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TOT0207-FRONT COVER:Layout 1



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February 2007


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February 2007 Since Christmas we have seen unparalleled media interest in the environment and our carbon emissions. It is difficult to believe that this new green interest from the media does not have an ulterior motive, but even taken at pure face value, it is the best publicity that the Arboricultural Industry has received. The highlighting of the use of trees to help in offsetting both state and personal carbon emissions has led to a renewed interest in the fate of all trees. As Arborists, we are in a fortunate position where we can have a direct effect, through our skills, to help and advise a concerned general public on the role of trees within our urban environment. To maintain this new momentum, we must now focus on establishing this link to the public understanding and belief that carbon dioxide pollution can be reduced through trees, and that the practical help necessary to achieve this can be provided by the Arborist.


The ‘greening’ of our lifestyles over the next 10 years will have considerable implications on how we live. The education of our children from a green perspective will make all families more conscious on how we can live carbon balanced lives. This may require the planting of an individual tree to offset our own personal emissions or involvement in large scale planting projects by a complete community. Whatever the future holds, the role of the urban tree will be enhanced by our need to keep existing stocks healthy and new stock growing.

Working under African Skies

Research by the US Forestry Department has been able to place an economic cost on tree transpiration, when compared to the similar industrial process. These processes are the removal of Carbon Dioxide, the production of Oxygen and the recycling of Water, all three of which processes a tree performs naturally. At present costs the economic “processing” value of a tree after 50 years of growth could be in excess of £50,000! This staggering figure soon changes the value we place on our trees and how we look after them. It is this form of information that will make the public sit up and take notice and forever change their perception of trees.

Tree Hazards

Within the Arboriculture industry we are going to have to be more aware of the public needs in dealing with their trees and associated problems. The environmental demands and new regulations will require an increase in our areas of expertise and also possibly a change in our formal training schemes. The requirement will evolve over the next few years, and we must be willing to embrace new ideas and techniques and be at the forefront of change. At Total Arb we are committed to helping assess and explain why we must move forward together as a single industry. With changes coming thick and fast, education and information must be freely available and re-training must become an accepted part of our business.

Editor’s Introduction Isuzu Denver Max Road Test Biomass Basic’s Guide Bar Maintenance

What a Waste Forestry Investment Worldwide Find an Arborist

The Scots Pine News and Views Is your Subscription up for renewal in April? Call us on 01543 500255, or turn to p34 and send your form back to us today! Total ARB New in April .......

'a World of Trees'

Hugh Barnes Join today on-line: Have your say: e-mail For Editorial contact: Hugh Barnes: telephone: 01543 500255 email: For Advertising contact: Dal Parmar: telephone: 01543 500255 or 07908 168948 email: Total Arb Magazine is published by Total Arb Limited, Coppice House, Teddesley, Penkridge, Staffs ST19 5RP

Total Arb February 2007

Although every effort is made to ensure accuracy, neither Total Arb nor its authors can accept any responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in Total Arb magazine are not necessarily those of Total Arb Ltd. There is no unauthorised reproduction, in any media whatsoever, in whole or in part, permitted without the written consent of Total Arb Ltd. If you feel that your copyright has been infringed in any way you should contact the editor. We undertake to remove from our publication or website any images or written media that have inadvertently infringed copyright or to give appropriate credit(s) where applicable. Unsolicited manuscripts and photographs are welcomed, but no responsibility can be accepted from them, however delivered. Total Arb magazine is independent of all political parties, private interest groups and government. It has no affiliation to commercial interests other then its own and represents no organisations or associations. Our policy is to provide news and information to our readers in a balanced manner. If you find any error of fact in our pages you should contact the editor by telephone, letter or email. We undertake to correct errors promptly and to issue apologies, where deemed appropriate.





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What a waste! Anna Thornton

Duty of Care on Waste – Know where your waste goes! We are now responsible for the movement and where are waste ends up. If we transgress we are liable for large fines, so you need to know and keep all paperwork for this area of your business. A recent seminar presented by the environment agency highlighted the importance of the ‘Duty of Care’ on waste and how it can affect businesses. The ‘Duty of Care’ applies to all businesses that produce ‘controlled waste’ – essentially that is any business. Controlled waste is defined in the ‘Duty of Care – Code of Practice’ as "any substance or object...which the producer or the person in possession of it discards or intends or is required to discard." and includes hazardous and special waste, however companies producing these waste types must also comply with the Hazardous/Special Waste Regulations. Basically, getting down to the bottom of it, you have a duty to secure your waste and to know where your waste goes. To know that an authorised person receives it and that they are dealing with it responsibly and not themselves committing an offence with their handling of your waste and that they have a license to deal with your waste or an exemption from the need for a license. When waste is passed on from you to a waste manager or carrier a record must be kept, a transfer note, completed and signed by both parties. This should include certain information, including the quantity of waste, preferably by weight; a description of the waste, i.e. what


type of business or premises the waste is from, name of any substances, process’ that produced the waste, chemical or physical properties of the waste; any information that might affect the handling of the waste. If you use the same waste manager or carrier on a regular basis and the same waste type is being transferred, then you are only required to have one waste transfer not for up to a year. If however, the waste type changes significantly, then you must make sure that new descriptions of the waste are given to the carrier and that a new transfer note is completed and signed. You must stop your waste material escaping from your control by securely storing it in suitable containers. Your waste should not be left where it can be scavenged by vandals, thieves or animals or where rain or wind can disturb the waste. Containers should not be allowed to be damaged by weather or accidents allowing the waste to escape, spill, leak or be leached. Steps should be taken to make sure that waste is properly contained so that escape is not likely during future handling of the waste.

Your waste should be transferred to an authorized person, this can be a waste collection authority, persons holding a waste management licence or those exempt from holding a licence, persons registered as waste carriers and those exempt from registering as waste carriers. Exempt carriers include charities and voluntary organisations, waste authorities collecting waste themselves – these 2 are probably the ones most commonly encountered. There are others listed in the ‘Duty of Care’. It is the responsibility of you, the holder, to; check the waste manager has a licence and that it permits the manager to take the type and quantities of waste involved, or, where exempt, confirm the type of exemption. Likewise you must verify the certificates of registration of the carriers, or, where they are exempt, confirm the category of exemption. This is a brief outline of the requirements to holder’s of waste under the ‘Duty of Care’. The full Code of Practice can be accessed at for further information.

