount of radioactive contamination and the armed guards who guarded around the clock every such location in the next 250,000 years, to ensure prevention of leakage of radiation into
the biosphere. It is a fact that the average time for some types of radioactive waste to become harmless". 120
4.5. Accidents - radiation, chemical and nuclear
For centuries man has experienced accidents and natural disasters, which could not stand up, because the extent of his knowledge of the laws of nature and life on earth was short. Because infectious diseases and other misfortunes raged and charged a toll. In recent times, when the legality of knowledge reached a high level of relevant knowledge, and when a man submits to his interests the laws of nature, his inventions become his enemies. We have become witnesses and contemporaries of numerous accidents and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors, chemical industry, laboratory synthesis and testing of biologically highly active compounds and chemical substances in biological and - bacteriological laboratories worldwide. All these phenomena are usually recorded as unintentional, random accidents, but there is much that they can not be brought under the definition of the term. The circumstances of the accident, and the occurrence of the event giving rise to serious consequences, often point to a person's intention to cause such an accident. Based on previous findings and the results of these studies, the migration of radionuclides in nature after radiation accidents could be schematically shown.
Scheme no. 2: Migration of radionuclides in nature after the radiation process
As can be seen from the scheme radionuclide released first be found in the atmosphere and hence contaminated very quickly, the environment, plants, animals, people. Man is affected directly from the contaminated atmosphere and use of contaminated food and water and indirectly through plants and soil animals. Given the speed of uncontrolled movement of material after the accident at nuclear power plants, it is important to have good organizationof timely information about the accident.
4.5.1. Nuclear accidents
In the first half of 2007 in the United States began to promote the program to replace existing nuclear warheads nuclear missiles. Basically it is a program change of generations in the ranks of scientists, engineers and technicians, and maintenance capabilities construction and production of new nuclear weapons. On that occasion, says physicist Bob Civijak: "We dispose of nuclear warheads that can keep people who produce them. Therefore, the laboratory where a lot of people do not do anything. This is the reason of the existence of the program to replace old nuclear warheads" ... And it can do so only in the ranks of a new generation of nuclear scientists, engineers and technicians. Essentially the necessary shifts generations of people and weapons. That program until 2012. At responded with their predictions experts in style what would happen if a thermonuclear bombs began to fall on the cities with population more millions? Take the examples of great cities of New York, London, New Delhi and Beijing. It is a new estimate of the efficiency of the imaginary NBC attack compared to that of 1969, which was published in: Report of the Secretary Generale, United Nations, N.Y. (2545) A. 1969. 121 This hypothetical estimate is highly illustrated from the viewpoint of possible accidents, and give descriptive: I New York After the detonation of the hydrogen bomb, the power 1MT, which would explode at an altitude of 10 km above the center of Manhattan: a) The shock wave of air pressure would destroy all structures within a radius of 4.8 km; b) Ball of fire and heat wave, in addition to the explosion and large fire burning storm would cause third-degree burns all over the city, and the radiation would go into the atmosphere so that it would not be much of radiological precipitation (RAP); However, if such a bomb as a bomb exploded on the ground, destroyed and set fire to 60 to 90% of the city. At the same time large quantities of RAP covered the whole area of the city.
II. Assessing the Effectiveness of a cheap - NBC weapon attacks on imaginary strategic goal the capital X Criteria for evaluation 1. Effective area of operations 2. Outbreaks effects 3. The destructive effects of development 4. Specific effects of 5. The possibility of having attacked the city 6. Maximal effects on humans
1MT nuke power (N) to 300 km2 a few seconds after NE to 100km2 Radiological contamination on the surface of 2500km2 Earlier than 6 weeks after the attack to 90% of deaths
7. Average losses a) Deadly
The total number of people killed on the first day, it would be 3.8 to 4.2 million people and the impact of a heat wave. And in the same bomb blast on the ground, due to strong radiation and after the second day it would be another 3 to 7.3 million people died or were killed (Picture no. 10).
Picture no. 10: Explosion of the soil: exposure to radiation
(City dwellers who survived the explosion on the ground, and large fires, as well as those who are out of town, but in the direction of the wind, will be exposed to dangerous doses of radiation due to the precipitation of radioactive particles. Surface similar to the elongated brush, to see what the typical weather in Manhattan. - The total number of people killed after two days: 3 million to 4.3 million) Table from picture no. 10: 48 - hour exposure (to do)
Population in the region of radiation
The effects of unprotected
1 410 000
90% probability of death
410 – 620
50% probability of death
240 – 410
50% probability of severe radiation sickness
125 – 240
As significant radiation sickness
100 – 125
Radiation sickness (vomiting, fatigue, lack of concentration of blood cells)
75 – 100
Mild radiation sickness
III LONDON, with 13,783,000 inhabitants had to irreversible losses, about 2.8 million people during the first hours after NE, 1MT power, which is equal to about 21.5% of the total population. In this ground Explosion losers would be doubled to two days, to about 6.2 million victims and the effects of radiation. IV NEW DELHI, with 7.512 million urban population, according to the forecasts of virtually be completely destroyed, and the diameter of the deadly effects of smoking bomb forces 1MT to spread outside the urban area, and is calculated to be about 8.5 million people were killed (<100%). V BEIJING, with 14.93 million inhabitants in the imagined attack would have killed 4.6 million people, immediately after the air no. Ground explosion would these losses doubled, while others have grave consequences for the survivors of radiation effects.
4.5.2. Standard effects of nuclear explosions
Theoretically and empirically, the analysis of the effects of war application of atomic bombs in 1945 and the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as data from more than 1600 test nuclear explosions (NE) in the air, on land, underwater and underground, set some standards such as: 1. Direct energy released NE, didactic reasons, systematize to: a) Mechanical (shock - wave) - 50%, 25% and 75% of losses spread; b) Heat (ball of fire and thermal radiation) - 35%, 50% and 25% loss of ignition; c) Radiation, as radiation (flash) - 5%, 25% caused losses; d) As contamination - 10%. 2. Depending on the strength of nuclear bombs (100t TNT = 1KT to 1MT = 1 000 000t TNT) and the type of blast (air, surface or underground and underwater) exhibit adverse effects: a) Air pressure (shock wave) that is radially expanding from the explosion center to the periphery, as measured diameter "zone" of effective action and the strength of the pressure in pascals and bars (Psi) on the surface of 1cm2. Thus, the shock wave grenades, causing power 20KT: - Fatal injuries: 2-4 Bar/cm2 at a distance 100-400m - Grave breaches of 0.8-1.0 Bar/cm2 at a distance 600-900m - Moderately severe injuries at a distance 0.4-0.5 Bar/cm2 1500-1 800 - Lake injuries at a distance of 0.2-0.3 Bar/cm2 1800-2 400m; b) Flash and a fireball emits radiation spectrum.
Table no. 25: Accidents nuclear submarines Nuclear submarines
Country of Origin
North East Coast 2600 USA, Atlantic
Depth in meters
East of the Azores, Atlantic
Bay of Biscay
East of Bermuda
The coast of Norway
Barents Sea, near Murmansk
In addition to aircraft and submarines to carry nuclear missiles in Russia and there are trains with nuclear missiles. After 30 years of combat duty in 2005, began the destruction of trains from which they could be launched nuclear missiles.
Table no. 26: The effect of nuclear weapons on the environment.122
Bomb strength 20km Effect Surface damage in hectares The formation of character
Mortality due to vertebrate blast
The destruction of the entire plant radiation radioactive
The destruction of woody vegetation
Destruction of vegetation stricken waves
Mortality due to vertebrate radioactive effects
Vertebrate mortality due to thermal effects
Influence of fire or shock wave from a nuclear explosion is different from analogue effects in the application of conventional weapons only in scope and Ramer. Radioactive effect is specific in relation to the effect, living organisms exhibit different sensitivities. As a rule, organisms at higher stages of development are more sensitive to radioactivity. Indirect effects of nuclear explosions reflected in the discharging of dust into the atmosphere (the bomb is established 10Mt 10 000 tonnes of dust). This can significantly disrupt rainfall regime and the climate in general. It is estimated that the amount of dust released the mega sound-blast could in time from one to three years affect lowering the temperature a few tenths of a degree. In addition, due to the increased radiation can cause degradation of the ozone layer, whose time of regeneration accounted for 10 to 20 years. This could cause a significant climate disruptions, which could be katastrofalo impact on wildlife and the whole environment. Nuclear accident, therefore, harms the environment and population. It was an extraordinary event or series of events that result from uncontrolled release, discharge and distribution of hazardous materials in the manufacture, use, transport, storage and preservation. That got radioactive material into the atmosphere threatens man in two ways, by radiation and indirectly tainting of natural resources that are essential to human life and survival. The policy of nuclear testing in the
second half of the 20th century (see table no. 27 and no. 28) is the evidence of actual or potential consequences of a planetary character.
Table no. 27: Number of nuclear tests from 1945 to 1989 Location and country executive
Nevada Test Site
Nevada Test Site
Chiam at Lop Nor
India, Thar desert
Table no. 28: Executed nuclear tests (1945 - 1995)
Number of nuclear tests
From this table it appears that the State which carried out the largest number of nuclear weapon testing is the United States. By 1989, the United States carried out 942 tests, 9 test were carried out in space, 5 under water, 203 atmospheric and 725 underground.123 We should also point out the presence of radionuclides in the natural environment, as a result of nuclear testing.
Table no. 29: Quantities of radionuclides in the environment by the year 1960 derived from testing nuclear weapons Radionuclide
600 P Bq
12000 P Bq
650000 P Bq
900 P Bq
142 P Bq
In order to more clearly observed relationship between nuclear accidents and nuclear weapons and their testing, it should be noted that nuclear weapons remains a primary weapon formation of the great powers. The expression of nuclear weapons is the way, involves a complex of nuclear and thermonuclear explosives and missiles, as well as resources for their implementation and launch techniques (systems). The constituent elements of nuclear weapons or nuclear means of combat, are shown in the following scheme.
NUCLEAR WEAPONS OR NUCLEAR FUNDS
Nuclear and thermonuclear
Nuclear and thermonuclear
Launch techniques, systems, forces and means for their
- rockets Uranium isotopes: 235 U, 233U, 279 Pu
Mixture of hydrogen isotopes 2D and 3T, and isotopes 6Li and 7Li
- smokers - implosive - Fizioni or thermonuclear
- airplanes - Artillery - satellites - Space vehicles
Scheme no. 3: Constituent elements of nuclear weapons
Nuclear weaponry (Nb/a) all those assets whose effect is based on the nuclear energy liberated in the process of fusion and fission. It is the dominant weapon of modern warfare, because of its powerful and destructive impact of current and destroying power in relation to manpower, plant and animal life, and biosphere - all three ecosystems (air, soil and water).
5. CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND CHEMICAL WARFARE
5.1. Conceptual approach and characteristics
The term means a chemical weapons unconventional whose main active form by acting on a missile and other chemical munitions with launch services, chemical mine chemical explosives and accessories. In the family of weapons of mass destruction is the oldest, and still is one of the most modern and efficient weapons. General features of chemical weapons may include:
high biological activity was determined by the toxicity of modern BOt; spaciousness and durability of adverse effects; rapid impact on living organisms; phenomenon of contamination and disturbance of balance in nature (biocenosis); delayed adverse effects on humans, animals and plants; production efficiency and combat use compared to other types of weapons needed to achieve the same effect; specific organization and implementation of protection against chemical (PHZ); chemical weapons and its performative principle – the invisible chemical warfare weapons, whose presence can be identified by our senses; chemical warfare have insidiously (hidden) effects on humans and animals and reveal the consequences of late; chemical weapons are present (acute) and late - delayed or chronic effects on humans and animals; effects of chemical weapons on human body and animals, a local and or systemic respirative or all of the organs and systems in the physical and psychological characteristics of human ...
5.2. Chemical ammunition and mine – explosive devices
Chemical munitions and mine – explosive devices are the caliber, the form (design) and most of the design parameters, with some necessary technical and other changes, similar to conventional ammunition for the given systems and conventional mine – explosive devices. Filling these missiles is a combination of explosives and BOt in suitable proportions. Classic explosives used to cause detonation, spraying projectile shell, and in violation of the relevant BOt combat situation, gas, aerosols or droplets and disperses it in an environment where the explosion took place. The most important types of chemical munitions were: chemical artillery munitions, avio bombs and missiles. Schematically on the following pictures are some types of chemical munitions. In addition to chemical munitions and chemical mines, many of the devices for use bot, and these are mainly mechanical and chemical thermal spray accessories and various construction purposes (wrist, back, driving, aviation, etc.).
Scheme no. 4: Schematic cross section kernels artillery 155 mm M 121 A1 filled with sarin (1. sarin, 2. place for lighter; 3. wearing; 4. explosives; 5. body)
Scheme no. 5: Schematic cross – section 115 mm rockets filled with sarin M55 (1. sarin, 2. wings; 3. motor, 4. heads 5. lighter; 6. explosives; 7. wearing; 8. was given; 9. propellants)
Scheme no. 6: Schematic cross-section of type 750 LB bombs MC 1 charge Sarin (1. sarin, 2. place for hanging; 3. body; 4. Filling; 5. Lighter; 6. explosive; 7. Lighter)
main explosive charge, 2. body, 3. sarah, 4. body activator, 5. explosive charge M48)
Scheme no. 7: Schematic cross-section of chemical mines filled with Sarin M 23 (1.
Scheme no. 8: Schematic cross-section of chemical spray, Type TMU-28 / b, VHtoxin (1. VX, 2. The bottom of the container; 3. Aerosol, 4. nozzle for air)
Scheme no. 9: Schematic cross-section plane of chemical tanks (1. cap, 2. tap, 3. Tube)
A special new type of chemical ammunition is a binary chemical munitions (Scheme 10), which solves many problems stocking, storage, maintenance and handling. In the body of the missile container has two chambers separated by mechanical barriers, which are located in two non-toxic components. Only by connecting the chemical reaction between the components, which happens from time missile launch so close to the finish, you get the chemical active substances with these characteristics pontaih bot, such as sarin and other chemical weapons VH high toxicity.
Scheme no. 10: Schematic crosssection plane binary chemical bomb: 1. lighter, 2. Lid, 3. Clip, 4. electric motor, 5. Body, 6. Pyrotechnic part; 7. chamber with a liquid component; 8. large component in powder form; 9. tether setup, 10. hole for filling liquid components; 11. stabilizer.
For ease of identification, proper handling, stocking, storage and proper use, chemical ammunition is marked externally visible bands - a circular ring or coating the entire body projectile certain colors.
Picture no. 12: The characteristic signatures of different types of chemical munitions and explosive missiles
5.3. Chemical kits
Chemical kits have different thermal or mechanical units that are used to implement BOt in the form of droplets, solid and liquid aerosols. Thermal units, which is often explained by the model, smoke canisters, used for high-temperature diffusion BOt. In these aggregates BOt is usually located within the pyrotechnic mixture that activates the appropriate fuse (friction, electrical or mechanical shock) that would cause combustion (Picture 13). The amount of heat released during the combustion process leads to evaporation BOt, whose money now cooling educating sublimed smoke with particle size of 1 to 2 microns. Chemical mechanical units used for the delivery and application of liquid, powder or dissolved in liquid droplets in the form of BOT, liquid or solid aerosols. The unit is a reservoir that contains poison, inert gas or ordinary air pressure and the opening through which the poison pressure ejected into the atmosphere (picture no. 14).
Picture no. 13: Heat engine the smoke box
Picture no. 14: Mechanical Chemical aggregate technical implementation of poison gas pouring from the aircraft
Mechanical generators, depending on the capacity of the reservoir and the bot Manen, can be mobile or handheld-back, driving a motor vehicle combat and non-combat, or fixed wing aircraft under or below the helicopter cabin. Aerosols are heavier than air and fell to the earth's surface and the objects or on any surface they encounter, including manpower and plant life. Use Botha from the aircraft using generators to cover large areas. The effects of aerosol contamination BOt are similar to those obtained explosive chemicals missiles in the air space. Distribution of aerosol particles BOt varies depending on the physical and chemical toxins, speed, flight controls, the height at which release a toxin, construction aggregates and wind speed. For example, cloud generated application BOt, the aircraft carried the wind and do not touch the ground until you fly a certain distance from the line of flight controls (picture no. 15).
Picture no. 15: Sprinkling and spraying pesticides territory from planes.
Some older types of equipment for the application of liquid Bot from the plane and helicopters dousing methods work on the principle of free liquid that highlight the plant into smaller droplets in the air achieves resistance to falling liquid (drops) to the surface of the earth.
5.4. Chemical warfare
In order to define the concept of BOt first need to know the concept of poison in general. The poison is any chemical substance or compound in any physical state that is that, when taken into the human body, animals or plants, in very small quantities cause death or signs of intoxication with mild or severe consequences for human health, mental or physical the ability of man. Poisonous substances are solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance or compound which, in addition to general properties of venom meet all or most stringent requirements that characterize a weapon for destroying personnel and plant life in the war. To some chemical substances (substance or compound) could declare BOt, it must meet certain requirements:
that it is biologically active, and that in very small amounts (doses) that ingestion caused death, physical and psychological disorders or traits that a man unfit for mental and physical work and tasks in the war; that the chemical is as stable as possible, which means that it is far from being standing in the decompensation; that does not break down when explosion chemical missiles at non-toxic products; to its chemical stability and activity does not significantly affect Meteorological conditions (rain, humidity, fog, snow), that does not damage the containers and which is kept, and launches, ie. that does not enter into such a chemical reaction with the container that would reduce its chemical activity; that can be stored and stowed, and to preserve the physical and chemical properties; that is well soluble in water and tissue fluids, and that when it does not come apart or reacts, and if it comes to hydrolysis to retain toxic properties; that it is greater than the money supply air to falling to the surface of land and water, on food products and to penetrate into underground shelters, basements, tunnels, trenches; to be achieved on the battlefield dangerous concentration of toxins to humans, regardless of the weather and geographical conditions; that is preferably no color, smell or taste and that such properties can be acquired certain additives that would be difficult to detect on land, in water, food, and contaminated surfaces of the human body, our sentient bodies and their senses of sight, smell and taste ; more expeditiously, if possible at the moment, exerts toxic effects on humans; it is difficult to decontaminate skin and clothing of people already entered or detoxification of toxins in the body;
it is suitable for use in warfare all available missiles and launching the modern technique of conventional weapons; that is produced from domestic raw materials, and production is easy, simple, industrial, and it is cheaper. A small number until today known chemical substance or compound meets all these requirements. With tactical and technical point of view, all the current bot meet most of these requirements.
Therefore, all chemical substances that can be used for mass murder or temporarily disable people because most meet specific requirements, are classified as chemical warfare agents (BOt) or chemical weaponry (HBS). Compared to traditional (conventional) arms detrimental effect BOt is much broader in time and space. The former expresses the current and final effect (hit or not) in one or several people. Toxic gas, liquid or aerosol (broken particles of solid or liquid poisons and mixed with air) act on large areas, in all living beings on the contaminated areas that are on the ground and attacked their toxic effect manifested a few minutes, hours or days and all living creatures that are subsequently found to poisoned ground. Casualties (killed and injured) conventional weapons are usually single, and the same after the use of poison gas mass occur only a few seconds to tens of minutes after the completion of chemical attack. For example, if you perform an air attack a modern warfare agents (sarin), a populated area, the density of the village of 500 inhabitants per square kilometer, that would be poured a ton of poison - it would contaminate the air, soil, water land and buildings in an area of 1 km2. According to experts, a few seconds of the attack appeared to be at the same time, signs of severe toxicity in 50% (about 2500 inhabitants), of which, over the next 30 60 minutes poisoned 1250 people died (25% of intoxicated people). With the exception of nuclear attack, no other weapons can cause so much loss in such a short time. Conventional weapons cause immediate mechanical injury or death, while BOt cause poisoning characterized by choking, vomiting, muscle cramps overall, disturbance of consciousness and the mind and the terrible suffering and fear of impending death. Hence, the man and the word ″poison″ is associated with pain and fear. Effects of bot insidious and sudden as very difficult to detect it intended to carry and chemical attack, and since it is impossible to make senses to detect the attack because the poisons are invisible - only the signs of poisoning people, it can be concluded that the attack was made, and then the too late to take protective measures because the poison was already far ahead in development.
Panic and mental effects of poisoning chemical warfare agents, especially in people who are unprepared and untrained, giving special importance chemical weapons.
5.4.1. How the BOt do on the human body
After external contamination down BOt the body they enter into a reaction with the cells causing them to functional and structural damage and injury. The reaction with the cell poison is immediate and strong. Toxins can act on cells and tissues at the site of direct contact (skin, mouth, eyes, throat, esophagus, stomach, and bronchi) and it is treated as a local effect. However, it is possible that poisons the point of contact and the ways through which the body does not cause any changes and damage, but they are absorbed into the blood and lymph, blown by the body and cause general poisoning of the entire body (systemic toxicity). There is also the possibility that chemical weapons act locally at the contact with the cells and tissues, and by absorption into the blood to cause general poisoning. Such is the case with mustard. In all three cases described injuries and damage to cells and tissues that cause BOt can be: check (unreversible) or back (reversible). Irreversible chemical injuries are comparable to the effects of fire (fire), which burns the affected objects or tissues of living beings and can only save what was not burned. Toxins in this case destroying the structure of cells and tissues, so that the tissue cannot be restored. Such effects have mustard agent (mustard gas and nitrogen mustard gas). Recurrent or reversible effects of poison gas, characterized in that the invaded cell or tissue and / or even organs and organ systems throughout the body can fully recover to perform their functions, before poisoning. Such effects have functional toxins. The action of the enzyme, these poisons are removed from the system some tissues, organs and systems, which can be removed, if not the cessation of function of vital organs: heart, brain, liver ... External local effects of poison consist in causing blisters, inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, swelling and wounds or burns true. Acids and bases, as well as mustard agent in liquid form, it enters the eye, can cause irreversible damage to vision or even loss of one or both eyes!
