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Introduction to Organic Synthesis Reasons for synthesising organic compounds:  to proof the structure of a natural compounds  to prepare compounds those are useful for humankind, e.g. pharmaceuticals, polymer and dyes  to prepare specific compounds to study reaction mechanisms or biological metabolism How can you design an organic compound? How can you propose a method of preparation? What is the bond disconnection? What is the difference between synthon and synthetic equivalent? What is the good disconnection?

Target Molecule (TM): The compound we wish to prepare. The molecule whose synthesis is being planned. Disconnection ( ): is a theoretical process (paper operation), which breaks a bond and converts a molecule into a possible starting material. The reverse of a chemical reaction. A good disconnection that gives stable, commercially favor, available and highly reactive starting materials with fewest steps in preparation.


Synthon: A fragment, usually an ion, produced by a disconnection, cannot itself be used, often because it is too unstable. Synthetic Equivalent: A neutral molecule carrying out the function of a synthon.

FGI: Functional Group Interconversion: The operation of writing one functional group for another so that disconnection becomes possible and help synthetic planning. Method of preparation: is a real reaction including real molecules and experimental conditions for this reaction. It is a reverse of a bond disconnection.

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