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The Isuzu Rodeo Denver Max Hugh Barnes

A powerful dual cab pick-up truck which can cope with all terrain, offers good comfort, great looks and will appeal to both recreational and working country users. What a beast! This was the first comment passed when we arrived at the office and it sums up the Isuzu Denver Max. It’s big, powerful and has amazing street presence. The old idea of a pick-up truck being one up from a tractor has now been banished forever, with this Isuzu Denver Max now competing with traditional SUV models. This dual cab pick-up can comfortably carry a family of five people, cruise motorways at 70mph, then turn into a rough forest track with heavy kit to start a hard day’s work. It is an awesome bit of kit for people who need to combine their transport, with a rugged off-road work horse that later appears to pick friends or customers up for a night out or a meeting.

Mechanics In the heart of the beast is a 3.0-litre direct-injection 4 cylinder turbo-diesel engine. In its standard form this produces a reasonable 130 bhp, but in the model we tested, a Prodrive performance package was added where, with a flick of a switch, it ups the power to 153 bhp. On the road this extra power is immediately noticeable and it chops about 4 seconds of the 0 to 60 mph time to just over 12 seconds. Top speed is just below the 100 mph mark and it cruises effortlessly at just over 70 mph at 3000 rpm all day long, giving about 32 mpg on long runs and averaging out at 28mpg on our test.. Low down torque was very good with power to spare on deep muddy tracks in low ratio 4x4. The Isuzu Denver Max was voted in 2005 ‘Tow Car of the Year – Utility Class’ which underlines is superb power and towing credentials. Power is transmitted through a 5 speed manual gearbox to a limited


slip-differential which increases all round traction, particularly in difficult terrain. The gear change is precise and very smooth allowing easy movement throughout the gears. Dashboard mounted switches allows finger tip control moving between 2 and 4 wheel drive. You can switch between the two drives in high ratio up to 60 mph but if you wish to engage low ratio then you must come to a halt and then engage. The Denver Max has a separate chassis which gives great rigid body strength. Its power assisted rack and pinion steering is precise and considering the size of wheels, gives good road ‘feel’ on tarmac roads. Front suspension is through a double wishbone and independent torsion bar which soaks up the bumps off-road but can give a ‘choppy’ ride on some tarmac surfaces. Rear suspension is through standard semi-elliptical rear springs and gas-filled dampers which allows long suspension travel and excellent weight carrying ability.

Cab comfort and Equipment As you approach the Denver Max for the first time you are struck by the amount of chrome trim over the lights, mirrors, bumpers and side steps. There is a lot of external flash! As you open the wide front door and slide inside you are quickly aware of the roomy cab which allows good head and leg room. The rear doors are quite narrow in comparison and in getting out you can easily catch your feet but there has to be a trade off for the amount of space available in the front seats. There are ample goodies, which come as standard, including electric windows and mirrors, air conditioning, CD/Radio, 4 speed wipers and plenty of storage space. The driving position gives a good view over the long bonnet but there is plenty of adjustment from the tiltable steering column and rake and reach from the seats. However, the seats are too flat

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and barely adequate. I found myself and passenger being thrown around on every corner, even at low speeds but at least I had the comfortable steering wheel to grip The instruments are well placed with 3 dials, a rev counter, a speedometer and the final one for fuels and engine temperature. Safety is excellent with twin airbags, side protection door beams and special crush zones designed into the body. An ABS braking system with an electronic brakeforce distribution to even out braking throughout all four wheels is provided as standard.

Living with the Beast For the size of the Isuzu Rodeo Denver Max, driving the truck was very pleasant. The power steering makes low speed manoeuvring easy but this is necessary as the turning circle is limited. Power throughout the range is superb but engine noise is noticeable and on long journeys can be a pain. Its off-road characteristics were second to none and on very steep slopes gave a great sense of control. Its high ground clearance allowed access to areas which would impede most 4x4’s, again adding weight to its go anywhere ability. Whereas the Isuzu can handle most weights, its lack of length in its pick-up bed could be a disadvantage sometimes, if you are trying to move anything over 6 feet in length. From an Arborist point of view, this should not cause a problem as most of our equipment will easily fit and the hard top gives great volume and secure storage.

The Isuzu cannot be directly compared with the “school’s specials” 4x4’s, such as the Toyota Rav 4, as it is an out in out working truck with comfort! With its long wheel base, length and width, it is not the vehicle to take into a Tesco supermarket on a Saturday morning. The turning circle is limited for urban use but in its off-road home, it is without equal. Overall, if you are after a dual purpose vehicle for real off-road work this is the one for you. For recreational and towing again there is no vehicle within this price bracket that can surpass the Isuzu Denver Max. However, if it’s for running the kids to school and shopping then it will give you the ‘street cred’ but it will be a handful through its size and restricted turning circle. With its great build quality, looks and practical design the Isuzu Denver

Max is a contender for best in this class.

Data Engine - 2,999cc Turbodiesel Gearbox - 5 speed manual Average Fuel Consumption 28mpg (9.8 l/100km) Fuel Capacity - 76 Litres Length - 4.9 meters Weight - 2,900 Kg. 0-60 mph - 16.5 sec standard (12.6 Prodrive) Top Speed - 98 mph Personal Comparisons Style Performance Urban Off-Road Ride Quality Value for Money

8/10 5/10 9/10 6/10 8/10 8/10

Prices start for the Isuzu Rodeo Denver Max from £13,999. Rising to £20,999, the vehicle tested was £19,999.

Total Arb February 2007





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BIOMASS - the basics Hugh Barnes

What is Biomass? What is the potential for Biomass? Getting the record straight Over the last year the potential importance of biomass production has been of major interest within the Arboriculture industry. It could be the start of a major new direction in which we must focus our industry, or it could just be a great idea which never gets off the ground. However, whichever the case, it seems now would be a good time to set out what we mean by biomass, why we should use it and how we can get involved for the future. Biomass is the collective name for all organic matter derived from living plant material. Biomass is made of carbohydrates which have been created through the assimilation of


Carbon Balance carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and the capture of solar energy during photosynthesis. Effectively, biomass can be said to be nature’s way of storing solar energy in an organic usable form. As plant material dies or is digested, organisms break down the carbohydrates, locked into the cells, for their energy and nutrients, and release CO2 back into the atmosphere. This process is called the Carbon Cycle and has always been the basis for maintaining our world’s carbon balance and providing renewable energy through the growth of plant life. This plant life or biomass has provided the energy that the human race needs to live and survive through food and heat.