Mixed or combined chemical injury to the tissues and organs as a consequence of the simultaneous action of two or more different toxins. In wartime, one can expect the application of a mixture of two or more BOt in order to achieve complete surprise and success of a chemical attack. Such injuries can be caused by conventional weapons + Bot nuclear and radiation injury + BOt ... They are much more dangerous than the sum total of the effects of all the assets (synergism potation) and their maximal effects. Compared to conventional weapons, chemical weapons exerts its harmful effects primarily on manpower, but these effects are much broader and more massive over time and space. Classic projectiles exhibit currently and finally mechanical action (hit or not) causing injury to one man or more people. Toxic gases, liquid or solid aerosols, droplets and vapor BOt demonstrate its effectiveness on a large area, to all living creatures that were in on it at the moment of a chemical attack or who are subsequently found in contaminated soil (cont) after several minutes, hours, days or even weeks. It would be a misconception that the C / O, or bot, I assume, by its properties with other types of weapons. This has its own importance and place only within other conventional and HB - weapons. In modern warfare, the different types of weapons will complement nicely the destructiveness of mass destruction and debilitation and manpower. In view of the consequences that could occur after a chemical attack, the efficiency of modern bot some authors compared the effects of toxic nuclear weapons.124 The biological effects of specific bot is that they disturb the physiological and biochemical functions of living beings. Unlike explosives, grenades, and flame, their effectiveness does not depend on the degree of physical destruction. Chemical warfare easily penetrate buildings, underground structures, fortifications and shelters, with the manifest their toxic effects. This feature comes into play especially in the case of using a bot in populated areas. According to a calculation by the Swedish on casualties and damage to buildings in the town of 80,000 inhabitants in the event of an attack from the air explosive bombs or chemical weapons.
Table no. 30: Comparison of instantaneous loss and damage to the building after the use of equivalent amounts of explosives and chemical bombs Types of loss or damage Lethiferous
Chemical warfare Explosive Mustard gas
1.500 500 120
Damage to houses
To avoid any confusion, in addition to extremely large losses in manpower immediately after application BOt in relation to explosives, and the losses will increase further and further delayed due to toxic effects of BOt. However, these losses can be reduced by 50% to 75% if it is well organized and PHZ if timely detect and report the danger of attack from the air. In this regard were also carried out theoretical calculations at practice (Table no. 13).
Table no. 31: Size losses expressed as a percentage depending on the measures taken and given PHZ alerts during the attack bot â€“ Sarina Measures PHZ and alarm time (s)
The size and type of losses Mortally
Published the price of 1 kg of certain types of manufacturing BOt in the United States, as can be seen from the table no. 14.
Table no. 32: Cost per species Bot Type Bot
U.S. dollars (1 kg)
Value of the U.S. dollar – the years
1942 – 1945
1952 – 1957
VH – poison
1961 – 1968
BZ – poison
1961 – 1963
CS – poison
1969 – 1971
5.4.2. Classification of poison
Contemporary Bot can be classified according to the criteria: a. Military-technical division: lethal (BOT cause death in 90% of intoxication); or non-lethal temporarily incapacitating BOt; herbicides or against poisons nearby; b. Toxicology division, according to the mechanism of toxic action on the following: nerve – paralytic chemical warfare agents, representatives: tabun, sarin, soman, Vh, DFP, F – poisons; mustard, with representatives of mustard gas and nitrogen mustard gas; suffocating with representatives of phosgene and diphosgene; blood or make BOt a representative cyano acid and hydrogen Cyanogen chloride; psychochemical incapacitants BOt »BZ«; irritants, chloroacetophenone, adamist and CR; hebricide as a means of destroying plants; BOt special group that includes some natural toxins of plant or animal origin, such as botulinum toxin - toxin type A (HR), ricin (W), Saxitoxin (TZ), staphylococcal enterotoxin (PG), and others; c. According to duration of action and tactical purpose (persistence), the bot can be divided into:
ď‚ˇ ď‚ˇ ď‚ˇ
Persistent (long-term), whose effective action in the open air takes more than 12 hours to several weeks; Moderate persistent whose effective action lasts from 10 minutes to 12 hours and Nonpersistent BOt (short-term) that the open space preserve their effectiveness at the point of use to 10 minutes.
Picture no. 16: Persistence of modern nerve agents in the active form in the air, water and food, winter and summer
Trilon mustard VX â€“ BOt Psycho â€“ BOt, Herbicides (1 - winter, 2 - summer)
Their purpose and importance of the object of which is derived chemical attack, chemical weapons are used mainly for tactical purposes. Broad - applied systematically, can provide operational and even strategic results, especially poorly protected against it.
5.4.3. The application of poison and their effectiveness
Along with the development and improvement bot solved the problems of development and adjustment means for their implementation. Most has been the development of chemical explosive missiles and aerosol equipment, or device for pouring liquid formulation Bot. Already in the Vietnam War, the Americans tested new missiles, chemical cluster type. It is a container in which are located a number of smaller missiles - with its own chemical bombs and explosive charges. Burst main missile â€“ container, then each small projectile is achieved, wider, more balanced and rational contamination. Impact - stepping chemical aviation bombs are the new solution to the application of liquid formulation bot. After the bomb blast on the ground, activate the motor propellant, reactive force throws a bomb at a height of 50m, where it activates the primary explosive charge and begins the process of dispersion of toxins. Mechanical and thermal units are maximally improved and tested for their suitability for use in Vietnamese BOt polygon.126 Chemical warfare, by acting as an active component can be applied:
the use of chemical munitions from artillery, missiles with chemical warheads, aerial bombs, grenades and rifle grenades, mines and Fugas; use of thermal units and devices for pouring or spraying.
Picture no. 17: Dry pounding and pouring (1 - drop bot, 2 - perfusion, 3 - bombing)
Efficacy of BOT is directly dependent on many factors:
the nature and types of ammunition and launched chemical techniques; on use and transfer of toxins to the target; the meteorological conditions at the time of application of poison gases; of soil conditions and vegetation; the degree of organization and efficiency of warning systems; the degree of protection (personal and collective) and the training of infested units and civilians, and others. Scheme no. 11: Effect of wind speed on spreading pair of poison
Characterized by the use of chemical weapons:
tendency to surprise the opponent, because the only way to overcome some negative factors influencing the effectiveness of chemical attack; a large area of contaminated surface and atmosphere of the current appearance of the most injured; Time accuracy (brevity or longevity) effects Bot primarily in the area affected and the subsequent chemical contamination, depending on the goal you want to achieve impact; effective action and the hidden objectives. There is a specific effect of certain types of bot, but they can be mixed and simultaneous application of multiple injury types with a maximum of harsh treatment of wounded.
In any case, the chemical attacks are subordinated to the general military action ideas, and combine the use of other means of combat. Chemical attack can be done in all tactical operations with the aim of destroying or disabling of enemy.
5.4.4. Contamination of chemical warfare agents
Modern chemical weapons, primarily due to conquest and industrial production and new NBOt disabling Bot is a real danger, particularly in local and regional wars as a means of diversion – a terrorist use and elaborate concepts and doctrines of public and secret application H / o. Chemical substances and compounds display their harmful effects in the form of contamination and poisoning or chemical injuries of humans, animals and plants. The time from the moment of exposure (contamination) chemical substances to appear poisoning memento of the most aggressive Bot is a few minutes to a few seconds. Mustard agent, they are showing their harmful effect after a few hours, so when you pass latent period. Herbicides do not give any signs of damage and poisoning of contaminated plants a few days to a few weeks as a result of the mechanism and fitoksical and fitocid effects of these poisons on plants. Foreign military experts believe that the use of H / o has many advantages over conventional and nuclear weapons. For example:
BOt can be used against small (tactical) goals without locating the exact position; do not destroy buildings, communication or transportation devices, or power plants and power lines;
are especially effective at preventing people and life force in the attacked area; very suitable for secrets – Commando operations sudden large or small scale. Chemical weapons have some disadvantages, such as:
its use is illegal, and if they are used for warfare, would be condemned by public opinion, and it would be for a country that uses this weapon in the war could have serious political consequences; handling H / O requires special training, special precautions and special forms of intelligence activity within; cannot always predict and control all of the students of these weapons and their effects are often not limited to the selected area or time or space; there are difficulties in planning the use of agents, and the exploitation of their effects. However, it is accepted and operative technique NBOt filled with ammunition, as well as warheads for tactical (and free guided) missiles Army, missiles for naval artillery, and several types of cluster bombs (CBU) and fuel – generators for watering and spray BOt.
In terms of time, conditioned by the weather conditions, chemical attack is usually to be expected in the early morning or late afternoon and evening when the rule isothermal or inversion conditions. The most unfavorable meteorological conditions for the application BOt the warm seasons, and within days – noon, when solar energy creates convection – vertical airflow. In terms of speed of movement of air masses, ideal conditions for the application of the BOt wind speeds of 2 to 5 m / s, but can tolerate a wider range of 1 to 10 m / s in practice combat Application of BOt. As for the poison to be used in the war to destroy the plants, use herbicid origins date back to 1962 as part of the Ranch Hand, the peak was reached in 1967, and the completion in late 1970.127 Basic damages and executing combat tasks using herbicides the United States side, in the case of the Vietnam War, realized in practical use of herbicides to check the function of chemical weapons.
5.4.5. The area and contamination poisons
The contaminated area seems territory (land, air and water) with all objects and living beings to which was carried out chemical attack. The size, shape and durability of effects BOt in the zone of contamination depends on: amount and method of BOt; type and physical – chemical characteristics used poison gas; relief of land and vegetation on it; meteorological conditions at the time of application and time efficient BOt effects of contamination. Specifications of BOt primarily focused on the persistence of chemicals and compounds, and therefore the area of chemical contamination have special characteristics when chemically attack KBOt running short or long term – DBOt.
- A = PTT - B = NHA H – KonA - a = width PTT - b = depth of PTT - c = axis expansion steam LEGEND
- d = border NHA Scheme no. 12: The region of contamination after chemical attack
Chemical contamination KBOt is characterized by aerosols or gases BOt create a cloud in the primary affected area (PZR). Such formation of the primary toxic cloud poisons often given type of sarin, hydrogen cyanide and phosgene from a group of deadly Bot and group debilitating poison in the form of (CN, CS, DM and BZ). In favorable weather conditions (inversion) poison cloud contaminated air can move a few (or more) miles away from the formation, and thereby preserve the toxic properties for humans and animals. Thus, the formation of subsequent affected area (NHA). Dimensions and the direction of the primary toxic cloud is directly dependent on the weather and soil conditions, the type of the used agents, and its physical and chemical characteristics, forestation terrain and relief. On its path of movement poisonous wave, in addition to contamination of air, is subject to the laws of gravity and particle deposition on the surface causes some contamination of soil, water,
food, people and animals. If the direction of the plume is uneven land with plenty of vegetation and forests, then its length and width of distribution will be limited. The higher concentrations of toxins will be found in the hollows, ravines, slaughterhouses, forests and lush vegetation. This would be achieved by the dangerous concentration BOt to contain toxic properties for humans and animals for several hours. This situation can be expected when the aggressor application BOt deadly sarin and phosgene guy whose steam several times heavier than air. If chemical attack BOt performed in less favorable (isotherm) or unfavorable (Convention) and the atmospheric conditions at wind speeds of 7 to 10 m / s, then the toxic wave rapidly mixed with air, and the length and width of the zone of contamination will be significantly less but in favorable weather conditions. Length of maintaining its toxic properties KBOt in these cases is also greatly shortened, and the NHA often does not occur. Chemical contamination of soil (cont) persistent chemical warfare agents (DBOt) occurs BOt applying liquid or aerosol when chemical compound contaminated land by deposition of toxic clouds. Surface contamination bot if you use the air pouring, it may be more square kilometers. In the PZR usually created deadly concentration and 'density' Dbot for humans and animals. In addition to direct contamination of humans, animals, atmosphere, and land, there is a great danger of indirect contamination and poisoning people, animals, atmosphere, and land, there is a great danger of indirect contamination and poisoning people and animals for subsequent contact and use of contaminated drinking water and food of plant and animal origin. Persistence BOt in the area of contamination with toxic properties is preserved for several hours to several days depending on the type of poison, 'density' and forms of contamination, seasons, weather conditions, relief, soil, vegetation and forestation field.
Table no. 33: Persistence Bot depending on conditions Meteorological conditions Name of the poison
Sun; light wind (150 C)
Quiet; sun; snow (100 C)
15 minutes – 4 hours
15 – 60 minutes
1 – 2 days
1 – 4 days
30 – 360 minutes
1 day to 1 week
2.5 – 5 days
3 – 36 hours
1 week and more
2 – 7 days
1 – 2 days
1 week and more
Vx – poison
3 – 21 days
1 – 12 hours
1 week and more
In addition to PZR in case of chemical contamination Dbot, especially in the hot summer days, due to intense evaporation of poison, toxic by the secondary wave, which is formed by spreading NHA. The primary affected area (Picture no. 20) is an area where direct chemical attack was made, and the NHA is the chemical contamination of the soil and the atmosphere, which has evolved from primarily affected regions under the influence of meteorological and soil factors (evaporation and wind carry pairs). Therefore, the NHA is much greater than PZR for several times, but the 'density' and concentration BOt it much lower.
A / Steady wind
B / Unsteady wind
Scheme no. 13: Primary and subsequently affected rayons contamination after chemical attack
The size and shape PTT depends largely on the goal of which was obtained by chemical attack, means used for chemical attack and shooting distance. The size and shape of a cloud of vapor NHA Bot depending on the size and shape of the primary regions, 'density' of contamination in it, the speed and stability of wind, land configuration. Spreading money Botha outside PTT creates area affected by the initial and subsequent vapor cloud - contaminated atmospheres (Kona). The initial vapor cloud bot is short, and occurs when using the bot chemical explosive projectiles (grenades, rockets, bombs), where under the influence of heat and pressure created by the explosion happens now evaporate a certain amount of poison, whose steam is moving in a certain direction. BOt subsequent vapor cloud formed after the initial creation of the cloud droplets and particles BOt the ground and buildings, and lasts longer than the initial cloud for all time of Bot to PTT. Elements of the affected districts money BOt are: spread axle pairs; side of the border; end of range boundaries and width of the end zone range. Direct expansion steam bot determined the direction of the wind. In unstable wind changing the direction of the expansion of steam BOt is determined by the mean wind direction.
The lateral limits are determined by the spread of steam bot aside. Angle spread to axis ranges from 60 C (at constant wind direction) to 20 0 C if the wind direction changing. The limit determined by the range expansion steam Bot towards axis. It also marks the boundaries of the safety zone, where troops can stay without protective equipment. Width of the affected region of vapor cloud in the end zone range is generally two to three times the width of the primary affected regions, depending on the stability of the wind direction. Chemical attack is the current single use of H / o unique about the purpose, place and time. Poison gas used in the form of droplets, aerosols or vapors most direct losses (poisoning people) and most intensive chemical contamination caused by the PZR (see scheme no. 4).
Scheme no. 14: Losses living force in chemical explosive projectiles impact
Chemical ground at the front of South Vietnam had a significant role in the further development and improvement of chemical weapons. Intensive research on the purification of highly toxic compounds increased the toxicity of the known BOt. At the same time the Bot added to organic resins to obtain prescriptions with increased viscosity, which can be applied to higher altitudes, the fly faster, with better capacity due to increased stickiness of the surface. A mixture of organic solvents as liquid phase BOt in recipes, contribute to greater penetration of droplets through the skin, clothing and materials. Celebrity is a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and soman (in 1:1 ratio), which was 5.9 times more toxic than pure soman, when applied to the skin of experimental animals. This increase in toxicity to the increased
permeability of the skin for this recipe. They were also similar to mustard mixture and Vh â€“ poison, asphyxiating and trilon.
5.5. Detecting the risk of chemical contamination (detection and identification of poison)
The demand for advanced technologies for the detection generally remains high because of weapons of mass destruction have the potential to cause innumerable victims, not only in armed operations, rather from the 90 terrorist threats. Detection of CBRN weapons or OMU128 lets take timely measures to protect against hazardous materials. Since each situation requires the use of special equipment in order to achieve the best performance, in practice as often use hand-held, mobile and stationary detectors. There are specific, depending on the type of WMD, which affect the detection and neutralization of danger. For detection of biological agents, for example, uses a technique based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a molecular technology by which to detect traces of pathogen DNA, to significantly increase the detection sensitivity. And if you are for identification purposes are still the most popular PCR lot of effort is now invested in the development of MALDI â€“ TOF technique (by way of analyzers based on time of flight combined with a mass spectrometer). In the case of chemical agents, chemical agent detection is extended to 30 toxic industrial chemicals and gases. Radiological detectors are divided into two categories: personal radiation detectors (PRD) - Personal protection and basic search functions, and devices for identifying radioactive isotopes (RIID), to determine the threat level of the source, whether it is a special nuclear material, medical, industrial or natural radioactive material. Timely detection of danger even chemical contamination and effective detection and identification of BOt and other toxic substances in the air, on land, in water and food, prevents or reduces the effects of chemical attacks to a minimum. This means that the contamination of air, soil, food and water BOt and other toxins must be detected as soon as possible to protective equipment (mask, gown, etc.) used before the chemical attack cause adverse effects.
In recent years there has been great improvement in the detection of risk, detection and identification of the BOt and other toxic substances in the atmosphere and on the ground by creating a â€łsystem for automatic detection BOtâ€ł, covering large expanses, while applying different instrumental methods of detection. Despite major advances in this area, to date, we cannot talk about the existence of sufficiently reliable system for simultaneous detection of all known BOt and other chemical contaminants in all areas that may be contaminated (food, water, surface, ground, etc.). Accidents in chemical plants, OUR and institutions, accidental contamination and mass poisoning in peacetime are often sudden, unexpected and therefore cannot be predicted, not timely detect if there is no corresponding device. In these cases, resorted to detect indications, identification and quantitative measurement of chemical contaminants in the field and in biological material, which have already occurred consequences of chemical contamination. In the event of sabotage and terrorist activities once the first detectable, only actors in these stocks, and the risk of chemical contamination detection only, or the first signs of poisoning in humans and domestic animals. In the case of public use of chemical weapons during the war, and then if the aggressor is trying to pledge its surprise chemical attack, as a condition for the maximum effect is usually possible through monitoring, surveillance and notification in time to discover the danger and take timely measures PNZ.
5.5.1. Detection of combat poisons and pesticides
The term BOt detection means to detect their presence (display) in different environments, such as soil, air, water, food, etc. Therefore, the detection is usually performed in the field under field conditions. Therefore, detection methods must be adjusted so that it can be performed under field conditions, and at the same time provide reliable and accurate enough in a short time. For such purposes have been developed faster methods of chemical detection in the field condition known bot and many toxic substances. It is therefore necessary even in peacetime win reliable and faster methods of chemical detection field and train staff to perform indications, identification and quantitative
measurements and known and unknown chemical compounds and substances in all areas where BOt in war and in peacetime pesticides may occur. Since this is a bioactive substances and chemical compounds, and in very small quantities exhibit toxic effects on wildlife, detection methods have to be both micro and very high sensitivity methods. These small amounts of toxins will be found interspersed with much larger quantities of water, food, air or land. Therefore, it is necessary to know the sensitivity of the reaction to be used in the detection and chemical properties of the substance to be tested. At these properties, elemental composition and reactivity of chemical compounds and substances belonging to groups of bot and pesticides are based mechanisms and methods of chemical detection.
a) Methods for detection of nerve agents and pesticides All BOt detection methods and pesticides are based on detection of one or more physical, chemical or toxic properties. According to the manner of performance and the applied technique can distinguish between four bot detection methods and pesticides: 1. Organoleptic (our senses), 2. Biological (animal trials), 3. Physical and physicochemical (apparatuses) and 4. Chemical and biochemical (apparatuses).
b) Fundamentals of toxicology of chemicals Toxicity (poisonous) is the main and the most important feature of all poison gas and chemical agents that can be used as a diversionary terboroperaiste means (weapons). The term of toxicity means the complex mechanism of chemical and biochemical interactions between chemical compounds and biosystems, which implied complex: poison + biosystem. Thus, the toxicity is the quality or degree of toxicity (or biological activity) of some chemical compound of mercury cell plant or animal life. In this connection, the toxic effect of some compounds is a phenomenon harmful effects on the health and life of humans, animals and plants that can manifest different signs: injury, poisoning or disease. All poisonous substances that are characterized by a high degree of biological activities, because in very low concentrations exhibit toxic effects on living cell or organ systems.
c) Toxicity and poisoning Given the purpose of poison, pesticides and other chemicals and compounds, these chemicals are measured by the degree of toxicity and bioactivity. Toxic effects of nerve agents on biological systems, in particular, to a man, it is very complicated, complex and not yet fully explored. Yet they know the basic factors that have significant impact elucidate the mechanisms and chemistry of toxic effects of chemicals in general and poison gas:
dose, concentration and density of poison that gets into contact with live cells or biosystems and interact with it; physical and chemical properties of the venom in general and especially of poison; routes of transmission and the input types of toxins in the human body, animals or plants; absorption and fate of toxins in the body of humans, animals and plants; circumstances of the poisoning and the mechanisms of harmful effects of poison; susceptibility to the effects of toxins and mechanisms of self-defense (general and specific), and detoxification, excretion and elimination of toxins from the organism.
Poisoning by classical definitions involves damage to human health, caused by chemical substances or compounds, poisonous gases and biological agents. Signs of poisoning are the most common and the sudden acute, and rapidly evolving. Man or a child, shortly after the introduction of toxins into the body, fainting, or get strong cramps in my stomach, skeletal muscle, and the like. Meanwhile perfectly healthy person becomes seriously ill. Apart from acute, there is a chronic and gradual poisoning in humans. The poisoning occur after prolonged ingestion of small doses (amounts) through contaminated water, food or air from the operating room. After several days, weeks and months of the appearance of the signs of poisoning (blue lead edge of the teeth, nerve damage, chemical burns on the skin, etc.). Toxic substances in the event of acute poisoning, usually entering the body in multiple lethal doses at once by entering the contaminated area of chemical warfare agents, error, ignorance or mistake. Because the symptoms of poisoning are difficult death is inevitable, just a few minutes or hours after ingestion of toxins in the body. In the case of an acute poisons act immediately, powerfully and irreversibly damage the tissues and organs of poisoned patients. Their action is compared to the fire that
burns the burning material, so it can only save what we caught and damaged before the fire. Chargers and other toxins damage the tissue at the site of the first contact and the way to move through organism, including local activities, and exhibits them in the forms of burns, blisters, sores, eczema, damage or loss of vision (eye contact with poison), rash and aesthetic defects (scars). A number of combat and other toxins, in addition to local, has a general toxic effect on the whole organism, similarly damaging cells and tissues of internal organs and body systems (intestines, heart, blood circulation, brain, nervous system, liver, kidneys, joints, lungs , etc.). Poisoning people may be: Accidental (random), suicidal and homicidal. In these two last fall and poisoning war chemical warfare agents. As a special form of suicidal poisoning occurs misuse of psychoactive substance over longer periods and drugs. There are two types of poisoning: deliberate or villainy, which can be directed against one's own health and life (suicide) or against other persons or opponents of the war (killer), and unintentional, or accidental poisoning, which can occur due to confusion, errors, and a set coincidences. Potential chemicals of military professional standpoint, chemical agents that could be used for sabotage and terrorist activities, would be subject to the most contamination of drinking water, food and beverages. In addition to the commonly used glass packaging (bottles, boxes, pots with lids closed), then bombs, grenades and boxes of free spraying. They are all hand means specially trained commandos and the terrorists carried in pockets, purses or are sewn into clothing lineup. Often these 'packages' data in the design of cigarette boxes, cigarette cases, fountain pens, bottles of deodorant and cologne, shaving tuners and other "personal accessory" every man. The war is among the paratroopers desantiranim of the aircraft can be found commandos equipped with chemical poisons with the task of contamination of water and food, or special assignments poisoning and liquidation of some or all of the leadership of managers, staffs and commands to a preset territory.
