Autonomous Drones: A critical asset for Earth and Mars

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Autonomous Drones A Critical Asset for Earth and Mars

Paolo GUARDABASSO DOME - Lead Engineer Mars Planet Delegate ISAE-SUPAERO University of Toulouse drone@domeproject.space European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November


DOME | drone operations for Martian environment Research group born in September 2018

OBJECTIVE: study operations and procedures for the use of aerial drones on Mars

PROJECTS: ● ● ●

X5: VTOL plane for photogrammetry of martial soil VESTA: Multicopter for planetary outpost inspection and automation AEROSCAN: VTOL plane for the AMADEE20 mission

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Aerial drones | Earth vs Mars Earth

Common

Mars

Agriculture

Search&Rescue

Surveillance

Mapping

Surface Analysis

Human Transport

Logistics

Weather forecast

Inspections

Search&Rescue

Search&Rescue

Sample collection

Mapping

Mapping

Logistics

Logistics

Inspections

Inspections European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Aerial drones | Mars environment data Surface gravity

3.711 m/s²

37.6% of Earth

Pressure

0.4 – 0.87 kPa

1% of Earth (sea level)

Temperature

-143 / 3 °C

-89 – 70 °C

Aerodynamics

Design

Deployment

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

Propulsion

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Aerial drones | previous studies MATADOR Mars Advanced Technology Airplane for Deployment, Operations, and Recovery

AME Airplane for Mars Exploration

1998 1996

MAGE

PRANDTL-M Preliminary Research Aerodynamic Design to Land on Mars

2006 2005

Mars Aircraft for Geophysical Exploration

Sky-sailor

2020 2015

solar powered micro airplane

MHS Mars Helicopter Scout

ARES Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Aerial drones | potential scenarios ●

Surface settlement inspection

Observation tower

Search & Rescue

Surface scanning, mapping, photogrammetry

Atmospheric analysis

Rover exploration support

Emergency comm relay

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Aerial drones | testing locations ●

Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS)

Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS)

Desert Mars Analog Ramon Station (D-MARS)

Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS)

Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE)

Hawai’i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS)

...

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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The X5 vehicle | specifications ●

PAYLOADS: Camera

SPEED: 30 km/h

OP. ALTITUDE: 100 m

WINGSPAN: 1800 mm

LENGTH: 911 mm

WEIGHT: 1700 gr (w/o payload)

LAUNCH METHOD: autonomous VTOL, hand

RECOVER METHOD: autonomous VTOL, gliding

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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The X5 vehicle | VTOL ●

VTOL = Vertical Take-Off and Landing

The X5 can take off and land in vertical position

The engines then rotate and the vehicle flies in horizontal flight configuration

Advantages ●

Take off and landing in limited spaces

Manoeuvrability of multicopters with autonomy of a plane

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European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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The X5 vehicle | solar powered ●

The power for the electric propulsion is provided by two double-junction, flexible solar arrays, mounted on the wings

This increases the autonomy of the vehicle, potentially allowing up to dawn-to-dusk flights.

A battery pack acts as backup for power-demanding maneuvers and when solar arrays are shaded.

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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The X5 vehicle | prototype X5.1 manufacturing ●

The first flying prototype was built by Neutech (Italy) in April 2019

Flying only using battery power

Several flight tests were performed in a controlled environment

The vehicle’s parameters were tuned to allow a smooth piloting in stabilized mode

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November


First Field Campaign | X5.1 testing

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Credit: NASA, HiRiSe camera, MRO

First Field Campaign | fixed-wing flight

30 cm / pixel

3 cm / pixel

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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First Field Campaign | VERSA

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Future work | technology roadmap

Autonomy for BLOS flight

Navigation without GPS Flight control station

Real time object tracking Detecting of geological entities

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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Future work | AMADEE-20 Pre-selected for the AMADEE-20 Mission, led by the Austrian Space Forum, hosted by the Israel Space Agency and supported by D-MARS

Testing X5 in different scenarios: ●

Automatic soil photogrammetry mission (Primary)

Automatic mission capabilities for long endurance habitat inspection (Primary)

Search & Rescue of an EVA crew (Secondary)

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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THANK YOU

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November


Aerial drones | applications on Mars Potential applications ●

cascas

Studies in development ●

Mars Helicopter (Copter)

Past studies ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

ARES (Plane) AME (Plane) MATADOR (Plane) Sky-Sailor (Solar Plane) Kitty Hawk (Plane) Daedalus (Plane) ARMaDA (Plane) MAREA (Plane) Prandtl-M (Plane) NASA Mini-Sniffer (Plane)

● TheEuropean Mars Society MarsEuropean Conference Conference 2019 | IoP, | London 4th-6th | 4th-6th November November 2019

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The X5 vehicle | specifications ●

PAYLOADS: multispectral camera, ACAT sensors

AUTONOMY: 11hr dawn-sunset

SPEED: 75 km/h

OP. ALTITUDE: 300 M

WINGSPAN: 1812mm

LENGTH: 911mm

WEIGHT: 1400 gr (w/o payload)

NON-GPS NAV: Inertial sensors, Radio Beacons

LAUNCH METHOD: Hand launch, autonomous VTOL

RECOVER METHOD: Autonomous VTOL, Deep Stall

TheEuropean Mars Society MarsEuropean Conference Conference 2019 | IoP, | London 4th-6th | 4th-6th November November 2019

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Aerial drones | applications and future potential ● ● ● ● ●

● ● ●

● ● ● ● ●

Aerial Photogrammetry and Mapping Agriculture & Farming Entertainment, Racing, Sports Aerial Delivery & Shipping Photography and Filming (Science, Journalism, Movies) Military & Armed Forces Mining Medical, Emergency, Search and Rescue Operations Fire Fighting, Police & Law Enforcement Surveillance & Monitoring Telecommunication Coverage Expansion Weather Forecasting & Monitoring Wildlife Monitoring European Mars Conference 2019

Why we use them: ● ● ● ●

Can reach Critical and Hard to Reach places Expendable observers High range of sensors Can provide FPV from above

Future uses: ● ● ●

Human passenger transportation Space Exploration Logistics

| IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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The X5 vehicle | structure and components 3 Body 2x Wings Materials Carbon Fibre Carbon-foam-carbon sandwich panel EPP (Expanded Polypropylene)

European Mars Conference 2019 | IoP, London | 4th-6th November

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