Using recently produced biomass for energy conversion causes no net increase in carbon dioxide emissions back into the atmosphere. As plant life grows it removes the CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis. If we generate energy from the biomass through burning then we only release CO2 that has recently been captured, hence this is being ‘Carbon Neutral’. If we only used biomass for all our energy requirements then we would not be contributing to global warming and the problem with our rapidly changing climate would not be occurring. Up to 300 years ago the human race lived in a Carbon Neutral world. It was the advent of industrialisation and the

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beginning and a definite answer may never be available. The market will be subject to major changes which will probably be outside our control, such as Government subsidies which may be here one minute and gone the next. At present each project has to be determined on the current and short term projected market and again this may not be truly economically or environmentally viable.


discovery and use of fossil fuels which has altered the carbon balance. Fossil fuels such as coal and oil are all derived from plant material but this ‘biomass’ lived many millions of years ago. Fossil fuel is created when the biomass was not broken down after death, but was effectively buried with its carbohydrates still intact in an air free environment, such as a muddy lagoon. Over million of years this plant material was buried deep underground where it was subjected to enormous pressure and heat which concentrated the carbohydrates into the oil and coal we know today. A very simplified analogy of this would be if we were to look on fossil fuels as a carbon “bank”, to which today’s society have just found the cheque book and are on a spending spree! As we know in real life this just cannot continue and we as the human race are about to get the bill. Fossil fuels hold more energy per unit weight than more recent biomass, due to their pressurised formation. However, when we use fossil fuels, the CO2 released from combustion is an unexpected addition to our present carbon cycle. The CO2 released had been trapped and taken out of the carbon cycle million of years earlier. CO2 is one of the main gases in the atmosphere known as “greenhouse gases”, as they trap solar energy in the form of heat, helping to maintain the temperature of the earth. The problem is that there is a very delicate balance within our atmosphere and if the carbon cycle is thrown out of balance, then it in turn will affect the temperature of our planet. In the current case, too much ‘extra’ CO2 is being added to the atmosphere, trapping more heat then before and creating our current problem of global warming.

Total Arb February 2007

The “Pros and Cons” of Biomass Both biomass and fossil fuels provide the same end product; namely energy. Their major difference is one of time scale. The use of recent biomass does not increase our greenhouse gases; ie. It does not add to global warming. There are four main forms of biomass in current use. 1. Wood products, the product of forestry, arboriculture and wood processing. 2. Energy crops, specific crops grown for their fast growth and high energy yield. 3. Organic waste, the surplus organic material not used during harvesting or food processing. 4. Industrial waste, the surplus organic material left over during industrial or chemical processes. Our main interest within the Arboriculture industry is energy production from wood and whether it is or going to be commercially viable to undertake. The market is just

The exact importance of biomass as an energy source for the future is difficult to assess. At present, figures from the USA show that in 2002 Biomass provided 3% of all energy consumed even beating hydroelectric power (2.6%). There is at present a huge gap between our energy consumption and potential supplies from renewable supplies, such as biomass. The only definite point is that fossil fuels will run out and coupled with the problems from climate change, any form of renewable energy will gain in importance and will become more economically viable. Biomass is probably the most important development within our industry at present and coupled with the state of our planet will ‘grow’ in influence on our lives. In a future article we will look at the energy potential from all forestry biomass and the economics behind each source. The Forestry Commission has seen the importance of biomass for the future and opened the Biomass Energy Centre for help and information, or visit

References National Energy Foundation





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Guide Bar Maintenance Part 1 by Ian Morgan (B.A.S.E UK) The amount of times over the last 30 years I have heard the statement “I don’t know what’s wrong with this chain, I’ve only just put it on the saw and it’s cutting awful”, or words to that effect. There is probably one easy answer to that statement, “take a look at your guide bar”. There are many people who take their guide bar for granted, they do not realise how important it is to the performance of the saw, they don’t understand the relationship it has with the chain that is fitted to it. It may be, unfortunately, that some people just can’t be bothered. If you fit into the “can’t be bothered” category then I’m afraid I can’t help you. But if you want your saw to cut like it was designed to then read on. You could fit the most technically advanced chain available today to your saw, but unless you fit it to a guide bar in a well maintained state you may as well put your fuel in your car and use a hand saw or an axe. I was going to write an article on chain maintenance for this issue of Total Arb, but then decided that you need your bars in a good condition before you can put a well maintained chain on it. It makes sense to put maintenance in a logical order, so let’s sort the bars out and look at the chains in a future issue. There are two main categories of guide bar available for us to use today; solid nose (Photo 1) and sprocket nose (Photo 2).

Photo 1

Photo 2 Depending upon manufacturer and the task you require the saw for, you will find many different construction and design types within the two categories. We will only be looking at the maintenance for the two types


of nose at this stage. A solid nose, as the name suggests has no moving parts, it consists of a shaped tip with an integral groove all the way around it for the chain to follow. Because of the heat generated at the nose along with the extreme pressure exerted at this point with chain tension the steel used to construct the main part of the bar would wear very quickly and the life span of the bar would be minimal. Therefore, a very hard metal called “Stelite” has been inserted around the nose in order to minimize wear, this requires little maintenance; we will look at this later in this article. Although a very effective design of nose it does generate a couple of problems, one is that the saw will be slightly slower on acceleration and the second is that you lose some power because of the friction around the nose. These problems can be greatly reduced by using a bar with a sprocket nose fitted. It basically consists of a sprocket for the chain to run around and bearings to let the sprocket run smoothly. This reduces the power needed to drive the chain therefore giving faster acceleration and utilizing more power from the engine for cutting.

Let us now look at the general checks and maintenance for your guide bar. CLEAN IT

The first thing we need to do after we have taken the bar off the saw is give it a general clean with a rag or paper towel to remove any surface debris or oil. It is a wise precaution to wear some form of glove for any operation handling the guide bar. I have seen some nasty cuts to fingers and hands over the years, in one incident the cut managed to reach the bones in his fingers as he tried to stop a wet, oily bar from slipping from his hand by gripping tighter. Cleaning the outer surface should do at this stage. Clean out grooves & oil holes The groove in the bar should be cleaned out using a groove cleaning tool always working away from the sprocket nose; this ensures no debris is forced into the sprocket nose bearings if a sprocket nose is fitted (Photo 3). The groove cleaner in the foreground of the photo shows the hook used to scrape the debris out of the groove. Make a couple of passes down each side of the bar to ensure you have removed all of the debris. Make a mental note of how much debris there was in the groove as this is a good indication of the groove depth. The component on the

Photo 3 chain that sits in the groove is called the drive link; the “pointy bit” at the bottom of the drive link is called the “tang”. One of the purposes of the drive link tang is to remove debris (wood dust mixed with oil) from the groove as it is being generated. It should not remove all of the debris from the groove as the tang should not touch the bottom of the groove. This is important to ensure the chain works with the bar as it was designed to. The components on the sides of the chain are designed to sit squarely on the rails. The drive links that sit in the groove should be suspended in the groove. The debris you are removing is the stuff the drive link can’t reach in the bottom of the groove. So, if after a few hours use of your saw, you discover no debris in the bottom of the groove whilst using the groove cleaner this would be an indication that your groove has become too shallow and your bar is worn out. The last cleaning exercise is to clean out the oil holes on either side of the bar where it sits against the saw body. These must be clean to allow correct oil flow into the bar for correct lubrication of the bar and chain. You can push the debris through the hole into the groove and then remove with your groove cleaner (Photo 4).