Scheme no. 15: Mechanical devices for spray material in the tank water
Food and water in emergency situations and especially during the war became critical items for living, work and war armed forces and the entire population of a country. During the war, economics and agriculture suffers losses, and shortages of food and safe water can threaten the success of keeping the general people's defense of war. In addition, the enemy will try to destroy and sabotage actions or contaminates cereals and other cultivated plants (defoliant and hebricidies), and food supplies and drinking water renders useless for human and animal consumption, most inserting BOt in critical articles. The situation is similar in the time of economic crisis, when a potential aggressor, the special war by terrorist organizations and individuals perform actions destruction and impairment of food and water. During the war, possible mass poisoning of manpower through contaminated water and other modern BOt highly toxic chemicals. It is believed that the use of highly toxic and persistent Bot through sabotage and terrorist activities can contaminate all the reserves of drinking water in water tanks, wells and city water supply reservoirs whose capacity does not exceed four million liters. In emergency situations, and especially during the war, one of the most difficult problems is the provision of sufficient quantities of food and water, because these conditions following extreme scarcity due to destruction, chemical contamination and disruption of supply system and the armed forces and the population. All potential bot and other chemicals that could be used as a diversionary and terrorist funding for contamination of drinking water and food extremely well dissolved and mixed in all relationships or fats, oils, or with water. This is a very important feature that makes the poison selection for this 'special purpose'. In order to sabotage and terrorist contamination of water and food, mostly strict criteria are met: a. nerve paralytic bot (Trilon, V-poisons and F); b. organophosphorous insecticides origin and some rodenticides; c. aliphatic carbon-fluorine compounds; d. classic bot from a group of mustard agent; e. psychochemical incapacitants bot and psychoactive drugs; f. toxins of natural origin: botulinum toxin, tetrode and Saxe-toxins. Chemistry is a very heterogeneous group of toxins, which can be divided into specific funds for terrorist operations, because they meet most of these criteria.
Nerve paralytic BOt and organophosphorus insecticides to contamination of water and food are convenient and deadly. It is the most toxic chemical compounds that are known to date and synthesized. It is sufficient to lead to over 5 ppm NBOt so that after a few days of use of such water for drinking come to signs of severe poisoning and death of people and animals. According to some data, the American author, median lethal dose NBOt some organophosphorus insecticides for people who have these toxins enter the body in contaminated water or food, would be as in the table below: Table no. 34: High doses of certain death NBOt and organophosphorus insecticides to humans
LD50 mg / kg
Vx – poison
In addition to the high toxicity, Vh – toxins are very stable in the water and especially in food. They are very poorly hydrolyzed, and the products arising after hydrolysis are also toxic and conserved molecules. Hence Vh – toxins are considered the most advanced bot for diversionary use. Organophosphorus insecticides are much less toxic than the bot, but other than V – toxins, persistent in water and food, and are poisoning not only in war but in peace possible in our everyday occasions.
5.6. Poison gas and deadly effects of pesticides
Toxic pesticides division, based on their primary peacetime purpose and on mechanism of action. In our acceptance, slightly modified classification of pesticides given by Melnikov: 1. acaroids, plant destruction of spiders and ticks (variety of insecticides); 2. fungicides, means to destroy various fungi; 3. herbicides, for the destruction of weeds; 4. insecticide, for the destruction of harmful insects; 5. moluscides (Limacides), means for the destruction of of mollusks and gastropods; 6. nematicide, the means of destroying worms and earthworms; 7. rodenticides, means for the destruction of of rodents; 8. algicide, means for the destruction of of algae and other aquatic vegetation; 9. akara fungicides, plant destruction spiders, ticks and fungi; 10. germ acaricides, resources as effectively destroying insects, spiders and mites; 11. germ fungicides, plant destroying insects and fungi; 12. need fungicides, plant soil treatment against worms, earthworms and fungi; 13. plant growth regulators: a mixture of insecticides and herbicides to fertilizers; synergistic, plant seed treatment; desiccants, a subclass of herbicides; defoliant and arboricides. With military-professional point of particular importance, as a chemical weapon among, a group of pesticides, insecticides, organophosphorous origin (same origin as NBOt) and herbicides. The special place of the two groups of toxins may be in sabotage and terrorist activities in peace and in emergency situations. Compared to mustard, which before the invention NBOt, were the most toxic chemical compounds in table no. 52 and table no. 53 given the toxicity of new toxins.
Table no. 35: Fatal dose for humans BOt Poison
Lethal dose (mg / person)
Index of toxicity
80 – 200
F – poisons
Vh – poisons
Table no. 36: Toxicity NBOt Name of the poison
Vh – poisons
F – poisons
The most commonly used
Liquid, gas, aerosol
Against whom they are intended
Time of penetration into the body
The lungs, skin, eyes
Skin, lungs, eyes
The lungs, skin, eyes
The timing of signs of toxicity
2 – 10 minutes
1 – 15 of minutes
1 – 15 of minutes
5 minutes to 8 hours
10 minutes to 12 hours
10 minutes to 10 hours
Median lethal dose through the lungs
80 to 200 mg / min / m3
10 mg / min / m3
15 mg / min / m3
Median lethal dose through the skin
1,000 to 1,500 mg / person
6 mg / person
10 mg / person
5.6.1. Signs of poisoning
Clinical picture of nerve poisons and insecticides of the organophosphorus compounds is characteristic and unique although there are differences in different species of Bot. Depending on the time of penetration into the body, there are small differences and specificities. It is important that the means of poisoning essentially external manifestations of muscarinic, nicotinic and central effects of accumulated acetylcholine in the tissues of poisoned man. Our knowledge of the clinical picture of poisoning NBOt is still quite rich. They are the result of a large number of (random) poisoning with insecticides of the organophosphorus compounds, which includes nerve poisons. Thus, in the literature, appearing descriptions of characters organic phosphate poisoning in more than 500 people. It is very important to know the early signs of poisoning characterized to reveal the presence of poison in man or in his body before the end of which you can
still point to effective assistance of injured. However, each time the introduction of toxins into the body has a different sequence in which the characteristic signs of poisoning. It is therefore difficult to give a general scheme of these characters. In the table are given a time limit poisoning in the first 15 minutes after the first 15 minutes after breaking the nerve poison in the human body.
Table no. 37: Signs of poisoning Exposure time from - to
The most important signs of poisoning and the order of occurrence in humans
0 – 30 seconds
Chest pain, anxiety, dizziness, inability to coordinate movements and uncertain gait, difficulty in orientation, easily pupil constriction in both eyes
30 – 60 seconds
Clouded consciousness, weakness, a maximum pupil constriction in both eyes, and there are also all the signs of the first 30 exposure
1 – 5 minutes
Extensive drooling and saliva secretion, general muscular tension with tremors and spasms, muscle cramps trachea and bronchi with a feeling of choking, shallow, intermittent respiratory muscle cramps, spasms of all the muscles strong and irregular breathing
5 – 15 minutes
Bruised face and body skin, general muscular weakness and limpness, low blood pressure, respiratory failure, coma and death
As a result of local and general toxic effects nbot occur following symptoms of poisoning: a) Local effects:
On slit eyes: mild to maximum constriction so that pupils have a head the size of hearty dunes;
The muscles - actuators eyeballs: headache, eye pain, decreased vision, seeing unrealistic picture, double letters, etc.;
Eye on the conjunctiva: redness and strengthens the moisture to tears;
On the trachea and bronchi: tightness and heaviness in the chest, extension gasp, a shortened and difficult breath, cough, and increased secretion of saliva and secretions from the nose;
On sweat glands: increased sweating cold sweat and sticky, especially under the armpits and face, but also in other places;
At the salivary and mucous glands: loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps and stomach growling intestines, diarrhea and increased saliva.
b) General effects:
At heart: palpitations, tingling slowed and rhythm disorders of the heart and heart attacks;
On the eyes: pupil constriction easy, sometimes irregular, blurred, blurred vision, seeing unrealistic shapes and sizes of objects and pain and eyeballs;
On the bladder: frequent urination, discharge of large quantities of urine, sometimes involuntarily release urine;
On the skeletal and respiratory muscles: fatigue, mild weakness, and increased tension in the beginning, then spasms of certain groups of muscles of the chest and rungs (diaphragm), the blue color of the face and the entire body due to the reduced oxygen entering with low and irregular breathing, uncertain gait and the arm, paralysis of all the muscles;
The brain and nervous system: paleness, dizziness, excitement, nervous prenapregnutost, emotional labiality, and pliability, drowsiness, and headaches, mental fatigue, general lack of interest, inability to concentrate, thoughts, poor memory, slurred speech, gait groggy, general physical and mental weakness, fading reflexes, irregular breathing, convulsive spasms, lock and mole weakened the center for respiratory and cardiovascular and death.
The frequency of these signs of poisoning by nerve agents is not the same. Their appearance is dependent on the mode of operation and the type of poison. American clinicians have studied 497 cases of poisoning with insecticides and have concluded that the incidence of some major signs of poisoning by nerve agents by organs and systems of the human organism. This is shown in the following table:
Table no. 36: Frequency of signs of poisoning Effect
Signs of poisoning
The frequency in percent (%)
constriction of the pupil (miosis)
73 â€“ 93
redness of the conjunctiva
tracheal muscle spasm
tracheal muscle bronchi
feeling of chest pain
shortness of breath feeling of choking Central
The nervous system
weakness and fatigue
restless dreams and insomnia
convulsions and other
tremors and convulsions increased tension
weakness and pain of uncertain
frequency of urination
involuntary discharge of urine
Sweaty and mucous glands
Clinical picture of nerve poisons depends on the amount of toxins entering the body, the concentration of toxins in the air, water or food, the length of human exposure to poisonous effects vazuhom, and the individual susceptibility of humans. By gravity flow, poisoning with these poisons may be: easy, moderate, and severe or fatal.
Lake forms of nerve agent poisoning occurs a few minutes to 1 or 2 hours after contact with poison. This poisoning, and without treatment, fast withdraw and perform complete recovery of patients without subsequent consequences to the health of people poisoned. Complete recovery occurs after 1 to 2 days. Secondary severe nerve agent poisoning occur a few minutes to 1 hour after contamination, and recovery is possible after a full and immediate first aid and further medical treatment in hospitals. In this case, complete recovery occurs after 3 to 5 days. However, in patients that survive the poisoning effects are possible, such as general anxiety, insomnia and persistent fear, emotional labiality or depression, which may persist for several weeks. Severe nerve agent poisoning occur within the first few minutes after contamination. All signs of poisoning develop very quickly and have the maximum intensity. If, just give timely and complete first aid and continue the treatment of these poisonings, there may be individual healing. The first signs of recovery in these cases occur after 2 to 3 days, with complete recovery after 7 to 10 days of treatment. Survivors people stay for a long time too sensitive to the effects of even the smallest amount of poison and insecticides from the group of organophosphorus compounds. Clinical picture of nerve chemical warfare agents has some special features, time-dependent entry of toxins in the body: a) Poisoning through respiratory organs. The first signs of poisoning by nerve agents via the respiratory disturbances in vision: pupil constriction in both eyes, bloodshot conjunctiva, tearing, blurred vision and pain in the eyeballs. Along with these signs or a second or two later poisoned men felt tightness and pain in the chest. Breathing becomes difficult, especially in the phase of expiration, shallow and rapid. May, but need not be told to cough slimy - foamy sputum. Soon afterwards poisoned getting restless, complaining of headaches, dizziness and general weakness in the muscles. Out of the mouth and nose, there is increased secretion of mucus and foam, and the overcharged bronchi, mouth and nose secretions, breathing becomes more difficult. There are signs of suffocation. Very often, along with breathing disorders, there is vomiting of food remains and sparkling slimy liquid. On average 10 to 15 minutes after the arrival of nerve agents in human lung, there are strong and in a series of spasms of the entire skeletal and respiratory muscles. They last from 3 to 6 minutes, and can be tracked and involuntary discharge of urine and stool. Muscle seizures are repeated at various intervals, but are shorter and weaker in intensity than in the beginning. Between the two attacks cramping muscles relax completely. Poisoned is unable to make any movement due to general weakness and muscle laxity.
Muscle spasms ending coma (complete loss of consciousness and reflexes). Death occurs due to respiratory failure, end heart rate and flabby paralysis of all the muscles from 1 to 3 minutes after the onset of coma. Depending on the amount of poison that entered the body and sensitivity poisoned, death can occur after 20 minutes, usually after a couple of hours, and rarely after 12 to 24 hours. Blistering form of poisoning occurs when a man is found in the poisoned atmosphere, high concentrations of nerve agents. Then now call respiratory failure, asphyxiation and death is just a few minutes. It should be underlined significant signs of poisoning, nerve poisons through respiratory organs. It is a feeling of fear, which occurs already after the first few breaths of air tainted. Poisoned has a feeling of suffocation and impending death. He swallows air, completely disoriented in time and space, it is difficult sentences, staggers and falls. b) Poisoning through the skin. All nerve poisons, especially Vh-models, well penetrate the skin into the human body. However, they do not irritate the skin, so their effect through this body insidious and difficult to detect, because it does not leave a mark on the place of contact with the skin. Depending on the contaminated surface of the skin and the amount of toxin that enters the body, the first signs of poisoning will occur 10 to 30 minutes after contamination. All signs of poisoning develop in the course of 60 to 90 minutes after skin contamination. At the contact with the skin of toxins, usually no redness or blisters, but after a few minutes to notice muscle tremors beneath that part of the skin (called fibrillation), immediately after this occurrence, when the poison absorbed into the blood and blew throughout the body, poisoned becomes restless, his movements are uncoordinated, there is increased secretion from the nose and mouth, cold sweat on his face, the head and the whole body, muscle weakness, and in particularly severe form and spontaneous release of stool and urine. A little later there is a tremor of the skeletal muscles that cross the serial strong cramps. In the further course of poisoning occur all means which are described in poisoning through respiratory organs. The difference, however, exists because this poisoning last much longer, and death occurs sooner than 1 to 2 hours. In addition, it should be noted that the poison through the skin, especially in the initial stage, means lacking characteristic disorders of the eye. Initially neurotoxin poisoning through the skin is almost never can detect narrowing of the pupils, the first and most characteristic sign of poisoning through respiratory organs. c) Poisoning through the digestive tract. Good solubility and stability of the nerve poison gas in the water and food to contamination of these items necessary for the life of mortal concentrations.
Depending on the amount and type of poison ingested into the stomach, in humans can occur means light, medium heavy and severe toxicity. Easy poisoning is characterized besimptomnim or ′silent′ period of 5 to 10 minutes. If a man was fed before entering the poison in your stomach, this time with no signs of intoxication will last longer than if he was hungry, and the poison came into direct contact with the mucous membrane of the stomach. After the expiration of this ′silent′ period, there are first signs of poisoning: Deeper breathing, excessive secretion from the nose and mouth, abdominal pain and vomiting. Initially, the recovered mass composed of fluids and food residue, and then more and more used including some bile or blood. After 20 to 30 minutes to appear diarrhea, which are very frequent and last for several hours. Poisoned is exhausted, pale and exhausted. However, it tends to mean poisoning do not occur, and all the poisoned recover for 2 to 3 days. Moderate poisoning is characterized by the same, only much more pronounced signs of poisoning, as well as in light form. ′Silent′ period was significantly shorter (1 to 5 minutes), vomiting was significantly more frequent and more extensive, and diarrhea which may last for 2 to 3 days. Recovery runs quite slow, an average of 7 to 14 days, unless complications arise. In some cases, 24 hours after the poisoning, the clinical picture is deteriorating rapidly. They appear bloodymucoid diarrhea and vomiting, muscle cramps, and death. Difficult poisoning starts without silent periods explosive vomiting and diarrhea. Along with these signs, there is increased secretion from the nose and mouth, chest pain and shortness of breath, and poisoned complaining of suffocation. Within 10 to 15 minutes caused tremors of certain groups of muscles, which pass into convulsions. Then arises the general muscle weakness, wobbly gait-groggy, occasional spasms of skeletal and respiratory muscles. Breathing becomes harder and irregular pupils expand, often shed blood, there is heart failure, coma, respiratory arrest and death. d) Poisoning through open wounds. It was very sudden and often fatal poisoning NBOt. nerve paralytic poison, only to reach the wound, directly penetrate the bloodstream and give every sign of the most serious forms of poisoning through respiratory organs. Diagnostics (recognition) poisoning NBOt possible observations and laboratory tests. Diagnosis is usually by observing and no matter how uncertain in practice to be used regularly due to lightning quick picture of the development of poisoning and the need for urgent intervention. Depending on the time of penetration of toxins into the body, there is a different order of occurrence of the most important and characteristic signs of poisoning.
Of d money NBOt poison, the first and most characteristic sign of intoxication in humans is the appearance of miosis and weakness of vision. Pupils of both eyes were narrowed to the maximum size of a pinhead. Even in the absence of other systemic signs of toxicity miosis is a sure sign of doubt, even for a diagnosis of poisoning NBOt. After percutaneous (skin the respiratory), oral and nbot entering the body, the pupils may be normal sized or slightly narrowed, but other means but clearly defined. Miosis is expressed, in the presence of other signs: muscle fibrillation, chest pain, cramps, and increased secretion of glands, are sure signs of poisoning or NBOt OFJ, such as coupling of symptoms does not give any other poison or disease.
Scheme no. 16: Signs of poisoning
A. SECTORAL SIGNS
B. MOTOR SIGNS
1. licking, â€˛deleteâ€˛
2. paper moistened with a filtering
3. leakage of saliva Fasciculation Constriction
1. discolored tears
2. occasional generalized
2. tears of blood
3. constant generalized
1. barely noticeable
1. spontaneous tremor of the head
2. provoked tremors
3. highly exposed
3. spontaneous generalized
1. rapid, shallow 2. slow (ostrichpchin) 3. acrocyanosis 4. irregular and difficult 5. apostrich
D. GENERAL SITUATION
1. lie still, and the sound and mechanical stimuli â€“ jumping 2. when attempting movement â€“ fall on your side 3. prostration
In the buildings have been given values in points
WEIGHT DEGREES OF POISONING 1. Easily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 – 8 – points, 0% mortality 2. Medium difficult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 – 15 points, 1 – 2 % of mortality 3. Difficult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 – 23 points, 50% mortality 4. Very difficult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 – 30 points, 100% mortality
5.7. Poison gas for the deactivation (chemical effect patient tanty)
The oldest BOt group are irritants, which still represent a modern chemical weapons and poisons Police: psychosomatic BOt checking efficiency; hebricidies, which are treated as formal chemical weapons after checking in the Vietnam War. All of these are poisons that have remarkably good physical-chemical, tactics, technical features, and are the focus of attention and further efforts in research programs and program production as combat and policing toxins. And because no one can deny these toxins, but everyone is working on their development and production. Poisons for temporarily disabling or incapacitating bot as H / o or chemical, but it is also used as a police toxins and exercise. Their use is intended for a limited time weaken combat capability and work it direct toxic effect on unprotected personnel, or that it compel the mental and physical exhaustion by using protective equipment. The wide use of chemical herbicides and in Vietnam gives special importance to poisons and dimensions. Not exclude the possibility of their use in future war conditions (especially in local wars), especially when the opponent is informed to the degree of technical and medical care. In peacetime modern armies use these toxins to train soldiers and test equipment protected. The police forces of many countries used the poison to suppress civil unrest in the streets, strikes in factories, riots in prisons, the criminal prosecution of terrorist groups and individuals, etc., And is therefore often referred to as irritants and Police poisons (Balantune, 1977). Chloroacetophenone was first used as a poison police in 1912 in Paris. It was a great surprise when the French
police used a previously unknown weapon – poison for the suppression of mass unrest, disruption in their order, strikes and demonstrations. There has been a remarkable success in a very short time, which was a recommendation for the use of N / o in the First World War. More recently, in Peru (1964) during a sporting event, as police used tear gas toxin that had almost catastrophic consequences. Because of the panic and fear that have ruled the people, it was 350 dead and hundreds injured. According to the duration of disabling effects in humans, these toxins are divided into two subgroups: Poisons for short-term incapacitation (KBOt) in which, given the toxicological properties and use-military or police purposes, fell: chloroacetophenone (CN), diphenyl-amine-chloro-ell (adamist - DM), O-hlorbenzilid malonitril (CS) idibenzoksažepin (CR); Poisons for longer disabling (DBOt), which would fall into: poisons that cause somatic disorders or physical disability, known in the international literature as phusical incapacitans and toxins that cause mental disorders or mental disability, known as, psychochemical incapacitants bot and psychoactive drugs. Poisons for short-term incapacitation effect at concentrations that are so small they are difficult to prove and analytical methods, and disabling effect lasts only slightly longer than the period of exposure (exposure) poison (about 10 to 15 minutes).
Experiences from the widespread use of this group of toxins in the Vietnam War, have shown that they can be used effectively in the execution of various tactical tasks:
in anti-guerrilla operations characterized by the closeness of the fight and which require quick response, and it is not difficult Get permanent effects; to neutralize opponents in larger areas (trenches, fortifications, intersections, roads and settlements), it makes it difficult to stay and movement of enemy troops, reducing firepower or forcing the enemy to abandon his position; combined use of kbot and explosive ammunition, with the attacks of sneezing, coughing and constriction, choking and vomiting creating conditions for effective use of conventional weapons.
In addition to the efficient use of chemicals incapacitans against opponents armed forces in the war, it is possible to use these poisons and against civilians in war and peace. In a Police poison incapacitans used for:
suppression of mass unrest; securing the arrest of armed criminals, rioters in mass fights in public places or disabling maniacs who cannot be approached without danger to third parties; the attacks more persons or groups on the object or person to be protected and for police duties which is not possible or not desirable use of firearms. Population of the country against the enemy in his or behind enemy lines during the war could be used psychochemical incapacitants agents BOt, and irritants in order to:
suppression of demonstrations and riots in prisons and camps; prevent mass abandonment of settlements and going during the escape, and the refusal of attempts at breaking through the encirclement raids and mass arrests; distribution of refuge in the forests, mountains, caves and other natural and artificial shelters and forcing people to leave them; capture individuals and illegal groups and hidden political leadership in buildings, shelters, dugouts and other secret facilities, and performing such other action for the implementation of terror, intimidation and demoralization of the population. To achieve the desired objective, rapid and complete effect of chemical incapacitans, with their application must meet the following requirements:
concentration of toxins in the atmosphere must be high enough to unprotected personnel would not have survived long stay. This concentration has to be at the secondary level of effective dose from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m3 of air; next to the target and the surrounding area, it is desirable proivesti high effective concentration of poison to the defense (closing your eyes and holding breath) and running away were difficult or impossible, and effective concentration to be reached in the shortest time possible, no longer than 1 minute. The group of irritants are non-lethal incapacitating BOt, often mentioned in the literature as a chemical incapacitans. These are chemicals and compounds that have reversible effects in a living organism because it is often referred to as 'functional poisons'.