Once clean, we need to check a few things to make sure it is suitable to refit to the saw. Firstly we need to check it is straight. This can be done by holding the bar up and looking along its length. You will notice if the bar is bent or not. A good indication that a bar is OK is that you can see daylight along the entire length of the groove when you look along its length. Much the same as looking

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IN ASSOCIATION WITH through a straight tunnel, you will be able to see out of the other end. You will not see

Photo 5

exactly. Operating the saw with a blunt chain will also have the same effect as the tendency would be to push down onto the saw with extra pressure therefore wearing away the guide bar quicker. A second area of the guide bar which is prone to dipped rails is on the underside of the guide bar immediately behind the nose

Photo 8

way is to use the end of a flat tool, screwdriver, groove cleaner, flat file etc. Hold your chosen tool on the side of the bar and then slowly try to slide it off the edge of the guide bar; if there are no burrs present the tool will just slide off the edge of the bar; if however there are burrs present you will feel them as the tool is prevented from sliding off the edge (Photo 9). Removing them is straight forward; hold the bar in a vice, this will give you more accurate and precise filing. Make

Photo 10

right through it if the tunnel has a bend in it (Photo 5). CONVEX BARS

To ensure that your chain is in constant contact with the bar rails around its entire length there must be no dipping on the bar. If you look along its length you should see a gentle “bow” from one end to the other (Photo 6);

Photo 6

this profile must be maintained through the entire life of the bar, bear this in mind when you are carrying out any filing operations during the rest of the maintenance. DIPPED RAILS

As I have just mentioned dipping we should deal with this next. This occurs on a guide bar because of two main reasons. The first, is where you get a concave area on the guide bar rails, this can be isolated to only an inch or so or to an entire side of the guide bar. It is generally caused by continuous use of one part of the guide bar for a prolonged length of time (Photo 7), for example using

Photo 7

(Photo 8). This cause is easy to diagnose as one of two reasons, the first and most common is a slack chain. As the slack chain travels around the nose of the bar it “slaps” the underside of the bar immediately behind the nose and wears the rails at the point it slaps. You must therefore keep the correct tension on the chain at all times. The photo actually shows wear behind the nose on the top and the bottom, this is because the bar should be rotated each time you remove it for service, this ensures even wear on both sides of the bar during it’s life. This action was being followed with this bar because we have wear on both sides behind the sprocket nose. But remember, this dipping will only have occurred on the underside of the bar. The second is where the tip of the saw has been used continuously for “snedding” or the removal of branches from felled trees during manual forest harvesting operations. The action needed to rectify this problem would be bar replacement.

Total Arb February 2007

Photo 11


You can expect burrs to form on the outside corners of the guide bar as a sign of normal use. The relationship that the chain and guide bar has together is a metal to metal contact. The chain on a medium sized chainsaw can be traveling at 50 miles per hour; that is 50 miles of chain traveling around the bar every hour, you must expect wear on the guide bar rails. Burrs form on the outside corners of the rails, you may not be able to see them when they are small but this is the best time to remove them, before they get to large. I would not advise feeling for them with your bare thumb or finger as they can be incredibly sharp, say no more. The best

Photo 9

the first 5 or 6 inches of the bar where it comes out of the body of the saw for cutting a trailer load of old 3 inch diameter fencing stakes and it literally wears away the bar in that area, this photo shows this scenario

sure you do not position the vice jaws too close to the edge of the bar as you may pinch the rails together. You should remove the burrs by filing at an angle of 45 degrees (Photo 10) and by drawing the file along the full length of the bar with each stroke; this will keep an even profile to the bar. If you file just the areas along the bar that are starting to develop burrs you will generate very uneven edges to the rails. Once you have removed the burrs, two or three extra strokes will remove the sharp corner on the rail and give you a beveled edge, not too much though or you will reduce the width of the rail, just enough so as you can see a shiny line along the corner as the light catches the beveled edge (Photo 11), this helps to reduce the time scale in which further burrs will develop

In our April issue of Total Arb I will be looking at the final maintenance tasks to ensure your bar is in tip top condition ready to fit your perfectly sharpened chain to which we will be looking at in the following issue. Oregon produce an excellent book entitled “Oregon Chainsaw Maintenance and Safety Manual”; a free colour download is available from You will find the download on the left hand side of their home page. As Oregon strongly promote the safe and correct maintenance and use of chainsaws they will, in association with Total Arb have a special offer on chainsaw files in the next issue of the magazine. Look for part 2 of this article in the next issue to find the special offer.





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Working under African skies Terry Crick

The world is full of trees and arboriculture is an international industry with many opportunities abroad. However, some areas of the world still need skilled help as local contractors just cannot cope, or in some cases don’t exist to undertake difficult large scale jobs. It is fortunate that in the UK we have this experience and companies such as Arboretum International, headed up by Paul Hanson, who can offer the expertise to help in unexpected areas of the world. Such a scenario unfolded when Arboretum International received a call from an oil company based in Equatorial Guinea, about some large fig trees which had overstayed their welcome! After discussions between Paul Hanson and the oil company, it was decided to dispatch a team of three, Matthew Wade from Arboretum International, Terry Crick from Base UK and Kevin Wholey, who is an independent training assessor and Arborist. The work was scheduled to start in December 2006, and equipment was decided upon and shipped out to be ready for the beginning of the month. So begins the tale. 16

1 The Project Two huge 60m high African Fig trees had been shedding branches onto housing within the oil company’s compound. It was decided that there was no option except to take down the trees, due to the safety issues (Photo 1).

2 The Scale of the problem When the team were confronted by just how large these trees were and their difficult position, it did require considerable thought and all their experience to carry out the work (Photos 2 & 3).

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3 The Methods Once the method was agreed and the team happy, the first step was to gain access to the massive trunks and their root buttresses (Photo 4) . There were smaller Mango trees entwined with the

6 The dismantling was slow, mainly due to the massive size of the tree and the equipment that was needed. On an average day during the project, with the temperatures were over 100 degrees F and humidity at nearly 100%, the team were each drinking up to 10 bottles of water a day (Photo 7).


4 Figs along with lots of unwelcome wildlife, such as Black Mamba snakes and biting ants and spiders. There was one particularly nasty beetle called a blister bug which if trod on released a fluid which immediately caused huge blisters! (Photo 5)

7 The second tree was in an easier position and it was possible to free fell large sections (Photo 8).

5 The first tree had to be dismantled due to the close proximity of the houses in the compound, and a Hobbs lowering device was to be used to assist in the lowering of the massive branches. The only problem was that the trunks with their buttresses meant that fitting the Hobbs device required some lateral thinking! The buttresses had to be ‘windowed’ or chamfered to allow the fitting strap to be attached to the tree (Photo 6).

Total Arb February 2007

With the tree finally down there was still an amazing amount of work in cross cutting just for the local labour to be able to remove the debris (Photo 9). The enormous trunk and buttresses also had to be taken down which was slow work, again just due to the size each section had to be cut away from the main trunk (Photo 10). Finally it was completed, after 2 weeks of very hard but very satisfying work (Photo 11). I would like to thank Paul Hanson of Arboretum International for arranging and organising this monumental project.


11 For any further information Paul can be reached at





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Global Forestry investment David Vincent

In my last article I outlined the possibilities for investing in UK forestry and some of the incentives for doing so. One of the factors fuelling interest in UK forestry is the widely anticipated rise in timber prices, which, if sustained, would obviously enhance returns. Whilst it may be true that UK forestry is currently enjoying healthy prospects, it is still a relative minnow internationally and domestic conditions are influenced mainly by those of the far larger Scandinavian market. If the much-touted rise in timber prices does not materialise, overall returns will remain fairly modest. Another lure has been the prospect of a lucrative bonus from the new emissions trading market. However the government has recently dealt a blow to this speculation by confirming that UK forestry activities are unlikely to qualify as carbon offset schemes, because they do not provide “additionality” – i.e. it is not clear that they would not have happened anyway and they do not contribute significantly to halting deforestation. In this article I will look at investment opportunities in the global market, where more exotic species and economies of scale can offer some enticing opportunities. However, before I do, it is worth spending a moment to clarify what we mean by “forestry investment”. This is extremely important for investors taking on the additional risks of foreign ownership. As a forestry investors what is it exactly that you own a share of? T the land on which trees are grown? T the growing trees themselves?


T the company, which manages the trees? T the company, which processes the timber into products? Each one of these has distinct attributes and employs capital in very different ways; Any one or combination of the above is possible and each has its own merits and risks. So the first thing an investor needs to consider is; - what exactly is he or she hoping to achieve? If the answer is to mitigate inheritance tax, then UK forestry provides the most obvious solution – and that means owning the growing trees, since it is only this aspect which qualifies for special treatment. If the answer is to maintain capital value without risking loss, then owning land may be a steady bet. If the answer is to speculate on substantial profits, then there are an infinite number of opportunities to do this in any industry sector.

One of the main reasons to consider investing in forestry, is exactly because it does not behave like stocks and shares yet it has an intrinsic ability to provide "real growth" through the physical growth of the asset but also from the tendency for timber prices to keep up with inflation over the long term. In other words owning growing trees, if you will forgive the unavoidable pun, is in effect a natural and very simple “hedge fund”. The price to pay for this valuable benefit is that trees cannot simply be sold like stocks and shares. There are two aspects of this. Firstly there is the difficulty in finding a buyer and agreeing a price. Secondly there is the difficulty in dealing in small, manageable units. Unfortunately the easiest ways to invest do not involve much ownership of growing trees. If you buy shares in the biggest companies involved in the

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forestry sector, such as the Scandinavian giant, Stora Enso for example, you can expect a similar roller coaster ride to that of any other stockmarket investment. You could choose to invest in their fixed interest stock, rather than ordinary shares, but again this will have the same characteristics as any other fixed interest security. In other words, there is nothing that special about the forestry sector if you stick with the standard investment vehicles. This is because listed companies inevitably attempt to "add value" by diversifying their activities. In the UK Fountains plc, is the largest and best known listed company in the forestry sector but actually it depends more on its parks and railway line maintenance businesses than it does on forest management. There are a few companies on international markets, which are more directly involved in the growing of trees. However the basic fact remains that either ordinary shares or fixed interest securities in listed companies, will generally react in line with the rest of their respective markets. In contrast, the main attraction of investing directly in growing trees is that it is an investment, which is more or less unaffected by either stock or bond markets - or any other asset class come to that. Active investors may be aware of the introduction of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs), which are based on the US and Australian model. These provide a half way house between direct ownership of property and company shares and have been introduced to stimulate private investment in the property sector. In this context, it is worth noting that “property” could include forestry, although there are no signs of any such fund appearing in the UK at least in the short term In the US and Canada there are a couple of REITs, which are classified as forestry investment. However, as is the case with property investment in general these funds tend to perform as you would expect from a hybrid – somewhere between the steadiness of direct forestry investment and the volatility of the stockmarket. It is also worth mentioning that, particularly with the favourable dollar exchange rate, it is possible to pick up

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a sizeable acreage in the US for relatively small amounts – property has recently been advertised at less than $50,000 ( about £25,000) for more than 100 acres. Whether this represents a good investment opportunity is another matter entirely.

Admittedly there had been a few scams and failures in the early years of teak investment schemes but the risk of future problems should be reduced significantly since the Dutch Financial Services Authority brought such schemes under their wing.

Australia has quite a developed agribusiness investment sector, which offers considerable tax breaks to domestic investors. Timbercorp is perhaps the largest and best known of these. Several schemes have been established, offering retail investors the opportunity to own individual plots within a commercially managed plantation – mainly of either eucalyptus or radiata pine.

The largest operator in this market is Floresteca (see for an informative video), which has been funded mainly through Dutch investment. It acquired about 50,000 hectares of exhausted cattle ranching country in the Mato Grosso, south of the main Amazon, in 1992 and has so far converted over 30,000 hectares to teak, whilst preserving 12,000 ha as a protected reserve. It provides valuable employment to over 1,200 locals and is currently the only producer of FSC certified plantation grown teak in the world.