General characteristics of these toxins are:
very quickly, almost instantaneously prefer mucosal respiratory organs, eyes and mouth to the point of unbearable pain; work and achieve the full effect of disabling the very low concentrations that do not exceed the value of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m3 of air, and cause reversible, short-term disruption, and usually leave no serious consequences to the health of people contaminated.
5.7.1. Psychochemical combat poisons
Many authors have singled out twenty years ago, a special group of chemical compounds that have a dominant effect on the central nervous system and psyche of the people. These are the substances and compounds with reversible actions the central nervous, autonomic system and the human psyche, causing a temporary psychological and physical incapacity, or at least reduced combat capability and accountability of the people in the effects of poison. These are compounds that are placed into a separate group of modern weapons as 'psychogenic', 'psychochemical', or just 'disabling' BOt. In addition to BZ-toxins, known to the battlefields of Vietnam, the potential bot with psychogenic properties include several other groups of different chemical compounds and substances. There are two main groups: natural alkaloids of some plants and non-synthetic poisons. For didactic reasons, all potential psychochemical incapacitants bot classified into four subgroups: 1. some organophosphorus compounds, in very small doses given severe mental disorders (methyl-fluorophore-sphoril-choline); 2. hallucinogenic plant origin - alkaloids (psilocybin, mescaline, butogen, garin, tryptamine); 3. semisynthetic psychochemical incapacitants BOt: LSD – 25; 4. synthetic psychochemical incapacitants bot: BZ, JB and ditrani. a) Some organophosphorus compounds In 1996 in the United States started the industrial production of non-lethal poison from a group of organophosphorus compounds whose effect is manifest in putting people to sleep. Testing a group of authors have shown that skin contamination after an organophosphorus compound, which is similar to Sarin, and it could be the fluoro-phosphoryl-choline in humans, psychological changes, such as anxiety, depression, psychomotor, intellectual disability, and insomnia with strange
dreams awake. Severity of symptoms was correlated with the degree of inhibition of cholinesterase in the blood poisoned. From this it follows that organophosphorus compounds can lead to psychological changes after the single dose (contamination), while previously considered psychedelic effects of organophosphate poisons cause only after chronic contamination and multiple small doses. However, the real psihohemisjki bot does not belong to the group of organophosphorus compounds.
b) Hallucinogenic poisons of plant origin Psilocybin, the following structural formula: It is a plant alkaloids with psychedelic effect in humans. These are crystalline substances without Misira and slightly bitter taste. Won the industrial synthesis of this toxin, which is quite cheap. Possible applications in the form of aerosols, with explosive missiles and chemical supplies. Today it is known and his isomer of psilocin, which has similar properties. Psychochemical incapacitants natural substance obtained from Mexican mushrooms from the mountain forests of the southern part of Mexico called Psilocube mexican. It is a mushroom alkaloid whose actions are known Maya people, nearly 2500 years ago used them as a means of creating a vision. Today it is still used in Mexico during ritual ceremonies. Bhutto – Fenin isomer psilocybin containing OH – group in the second sorting position. It is the seed of a Mexican wood Piptadenija pežegrina, and skin secretions of some species of frogs. Causes derangement of the psyche at doses up to 16 mg / kg. He is now able to produce synthetically. Tryptamine or dimentil - tryptamine differs from butofenina only in that it contains a hydroxyl group. Removal hidriksilne group, psychogenic tryptamine activity increases significantly. The minimal effective dose is 12 mg / kg. Garnin is an alkaloid extracted from the plant peganun – harmala. In the literature, there is no accurate data on the quantity rate for psihoaktivnosti garnin.
c) Semisynthetic psychochemical incapacitants poisons This group of chemical toxins is currently only LSD – 25 (lisergic acid diethylamide). LSD – 25 is a semi – synthetic product lisergic acid diethylamide, who in 1943, discovered the glanice cereal scientist Hoffmann in Switzerland, in the form of tartaric acid salts. It is a colorless crystalline substance whose melting point is
830S. It is poorly soluble in water, but its salts are well soluble in water, forming a stable solution, which is important for their application.
d) Synthetic – psychochemical incapacitants poisons Psychochemical incapacitants poisons, type BZ formation of some bot army. Were used and tested in the war in South Vietnam. BZ – poison The structural formula of the compounds long kept secret. Of all the combinations of the structures, it should be noted derivatives N – alkilpiperidinskih and hinuklidinskih dijariglikolne esters (benzyl) acid.
R3 where is: R1 – alkyl-piperidine, N-alkyl-pirolidinski or N-alkyl radical hinuklidinski; R2 and R3 - phenyl radical or a combination of phenyl radical ciklialkil (cyclopentyl, cyclo-hekisl). This formula was first published in 1952 in the journal 'Chemistry war and combat chemical substances', the paper Sternbaha and Kaiser. BZ is a colorless crystalline substance with a boiling point 3220S, and melting the 1650S. Extremely low volatility to use, most often in the form of aerosols. In South Vietnam the poison was used as an aerosol, air packs, air bombs, artillery shells and large – caliber. Otherwise, BZ is slightly soluble in water, but well soluble in acidic aqueous solutions and in organic solvents. Broken down by basic solutions. Central debilitating dose BZ compounds for inhalation route poisoning is 0.2 mg / l / min. JB – hinuklidin – benzilate As psychochemical incapacitants poisons in the literature are first introduced in 1955. They are described as synthetic compounds from the group hinuklidina-
benzilate, which can cause mental disorders in humans and hallucinations, in very small doses, up to 100 times smaller than equivalent-toxic doses of LSD – 25. It is a very active biočoški chemical substances with favorable military tactical and technological person. Today it is believed that they are the real representatives of the formation of psycho – chemical BOt. JB is usually applied in the form of chloride salts, white crystalline substance with no odor and bitter taste. They are characterized by high chemical reactivity and biological activity, but at a minimum concentrations. These are very stable compounds, which why invest in lengthy queue Bot. Their synthesis is simple and quite inexpensive. Fairly easy to store, and it is suitable for filling artillery shells, mines, rockets, bombs, etc.. applied in aerosol form. Ditrani also psychochemical incapacitants synthetic venom properties similar to JB. Only to reach the body in the amount of 5 – 15 mg, causes severe mental disorders.
5.7.2. The principle of the psycho-chemical nerve agents
According to the views and experience acquired foreign army in a war applied psycho – chemical toxins, resulting to the following principles:
offer of Drug-drug addicts in the ranks of counsel to collect information about the strengths and strongholds counsel. These services can be used by terrorists and saboteurs, which are inserted into the background of it.
The basic form in which the psychochemical incapacitants bot used in the war, would be generated. So they used in the Vietnam War. Their application is possible classical chemical coup aimed at the mass contamination of personnel and dismantle its war and work activities. However, it is likely that these poisons are much more massive and more frequent use as a terrorist assets. Saboteurs, as special forces, they can run attacks on headquarters, communication centers, occupy an important stronghold, capturing soldiers and civil defense. Terrorists may be shared task shareholding spread of popular companies among the young, free supply of psychoactive drugs. In addition to synthetic Bot, terrorists and special forces to carry out sabotage and terrorist activities, have access to a much wider choice venom: the natural alkaloids (mescaline, psilocybin), a semisynthetic compound type LSD â€“ 25, hashish, marijuana, cocaine, morphine preparations, and even alcoholic liquor. Thus, contamination and poisoning are possible through the organs of digestion (food and water) and through respiratory organs (aerosols and contaminated air). Are possible poisoning through wounds. Damaged skin and clothing are an obstacle for the penetration of these toxins in the body.
a) Toxicity of psycho-chemical nerve agents Natural semi-synthetic and synthetic compounds belonging to the group psychochemical incapacitants chemical substance. However, their main purpose is not to kill, but use their powerful effects on the nervous system, especially the brain and its activity, to cause a temporary inability of people to perform mental and physical activities and tasks. These substances in very small quantities, fifties or even one-hundredth part of the capital doses cause mental disorders, hallucinations and many functional organic disorders.
Table no. 37: The effective dose of psycho-toxins Poison
Dose over the digestive tract (mg / kg)
LSD – 25
Hallucinations, anxiety, mental derangement, inability to exercise mental and physical actions
It is on such a small amount of poison that is virtually impossible to detect in food and water, most accurate specific detectors.
b) Acute poisoning The fact is that after substance there is some disturbance in the function of the brain and nervous system in general. To animals and humans after administration of these toxins, it can be concluded that the main adverse effects of these substances occurs in the brain structures that are responsible for the higher nervous activity (memory, learning, understanding, behavior, orientation, vision, hearing, thinking and decision – making). Affected by the fine mechanisms of brain cells located at the highest stage of development. Hence, the solution mechanism of action of toxins be sought in the chemical and biochemical processes in brain cells. Similarly Bot, which block the action of cholinesterase, it may work by blocking the activity of a number of enzymes that regulate the secretion of chemical mediators in the brain such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetylcholine. These are the agents that enable the transmission of nerve impulses. It is possible to influence the process poison eprometa substances in nerve cells in the brain (breathing, eating, energy creation). Scientific research in experimental animals today are very relevant and comprehensive, and it is hoped that, at least in the foreseeable future, there will be clarification of the mechanism and psychogenic effects of toxins in humans. Without knowing the mechanism of action of any poison cannot take the appropriate anti – venom treatment.
Signs of poisoning To date, all potential psychochemical incapacitants BOt tested in experimental animals, and some of the people. According to these studies, a picture of poisoning after the use of very small amounts of LSD – 25 or JB compounds, are:
a) Vegetative disorders (functional organic disorders). Only 5 to 20 minutes after administering poison with food or water, there are dilated pupils, sweating, nausea, shooting, rarely, vomiting and rapid heartbeat, dizziness, sore throat, dry mouth and throat, itching sensation on the skin, etc. . This group is called the vegetative characters, because it is a poison effect on the autonomic or vegetative nervous system which regulates the functions of the organs and tissues of man. b) Mental disorders, occur later, usually 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion of toxins through food or water. Most clearly expressed disturbances of perception and hallucinations, which are characterized by unusual perception of color images with surreal content. Items are painted jarkovetlim colors and unusual shape and position. The perception of space and time is wrong. Poisoned the impression that events run too fast or unusually slow. hallucinations are encountered in the domain of the senses. These people 'dream' fantastic waking dreams â€“ with a wide â€“ eyed pupils. The content of hallucinations is less cheerful and pleasant, and often laborious and 'awesome'. Poisoned 'see' a gun on his chest at the shooting range, choking with an enemy soldier, his own funeral, etc. Hallucinations, hearing aids are also fantastic. Poisoned 'hear' bit - music, Native American warrior cries and songs buzzing around each course, a terrible noise, although a complete peace about it. if poisoned located in a peaceful room, so much the richer and more vivid hallucinations. Mescaline is distinctive in that it can cause catatonia, where one can spend hours holding the body in unusual poses no muscle fatigue. c) Unreasoning sense of fear, it is a characteristic sign of chemical poisoning psycho-bot. Poisoned trembling, bathed in a cold sweat, screaming, calling for help, undressing or tear clothes off, reject weapons. If it is in a closed room, smashing a window and jumps out, regardless of the level floor. However, fear can eventually turn into euphoria (an anxiety, cheerfulness, peace of mind) or depression that poisoned instincts to fully 'infiltrate' into itself and cease all contact with the outside world and the people around you.
Disorders of thought processes are not as common, but can be difficult to express in the form of concentration of thought on a particular subject. Confusion, flush flood of uncontrolled thoughts, indecisiveness, inability to solve the simplest of tasks and problems, fantasies and delusions (ideas of persecution) - regularly present. Awareness of intoxication is usually preserved, although it may be blurred and narrowed.
6. CHEMICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL SECURITY THREAT - case study of NATO aggression against Yugoslavia
6.1. The use of depleted uranium on the territory of Yugoslavia in 1999
NATO aggression in the former Yugoslavia, which lasted 78 days (24 March â€“ 10 June 1999)129 had a huge impact on the environment, and the consequences in certain areas and assumed the characteristics of a disaster. It is estimated that performed 27,000 flights take off, during which he consumed 367.2 million liters of carbon dioxide. Also, 15,000 rounds with 22,000 tons of explosives (which corresponds to the strength of the 10 bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki) directly harm the nature and natural resources of the FRY. Unfortunately, all hazardous substances in the circulation of matter through food chains and due to living organisms and cause teratogenic, carcinogenic and mutagenic deformations. During the aggression battlefield is characterized by scattered type of warfare, in which there was no front line and the background. The aggressor, as well as military targets, targeted industrial area, chemical plant with very toxic chemicals, as the NATO aggression among other things, gives the character of chemical warfare against the population and wildlife. 130 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and, for her fatal 1999, a proving ground for testing of depleted uranium (DU), which in addition to dioksionog war was one of the goals bomber NATO action against Yugoslavia military and civilian, planned more August 1998.131 However, Yugoslavia was the first guinea pig for testing the efficacy DU238 as a weapon. This scenario was first implemented in the Gulf War in 1991, by the USA and the UK. The same action, with disastrous consequences, repeated intervention of coalition forces in Iraq in 2004, in which the cast of thousands of tons of uranium munitions, and therefore the intensity of radiation throughout the entire territory of the Iraqi state has about 1,000 times higher than normal. When it comes to determining the consequences of those actions, you should point out the fact that the USA and Britain prevented action by UNEP Environmental Protection to determine the real situation on the ground and take decontamination measures. Thereby preventing independent assessments of radiation people and indirect environmental pollution caused by the use of DU238 and other lethal expenditure.132
Unfortunately, been withheld valid data on the effect DU238 dealt with global professional community, but it became clear that the USA. even 697,000 soldiers and officers who participated in the action 'Desert Storm' in the Persian Gulf, earned uranium diseases. On the basis of studies of the veterans 'Gulf War' (1991) of 27 controls in 24 cases found traces of uranium in the body, if 60% of their offspring were found deformed cells (genetic aberrations). These data, as well as forecasts of humanitarian and environmental consequences are justified because the consequences of the use of DU rounds are suffering all the people in the countries where these weapons were used, and those who used it. The tragic consequences of the afflicted and those who supported the aggressor carrying out military operations, such as Albanians. Albanians from Kosovo have enthusiastically supported all the actions of NATO in 1999 and have been a problem that will make the 30 – 90 years will be very rare for someone to affected areas Kosovo die a natural death. According to official data of the NATO alliance in 2000, DU238 is found in all the places where they worked on planes 'A – 10'. most missions were conducted west of the Pec – Gjakova – Prizren, near Kline, as well as the area around Prizren and north of a line connecting the Suva Reka Ferizaj. Despite the retrograde action DU238 the military aggressor, but the main and dominant application DU victims attacked residents of the state, wildlife and the environment, which is permanently contaminated and dangerous source of radiation, animals, water, food and ecosystems for decades after the attack.133 At that time, new diseases emerge, and a damaged gene system transmits to progeny serious consequences (freaks disadvantages of vital internal organs, leukemia, aplastic anemia, malignant diseases and shortened life – span). All this is happening in the animal and in the plant world, and this phenomenon must be treated as a war of genocide and ecocide. Epidemiologists Yugoslavia have also warned of the real world risk associated with the use of DU238, of causing mass anxiety of serious diseases and genetic disorders that can appear in the offspring. In fact, in the epideminologa, there are no proven scientific methods which can help to determine or estimate the incidence of cancer in the future due to the effects of factors which harm on health has not been established.134 According to the measurements, then (and Vinca Institute of Public Health of Serbia), it was found that contamination with depleted uranium on the territory of Serbia was often localized at some locations are contaminated land ioom distance to the total area of 1000m2. At these sites was measured radioactivity 1100 times the allowable limit. Acute effects could only occur in people who were at the site of impact, or have come into direct contact with projectiles filled DU238 or pieces remaining after the explosion, and the danger threatening from chemo toxicity of
inhaled aerosols dissolved. At a distance of 100 m the main danger is the radiotoxicity of insoluble aerosols, and the danger does not provide acute effects. In the investigated food samples were not found psisustvo DU238. According to another study (Koshnik) of the NATO aggression, not only to test weapons on live targets ability to command and ″checked staffs, but also examined, and it primarily affects the psyche of people." So we can say that this is the analysis of the effects of the bombing that still affect the health and psyche of the citizens of Serbia and Montenegro: In Serbia until 1999, registered between 15 and 20 thousand new cases of malignant tumors, that the number, but in 2004 reached the figure of 30,000 new patients. In Montenegro, admitted that six of the eighteen local experts physicists and the military, who involving in removing radioactive DU238 from Cape Azra near Herceg Novi, received genetic disorders.135 Uranium enters the human organism breathing, food and water or through the skin, and after 7 years, which can be confirmed by the analysis of urine. The consequences of the introduction of DU in the body of man and nature can be:
Disorder of the central nervous system, The increase in cancer (cancer of the lung, thyroid, ovary and digestive tract), leukemia and anemia atoksična, Psychological problems, Indigestion, Disturbance of the natural balance of the environment, Climate Disruption to limited space, The destruction of flora and fauna, The destruction of the ozone layer, Pollution of air, soil, water and groundwater flows, Genetic disorders. The most difficult situation in humans is the result of mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of DU, which produces clusters of radiation on chromatin in the nucleus of cells. uranium contamination of the slow mode will cause immunodeficits the population in the zone of ecological disaster. Time will increase the risk of cancer, men's Disease cryptorchidism and infertility in women.
In Picture 18 Map shows the so – called hazard identification, ie a list of locations and companies (from a total of 80, with more than 200 employees), which were cursory targets NATO attacks. They are plants that produce highly dangerous substances, so – called. Ecological bomb, whose possible breakdown could be dispersed in the part of the municipality, one or two municipalities, but in the entire region.136
Picture no. 18: Map identifying hazards
This map, "Prva Iskra" in Baric, Sremsko ″Matroz″, Sabac ″Zorka″, ″Viscose″ from Loznica, "Milan Blagojevic" from Luciano, Chemical Industry ″Parish″ in Krusevac, Krusevac ″Trajal″, chemical industry Pirot ″Suko″, chemical industry ″Prahovo″, Kosovo ″Trepca″, Pancevo ″Azotar″, ″Petrochemical″ and refinery, ″Fertilizer″ and Chemical Industry ″Zorka″ from Subotica and Belgrade factory paint ″Rainbow″. All these black dots in Serbia were legitimate targets (!) (600 how much of the NATO planners chose the first version of the bombing campaign in the ″Angel of Mercy″!) NATO aircraft. Due to the large number of international norms and conventions, 137 intervention ″Merciful angel″ had no doubt as war crimes. She left neizrisive effects of geography, territory, and the psychology of people in the former Yugoslavia (mainly in Serbia).138 The targets were simultaneously both military and civilian facilities. The attacks were carried out from a distance, the air strikes and long-range missile systems.139 Behind the VJ – Metohija Kosovar the battlefield trying to throw the specially trained commando terrorist groups. The alliance, at the same time, bombed several specific objectives in unpredictable intervals, with a particular increase in the intensity of the first day of the bombing. At the same time they bombed 22 seats, and every day the bombs fell another 11 new cities. Most of the activities took place at night, in the period from 21 to 5 o'clock in the morning. The aim of this aggression was clear and based on known experiences of war planners – causing feelings of helplessness and exhaustion, loss of national and personal dignity, in order to elicit a defeat and giving up any resistance.140
Facilities bombing in the beginning of combat operations were very well planned, according to the criterion of simultaneity and synchronization of: military installations (starting from empty military barracks), satellite repeaters, radio and television, factories, power sources, bridges, road corridors ... When the desired effects are not the club reached, demolished schools, hospitals, churches, city squares, were targeted trains and hospitals, with a cynical excuse for a collateral error.
Picture no. 19: rocket attack on a train in motion (Grdelicka Gorge)
Picture no. 20: rocket attack on urban sites (Belgrade)
The bombing of Yugoslavia by NATO aircraft made a lot of trouble Yugoslav (mostly Serbian) cit, after knowledge of Kosovo and Metohija, and some parts of Serbia south of the 44 plots were targeted and depleted uranium, and a great fear of the consequences of radiation. The use of depleted uranium has highlighted the possibility of endangering not only the members of the MUP and the VJ, but the population in the immediate area of operations, and is permanently contaminated environment. In all this did not neglect the effects of psychological pressure, which is always present in the public when it comes to nuclear radiation. This situation can be declared as a radiological accident. That a problem exists and that it is up to date, and is seen by the formation of a number of commissions and committees related to various ministries and other institutions. Also, there is a great interest of the international community and their involvement eksertskih teams and radiological examination of the situation on the ground.
Picture no. 21: Places in Kosovo and southern Serbia, where NATO air force used a prohibited ammunition containing depleted uranium during the bombing in 1999
NATO flights were operating on the territory of the whole of Yugoslavia, but their attention and attacks were concentrated on Serbia and Kosovo, with the occasional „excursions” to Montenegro but, consistently, and in neighboring countries. It will probably remain forever unknown when, where and how much depleted uranium ammunition fired at what was then Yugoslavia. The issue of radioactive weapons is almost always done in a veil of silence. What is known for sure is that there cause and effect link between uranium exposure and the development of certain diseases. Least partial truth of how really to depleted uranium used in Yugoslavia can be made on the basis of the measured radioactivity, while the quantity of depleted uranium which are already known contaminated sites in Serbia (and one in Montenegro) can not be accurately determined. However, according to data from the Internet, this is a NATO ammunition fired at more than 300 tanks; firing speed of the plane A – 10, according to one source, 4000, and the other 1000 rounds per minute, the pressure on the trigger need 4 seconds every third shot was stuffed with depleted uranium. The conclusion is that the number (31000) missiles, although huge, is certainly not correct.141 According to estimates by the Yugoslav Army in Kosovo fired approximately 50,000 rounds or deposited is 13550 kg (20940 kg respectively) of depleted uranium. Intensive NATO action was intense in the regions of Prizren, Ferizaj, Gjakova, Decan and Đurakovac.
Picture no. 22: Map of NATO - conflict in Kosovo and Metohija in 1999
And everybody knows that the Yugoslav Army had 365 tanks in Kosovo, she lost only 13, of which 7 of the NATO Air Force (three tanks hit by mistake the unit commander who is not removed in time, and four of the reports that are hidden in garages and basements of houses). Affected by a further 8 artillery and antitank guns 19! VJ inflict minimal losses, due to the forces involved and the means employed142. When they all radioactive waste collected in one place, the amount of depleted uranium, which is deposited in Kosovo could be made cube whose sites were 80 cm. However, the external radiation is not dangerous, maybe even less than that emitted by the x – ray machine. What is the problem microparticles are to be converted into micro – dust.