Similar schemes have also recently been established in Ireland and New Zealand as well as European money for projects in South America and imminently a pine project in Uganda backed by a newly formed UK company. However, with their colonial history in Asia as well as environmental concern and natural entrepreneurship, it is the Dutch who, since the early 80s have led the way in creating investment opportunities in a new and potentially lucrative market – plantation grown tropical hardwoods. Whilst the majority of hardwoods only thrive in complex ecosystems, one species in particular stands out for its ability to be grown commercially – teak. Admittedly monoculture is not ideal in creating biodiversity. However, the most important aspect of creating new commercial sources of tropical timber is that they help stop further decimation of natural forests, by providing alternative, legal employment and sources of wealth for local communities. Investment in the main natural teak producing countries, Myanmar and India is not possible but teak has been successfully introduced in Latin and South America. Costa Rica and Panama provide generous tax concessions for foreign investors. However, according to a survey by the Inter American Investment Bank in 2002, Brazil provides the most favourable conditions for forestry investment, with vast expertise and one of the largest and fastest growing economies in the world.

One fund registered in the Isle Of Man has been offering experienced UK investors the opportunity to buy units in a portfolio of plantations managed by Floresteca since 2001. Unit prices in the current share offering have increased by 30% over the last 2 years (31/12/04 to 31/12/06). Unless you have other motives or particular expertise, forestry should be considered as part of a broad, diversified portfolio. A good rule of thumb is never to risk more than you could comfortably afford to lose in any one venture - and of course always seek professional advice from. In conclusion, the UK offers specific investors a chance to safeguard wealth for future generations, a welcome haven from the vagaries of a turbulent stockmarket and an additional interest for those wishing for more hands on involvement. However, global markets may provide some interesting opportunities for more general investment objectives, whilst also offering the possibility of a more valuable contribution to the fight against global warming and third world poverty. Whilst inevitably this brief article will pose many more questions than it has answered, I hope it serves to establish that there are literally a growing number of opportunities for the experienced and shrewd investor to combine an interest in forestry or broader environmental aims with a requirement for sound financial returns.





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The recent gales in January have seen some frantic activity in the Arboricultural Industry during the clear-up from the storm. In some cases an ill wind can reap benefits for some! However, as usual it also illustrates how much work we must still do as an industry to rid ourselves of our cowboy cousins. After the storm the media was full of stories of the white van and chainsaw brigade descending on unfortunate homeowners to ‘lend’ assistance, but at a price. As usual we can keep blaming the cowboys but in numerous cases the homeowners just don’t know who to ring when an emergency tree problem arises. In this case it just shows how little impact our industry has had on the conscience and perception of the general public. The reason for this is partially historic but also stems from our inability as an industry to promote ourselves and our special expertise. Historically, most people outside of our industry still associate any tree work with ‘tree surgeons’. Since the adoption of the word Arboriculture to define our industry over fifteen years ago, we have yet to establish our new identity with the public at large. Within the confines of this magazine and our industry, I know am preaching to the converted. What we need is to expand outside of our cosy environment and make our mark with the general public. To this end, our ‘Find an Arborist’ campaign is designed to provide the general public with easy access to information on all areas of expertise within the tree care world. The problem with this lies in getting the message across to an already information-saturated general public.

A Possible Way Forward Over the past 6 months, our general media, TV and newspapers have been highlighting the climate change

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and carbon footprint problems facing our government and other world leaders. While some of this reporting is confused and in some cases deliberately scare-mongering, the bottom line is that we all must reduce our carbon emissions. The role of the Tree in this in this scenario is being closely examined and promoted by the media as one of the easiest, simplest solutions through their ability of trees to act as a carbon ‘sink’. Even last week our esteemed Prime Minister, Tony Blair, was forced by the media to invest in a tree to help offset his carbon production from all his long-haul flights! It is the natural process of photosynthesis, where the energy of the sun is captured by leaves and combined with carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the building blocks of cellular construction of starch, cellulose and sugars which produce

the growth of all plants and trees. It is this ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, hence the term ‘sink’, which the media have grasped and they see as a method in which to save the world! There is the old saying that any publicity is good publicity. I do believe that this is the case for the Arboricultural industry. All this ‘new green’ media interest is providing a new focus on the importance of trees, which will in turn lead to a greater interest and understanding from the general public. It is up to our industry to ‘cash in’ on this new awareness and forge the link in the public’s mind, that Trees and Arboriculture are synonymous with the growth and well being of Trees. If we can cement this link so that if anyone has a problem or needs information on trees, then the first stop on the computer through Google or in the Yellow pages will be Arborists!





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Maintaining the Momentum With good general media coverage on the environment and trees, we all have a responsibility to further promote our industry and our importance to maintaining and creating effective tree growth. The importance of individual urban trees should not be underestimated for their ability to capture and remove Carbon Dioxide. The value of oxygen produced, carbon dioxide captured and water recycled in an individual urban tree, based on 50 years of growth, could be a high as £65,000* based on comparable industrial costing. For each ton of wood produced in a tree, over 1.5 tons of Carbon Dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. If we can highlight this environmental impact and economic values across to the public, then our view of urban trees can be changed forever. Most people only take notice of a problem when it cost them money personally. By highlighting the potential economic value of trees, coupled with the tree owner’s responsibility and the implications of tree mismanagement,


we should begin to gain more attention for the skills and value of engaging a qualified Arborist. We at Total Arb will continue to push the “Find an Arborist” campaign outside of our industry and try and get

the message across to the broader public’s attention. There may be new areas in which we can link with the public to provide high profile expertise through new publicity campaigns. If you have any good ideas or new local schemes, please let us know.

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The Scots Pine Hugh Barnes

History The Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris) is one of only three native conifers found in the UK, the others being Juniper and the Yew. It is the largest and most common of our native evergreen trees found in the UK and has an important economic role.

The Scots Pine has the largest range of all conifer species. It is found in a large band from Northern Europe all the way across Siberia to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. It has the ability to withstand the icy temperature above the Artic Circle but can equally well tolerate a warm climate as far south of Spain in Southern Europe and it grows from sea level to a height of over 2000 meters. It was introduced into North America over 300 years ago and has been cultivated very successfully, but over the last 50 years it has become the Americans tree of choice as a


Christmas tree! It ability to withstand a vast range of climatic conditions and soils makes the Scots Pine a truly amazing tree. At the end of the last Ice Age approximately 10,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated northward, the Scots Pine colonised the newly revealed soils of northern Europe. As the climate warmed the trees moved further north and into what is now Scotland. At their peak, they had covered over 1.5 million hectares, what is now all of Scotland. As the sea level rose the land bridge to the European mainland was lost stopping any further species invading the UK and leaving the Scots Pine the dominant coniferous species. From its peak distribution, around 4000BC, the range was gradually reduced to centre on the uplands of Scotland. This is possibly due to natural competition but mainly through man’s clearance. Today, this great forest has been reduced to only 1%, approximately 17,000 hectares, of its original size with remnants scattered throughout Scotland.

some trees only make 20 metres with disrupted shapes. The reason will be found in soil and climatic conditions but the tree illustrates that it is a survivor as it can cope with many different growth factors. Most trees have a 250 to 300 year life cycle but in exceptional cases, trees over 500 years old have been found. Part of the success of the Scots Pine is that it can develop different root systems depending on the environmental factors. In dry regions a deep tap root can develop, whilst in thin but waterlogged soils, as on highland moors, a shallow fibrous spread of roots allows the capture of extra nutrients. The Scots Pine also

The Varying Shapes of the Scots Pine With their vast range of habitats and their ability to tolerate extremes of climate and soils the shape of the Scots Pine varies considerably. Research in Scotland has distinguished eleven different growth shapes, ranging from tall straight single trunk trees to multi-trunk trees and low spread-shaped trees. In mainland Europe, Scots Pine trees can grow to over 36 metres high with a conical shaped form but in Scotland

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not really start until the tree is over 60 years old. The seeds are light sensitive and only germinate in open space; hence, no regeneration occurs under their own canopy as Scots Pine is shade intolerant

Practical Uses of Scots Pine The Scots Pine is one of the most widely distributed trees in the world and is grown in cultivation in the temperate zones of both the northern and southern hemisphere. It is a commercially important forestry crop with its timber properties in good demand. In cultivation it has a rotation of between 60 to120 years depending on region. The further north the trees are planted the slower the growth and rotation. The timber qualities of the Scots Pine are very good, being strong, lightweight and durable when treated. The wood in the UK is known as deal or redwood and has numerous uses from furniture making, general building to telegraph pole and old ships masts. The timber is also used for pulp and chipboard manufacture.

develops a mycorrhizal association with fungi to increase nutrient uptake through a symbiotic relationship. Over 200 different fungi have been identified with trees in Scotland and each can provide a specific boast to the tree. The fungi invade the growing root tips of the Scots Pine and pass specific nutrients, which have been extracted from the soil by the fungi, into the tree through the roots. In exchange the fungi extract carbohydrates from the tree, produced through photosynthesis within the tree, which help with energy production within the fungi. The bark of the Scots Pine is very distinct in older trees, being orange brown in colour from half way up length of the trunk. The bark in older trees is also deeply fissured with plates or flakes developing over the trunk. This gives a strange reddish/brown colour hovering effect when a stand of trees is viewed from a distance. The fissured bark on the

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lower trunk is grey brown which allows good lichen development and most trees in pollution free areas, are heavily covered with lichens and moss. The needles of the Scots Pine occur in pairs, are blue green in colour and grow up to 5 cm long. They are usually shed every two to three years and turn yellow in autumn before they drop. Flowers, both male and female occur on the same tree, with the female flowers at the top on the top branches and the males clustered together on lower branches. They are wind pollinated, hence the female flowers position on the most exposed area. Once pollinated the female flower takes two years to develop into the cone which opens during the second year to release its seeds while still on the tree. The tiny winged seeds are dispersed by the wind between December to March and can be carried up to 200 meters from the parent. Large scale cone development on the Scots Pine does

In pre-industrial times the Scots Pine was used to produce resin from which numerous uses are derived. The trees trunks had a thin diagonal cut placed into the bark with a container placed at the bottom of the cut. The resin was then distilled into turpentine and pitch. Medicinal oils were also extracted and used as a decongestant and a disinfectant. This practice has nearly finished due to the introduction of cheaper and easier obtainable raw materials. In the USA over 35 million trees are harvested each year for the Christmas tree market. The tendency of the needles not to drop and the varied and interesting shapes of the trees has made them the USA favourite. Further, the tree is also use in ornamental landscaping due to its unpredictable mature shape and its ability to cope with most ground conditions. It is easy to maintain, requiring very little pruning and it is quite resistant to pests and disease. References : The Royal Forestry Society Darrol. D. Skilling US Forestry Dept.





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News We look at the latest from the world of Arboriculture

OBMtec-RTE Opens New UK Base

OBMtec -RTE are the European distributors for the Morbark and Peterson range of tub grinders, horizontal grinders, slow speed shredders and wood chipping machinery used for the processing of green waste, wood waste, bark waste, tree roots, stumps and much more. Founded in 1979 by Mark and Hannie Van Der Galien, and now employing approximately Fifty members of staff, OBMtec has established an enviable reputation for supplying high quality machinery coupled with an excellent service and spare parts support from its headquarters in the Netherlands. In order to enhance the level of service still further, OBMtec is pleased to announce that demonstrations, sales, spare parts and service enquiries for the UK and Ireland can now be handled by their recently appointed UK sales manager, Mr


Richard Smith via the recently established company, OBMtec UK Ltd. Based in Lincolnshire and already known to many people in the waste industry, Richard was formerly the managing director for an importer and distributor of wood recycling machinery and has, over many years, accumulated a wealth of knowledge and experience from within the industry. Richard believes that the quality, reliability and low running costs of the machinery marketed by OBMtec will help to make it very popular with local authorities, landfill operators, waste transfer stations, wood recyclers, forestry contractors and many other types of business. Both new and demonstration machinery are readily available from OBMtec’s UK depot located near Lincoln and also from the same location, spare parts can now be

supplied for the many Morbark and Peterson machines already operating within the UK and Ireland. Another increasingly popular aspect of OBMtec’s business activities is the extensive range of pre-owned equipment available from stock, details of which can be found on the website. OBMtec will be exhibiting at several major trade shows throughout 2007 and in addition to this, machinery demonstrations will be undertaken throughout the UK. For further details of these events, please contact us on the details below. OBMtec UK – Tel 01522 320929 Fax 01522 321454 E-mail – OBMtec BV – Tel 0031 511 424555 Fax 0031 511 423963 E-mail – Website –

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Biomass Energy Centre launched Forest Research is establishing a ‘one stop shop’ able to provide advice and guidance - signposting to other specialised sources of advice as necessary - on a wide range of biomass fuels and conversion technologies. This initiative has been undertaken in support of Government’s response to recommendations made by the Biomass Task Force. The initial focus will be on woodfuel and some energy crops, drawing on results and knowledge accumulated over many years by staff linked to our own Woodfuel Research Centre. Over the coming months we will develop links with experts in other sectors of the bio-energy industry, including waste management, and establish an information service dedicated to biomass derived heat and energy technologies and supply chains. Information will be provided via the above website and helpline. The services provided by the Biomass Energy Centre will complement the functions of the National Non-Food Crops Centre (NNFCC) which promotes and advises on the whole range of non-food uses of crops. The NNFCC has particular expertise in development of markets for farm crops which include their use for fuel and energy. The Biomass Energy Centre and NNFCC will work closely together with appropriate signposting to each others' activities. The Biomass Energy Centre (BEC) will be owned and managed by the Forestry Commission, via Forest Research. A steering group comprised of representatives from the biomass industry and related sectors will oversee the development of the BEC and bring with them their own