6.2. Areas on the territory of Serbia who were targeted by depleted uranium 30 mm from the plane A – 10
Proof that depleted uranium ammunition 30 mm It was used the remnants of the ammunition fired by A – 10 WarHog, which were found in the area where the fire was opened. Penetrators fired from 30 mm ammunition with depleted uranium, found on the ground in Yugoslavia, were positively identified by their mass, density and radioactivity spectrometry after the program.
The former Yugoslavia Army were aware of all the relevant facts about the use of depleted uranium on the territory of Serbia. 143 As for ammunition with A-10 aircraft were based at the airport Petrovec near Skopje (FYROM) and Tirana (Albania), and taking into account their movement could occur in parts of central and northern Serbia. On the basis of reported tests in 2000, as well as in the summer and in the autumn of 1999, the area of the municipality of Vranje, Bujanovac and Presevo, the southernmost of Macedonia, it is most likely during the NATO aggression was constantly under attack and that the ammunition with depleted uranium endangered area of about 12.5 hectares in five locations: about RTS transmitter on Mount Plackovica, near Vranje, in the village of Borovets (5500 m2) and Bratoselce (1500 m2), and Cerenovac and Samoljica around Bujanovac and around the village in the municipality of Presevo Reljan. They are mostly hills on a hill in the municipality of Presevo Reljan. They are mostly hills on the hill Reljan. VJ was set false goal – a model against which artillery units in May 1999, NATO warplanes kept firing. Normal natural background radiation in the Presevo and Bujanovac is 0.1 μGy / h, and in the center reljan after the bombing was registered 200 times higher radioactivity. Right next to the fence, radioactivity was 10 – 20 times more than natural. In the area of the mountain Plackovica near Vranje found three bullets with depleted uranium on an area of 2 hectares. At four locations in the municipality of Bujanovac (near the village Samoljica – Borovac) found a total of 4 bullets with depleted uranium. Two rounds of depleted uranium were found in Samoljica on the site „Cerenovac I and II”, and Borovets I and II. The bombing was carried out in a span of two weeks (Samoljica) to false and the actual positions of air defense batteries in Borovets. Zone uranium radioactivity covers an area of more than four acres of meadow, pasture and the road and is approximately 350 m as the crow flies from the first houses in Samoljica. In Borovets is contaminated zone area of 3.5 hectares and includes Padjanke, fields and part of the road, and the first houses of the village is 500 – 1500 m. At about 300 m is the beacon – a repeater which is also the target of the rocket attack (hit home). In the municipality of Presevo (village Reljan) was found a radioactive grain. All locations are fenced and marked with clear signs – banners, sign of the radioactivity. During the NATO bombing in the area of Gornji Milanovac exploded more than 40 missiles. Measurements immediately after the destruction broadcasting relay on top of the mining Sturac large (1132 m), 8 May 1999 showed elevated radiation, which was between 0.6 and 1 Bq. It was found that the radiation caused the explosion of two cruise missiles. Radioactivity was detected in the colored rings and jets missiles.
NATO planes have used depleted uranium ammunition and in parts of Montenegro, on the peninsula peninsula near Herceg Novi for the first day of the bombing. Precision was found to be only the southern side of the cape Arza on the peninsula peninsula, opposite the island Mamula at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor, the contaminated an area of approximately 3500m2. Field of micro – location Azra, inaccessible and overgrown with dense vegetation, is contaminated within 20 – 30 km from the effects of depleted uranium. This is probably due to the presence of a number of missiles that are still on the ground. Walk on the beach on the western side of the peninsula in the bay are polluted. According to these sites, according to official estimates, were launched from 3000 to 5000 bullets with depleted uranium from guns to aircraft A – 10, which is equivalent to the total amount of about 1 – 1.5 tons of U238 isotopes such contaminants. It is also estimated that the contamination gađanog area ranges from 200,000 to 235,000 Bq per kg and samples. These locations include the location, and their size is about 1 ha. At the end, but even during the war, affected areas are fenced in with either a human or an animal not found in these areas and come to their contamination. In the field, the remains of the bombs fired multi-barrel aircraft gun GAU – 8 / A (Avenger) and PGU – 14A / 8 (API Armor Pircing Incendiary).
Picture no. 23: Multiple-aircraft gun GAU-8 / A (Avenger)
Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that there had been three types of contamination:
Dotted contamination, just about where the bullet fell. Impacted the area found the remains of a large (tens of grams) and small pieces (grams) pieces of the firing pin (penetrators 9). These pieces, made of depleted or natural uranium, with additions of rare metals are relatively heavy and fall in the immediate vicinity (tens of meters) and can react intensively with liquids in the vicinity. Surface contamination – uranium, as piroforan, burn and formed aerosols that are transferred by wind to a certain distance (up to 80 km). In the event of a head hits the target, the attack was the highest temperatures occur with 12000 C. Part of the firing pin mount (5 70%), and oxides of uranium occur: UO2, UO3, U3O8. Due to the rapid cooling leads to aerosol formation processes, very large (over 10 μt) and small (less than 1 μt) of 30 mm ammunition per scoring a solid target, in the worst case of aerosols can not exceed 200 g U238. Probably these figures zntatno lower. As a 30 – caliber ammunition used as anti – tank weapons, it can be assumed that by such an attack was thrown about 10 kg of depleted uranium (conservative approach). This can be used as a first estimate for the temporal study (source term), on the basis of which can be modeled transport of aerosols into the atmosphere. The resulting aerosol depending on the meteorological conditions, transmitted to a distance by several tens of kilometers, with significantly diluted and falling on land and offshore. On this occasion, it is possible to ingalacija or ingestion of these aerosols. Depth of contamination, if the projectile hits the ground and explodes sinks into the ground to a depth of 20 – 30 cm. In this case, a small percentage of depleted uranium will move into the phase of insoluble aerosols, so they do not pose a risk to the population, because it is dangerous for people who are in contact with him because possible interactions with water, depending on the geological situation, off and ground water pollution. This impact must be studied at each site separately. Stopping bullets with depleted uranium may result in finding the water, plants, animals and humans, a process that is fast, but it is necessary to remove all the bullets. This operation is very expensive and unless removal is necessary to store the waste.
Harmful effects of depleted uranium may be caused by: - External or - Internal irradiation. External irradiation significantly, especially in cases where the entire firing pin (penetrator), or part thereof, is near people. Contact the absorbed dose of radiation is – ץapproved 20 mGy / h, which means that 1,000 hectares should be obtained from 5mSv/years equivalent dose, dose permitted for people.
If the penetrator is in direct contact with the skin, the calculations show that the presence of the radiation from the surface of the needle causes changes in the skin of about 80 ha. Such cases can be circumvented appropriate procedures. Internal (internal) radiation is much harder to avoid. The primary danger is inhalation of aerosols in the immediate vicinity of the target. Only precise modeling of phenomena or measurements can show how much milligrams of depleted uranium introduced into the body. The greatest amount of depleted uranium into the body soldiers and people who were in the vicinity of the affected places in the time of impact. It is possible that in these cases they inhaled a hundred grams of depleted uranium. Inhaled aerosols are soluble and insoluble components. Of the soluble components are not included acute effects caused by chemo – toxicity of uranium. The total equivalent dose can be as high as tenth millisieverts. Thus, the consequences are much less radiotoxicity of the consequences of chemo – toxic and can only lead to a slight increase in the risk of cancer. It is estimated that in the territory of Serbia fell about 400 cruise missiles, on this basis it should be thrown around 8 tons of depleted uranium. The consequences would be disastrous, because they are falling on densely populated areas in the center of Belgrade and some other towns in the interior. Assumptions experts that the depleted uranium ammunition used in places where it was supposed to break the strong concrete structures, such as Strazevica in Belgrade, the building of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Army, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia and Yugoslavia, the embassy of the Republic of China, hotel „Yugoslavia” and others. Tests of ionizing radiation in relation to the exploding unexploded cruise missiles or rockets weep due to the effects of air PVO VJ, categorically denied the presence of depleted uranium in them. The building of the General Staff, as in the very center of Belgrade, repeatedly thoroughly tested, but not proven the presence of depleted uranium. After all, the first reliable sign of depleted uranium. After all, the first reliable sign of depleted uranium was increased a – radioactivity, which in Belgrade and the surrounding area has been recorded.
6.3. The presence of plutonium from depleted uranium
As announced by representatives of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the plan was to examine the claim that NATO was the bombing of the former
Yugoslavia used ammunition, in addition to depleted uranium, contains plutonium.144 According to available data, only a very small part of the uranium filling made from recycled nuclear material coming from nuclear reactors and is refined. In Yugoslavia were discovered trace isotopes U236, which does not exist in nature, but artificially created – from nuclear power plants. The isotope U236 is much more radioactive than depleted uranium, but its share of about 0.0028%, which is considered not to change the overall picture of the radiological effects. However, in addition to U236 isotopes, they found traces of plutonium isotopes PM239, which, like uranium, has a dual effect on human health: toxicity and radiological effects. Plutonium, like all heavy metals (radioactive or not) – toxic. Historically, during the so – called Cold War, rising inventories of plutonium and weapons in the USA and the then Soviet Union, up to the hundreds of tons. With the end of the Cold War, there was a problem of the disposal of huge quantities of plutonium. One of the solutions was considered to be the weapon disposed in such form and manner that is difficult or impossible to regenerate plutonium. The second option was to slip into plutonium based fuel mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium, and is used as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. Some countries, like Japan and France, provide a wide upotreu plutonium as fuel for seeding (breeder) reactor, or other types of nuclear reactors. The amount of plutonium is even greater than the one who is in the military reserves and the amount of growth much faster – every year for the new 50 – 70 tons. Nearly 100 tons of separated plutonium quality suitable for reactors is kept in many countries, a much larger amount (about 600 tons) are found in unprocessed spent fuel of nuclear reactors. Toxicity of plutonium can be compared to toxity arsenic, cyanide, and caffeine. Oral lethal dose for humans when it comes to arsenic is 0.042 mg cyanide more than 0.1 g per 120 g of caffeine (120 cups of coffee Express), while plutonium is about 0.5 g. Since a radioactive element plutonium, 0.1 mg is sufficient to cause cancer. Radiological hazard from plutonium, compared to its toxicity, several thousand times greater. This means that when inhaled plutonium dust just enough to jeopardize the 10 – 12 people. There are dangerous substances from plutonium, radium, for example, which is about 40 radioactive, with a mid – century is extensively used in medicine. Plutonium is much less dangerous in water than in air. An oral dose of 1 mg of plutonium produced in the body radiation dose of 5 rem, which is more than
usual. This means that the risk of cancer increases an additional 250 persons per 100,000 people. Plutonium oxide is very slightly soluble (3 μg/dm3), indicating that it takes a lot of water to possible contamination with plutonium washed with contaminated water or soil surfaces. Therefore, the rain not so effective when it comes to plutonium oxide, such as effective if uranium oxide. So far there is no evidence that the plutonium was in the ammunition with depleted uranium, but if his presence and analytically proven, then there is a problem.
6.4. Radioactivity Monitoring in Serbia
During the NATO aggression against Yugoslavia were used different ordnance, some of them for the first time, as well as depleted uranium ammunition. Even during the bombing and immediately after the end of combat operations, several research institutes in the former Yugoslavia began the study of the consequences of the use of depleted uranium, in order to review all aspects of its application: from the military, through contamination of the environment and the effects on the population, the environmental law. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environment 145 includes a system of vertical analysis: air – precipitation – soil – water – plant – animal – man. It is started from the parameters of the radiation source (radiation), natural and artificial (Internal - 1.325 mSv; earth – external to 0.350 mSv and natural – with external 0.300 mSv; cosmic – internal to 0.015 mSv; with an average annual radiation – from medical 0.400 mSv and artificial – P / precipitation with a 0.200 mSv and nuclear energy sector with 0.001 mSv). with precipitation of radionuclides content carried in the air , soil, building materials, rivers, lakes, solid and liquid precipitation, drinking water and human and animal food. Systematic examination of these samples was performed on specific sites in the Republic of Serbia and at regular intervals (daily, ten-day, monthly, quarterly, semi-annually) according to methods prescribed by the regulations. The relevant government departments over the relevant scientific institutes modify the existing monitoring program measuring radioactivity in Serbia and, in addition to determining the activities of artificial radionuclides, which are thrown
into the environment during the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1986), and perform testing activities of natural radionuclides, especially uranium. The Security Institute and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinča, Belgrade, a detailed analysis of the application of depleted uranium, with shows essential properties of depleted uranium, given the characteristics of military munitions, as well as physical and radiological picture of ammunition effects. Also pointed out is the most important measurement methods for determining the presence of depleted uranium in the ground, water, food and the people, and finally, the possible effects on human health and the environment. Some samples were analyzed at the Institute „Vinča” Institute of Occupational Health in Nis and the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, a very high degree of radiation, so that the specific activities of U238 goes up to 23 Bq / po I kg sample. This radioactivity, according to the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, described as an illegal dangerous radioactive material – missiles and land, in times of peace must be under strictly prescribed safeguards. Given the data in the literature about the possible presence of depleted uranium in cruise missiles, which are massively targeted civilian buildings in the former Yugoslavia, even during the war, began monitoring system affected territories. Control was the largest number of affected sites, such as NIS Oil Refinery Pancevo, HIP Petrochemical, NIH Jugopetrol Prahovo, HI Lucani, 'Freedom' Cacak 'Flag' Kragujevac, facilities and Boljevac Badnjevac, some facilities – hotel 'Yugoslavia', Serbian police headquarters, the RTS building, palace 'mouth', the Chinese Embassy and others. In none of these sites are found traces of the use of depleted uranium ammunition. In all samples of soil and building materials were found in his natural radionuclides average natural content. In addition, the soil samples was measured and radioactive Cs1 37 remaining after Chernobyl accident. At the location of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade was measured slight increase of the level of radiation, which is the cause of radioactivity of granite embedded in the facade of the building, and whose characteristics were known at the time of construction. The analysis of a greater number of whole unexploded rockets that fell after the effects of air VJ. One of them fell right next to the Institute Vinča, but not in her, nor the precious reviewed did not indicate increased levels of radiation. After the abolition of the ban on publishing sites by which fired depleted uranium weapons, there are also more accurate, but not complete data (given in the previous folder). NATO firing depleted uranium ammunition at about 100 (112 according to other sources) location, densely populated place located in the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija. The most intense effects were between Pec –
Gjakova – Prizren, on the border of Yugoslavia and Albania and Macedonia, about 20 sites, then around Prizren. The use of radioactive munitions in civilian areas inhabited predominantly Albanian population means the denial of the alleged 'humanitarian' bombing motives, which can not be justified by any means. This is the reason why the fact, that the use of depleted uranium and the consequences, hidden from the world and the public in the countries participating in the aggression. Upon arrival NATO soldiers, Kosovo is divided into zones that are employed soldiers from different countries. Schedule of deployment of military garrisons NATO alliance. NATO in 1999, rejected the request of the expert group of UN agencies to disclose accurate map of that during the aggression against Yugoslavia was targeted by depleted uranium. KFOR has even refused to let the members of the commission, led by former Finnish minister Pekka Haavisto, to check on suspicious areas in Kosovo. Only 7 In February 2000, seven months after the deployment of KFOR, maps are gradually beginning to be published. In the western zone (from the Pec – Gjakova – Prizren, then a suburb Kline, Prizren, and the northern part of the Suva Reka – Ferizaj) stationed Italian and German KFOR troops and the American and British soldiers in the area of Pristina and the area along the border with Macedonia. British troops, before going to Kosovo, we masks and protective suits, and precise instructions on how to use them if they are unavoidable contact with the goal that hit the ammunition.146 Problems arose with Italian soldiers (as of 1 January 2000, from Kosovo to Italy for health reasons, returned soldier 61) has two Italian soldiers rushed into the Roman military hospital čerdilo the sudden onset of symptoms that suggest leukemia (assumed to be a larger number of patients), a testing ground where they are now Italian soldiers in KFOR have shown that there is significant contamination by depleted uranium. Consequences feel and 40 soldiers belonging to the Slovak Army, who were stationed on the part of the field, which is the most polluted. The so-called „uranium affair”, which began with the first health problems KFOR, indicating far-reaching health consequences of contaminated ground. First changes zapazilu the German and Italian soldiers, which revealed changes in the skin in the form of herpes, and many of them began to suffer from general weakness. The Italians, therefore, sought a detailed report on the use of depleted uranium ammunition. The German soldiers were found and marked as hazardous radioactive surface area of approximately 5000m2. German and Dutch governments have ordered his soldiers not to eat anything out of the cafeteria, and especially not from
the surrounding villages! Thus the practical views of independent experts confirmed that the radioactive dust has entered the food chain. More than 100 soldiers from the British and Belgian KFOR contingent left Kosovo and returned to their homes as a consequence of „Balkan syndrome”. Thousands of Belgian soldiers were affected, and were reported four cases of diseases whose causes are not yet known, but that has already been given the working name "Balkan syndrome" writes the September 2000 press in Brussels (one year after the war in Kosovo and Metohija). About 15 – 20% of the total 17,000 Belgian soldiers who were recently engaged in NATO operations in the Balkans – Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Kosovo and Metohija – complain of health problems, according to Flemish daily „Morgen”147. The Belgian Army has conducted systematic medical examinations since recorded several deaths among veterans of the Balkans and has opened a new „Gulf Syndrome”, which deals with the parliamentary committee.
Picture no. 24: Consequences of "Balkan syndrome˝ soldiers of KFOR
According to the experts, it is likely that engulfed the Balkans NATO mission „Gulf Syndrome” and the diseases resulting from the use of depleted uranium munitions, biological and chemical agents and various types of vaccines. Judging by the „specific health problems” complained a number of KFOR troops, and the number of victims „Balkan syndrome” is far from the final!148 Official data on the state of the population in Kosovo and Metohija, no, because after the bombing of an expert team, either domestic or foreign, were not allowed. The first data of the World Health Organization to patients with leukemiashowed no increase in the number of cases among the local population in Kosovo and Metohija; 38 cases were registered in 1997, 45 – 1998, and 33 in 2000 data obtained from areas which are not under the direct control of KFOR are somewhat different. Kosovska Mitrovica Health Center announced that it has seen an increase of patients suffering from cancer and leukemia, the 68 that existed in 1998, the 158 – 2000 year (up 220%). There was also an increased risk pregnece, abortion, and a large number of infants with congenital anomalies. The published data refer only to malignant diseases ethnic populations of non-Albanians (Serbs, Roma and KFOR soldiers residing in Kosovo). On the occurrence of „Balkan syndrome” among the Albanian population, and there are no precise data on how it can only be assumed.149 The use of DU ammunition during the NATO bombing of Kosovo and Metohija, and their consequences for our experts are still taboo. The findings of the report are indirect NATO, Macedonia and experts from other missions that have visited the territory. Scientists from the Macedonian National Institute of Public Health in April 1999, when he started with the use of DU rounds, recorded 8 times higher and the radiation in the water and in the air from natural background which clearly confirms the presence of DU. And that was all that was known before the arrival of NATO troops in Kosovo. On the territory of the former Yugoslavia were discovered traces of isotope U which does not exist in nature. The following table provides an overview of the possible use of nuclear evolution of chemical weapons, as well as accidents. 236
Table no. 38: The use of nuclear chemical weapons, as well as accidents When and where By 1982 (″Military action″)
What Possible use of nuclear weapons on the European chemical battlefield
By 1991, ″Navy Gazette″
By 1996, the ″Military action″
- Nuclear accidents and ionizing radiation - Source of radioactive pollution (contamination) Abuses of NBC weapons
1998: -04.10. The Republic of Serbia - 26.10. The Republic of Serbia
- DU bomb crater, suffering girl
- Deceased accused
- 02.12. In the world - Earthquakes at nuclear plant 1999: - 02.09. In Japan
- An accident in a nuclear power plant
- 27.10. In Baghdad
- Iraqi Academy of lasting consequences DU - Ecocide NATO bombing of Yugoslavia DU
- 20.11. In the Vinca, Belgrade
- Poor fuel
- 412 persons irradiated
2000: - 20.01. Belgrade
- 13.02. Sabac - 18.02. New York
- Board of Directors: in Kosovo and southern Serbia - Smuggling drugs to anyone - The secret armory of uranium in the village Wops - Shadow of Chernobyl NY
- 18.02. Cuba - 24.02. Germany - 23.03. Krusevac - 18.04. London - 19.04. Belgrade - 22.04. Moscow
- USA poisoned thousands of tons of sugar - Poor fuel NO in the UK - DG in South Serbia - Irradiated soldiers sue the state - The federal government accuses NATO for the use of DU - Russia's new doctrine of use A-arms
- ill Italian
- 20.10. Vinca
- DU to anyone and southern Serbia 10t
- 12.12. Vinca
- RH contamination anyone and South Serbia
- 13.12. NATO
- The FRY thrown 10t DU 2001: - 10.02. Italy
- Italian soldiers are dying because of DU
- 20.12. USA
- After the attacks on the United States suspected of terrorist use of WMD
2002: - 24.02. Paris
- NATO threw missiles at 41000 FRY
- 26.03. Washington
- A new USA doctrine on the use of NO
- 04.04. Vranje
- The suffering of the population of ou
- 05.04. UN
- Environmental consequences of NATO aggression
- 18.08. London - 13.12. Washington
- Genetic consequences of child soldiers - Whether the use of NO in the attack on Iraq
2003: - 09.01. Belgrade
- 04.05. Belgrade
- Difficulties in decontamination DU in southern Serbia - Long-term effects of DU, shot on offspring
2004: - 11.11. Belgrade
- OU is taking a toll on Kosovo
- 13.11. Belgrade
- Poison from every NATO avionapada the RS and FRY
- 22.11. Belgrade
- What are the dimensions of NATO's use of DU consequences for people and wildlife
6.5. The consequences of NATO aggression against the environment
During the bombing of Yugoslavia (March – June 1999) The alliance is only sporadically used poison gas (soman), but caused a real chemical disaster in the environment (environmental disaster), bombing conventional explosive projectiles chemical industry, refineries, mines, power stations and practical effects produced about the effects of the use of modern chemical weapons. Most of the buildings – buildings and installations containing dangerous forces in the FRY, the bombarded target though, by the provisions of international human rights, these objects are protected in the war.150 These facilities are the biggest threat to the biological survival of people, fauna and flora and the environment in general. The group of buildings and installations have been included large dam reservoirs of hydro power plants: Iron Gate 1 and 2 – on the Danube, which was not bombed, probably because of the danger that would hinder the population downstream neighbors Romania and Bulgaria; - Lim plants – Donja Bistrica, Prijepolje bombed 3 times (April 15, 01 and 03 May) and have been out of service for 50 days, but the dam reservoir is significantly damaged but fortunately citizens, not abated; and - Hydropower plant ″Peruchac″ - She's fabulous garden, was bombed three times (April 13, 02 and 23 May 1999) and was out of service for 38 days. The dam reservoir slightly damaged. More embankment irrigation system: the Danube – Tisa – Danube, were damaged during the bombing of Vojvodina, but did not result in serious consequences. -
The worst consequences of NATO bombing of the civilian population, wildlife and the environment, there have been releasing force of the affected sites of the chemical industry, oil refineries and petroleum products, petrochemical plants and reservoirs and large pneumatic cells ″Jugopetrol″ across the country. According to scientific research,151 that followed during and immediately after the bombing, the biggest pollution all three areas (soil, air or water) were where they are built and destroyed chemical plant, so that aggression can be qualified as a chemical NATO war against Yugoslavia.
Picture no. 25: The affected refineries in the NATO bombing in 1999 in Novi Sad
The results of this study are given in table152 Destroyed or disabled 27 buildings – installation with the release of huge amounts of hazardous and highly toxic substances that are contaminated atmosphere, soil and hydro in the country. The consequence of this contamination are a host of neighboring countries, especially Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria. Was carried out 72 air missile attacks in the period from 04.04.1999 to 07.04. 1999 with more missiles in each attack.
Table no. 39: Destruction of chemical and petrochemical plants to Serbia during the NATO aggression Territorial affiliation Central Serbia, 17 objects
1. HI ″Milan Blagojevic″
Number of attacks
1. Oil Refinery
2. Oil Refinery
2. HI "Prva Iskra" 3. HI "Zorka" 4. HI "Prahovo" 5. Jugopetrol, NIS, Beopetrol Storage heating, heating oil and fuel Vojvodina, 7 object
Kosovo, 3 objects
4. HI "Fertilizer"
5. Oil storage tank and fuel oil NIS
1. Plastic Factory
2. Jugopetrol warehouse
3. Fuel and Oil Storage In total:
The air attacks NATO bombed several buildings and industrial plants that have caused ecological catastrophe not only in Yugoslavia but also in the Balkans. The bombing of the Pancevo petrochemical complex 14 and 15 April 1999, he performed a chemical accident, in many ways so far, unique in the world. Part of the plant was in operation, there has been a destruction plant and related facilities, spills of chemicals and industrial gases, fire and explosion. From the resulting vapor cloud formed is contaminated, which reached a length of over 20 km and a height of several hundred meters, which were mixed products free from damage of various chemical plants and even the type of different industries (petrochemical, refinery, fertilizer factory). Wind rose a cloud in the manner specified by height and divided the litter in different directions. The contaminated area was found over the Pancevo region of 100,000 residents, and there is the possibility of being caught and parts worth millions of Belgrade. Part of chemicals poured into the soil and keep it or swollen canals in the Danube. As much as this was an excellent and now rare situation, it carries a number of elements typical of contemporary urban and highly industrialized areas typical for Europe and points to the possible forms of accidents, in general terms, whether they are caused by military operations or accidents in peacetime. Missile strikes had much greater effect in the destruction of plants than in causing direct loss of life. Of particular importance is the possible effect of chemicals released to the employees and residents. In this case, mixed in the fumes from various industries, and the layers of clouds were moving in different directions. Chemical factory "Prva Iskra" in Baric, near Belgrade was bombed 19 April and 10 May 1999, which caused the appearance of toxic gases in the air. There is a particular danger for urban water supply, as the Sava river, only 1 km up â€“ stream, poured vast amounts of highly toxic chemical substances. At the time of the attack at
the factory was located 174 tons of hydrofluoric acid, 862 tons of benzene and 10 tons of potassium hydroxide. Oil Refinery in Novi Sad was bombed several times by 5 April â€“ 7 July 1999, which caused the spillage of toxic substances into the Danube, as well as contamination of the air in the form of black clouds which spread to Hungary and Romania. At the time of the attack at the refinery were located significant amounts of base oil, propane, organic solvents, diesel oil and polietil. After spills substances in the Danube appeared oil slick 12 km long. NATO has been systematically bombed chemical, petrochemical plants, tanks for oil, transformer stations and power plants. Air, water and soil are contaminated with long â€“ term toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic substances. Of toxic substances dominate ammonia, hydrochloric acid, uglen monoxide, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nitrogen oxides. Among the carcinogenic and mutagenic materials mostly present as benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, terphenyls and pyralene oils. Examples of this are constantly shelling plants "Petrochemistry" in Novi Sad, "Fertilizer" in Pancevo, Baric Chemical Industry (4 times bombed), oil reservoir in Smederevo, Sombor, Prahovo (as a result of the bombing "Jugopetrol" warehouse in Prahovo of by NATO aircraft aggressor), big black cloud of smoke covered at May 16 1999 Southwestern parts of Romania, Vitanovac, Bogutovac, as well as large industrial zone in Nis, Kragujevac, Cacak, Valjevo and others. About the consequences of bombing an oil reservoir, for example, tells us the vicinity of Leskovac, where oil was spilled during seeding on farmland, which are then destroyed and unusable for farming for many years. As for the bombing of the chemical plant and we have a number of examples, one of which is that the chemical industry during the attack "Prva Iskra" in Baric and "Fertilizer" in Pancevo, conducted April 15, 1999, for poisoning toxic substances, medical assistance burned twenty of the workers and firefighters, and in the air is measured increased concentrations of vinyl chloride (from which arises poison floksin). The bombing of large chemical complexes, refineries and other similar structures caused sudden, uncontrolled and explosive release, dispersion, casting, evaporation and sublimovanje huge amounts of highly toxic substances, as well as the ignition and combustion of combustible materials. Incomplete combustion of burning liquid fuels, has created a huge amount of highly toxic coal monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carcinogenic gasoline and vinyl chloride, which are occasional concentration in the air reaching values of up to a thousand times higher than allowed. Release of harmful, hazardous, flammable and explosive gases pollute the atmosphere and soil, and surface and ground waters used for the supply of the population, and the bombing of oil facilities and polluted rivers. Are particularly
vulnerable to surface water because the influences caused by spills of oil and oil products. Recall the well – known fact that one liter of gasoline can contaminate one million liters of water. How many are truly dangerous this substance is the fact that they endanger wildlife directly through air, water or food. As an example of the above statement can serve bombing of Pancevo refinery, which has resulted in the emergence of toxic black rain that fell on Delibatsku sandstone and the growing number of cities across Europe. NATO aggressors have violated all the conventions on the protection of the environment, protection of the ozone layer, climate, health and others. Sounded and the fact that Environment Programme United Nations declared 1999 the year of preserving the ozone layer. By using these types of weapons are not only violate the human rights of the civilian population, but the damage was inflicted and the entire Balkan region and beyond. In other words, the NATO air strikes on the then Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was not aimed only neutralizing the military power of the armed forces and prevent a "humanitarian catastrophe", but also the destruction of the economic and productive potential of the entire economy and infrastructure. All this has manifested incessant destructive puffs of commercial buildings of importance for meeting the basic needs of the population. This is about attacks on facilities containing dangerous "force" – substances such as chemical plants, storage facilities and petroleum refineries and natural gas processing facilities and storage, plantations and location for a particular purpose and placement of toxic releases, chemical, radioactive and other substances in the atmosphere, and the power, ground, ground water and food chain, poisoning the environment and for breach of the population. This should be added the fact that pollution in one country, caused in this way, and certainly caused a disturbance in the neighboring countries as well as globally. In this way direct violation of International Humanitarian Law, which expressly prohibits military attacks that were carried out indiscriminate and the provisions of international conventions, which prohibited the destruction of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population. The group of buildings or installations containing dangerous 'powers' are, first of all, nuclear power plants and reactors and nuclear waste dumps. However, in Yugoslavia, there's only nuclear reactor in Vinca, that this aggression was not the goal of the NATO alliance. Direct result of the bombing of the installation is the existing volume spills of petroleum products and oil – affected parts of the system installation and pollution of air, soil, and water flows closest groundwater chemical present šetnostima and burning the existing petroleum product. However the most important result of the bombings have emerged at the local level, with some parts of the territory can be defined as disastrous.
Table no. 40: The most important buildings and facilities were bombed in the NATO aggression that threaten the environment153
Bombardment Effective / time
The effects of the bombing Destroyed and the damaged sites
Oil Refinery Novi Sad, on the surface of 25 hectares, the left bank of the river Danube
From 5 April to 8 June, more than 150 missiles, the most massive attacks 2 May and 7 June
95% destruction of the manufacturing and installation of process plant and tanks
38,645 tons of oil and oil products burned or leaked into the w / s, black smoke 66,200 tons of oil burned 3 â€“ 4 days
Evacuation of people contamination
District Heating and CHP New Belgrade, an area 33 hectors, the left bank of the river Sava
April 4, at 04,30 of avio â€“ cheap with 8 devastating attack missiles
Destroyed building power plants
Burned and spilled 1,650 tons of fuel oil and 1,410 tons of raw gasoline
Contaminated land and two wells Belgrade Water
TPP Kolubara A large Crljeni near Belgrade in the valley of Kolubara and Tamnave
22 May at 02.20 pm with three devastating missiles
Devastated plant TE, machine lines, electric poles, 15 transformers
Burned 65 tons of coal, up 100 tonnes of oil contamination of agricultural land and 20 km of waterways
Interruption of water supply 3 villages, crops remain in the field
HKP Pancevo, Fertilizer, Petrochemical Refinery at 8 km2 area, on the left bank of the river Danube downstream from Belgrade
Fertilizer 15, 16 and 18 April (3X), 15 and 18 April (2X) 6h,
100% of ammonia plant,
17,200 tons of ammonia,
a power plant 100%,
338 tons of fuel oil,
100% fertilizer factory, the factory PE and FV, ethylene factories, plants and PBV electrolysis tanks, refineries completely destroyed 40
10 tons of tires,
The evacuation of 40,000 residents, contamination of the substrate f / s (air, soil, groundwater, surface water, land 100 hectors, smoke 3 days, fishkill)
4, 12, 13, 16 and 18 April and 7 June, a total of 51 missile and bomb high destructive power
6 reservoirs and power plants
Exempt from hazardous substances and contamination
2 tons of fertilizer, fire lasted 6 hours, 167,989 wastewater discharged without treatment, 40% of all products,
Consequences for people and wildlife
tanks 61 – 800 tons burned
61800 tons of crude oil and oil products out or burned
Powders, Jugopetrol port on the right bank of the Danube, on the border of Romania and Bulgaria
Five times with a total of 37 warhead
Destroyed 9 of 21 reservoirs, power stations, car base and a gas station
Burned and spilled into the river Danube: 975 tons of fuel oil, 548 tons of fuel and 125 tons of transformer and motor oil
Fire fuel oil lasted 3 days, a black cloud in Romania – contamination of the river Danube water and soil
Bor, Jugopetrol and substations RTB pool
Five attacks with 150 warhead of 15 to 20 May 1999
Destroyed warehouse 100%. Destroyed substations 100%
Burned or leaked 25 tons of transformer 1,152 l of oil, PCB oils ust. metal. comb.
Atmospheric contamination, soil with PSV oil threat to humans and wildlife
Kragujevac, factory "Flag"
9 April at 1:15 pm with 2 missiles April 12 at 2:45 pm and 2:50 am, two stroke with 6 missiles
Destroyed facilities: body, paint, PC, South straps, mounting forge and Energy
Released and burned in 1,428 l of piral oil, 300 tonnes of colors, 6 t PCV oil 6000m3 edge. approx. water and 20,000 tons of waste building materials
Pirelates contamination of soil and water affected human health, crops and waterways, heating
Kraljevo SQL Beopetrol, Bogutovac 3 locations
2.5 months of bombing, with 80 warhead
Destroyed warehouse, 9 reservoirs drop of fuel 5,880 (570 t diesel, petrol 21 t, 1.1 t of oil)
The fire lasted for several days, burned or leaked 58.80m2 fuels and lubricants
Contaminated 1,900 m2 of land, groundwater and Ibar
Nis substation Elektroistok on Nis – Niska Banja
2, 13 and 23 May graphite bombs 23, and 31 May destructive missiles
Completely destroyed power station
Spilled or burned 63 t tranfo oil
Contamination of air, soil and groundwater
Cukarica Beograd, Jugopetrol
May 18, 20 and 22 with 10 warhead
Destroyed warehouse 17,000 m3 with gasoline and diesel fuel
70 tonnes of fuel and 80 tons burned it from Topcider River
Fire contamination of the atmosphere and soil. In Topciderka say 400 mg / l of
mineral oil Doljevac warehouse to tell Toplici
May 27 with 4 missiles
Destroyed tanks, substations and pipelines
Burned and spilled into the diesel Toplica 15.5 t, 4.2 t gasoline, 30 liters transformer oil
Contamination of the atmosphere and soil, and rivers Toplice
Resnik, Beograd, distribution plants
April 23, with 5 warhead
Destroyed and the plant TC 100%
Spilled 80 tonnes of transformer oil in mountain Topcider and the river Sava
Dangerous oil concentration 186 mg / l of TP 3.66 mg / l in the Sava
Smederevo Jugopetrol, the largest in Yugoslavia, the capacity of 242200 m3 of petroleum products
8x bombed April4, 9, 13 and 29 May17, 21 and 22 and June 1, with more than 40 warhead
100% of the warehouses were destroyed and all plants
Burned or spilled gasoline 7,390 t, 312 t of jet fuel, diesel 169 t, 20.3 t of fuel oil and lubricants
Air contamination 7 fire, soil and river Danube, which is concentrated from the normal 20,005 mg / l increased to 440 mg / l
Pancevo, airplane factory "Utva"
3x bombed 24, 25 and 27 with over 12 warhead
All procedural parts are damaged and destroyed tanks of chemicals
Burned or spilled in Tamis 880 kg of sodium hydroxide, 2,000 l of dangerous acids and 916 kg of other chemicals
Decline in the value of F water, fish kills, contamination of soil and groundwater
Table no. 41: Places attacks, the effects and consequences LOCALITY FACILITIES National park "Kopaonik", Serbia
ATTACKS Bombed for 21 days to 72 destructive missiles and 10 containers of cluster bombs
EFFECTS OF ATTACKS AND CONSEQUENCES Affected: Sun Valley, Djuricicka, thorities Gobelje, Dried Rudishte, Panchicev Top, Treska, Celestial chairs and Ravnishte - 62 crater volume 48 m, depth of 2 â€“ 8 m, the average area of 10,951 m2 crater. 54 hours were destroyed forests and 0.46% of the fauna and flora, rare plants
and birds. Kosmet - 126 Location:
50,000 grains DU238 eq. 10-15 t DU238 5000 grain DU238 eq. 1/1.5 t DU238
Serbia 7 sites
5 grains DU238 eq. 15kg DU238 Montenegro 1 location: Peninsula peninsula "Beatles"
The most intense effects in the regions of Prizren, Ferizaj, Gjakova, Decan and Djurakovac, Bujanovac and Vranje, Subotica. Found to be contaminated, expressed specific activity V was up to 235,000 Bq / kg and up to 1,000 times higher than the maximum allowable (up to 200 Bq / kg) Danger was set up in permanent radiological contamination of the soil for a longer period.
At the table of the data are given for representative examples of endangering the health and environment of all eco – systems caused the bombing of Yugoslavia by the NATO Alliance (March 24 to June 8, 1999). So, for example, of the 100 protected national parks, bombed 99, is not only an NP bombed "Iron Gate", although he is contaminated river Danube waters and contaminants from the atmosphere and from the banks of the river Danube. Here are data for only two parks that have suffered. Further to the environment represents an enormous accumulation of hazardous waste. Multiple increased quantities and types of waste (the bomb destroyed and fires missiles, construction waste, destroyed and contaminated equipment in the factory circles, contaminated environmental media, medical waste) used medical supplies, or infectious waste (dead animals), and other waste.
Table no. 42: Destruction of electric power facilities in the NATO aggression on Yugoslavia
Number of attacks
Out of service (days)
1 – thermal power plant 3 – hydro power plant
CT and distribution centers
3 destroyed, 360 days
3 destroyed, 360 days
Electric power facilities
and networks Switchgears
19 – graphite bombs 2 – tomahawk
According to this table, the analysis can be determined as follows: 1. Of the eight existing plants in Serbia, 7 of them the aggressors disabled and out of the facility for a period of 15 to 75 days. Only hydropower ğerdap not attacked because it is located on the border with Romania, and there was a risk of environmental disaster in the country's ally, approved the use of NATO air and land area for attacks on Yugoslavia. 2. Damaged was 19, but permanently destroyed two substations through which it distributed 78% of total electricity generation in the country. Therefore dropped out of the bakery plant, water and heating. In all major cities (Belgrade, Novi Sad, Nis, Kragujevac, Pristina) and other settlements throughout Serbia in the period from 35 to 120 days. Only 09.10.1999 year, seven months after the NATO aggression, their own forces and means 2/3 power station was put into operation at full capacity. 3. Dipped and disabled 23 lines, columns with high-voltage network and the most important 2 to 5, which linked thermal power plants "Nikola Tesla to Belgrade, Novi Sad, Serbia and Vojvodina (in what area they live more than six million people), incapacitated for 31 March 1999, and trained until 09.10.1999 year. Until then repaired about 6,000 m high voltage network. 4. Damaged or destroyed 26 buildings in 28 attacks with more planes and bombs and missiles used. In 19 attacks were used so – called "grafiten bomb" with thousands of grafts or of causing short circuits and burning electrical devices. It went very real drama and mortality in the whole of Serbia, and it took a total of 65 days and nights from 28 March to 31 May 1999. NATO is held in Crashed state more than 70% of the total power potential of Serbia, causing huge losses to the civilian population and infrastructure of the whole country. Overnight, for a longer period of 15 days to three months, 70% of Serbia is left in the dark, in damaged houses or in shelters without drinking water, food, sanitation, electrical equipment (refrigerators, stoves, freezers, heaters, radios and TV ), no heat, the chaos in public transport, shops, post offices and banks, without sanitation in homes and buildings, hospitals without equipment for maternity, dialysis, surgery, intensive care, diagnostic, surviving premature infants, without water and heating. In addition to regular bombing of the infrastructure of the whole country, 13 May around 22.40 starts the third wave of attacks graphite bombs on the Serbian electric power, even greater ferocity. At the same time the affected thermal power plants 'Drmno' Costal, great distribution network CRLJENI (Obrenovac) and no
currents are again left Belgrade, Sabac, Kostolac, Beograd, Nis, Novi Sad and part of the Banat (over 3 million). The next day it was bombed 'Elektroistok' in Nis, without which left Nis, Pirot, Aleksinac, Rovinj and Leskovac. Then the damaged transmission of hydroelectric power plants 'Iron Gate' to Belgrade and Banat. She was hit and thrown from hydropower plants 'Perućac' Bjelovar, without which left beside Bajine Gardens and Arbour, Uzice, Nova Varos, Novi Pazar, Prijepolje, destroyed the distribution system in Novi Sad and were left without electricity the entire Bačka, Banat and Srem (300 municipalities). He was re-created a complete collapse of the power system of Serbia. All major towns and villages have no electricity, no bread, no drinking water for 14 consecutive days. The consequences are on the verge of a humanitarian disaster, the poverty, hunger and dirt created conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases of epidemic scale. Finally, NATO decides on the final and decisive attack on the night of 22/23 May at 04:00 pm, when he began to dawn, the fourth wave of thousands of graphite bombs again paralyzed the entire power system of Serbia, the affected thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla" obrenovac, Lazarevac thermal power plant, thermal power plant Costal, substation in Clinical Pozarevac, Bor, Great Crljeni, Electro-east Nis, switchgears Leštan (Belgrade), Bjelovar, Nis, Stara Pazova, Beograd, Novi Sad, Lazarevac, Centar Hair (Belgrade). About 85% of the power potential of Serbia was put out of service. The whole of Serbia is in the dark, without water, bread and conditions of hygiene. Here is a commentary only part of the NATO bombing of Serbian power system154. This situation can be declared as a mass radiological accident with devastating consequences (primary and additional) for the civilian population, wildlife and the environment. Destruction and damage to structures and installations containing dangerous 'force', NATO has caused a massive chemical contamination of people, animals, plants, drinking water, food and environment. In addition to military targets, targeted the industrial zone, primarily 80 chemical plants with very toxic chemicals, as the NATO bombing, inter alia, the nature of chemical warfare against the people, wildlife and the environment. The consequences of NATO aggression will apparently continue until there are sufficient radioactivity derived from the use of depleted uranium ammunition.
Reflections of "case studies" can be analyzed in further evolution and metamorphosis NATO in the first decade of the 21st century. In defining the new strategic concept of NATO, which is completely different from all preceding is based on the USA definition of challenges, risks and threats since 2001, performed the operations led by NATO, is defined enemy, and provides guidance to NATO expansion. Prague and Lisbon NATO summit meetings (the last in November 2010), the new strategic concept defined by conflict, abandoned the notion of war, military intervention and secession, and everything was altered in the conflict, including NATO intervention (Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan) and the so-called state of Kosovo's secession.155 When it comes to weapons of mass destruction, deserves attention "NATO Review about the proliferation of weapons." It analyzes the potential nuclear states which possess nuclear warheads (Russia – 16,000, USA – 9,960, France – 350, Great Britain – 250, Israel – 250, China – 130, India – 115, Pakistan – 90, and the North Korea – 10) and potential (Iran, Brazil, Japan, etc.), ie countries that are developing nuclear programs, and in a short time can produce a nuclear weapon. NATO concludes in Asia has 6 nuclear power (2/3 of the total) with 16595 nuclear warheads, while the USA. has 1/2 of the total, while in the Middle East, only 3 (1/3) of nuclear power with 515 nuclear bojevnih head in a very limited geographic area, noting that not long ago, development of nuclear prgram, US-natovskom ultimate competition policy, properly in Argentina, Brazil, Libya, Egypt, South Africa, Iraq, Romania, Germany, Poland, Sweden, Belarus, South Korea and Yugoslavia. However, there is no state of Israel's nuclear potential as a regional nuclear powers. NATO estimates that, due to the development of modern technology of nuclear and chemical weapons, over 30 countries are capable of producing the same, and more than 40 countries has the potential for producing or already has biological, chemical weapons, over 30 countries capable of producing the same, and more than 40 countries has the potential for producing or already has biological and chemical weapons, noting that many countries in the future to develop these weapons, and have a very unstable past military coups and causing extreme movements. There is also intense race in the development of rocket technology, or the development of long-range missiles that could carry weapons of mass destruction (eg Iran - rocket Sabah) and the US-natovski antiraktetni shields in Europe, including the anti – missile protection from Russia. NATO and the USA have come to the conclusion that should retain nukearne and missile potential as a credible deterrent mechanism "to install a missile defense shield in Europe and deployment najmobilnijih conventional and specialized military forces for rapid response".