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expertise that the BEC will draw on. The capability of the BEC will increase over the coming months as the network of Biomass experts linked to the BEC develops. Once fully operational the BEC will: T Act as a single point of contact on biomass providing links to more specialised sources of information, including other renewables technologies T Be staffed by expert advisers (contactable now) T Provide technical and scientific advice and best practice guidance on technologies, environmental issues and funding T Have a clear focus on market development T Link development to assessment of barriers and risks, including environmental aspects of land management T Help land managers to optimise benefits, including the management of woodlands to improve biodiversity while providing revenue from biomass T Actively engage with regional and national information providers, supplying them with core information and responding to their specific information needs. Further details on the Biomass Energy Centre will be posted on this page as they become available, alternatively email or telephone Andy Hall on 07771 810 130 or Ian Tubby on 01420 526227. Website:

TREE NEWS TAKES OFF The Tree Council’s ‘in-house’ magazine, Tree News, is re-launched in early April with a new team and a new look. Originally published as a members’ newsletter in the late 1980s, Tree News gradually developed into a glossy, bi-annual magazine celebrating the diversity of arboriculture, recreation and industry as well as strictly biological concerns. Post-millenium, the generous sponsorship of leading magazine publisher Felix Dennis – who is also famously planting thousands of acres of new, mixed woodland in the West Midlands – enabled production values to take another quantum leap, and with new editor Daniel Butler and designer Andrew Riley, this trend will continue apace. Butler, who himself manages woodland and a smallholding in Powys, is perhaps better known as a columnist for Country Living and regular wildlife correspondent for The Daily Telegraph, and promises to increase the campaigning work of Tree News. His first issue as editor will, for example, contain a controversial feature on the way some UK timber importers are flouting the FSC protocols for sustainable hardwood products. Other features in the Spring/Summer issue include a survey of wood fuels for domestic and commercial use, a look at one of Britain’s oldest yews and an account of how woodland was brought back from the edge of extinction in the Orkneys. Individual copies of Tree News are available from major newsagents at £3.70, or on subscription from 0845 126 0396. You can also find out more from their website,


Recognizing Tree Hazards The International Society of Arboriculture is a worldwide professional organisation dedicated to fostering an appreciation for trees and to promoting research, technology, and the professional practise of Arboriculture. To this end the society’s website is full of useful information for all who have an interest in Trees and can be visited at . The following article is a good illustration of their work. Trees provide significant benefits to our homes and cities, but when trees fall and injure people or damage property, they are liabilities. Taking care of tree hazards makes your property safer and prolongs the life of the tree. Trees are an important part of our world. They offer a wide range of benefits to the environment and provide tremendous beauty.

However, trees may be dangerous. Trees or parts of trees may fall and cause injury to people or damage to property. We call trees in such situations hazardous, to signify the risk involved with their presence. While every tree has the potential to fall, only a small number actually hit something or someone. It is an owner’s responsibility to provide for the safety of trees on his or

her property. This brochure provides some tips for identifying the common defects associated with tree hazards. However, evaluating the seriousness of these defects is best done by a professional arborist. Regular tree care will help identify hazardous trees and the risk they present. Once the hazard is recognized, steps may be taken to reduce the likelihood of the tree falling and injuring someone.

Hazardous Trees and Utility Lines Trees that fall into utility lines have additional serious consequences. Not only can they injure people or property near the line, but hitting a line may cause power outages, surges, fires, and other damage. Downed lines still conducting electricity are especially dangerous. A tree with a potential to fall into a utility line is a very serious situation.

Tree Hazard Checklist

Defects in Urban Trees

Managing Tree Hazards

Consider these questions:

The following are defects or signs of possible defects in urban trees

An arborist can help you manage the trees on your property and can provide treatments that may help make your tree safer, reducing the risk associated with hazardous trees. An arborist familiar with hazard tree evaluation may suggest one or more of the following: T Remove the target. While a home or a nearby power line cannot be moved, it is possible to move picnic tables, cars, landscape features, or other possible targets to prevent them from being hit by a falling tree. T Prune the tree. Remove the defective branches of the tree. Because inappropriate pruning may weaken a tree, pruning work is best done by an ISA Certified Arborist. T Cable and brace the tree. Provide physical support for weak branches and stems to increase their strength and stability. T Provide routine care. Mature trees need routine care in the form of water, fertilizer (in some cases), mulch, and pruning as dictated by the season and their structure. T Remove the tree. Some hazardous trees are best removed. If possible, plant a new tree in an appropriate place as a replacement.

T Are there large dead branches in the tree? T Are there detached branches hanging in the tree? T Does the tree have cavities or rotten wood along the trunk or in major branches? T Are mushrooms present at the base of the tree? T Are there cracks or splits in the trunk or where branches are attached? T Have any branches fallen from the tree? T Have adjacent trees fallen over or died? T Has the trunk developed a strong lean? T Do many of the major branches arise from one point on the trunk? T Have the roots been broken off, injured, or damaged by lowering the soil level, installing pavement, repairing sidewalks, or digging trenches? T Has the site recently been changed by construction, raising the soil level, or installing lawns? T Have the leaves prematurely developed an unusual colour or size? T Have trees in adjacent wooded areas been removed? T Has the tree been topped or other wise heavily pruned?

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1. regrowth from topping, line clearance, or other pruning 2. electrical line adjacent to tree 3. broken or partially attached branch 4. open cavity in trunk or branch 5. dead or dying branches 6. branches arising from a single point on the trunk 7. decay and rot present in old wounds 8. recent change in grade or soil level, or other construction

Defects in Rural Trees The following are defects or signs of possible defects in rural trees 1. recent site construction, grading and tree removal, clearing of forests for development 2. previous tree failures in the local area 3. tree leaning near a target 4. forked trunk; branches and stems equal in size 5. wet areas with shallow soil

Recognizing and reducing tree hazards not only increases the safety of your property and that of your neighbours but also improve the tree’s health and may increase its longevity!


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Issue 9  
Issue 9  

Total Arb Issue 9