ATTACHMENT 1: The lawsuit Ramsey Clark, American ex - chief federal prosecutor, against the leadership of NATO during the bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999.
1. â€žAs of 24 March 1999, or earlier, the United States, without a declaration of war, aided by certain members of NATO, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Turkey, Spain and the Netherlands, as well as Hungary, Croatia, Italy and others have started a war with missiles and aerial bombings, often no differences in the labeling of, against the people of Yugoslavia, premeditated, intentional killing and injuring thousands of Serbs, Albanians, Roma, Muslims, Orthodox Christians and romokatolika.â€?156
Contrary to: The Hague, Article 22 and 23; Geneva, 1949, article 19; Nuremberg, Principle VI, a, b, c; Contrary: The Hague, Article 22 and 23; Geneva, 1949, article 19; Nuremberg, Principle VI a, b, c; The USA Constitution Article 1 Attitude 8, Article 2
2. The USA. planned, announced and implement the missile and aerial bombings found to kill the leader of the Yugoslav government, members of his family, other government leaders and selected citizens in order to destroy the existing governmental leaders and their terror to the complete subordination.
Contrary to: the UN Charter Article 2 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons (Convention on Protected Persons), USA Military Field Manual 27-10, the USA President's Executive Order 12333, (executive order 12333), Geneva Convention 1977 and Protocol Data (Geneva 19997) Article 48 , 51.
3. Attack on objects indispensable to the life of the peoples of Yugoslavia from 24 March 1999 or earlier, the United States supported and encouraged other members of NATO, have worked on the killing of the Yugoslav population, the
necessities of life (food, water, electricity, food, medicines, medical care and other segments relevant to its survival), and the systematic destruction and the destruction of buildings for production and storage of food, water and irrigation systems, fertilizers insecticides, pharmaceuticals, hospital facilities for health care and other facilities essential for human survival.
Contrary to: The Hague, 1907, Article 22 and 23; Geneva, 1949, Article 19; Nuremberg 1970 Principles via B and C; Geneva in 1997, Article 48 and 54.
4. Attacks on facilities containing hazardous substances and materials. USA attacked chemical plants and storage facilities of petroleum and natural gas refineries, chemical processing and storage, plantation fertilizers and other facilities and sites for the specific purpose of release and deployment of toxic, radioactive and other hazardous substances and forces in the atmosphere, land, natural water and food chain through poisoning the environment and injury population.
Contrary to: Nuremberg, Principle VI; Hague, Article 22 and 23 of the Protocol for the Prohibition of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases in war; 1925 Geneva Protocol on Substances poisoned; 1977 Geneva Protocol I, appendix article 48, 51 and 56.
5. The use of depleted uranium, cluster bombs and other prohibited weapons. The USA used banned weapons capable of mass destruction, causing indiscriminate killing and suffering of the population of the whole of Yugoslavia. Despite knowledge of its long-term effect on the mortal life and warning the USA Nuclear Regulatory Commission, they attacked Yugoslavia rockets, grenades and other ammunition containing depleted uranium. This weapon spread radioactive material into the atmosphere, land, natural water, food chain and solid objects, putting the Yugoslav population to the risk of death, genetic disorders and cancerous diseases (in 10 years in the south of Serbia increased the number of cancer and leukemia by about 50% in women and men in relation to the period before 1999) and other consequences for future generations. Cluster bombs have been used widely, bursting deadly razor blade sharp metal parts of the border areas where hospitals, churches, bridges, schools, housing complexes and other densely populated areas,
causing deaths, injuries and property damage. The use of other (illegal) weapons under current investigation.
Contrary to: The Hague, Article 22 and 23; Geneva, 1977, Article 48, 51, 54 and 55. POONA The charge of subversion of science and technology in 1978.
This indictment with more counts, Ramsay Clark announced 31 March 1999 in the hall of Belgrade University, where he was rector of Belgrade University JagoĹĄ Puric named honorary doctor of the University of Belgrade - "For his total creative work, remarkable contribution to the struggle for human rights, humane and equitable relations among people and nations based on the highest principles of law and to prevent compromising the independence and integrity of sovereign states"â€Ś
ATTACHMENT 2: INTERNATIONAL BAN THE USE OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION DISARMAMENT WORK AND PEACE
The idea of general and complete disarmament under contemporary conditions in the spotlight to be a problem in the area of disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. This, however, is by no means underestimate the importance of conventional disarmament. Efforts are being made to establish a system of international ban on the production, stockpiling and use of different types of weapons of mass destruction, just as a function of disarmament and peace. In addition, a layman is clear that the mere act of signing the relevant international legal prohibition will automatically liquidate the possibility of their possible application in the war or some other form of expression of military power internationally. Prohibitions referred to as a kind of guideline for achieving the ideal of general and complete disarmament. Legal norms in the field of national legislation have different effect and influence the behavior of diverse subjects. So with the norms of international law. Realistically be expected to exert a strong influence on the subjects of international law, despite the fact that in almost daily practice they confirm. The international environment has the subject of international law which will not matter to the wider
community looks at its potential against international legal behavior. If that were so, there would be no structured international law whose purpose is to ensure peace, the normal functioning of the international system and the relationships in it as well as the solution of international problems. Created by the will of the people and their states, along with the international law of peace and developed the international law of war. The subject of this precious always, among other things, represented a means of warfare. The central place among them have weapons of mass destruction, whose international legal observation of gravity makes the subject of this paper. The historical development of international law took place firstly the emergence of customary rules in terms of the means of war, the general principles of international law, a number of treaty rules and signed many agreements with the ultimate goal: common good and complete disarmament and the prevention of the consequences that could arise as an inevitable reflection of their preparation. The principle of disarmament is not unknown to modern international law. On the contrary, as pointed out in the literature, international law contains very specific obligations of States on the issues of disarmament and to disarm. Disarmament and international legal issues related to them, questions concerning, for example, the ban on testing nuclear weapons in any natural ambience, create a neutron, chemical and other weapons of mass destruction, occupy a prominent place in the modern international law. We will quote that the International Law Commission, as well as new areas or institutes of international law mentioned: - right to international peace and international security; - the right environment, and - law of armed conflict, or conflict. The development of the law of international security, was influenced by many qualitatively different factors that have emerged on the international stage, such as: establishing balance and strategy mutual certain destruction; more pronounced and organized functioning of the peace movement and other peace-loving forces in the world, and - the fact that it is not realistic to expect that weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons can achieve purposeful political goals. It is believed that the right of international security involves a special following institutes, namely the group of standards relevant to relations among states: -
Institute of limitation and reduction of strategic nuclear weapons, intermediate-range nuclear weapons and their means of delivery;
Institute prohibition of testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, space and under water; - Institute prohibiting the deployment of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and the ocean and the subsoil thereof; - Institute of deployment ban in the cosmic expanse including the moon, weapons of any kind and exploitation of cosmic space for military purposes; - Institute on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; - Institute prohibiting the production, stockpiling and use of biological weapons; - Institute control measures achieving disarmament. The right international security, in addition to the aforementioned, includes some institutes that are still in the early stages. Among them, for example, point out: -
Institute of creating non-nuclear zone on land and, above all, in the Pacific Ocean; - Institute of Chemical Weapons; - Institute of neutron weapons ban; - Institute prohibition laser and dear types and systems of weapons of mass destruction; - Institute of Legal generation security in non-nuclear countries that do not produce nuclear weapons that do not have on their territory; - Institute of preventing the arming of Central Europe; - Institute of preventing race in conventional weapons, and - Institute of preventing or reducing restrictions and military presence in the country dear. The legal basis of the right of the international security system consists of three basic principles: -
principle of non-use of force and threat of force; principle of settlement of international disputes by peaceful means, and - principle of disarmament. From the standpoint of our theme issue of disarmament and nuclear prohibitions relating to nuclear weapons is important, but it is too narrow, too. On the other hand, the idea of otome to issues of importance to the achievement in the sphere of disarmament of weapons of mass destruction belonging to international humanitarian law, is entirely correct. But then why should we talk about the law as a new and separate field of international law whose development is conditioned by the emergence and development of weapons of mass destruction. International humanitarian law has a much longer tradition and history in relation to disarmament measures related to weapons of mass destruction and international legal prohibitions, which encourages such measures. -
Can I speak to you today about the right of disarmament as a separate and new areas of contemporary international law? That's what the theory of international law, there is almost no dispute. Mainly dominated by the idea that the right disarmament in development but has not yet izvođilo as a special area of international law. In theory, international law, to a lesser extent, the problem of correlation operationalized rights international security, on one hand, and questions about the right of disarmament is not an independent field of international law and to be more deliberate about it as an integral part of the law of international security. At home by international legal prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, restrictions on all means of warfare, as well as other issues, which regulate relations between the parties in conflict or infected pages, already traditionally called the law of war and international law of war. The initiator of the different names of the area with our G. Perazić, which is textbook international law of war did prionirski insisting scientific effort, proving that a more appropriate name for the area was "the right of armed conflict". This area is much wider than the international legal issues in the sphere of disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. Reflections on the principles of disarmament represented in international law and the institutions that exist as a real new in contemporary international law, the primary purpose of the present study was to function linking it to international prohibitions relating to weapons of mass destruction on the one hand and disarmament on the other side. That, at least, most general theoretical framework undoubtedly indicates their connection and interdependence. And I do not just mean the rules already adopted international legal prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, but the rules whose adoption advocates peaceful world and to be just to contribute to the implementation of real disarmament measures. It is indisputable that modern international law has a strong role in stopping the forced production and development of weapons of mass destruction in the area of disarmament in general. One can not minimize the effect of the signed agreement, agreements, conventions and protocols adopted in dealing with certain issues limiting the arms race. Possibilities of international law in the field of disarmament, especially in the sphere of weapons of mass destruction is enormous. All the more so in the field of international law should finish work started on the construction of a number of institutions related with the biological exception, for all other types of weapons of mass destruction. These potentials of international law and their impact on the disarmament does not diminish any applicable arms race with weapons of mass destruction. This race is particularly inconsistent with paragraph 4 of Article 2 UN Charter relating to the prohibition of the threat or use of force. seems very close to the argument that the term under threat of force and falling action of the arms race. It
does not need to prove. In states that do not have nuclear weapons and does not have other types of weapons of mass destruction, whose doctrine precluded their use, there is a high awareness. So the arms race inevitably leads to increased international tensions and the threat of war. It contradicts the idea of the UN Charter and international law, the modern idea of securing peace, security and peaceful cooperation between states and the principle of disarmament, which is formulated in a series of international agreements. In theory, international law, there is no dispute or that any previously obtained concrete measures of disarmament is of great importance for developing and strengthening the effectiveness of international law. Given the interconnectedness and interdependence issues of international prohibitions relating to weapons of mass destruction and disarmament, make marginal controversy and debate over which of contemporary international law, such questions belong. The problem is generally much larger. Not more word on whether they belong to the right of international security, disarmament law, the international law of armed conflict in the broadest sense of the word. Observing the whole problem and the implications of weapons of mass destruction not only from the point of view of possible application thereof on the war, but also in terms of their activity in the normal state we call peace, particularly in relation to the exercise of basic rights of man, for example, the right to life, and in relation to ecocide, which is still in the testing phase and the production of these weapons, then it will disappear compelling reasons that cause controversy about belonging. Our belief that satisfies all the institutes concerning the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction are part of modern international law, which has to be upgraded in the function of general and complete disarmament. Over time, as they have developed and other international legal institutions, is likely to create more informed assumptions to form a special field of international law of which would constitute a case of gravity editing of international issues related to weapons of mass destruction but also the limitations of other means of warfare. Thus, at this level of analysis, we opt not to any argument that these issues are set aside in a special area of new and modern international law.
The reactions of the international community (the United Nations)
In the treatment of terror and terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and debilitation have to be reminded of specific response of the international community in the individual periods during the second half of the 20th century. UN General Assembly in 1947, defined the nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction and debilitation. In accordance with the principles of the UN Charter, the war and banned the use of force in international relations, the organization has become the only hope of a peaceful humanity for their own survival and development after the Second World War. General Assembly, Security Council, other bodies, commissions and the International Court of Justice, have done a lot in the development of international law and the international law of war and international law's security, which is based on three basic principles: -
Principle of non-use of force and threat of force;
The principle of solving international disputes by peaceful means, and The principle of disarmament, prohibition of production, stocking and use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons). The development of the law of international security, the UN Commission on International Law, was influenced by many qualitatively new factors that emerged after the Second World War: -
Balancing international destruction; More pronounced and organized functioning of the peace movement peace-loving forces in the world, and - The fact that it is not realistic to expect that weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons can achieve meaningful political objectives. United Nations through its agencies and commissions, a huge commitment to the rights of international security include the following special institute or group norms are important for relations between states: -
Institute of limitation and reduction of strategic nuclear weapons, intermediate-range nuclear weapons and means of their delivery; Institute prohibition of testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, space and under water;
Institute prohibition of deployment of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and the ocean and the subsoil thereof; - Institute of deployment ban in prostransvu cosmic, cosmic space for military purposes; - Institute on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; - Institute prohibiting the production, storage and use, and biological weapons; - Institute of exercising control disarmament measures; - Institute of Chemical Weapons; - Institute prohibition of radiological weapons, neutron, and other laser types and systems of weapons of mass destruction; - Institute legal guarantees of security in non-nuclear countries that do not produce nuclear weapons that do not have on their territory; etc. Under the auspices of the UN, was passed and set many agreements, declarations and agreements on human rights, such as: -
Set four of the Geneva Declaration on the Protection of the wounded and sick, prisoners of war and civilians in the war (1949), and - Two Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions (1977). Directly to the United Nations has an important role in stopping the enormous production and development of WMD and disarmament in general a number of institutions of all types of weapons of mass destruction. -
Arms race, threat of force and the use of force in violation of the UN Charter, as the term implies the threat of force arms race. The arms race inevitably leads to increased international tensions and the threat of war. It contradicts the idea of the UN Charter and contemporary international law, the idea of securing peace, security and peaceful cooperation between states and the principle of disarmament, which is formulated in a series of international agreements, treaties and conventions. On the whole problem of the vast resources of WMD, global threat and the consequences of which would cause if implemented the purposes of war or terrorist acts, as well as in terms of its harmful effects in time of peace, it can be solved only by the UN and its respect for the actors of the signatories to the Charter UN. On the whole problem of the vast resources of WMD, global threat and the consequences of which would cause if implemented the purposes of war or terrorist acts, as well as in terms of its harmful effects in time of peace, it can be solved only by the UN and its respect for the actors of the signatories to the Charter UN. One must believe that humanity will prevail and anti-war conviction of the mankind and civilization and make all members of the UN to respect their decision and sign contained in numerous treaties, agreements and declarations, as well as all the guidelines of the UN Charter, international war and humanitarian law.
The problem actually lies in the relationship (causal) and dependency issues international ban on WMD and disarmament on the one hand and the state of the arms, training and threats of force and the application of these weapons for warfare or terrorist activities against humanity. For now we can only say so much to all the institutes, concerning the prohibition of WMD, are part of modern international law, which needs to be constantly updated in the function of general and complete disarmament. However, all of these declarative support and signed by the great powers have repeatedly violated in order to smoothly develop WMD. Thus, the NATO alliance, resorted to a new way of war use of radiation weapons (depleted uranium) and dioxins. In the Gulf War (1991) against Serbian forces in Bosnia (1995) and the intervention of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1999), ignoring the proclaimed and signed international agreements and norms of behavior in contemporary wars, NATO tested new weapons on live targets. Bombarding the said territories and peoples of depleted uranium (OU2), the NATO alliance has broken numerous INTERNATIONAL conventions, such as: -
Convention on Environmental Performance rendered in 1977, Convention on the Protection of the World Natural Heritage, 1982, Stockholm Declaration on the Environment, 1972, Additional Protocol I. the Geneva Convention in the field of the protection of victims of international armed conflicts, 1977, Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of certain ordnance, Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone (1987 with the name of 1997), Resolution Sub-Committee on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the UN Commission on Human Rights of 1996 and 1997, etc.
International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
The General Assembly adopted the International Convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, the attached resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996, and requests the Secretary-General to open the Convention for
signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 14 September 2005 to 31 December 2006. Calls upon all States to sign and ratify, accept, good or intruding into Convention. The States Parties to this Convention:
Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations concerning the maintenance of international peace and security and the promotion of good neighborly and friendly relations among States and decorating; Are calling on the UN Declaration on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of 24 October 1995; Recognizing the right of all States to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy; Given the Konveniciju on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material of 1980; Recalling the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, attached to General Assembly resolution 49/60 of 09 In December 1994, in which, among other things, the UN Member States solemnly reaffirm their unequivocal condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism as criminal and unjustifiable, regardless of and by whom subordinates, including those which jeopardize friendly relations among States and peoples and threaten, territorial integrity and safety is the state; Noting that the Declaration also encouraged States to review urgently the scope of the existing international legal provisions on the prevention, repression and elimination of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, with the aim of providing a comprehensive legal framework covering all aspects of the matter; Recalling General Assembly resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996, and the Declaration to supplement the Declaration and the year 1994, on measures to eliminate international terrorism, which is attached to it; Recalling also that, in accordance with General Assembly Resolution 51/210, established an ad hoc committee that would develop, among other things, the Convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, to supplement related existing instruments international; Noting also that existing multilateral legal provisions do not adequately address such attacks; Convinced of the urgent need to strengthen international cooperation among States in devising and adopting effective and practical measures to prevent such acts of terrorism and persecute and punish their perpetrators; Noting that the activities of military forces of States are governed by the rules of international law beyond the scope of the Convention and that the exclusion of certain actions from the coverage of this Convention does not
mean tolerance or make lawful otherwise unlawful acts, or preclude prosecution under other laws. Have agreed as follows For the purposes of this Convention: 1. "Radioactive material" means nuclear material and other radioactive substances which contain nuclides which undergo spontaneous disintegration (a process accompanied by emission of one or more types of ionizing radiation, such as alpha, beta, neutron particles and gamma rays) and which may, because of their radiological or fissile properties, cause death, serious bodily injury or significant damage to property or the environment. 2. "Nuclear material" means plutonium except that with isotopic concentration that exceeds 80% in plutonium-238; uranium enriched in the isotope 235, and 233; uranium containing the mixture of isotopes as occurring in nature other than in the form of work or mineral residues, or any material, containing one or more of the above; in addition, uranium enriched in the isotope 235 or 233 means uranium containing the isotopes 235 or 233 or both in an amount that the ratio of the sum of these isotopes to the isotope 238 is greater than the ratio of the isotope 235 to the isotope 238 occurring in nature. 3. "Nuclear facility" means: - Any nuclear reactor, including reactors installed on vessels, vehicles, aircraft or space objects for use as a source of energy to propel such vessels, vehicles, aircraft or space objects or for any other purpose; - Any existing or device that is used for production, storage, processing or transport of radioactive material (r / a) materials. 4. "Device" means: - Any nuclear explosive device or - Each unit expanding r / or a material emits radiation, which may be due to its radiological properties, cause death, serious bodily injury or substantial damage to property or the environment. 5. "State or government facility" includes any permanent or temporary facility or conveyance that is used or occupied by representatives of a State, members of Government, the legislature or the judiciary, officials or agents of the State or any other public authority or entity or by employees or officials of an international organization in connection with their official duties. 6. "Military forces of a State" means the armed forces of a State which are organized, trained and equipped under its internal law for the
primary purpose of national defense or security and persons acting in support of those armed forces who are under their formal command's control and responsibility. ARTICLE 2
1. Every person commits an offense within the meaning of this Convention if that person unlawfully and intentionally: a) has r / a material or makes or possesses a device: – with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury or – with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or the environment; b) in any way use the r / a material or device, or uses or damages a nuclear facility in a manner which releases or risks the release of R / supplies: – with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; – with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or the environment or organization or a State to do or abstain from doing any act. 2. Any person also commits an offense if the person: – threatens, under circumstances which indicate the credibility of the threat to the political kd mentioned in paragraph 1 (b) of this Article or – requires unlawfully and intentionally r / a material, device or nuclear facility by threat, under circumstances which indicate the credibility of the threat or use of force. 3. Any person also commits kd if that person attempts to commit an offense referred to in paragraph 1 this article. 4. Any person also commits kd if that person: a) participates as an accomplice in the offense as set forth in paragraphs 1, 2 or 3 this article; b) organize or refers dear to commit an offense under paragraph 1, 2 or 3 this article; c) in any other way contributes to the commission of one or more of the crimes listed in paragraph 1, 2 or 3 this article by a group of persons acting with a common purpose; such contribution shall be
intentional and either be made with the aim nastaljanja general criminal activity or purpose of the group or made in the knowledge of the intention of the group to commit or kd or part.
The Convention shall not apply where kd is committed within a single State, stated the offender and the victim is a national of that State, the alleged offender is found in the territory of that State and no other State has a basis to exercise jurisdiction under Article 9, paragraph 1 or 2, except that the provisions of Articles 7, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17, as appropriate, apply in those cases. However, Article 4, paragraph 4, states: â€žThis Convention does not apply, or be construed as referring, not to the way the question of legality, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons by statesâ€?.
Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary: -
To establish as kd under its domestic law the offenses set forth in article 2 this Convention; To make those offenses punishable by appropriate penalties, which take into account the grave nature of these offenses. ARTICLE 6
Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary, including, where appropriate, domestic legislation, to ensure that: -
when under the Convention, in particular where they are intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, or a group of persons or particular persons, they can not under any circumstances be justified by taking into account the political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar
nature, and are punished by penalties consistent with their grave nature. ARTICLE 8
In order to prevent kd forth in this Convention, States Parties shall make every effort to adopt appropriate measures to protect the r / s materials, taking into account relevant recommendations and functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency. In ARTICLE 9, paragraph 5 "This Convention does not exclude the application of criminal jurisdiction established by a State Party established in accordance with their national law." The Convention further: In ARTICLE 10 â€“ on receipt of information on cd and conduct of the proceedings and the right of the defendant; - In ARTICLE 11 - procedure of the state in whose territory the offender of kd. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of crimes against internationally protected persons, including diplomatic agents. -
Interpol documents relating to international terrorism:
1. Resolution in 1973. illegal acts of international importance; 2. Resolution in 1979. acts of violence by organized groups; 3. Resolution in 1980. the creation of the Committee of Experts on violent crime; 4. Resolution in 1983. terrorism; 5. Resolution in 1984. violent crime generally known under the name of "terrorism"; 6. Document in 1986. guide to the fight against international terrorism.
Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Convention of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and on their destruction "CWC" (effective from 29.04.1997.). The Convention provides the widest and najiskljuÄ?iviji verification regime of any arms control agreements, expanding its scope not only the government, but the civilian facilities. The Convention requires the control and reporting of chemicals that could be used as warfare agents, and as raw material for obtaining them. In addition, the Convention has established a list of phosgene and its precursor, and found the registration of these chemicals when present above certain amounts Registered manufacturing facilities, monitor and help protect against chemicals.
UNECEF - Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents (CTEIA)
The objective of this Convention is to assist its members to prevent industrial accidents with cross-border effects, to prepare for it and to answer them. The Convention highlights the need for members to help each other in case of such accidents, to collaborate on the development and beaters, to share information and technology. The Convention shall apply to the activities and facilities with hazardous substances, as defined by annexes.
Chemical disarmament in the function of protection against chemical
The objective of chemical health hazards and life, the survival of the natural balance â€“ biocenosis, flora and fauna, have become even in the seventeenth century global problem. Chemical and technological revolution, created in the modern era is only underlined the problem that they had to think and seek out all the peoples of our planet. The overall efforts and search methods, resources and effective organization against chemical protection had an important role today and have international efforts to various acts, declarations and protocols prohibit the use of toxic, chemical and biological weapons.
Strasbourg Agreement – 1675
It was the first international agreement - an agreement between the French and the Germans in Strasbourg, and referred to the possible use of poisoned weapons in war. The two sides have agreed to outlaw the use of poison as a weapon. Literally Article 57 this agreement was: and the subsequent provision of "general orders" (No. 100) the War of the federal USA Army, 24 April 1863. "The use of poison in any manner, either to poison wells, or food, or arms, is wholly excluded from modern warfare".
The Brussels Conference – 1874
Brussels International Conference, which discussed the laws and customs of war was held on the initiative of Russia 27 August 1874. The decisions - the conclusions of the conference was given to the provision prohibiting the use of poison and poisoned weapons in war. At this conference, in addition to the convenor of Russia, took part in 14 European countries, but its decisions were never ratified by the governments of these countries, due primarily countering the influence of the British. However, it is this conference was a great moral impetus to convene, flow, and the decision of the Hague peace conferences.
First Hague Peace Conference – 1899
The peace conference was held at the invitation of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II in The Hague on 18 May to 29 July 1899.
One of the 17 resolutions of the conference concerned the prohibition of toxic gases and read: "Contracting Powers agree to abstain from the use of projectiles whose only goal is the diffusion of asphyxiating or hazardous (toxic) gases". Only the U.S. has refused to sign the agreement and consent of the United Kingdom was caused by the general acceptance. However, this convention has been adopted and ratified by Germany, France and Austria-Hungary and ratified the ban on the use of poison gas, but all of these nations have used poison gas in the First World War. The Hague Convention of 1899, also included a prohibition on the use of poison or poisoned weapons, which embraced the USA.
Second Hague Conference – 1907
At the initiative of USA President Roosevelt held the second Peace Conference at The Hague on 15 June 18 October 1907. Restriction of the use of poison and poisoned weapons, adopted at the first conference in 1899, codified as Article 23 (a) of the conference. It was not necessary to repeat the prohibition of use of asphyxiating gases because it was completed at the previous conference, and the work of these two conferences was considered cumulative.
Versailles treaties – 1919
This agreement was signed on 28 June 1919, the representatives of the Allied forces and the German government, which included the following provisions: "Germany has banned the use of asphyxiating, poisonous gases, and all analogous liquids, materials or devices, is strictly prohibited and their production and import". This refers to the material specifically designed for the production, storage and use of these products and resources. A similar agreement was signed with Austria Alliance forces (known as Saent – Germainen Laye contract), 1920; as well as with Bulgaria 29 November 1919 (also known as the Treaty of Nenilly – sur – Seine – 1919).
Washington Conference – 1921 – 1922
The conference was held in Washington on 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922, dealt with the problems of limiting naval armaments. At the end of it one of the signed contract was a contract five countries – including the USA, France, Italy, British Empire and Japan, whose Article 5 read: „Use in war suffocating, poisonous or other gases, and all analogous liquids, materials or devices condemned the opinion of the civilized world, and the prohibition of such use declared in treaties to which they are signatories of the most civilized countries. Contracting Parties, that this prohibition was universally accepted as a part of international law, as the conscience and practice of nations, declare their consent to such prohibition, agree to be bound to it among themselves and invite other civilized nations to agree to it”. It is interesting to note that the only international ban toxic weapons with which he agreed and ratified by the USA Senate, but this prohibition – the contract is not entered into force because the French failed to ratify it.
Geneva Protocol – 1925
All efforts before and after the First World War to prohibit the use of poisons in war purposes, were reduced to a non-binding declarations and resolutions on the broader bilateral and international conferences. Experiences from the widespread use of poison gas in World War I and its consequences, under the pressure of international public opinion led to the convening of an international conference in Geneva, where 17 July 1925 signed: the Protocol on the prohibition of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of War. Basically protocol contained the following provisions: Dole signed on proxies on behalf of their respective governments: -
since the use of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases and all analogous liquids, materials and devices at war with the law condemned the general opinion of the civilized world;
since the prohibition of such use declared in the contracts which are parties to most countries in the world and therefore the ban become universally accepted as a part of international law that binds the awareness and practice of the state, declare: That the High Contracting Parties, if they are not already parties to the treaty prohibiting such use, accept this prohibition, Agree to extend this prohibition to the use of bacteriological methods of warfare and agree to be bound together in accordance with the provisions of this Declaration. -
The High Contracting Parties shall make every effort to indicate the other States to accede to this Protocol. Such accession will be notified to the Government of the French Republic and accompanied by a letter addressed to all signatories and States that have acceded to the Protocol, and shall enter into force on the date of notification of the Government of the French Republic. The present Protocol, of which the French and English texts are equally authentic, shall be ratified as soon as possible. He will carry today's date (June 17, 1925). Ratification of this Protocol shall be referred to the Government of the French Republic, which will immediately send a notification of the deposit of such ratification to each Party and the State which has acceded to the Protocol. It was concluded on 31 December 1974, the Geneva Protocol was signed and ratified by 93 countries, including all major powers. The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) has ratified Protocol 12 April 1929.
Chemical disarmament in the post-war period
At the first session of the General Assembly he United Nations 25 January 1946, members of the United Nations solemnly pledged to eliminate all weapons of mass destruction. August 1948, the Secretary General of the United Nations provides a definition of weapons of mass destruction. 'Weapons of mass destruction should be defined to include atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material weapons with, lethal chemical and biological weapons ... " It should be noted that disabling chemical and biological weapons are not included in the definition of weapons of mass destruction. After the Second World War in the field of chemical and biological weapons have been achieved outstanding results but completely altered the political and technological situation in relation to the period between the two world wars, although this development has been somewhat disguised the advent of nuclear weapons. The United Nations first address the issue of chemical and biological warfare in 1947, in the debate on how to define weapons of mass destruction and devastation. At the suggestion of the United States, WMD is defined as, among other things, includes' deadly chemical and biological weapons". The resolution was prepared by the conventional weapons and accepted the Security Council in August 1948. In July 1960 a report was published in the UN Secretary General U. Thant of the dangers and possible destructive action of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons (WMD), if it comes to its use in war. The report specifically noted that if an implementation of chemical and biological weapons in the war in large quantities, no one could predict what the effects and how long and at what space looked this weapon; danger to both hit the ground aggressor and the people of the affected countries. Under these conditions, safeguards would be of little use. And finally a warning, it is very dangerous to the further development and the preparation and dissemination of biological and chemical weapons. Previously, 3 July 1947, published a joint statement vowed the Government of the United States and the Soviet Union which is achieved agreement to consider, as a first step, a joint initiative of the Conference Committee on Disarmament (CCD), in conjunction with the findings of the international "Convention on dangerous lethal means of chemical warfare". This was, in fact, a response to the proposal superpower Japan 30 April 1947 - Draft Convention on the 'Prohibition of the
Development, Production and storage, poison gas, and on their Destruction". This proposal envisages Japan complete chemical disarmament in several successive stages. The first was to prohibit supertoksiÄ?ne bot; among which include Japan and mustard. The second phase would cover less toxic chemical warfare, and in the third disabling anti-bot and plants. During these negotiations, the United States came to the technology of production of binary chemical weapons. Hence, the partial ban on chemical weapons, in order to have any value, must include a component of binary weapons. Otherwise, tacitly to permit the use of a deadly bot category, may be less effective in combat, but cheaper and safer to handle, transport and stocking. After all, it can be concluded that the main international treaty on the prohibition of chemical weapons - the Geneva Protocol of 1925. This protocol has been ratified and adopted by all the military forces of NATO and VW, as well as the People's Republic of China. After nearly 50 years of alternating controversy and disdain, the USA finally signed the Protocol, after President Ford ratified 22 January 1975 with the unanimous support of the Senate. The protocol involves the consent of the signatories not to resort to the first use of poison gas in the war. It does not prohibit the production and stocking of chemical weapons, or the same type retaliation against the offender. Meanwhile, the USA Department of Defense, has renewed the request, which is home to the Congress of Deputies rejected a year earlier, to provide funds for the construction of plants for the production of new generations of weapons with warfare nerve agents called binary chemical weapons. Although this weapon has a lower efficiency compared to traditional neural implementation of poison gas, the handling is secure, and his appearance to complicate or even prevent the adoption of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and control the production of the same. Although the president of the United States in February 1973 "decisively" called for a limitation of chemical weapons, the Ministry of Defence of the country at the end of that year, they began to develop their own chemical weapons. In the first phase are constructed in special dispensers nbot artillery and grains called "binary" technique. The project cost about $ 200 million. Binary munitions different from earlier chemical explosive projectiles on new safety features in the design. Filled the toxicity of chemical substances in separate small containers that interact producing nerve agent during the final part of the bullet to the target. After completion of the project binary artillery munitions, set design aircraft bombs "Bigeye", jointly implemented aviation and mornico. The development of binary munitions the USA Navy began back in 1965. Rocket nozzles, cluster bombs and missile warheads, are
also included in the program of research and development of binary weapons, which is now making about $ 100 million annually. In late 1978, the Ministry of Defense announced that the ultimate goal of complete replacement of USA supplies nerve poison gas binary munitions. The fact is that the USA working on a program binary munitions for nearly 20 years, slightly more intense the last ten, but no reliable evidence that this type of weapon innings. Most has been, and perhaps to test binary munitions production for two separate pieces of artillery – the system for 155 mm howitzer. This is even more so for the binary program must produce some toxic substances – compounds that are easily and quickly enter into mutual chemical reaction synthesis of agent. That these components stable and responsive to their product in the fast synthesis nervong retain characteristics of agent. It is known, however, that the highly reactive chemical substances usually are not the Stabiņa, and that, that they must be in the liquid state that could lead to faster chemical reactions – synthesis. All of these are objective difficulties in the implementation of a binary. Treaty prohibiting the development, production and storage of chemical weapons has not been reached, despite many years of international negotiations and numerous initiatives. The only valid declaration on the prohibition of chemical weapons and methods of warfare by the Geneva Protocol of 1925. However, it is known already that the prohibition is repeatedly ignored and rudely violated as a result of different interpretations thereof in certain countries, especially major powers.
Prohibitions against ecocide in the function of the chemical environment protection
Changing one's life and working environment represents a new threat to the survival and normal life and activity of people, plants and animals on our planet. These changes and the disruption of the natural balance of flora and fauna with inanimate nature include many types of unintentional (peacetime) and intentional use of various nerve agents in the work and other chemicals in peace or using various chemical reactions and methods for artificially changing natural phenomena and laws of nature. These hazards include: irrational use of pesticides or misuse of this aggressive chemical compounds and substances in peace and war; - changes in weather and climate conditions in a particular climate environment; - changes in the behavior of the ocean and other physico-chemical methods of warfare changing one's life and working environment and ecocide (causing artificial earthquakes, modification of some type of electromagnetic radiation that reaches the earth and change certain conduct electricity in the atmosphere). Looking at this danger, after a series of secret bilateral talks between the U.S. and the USSR, 21 August 1975, while the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament submitted identical draft convention. -
On the prohibition of methods for changing one's life and working environment for military or other purposes
The draft convention to prohibit only those methods for changing human environment "as a weapon", leaving out the ban many other methods and resources in peace and war can influence and change man's environment intentionally or unintentionally. Restrict ecocide is an initiative of many scientists and politicians peaceful nation, which is gaining more and more supporters around the world. Thus, Professor R. A. Falk proposed Convention on the crime of ecocide, which would ecocide criminalized in international law. That would be a stand-alone convention or just a supplement to the UN Convention on Genocide of 1949. In doing so, the
rationale supporting these needs primarily from the experience of the war in Indochina in the case of a massive chemical destruction of the basic groups of crops in agricultural areas.
ATTACHMENT 3: INDEX TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
A 1. NBCD
- Nuclear Biological and Chemical (genus Army JNA – VS)
- Bioamin, chemical mediator
- Part of the nervous system where the chemical mediator epinephrine
- Just summarizing the effects of chemical substances
- Suspension of particles in the air
- Chemical group of pesticides to kill insects and mites
- Accidents accidental or intentional
- Psihostimulativne drug
- Poison the group Bh
- Active input process chemical substances into the bloodstream
12. ARS (ASR)
- Acute radiation sickness
- Poison of the group trilon
15. ATOMIC HEARTH
- The area enveloped the three effects nuclear explosion
- Biological agents as weapons
2. B b/s
- Biological combat means
3. „WHITE PLAGUE”
- The epidemic spread of addiction
- Suspension of microorganisms in the air
5. BIOCHEMICAL LESION
- Eating disorders and respiratory cells
- The form of the chemical reactions of enzymes and chemical poisons or antidotes
7. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
- Turbulent chemical reactions in the body of humans and animals
8. BIO – CONTAMINATION
- Pollution of environment
- Chemical substances that promote biochemical processes
- Poison gas
- Code for synthetic psychochemical incapacitants BOt reused in Vietnam
- Antitoxin to lewisite poisoning (British – Anti – Lewisite )
- Center explosion nuclear missiles
2. CENTRAL EFFECTS
- Toxic effects of acetylcholine on the brain
- Kalifonium (r / a element)
- BOt murderous effect on cell
5. CITO - STATICALLY
- Toxic effects of BOt on cells
6. CLEAN WEAPON
- American name for the neutron bomb
- Code for irritant chloroacetophenone
- Anesthetic and stimulant CSN
- Civil society in ONO
- Civil Protection
1. DEFENSIVE WEAPONS
- American name for the neutron bomb
- Chemical reactions blocked reactivation of cholinesterase FIU
- Extinction tissue without inflammation
- Removal, destruction or neutrališaje RHB agents from surfaces
- Herbicide that destroys leaves
- Psychoactive drugs and their effects
- Discovering, differentiation and measurement of the amount of RHB elements
- Poison gas of the group trilon
- Forcible removal, killing, destruction
- Mean effective dose
2. E – 605
- Identification of insecticide Malathion
- Exposure to body effect Rhb agents
- Constantly keeping an infectious disease in an area
- The science of the environment
- The science of medicine and treatment
- Decomposition core of heavy elements
- Murderous effect on plants
- Toxic effects on plants
- Stopping the life processes in plant cells
- Block cholinesterase FIU
- The rapid development of the disease
8. FUNCTIONAL POISONS
- A poison that does not cause organic damage in the body
- The process of connecting elements of the core elements of light
- Tissue extinction
2. GENETIC WEAPON
- The application of natural law to military purposes (eg, earthquakes, precipitation, drought, etc.)
1. H b/s
- Chemical combat means
- Hygienic â€“ Epidemiological
- Type bot for destroying plants
- ARB form that affects blood elements
5. HYDROGEN BOMB
- A thermonuclear weapon
- Part of the nervous system in which a chemical mediator acetylcholine
- Drugs that counteract the Ach
- Shape of a nuclear explosion
- Means for disabling people, animals and plant life
- Irretrievably damage
- Irreversible damage
- Entering Rhb agents through the digestive tract
- Chemical agents for destruction insect
8. IN VITRO
- Chemical reactions in the test tube, outside of the body
9. IN VIVO
- Perform experiments in experimental animals
1. CARBO â€“ CATION
- Combustion living body
- Psychoactive drug hashish
- Cause and treatment of antidotes
- The presence Rhb agents in the environment and on the surface
- The shape of the whole body spasms of central origin, followed by delirium
- Kiloton nuclear explosive power (1000 kg TNT)
- Device Application enhanced light – as a weapon
- Personal accessories for decontamination
3. LUH6 (TOHOGONIN)
- Oxime, blocked cholinesterase reactivating antidote to poisoning and the FIU
1. INTERMITTENTLY EFFECT (UT)
- Rejected shockwave NE
- The maximum permitted dose Rbh contaminant
- Maximum allowable concentrations of contaminants Rhb
- A chemical substance that crosses the Sinayse in the transmission of nerve impulses
- The cerebellum as a result of radiation or poisoning
- Bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, etc.
- The minimum lethal concentration of toxins
- Mono – oxime, reactivating ChE inhalisane
- The number of deaths per 10,000 people affected
- The number of inhabitants in 10,000 patients
- Megaton, power of thermonuclear explosions, equivalent 1,000,000 t of TNT
- Form of acquiring resistance to repeated ingestion of food
13. MUSCARINIC mts
- Effects ACh similar to the effects of poison muscarine
1. N b/s
- Nuclear combat means
2. NBC b/s
- Nuclear – chemical and biological b/s
- Neuro – paralytic poison gas
4. NEUTRON WEAPON
- The weapon Fuzion low power with lighter
- Nuclear Explosion
- Nuclear weapons
- Nuclear Missiles
- NOT zero point
- Organophosphorus compounds
- All People's defensive war
- Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Narcotic chemicals in the group of psychoactive drugs
- Reactivators blocked and that the OPC poisoning antidotes
6. OZONE BOMB
- Super – nuclear bomb that would spend all the oxygen in ozone
- The spread of the infectious disease in humans in space wider than one continent
- The spread of a contagious disease in animals on different continents
3. PAM – 2 Cl
- Reconditioner blocked and that the antidote to the poison and NBOT and FIU
4. P – 2 – S (Contrathion)
- ChE reactivating blocked an antidote in poisoning FIU
- Decontamination of personal weapons
- Chemical poisons for pest control and plant protection
- Wear index of 50%
- Protective doses of antidotes 50%
- The first nuclear (atomic bomb)
- Anti – nuclear chemical and biological security
11. FIRE STORM
- After effects of NO in the form of fire
12. POLARIZATION CONE
- Being different electrical charge on the outside and inside of the cell membrane
13. ANTI – EPIDEMIC
- Measures to stop the spread of infectious diseases chain
- Precaution or protection
15. PSYCHO BOt
- Toxins that alter the mental life of man
16. PSEUDO CONE
- Rags hollow body tissues that are formed after exposure to mustard agent
- Blisters with pus content
- Poland bacteriological laboratory
- Poland chemical laboratory
- Inflammatory processes in the skin under the effect of the radiological precipitation
- Unit irradiation
- Mixed radiation injury
- Radioactive precipitation
5. R / a
- Radiology – biological and chemical protection
- Indication of X – rays (dose)
- Dose rate in the X – ray
9. X – ray
- Unit rays "X"
- Unit irradiation
- Unit irradiation
- Feedback (reparabile) tissue damage and function
13. UNWONTED EFFECTS
- Effect Rhb agents after penetration into the bloodstream
- Ribonucleic Acid
- Chemical poisons from the group of pesticides to kill
- The re â€“ establishment activities, and that after blocking the FIU or NBOt
1. SALT (1.2)
- Agreement on the Prohibition of strategic weapons the United States and the Soviet Union
- Agreement on the Prohibition of strategic weapons the USA and Russia
- Poison from the group trilon
- Poison from the group trilon
- The first stage burns
- Syndrome of mutual aggravation
- Poison from the group trilon
- Fuzion weapons
- The active chemical ingredient Cannabinol
- Therapeutic Index
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http://www.cdc.gov/ Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Provides information about diseases.
http://www.ucsusa.org/ Union of Concerned Scientists. Founded in 1969, this is an independent, non â€“ profit organization, with more than 100,000 citizens and scientists who are concerned about the misuse of science and technology in society.
http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil Center for Contemporary Conflict. Launched in 2001, CCC examines the current and future security issues, and his knowledge is transferred to United States, allied policy makers and military forces.
http://www.nuclearweaponarchive.org/ Nuclear Weapons Archive. The purpose of this archive is to introduce with these destructive devices and to warn of harmful effects of their use.
http://www.cns.miis.edu/ Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies. Center strives to countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in teaching the next generation of professionals for non-proliferation and dissemination of timely information and analysis.
http://www.fas.org/main/home.jsp Federation of American Scientists. It was founded by the nuclear scientists in the Manhattan Project, in 1945. Federation conducts research and provides education on the control of nuclear weapons and global security; transfer of conventional weapons, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; the impact of information technology on human health and national information policy.
http://www.unpeace.org UN University for Peace, based in San Jose, Costa Rica, which has branch offices throughout the world.
http://sipri.se The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is one of the world's major centers for the analysis of arms control and disarmament.
http://prio.no Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) is particularly known for his work on civil wars.
http://brad.ac.uk/acad/peace Currently the world's largest University Center for Peace Studies.
http://incore.ulst.acad.uk INCORE (International Peace Research) is a joint project of the University of Ulster and the United Nations University.
http://www.iansa.org/ International Network for Combating light weapons is a global network of civil society organizations, which works to prevent the proliferation and misuse of small arms.
http://www.unep.org United Nations Programme Environment manages environmental issues within the UN. Among other things, page contains information on global environmental problems, summits and conventions.
http://wilsoncenter.org/escp The Environmental Change and Security Program on Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars is the most important center for ecological security end of the study in the United States. The site contains a wealth of information, including Environmental Change and Security Project Report.
http://www.crisisgroup.org The International Crisis Group (ICG), a non â€“ governmental organization contains valuable analysis of current and potential conflict.
http://www.globalsecurity.org It contains useful information on armed conflicts, both past and present, and on new issues that develop in podrÄ?ju defense and security.
http://www.rand.org Web site contains Rand Corporation study of executive force and air power, available in its entirety.
http://www.fas.org Web site of the Federation of American Scientists, whose intelligence and data links among the best available information on intelligence activities in all major nations.
http://www.gwu.edu/-nsarchiv/ A pretty critical, but still the best source of documentary about USA intelligence activities.
http://www.loyola.edu/dept/politics/intel.html Best university Intelligence Web page with links to each available Web site of the national intelligence services.
CIP â€“ Cataloguing in Publication Central National Library of Montenegro, Cetinje
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