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Fish Species

Fish Species Identification

By: Khadijah Nelms

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Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 1

Common Name: Albacore Scientific Name: Thunnus alalunga Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopteryggi

Order: Percifomes

Family: Scombrinae

Geography / Habitat: It is found in the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, and the Mediterranean Sea. The Albacore never really rest; they must always be on the move because of their demand for oxygen. Due to so much energy being used by the constant movement, A typical tuna may eat one-quarter his own weight in food in one day.

Life Strategy: During spawning, females produce between 800,000 and 2.6 million eggs which hatch in about one or two days. After the eggs hatch, the fish begin to grow quickly and they remain close to the place where they were born for the first year of their life. They begin to migrate after their first year. Albacore tuna have a life span of 11 to 12 years, but they reach reproductive maturity at around five to six years

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albacore


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 2

Common Name: Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopteryggi

Order: Percifomes

Family: Istiophridae

Geography / Habitat: Blue marlin are the most tropical of all marlins but are distributed throughout the tropical and subtopical regions of the Indian and Pacific Oceans; a single stock is assumed for each ocean.

Life Strategy: The females may spawn as many as four times per season; releasing over several millions eggs at one time.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://images.search.yahoo.com/images http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlueMarlin


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 3

Common Name: Barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyraena Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopteryggi

Order: Percifomes

Family: Sphyraenidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic; the great barracuda, picuda or becuna (S. picuda), ranging on the Atlantic coast of tropical America from North Carolina to Brazil and reaching Bermuda. Other barracuda species are found around the world. They are deadly.

Life Strategy: It is known that Barracuda feed on an array of prey including fishes such as jacks, grunts, groupers, snappers, small tunas, mullets, killifishes, herrings, and anchovies by simply biting them in half. They also seem to consume smaller species of sustenance that are in front of them

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carnagiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barracuda http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 4

Common Name: Bass, striped Scientific Name: Morone saxatilis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Moronidae

Geography / Habitat: Striped bass are native to the Atlantic coastline of North America from the St. Lawrence River into the Gulf of Mexico to approximately Louisiana. They are anadromus fish that migrate between fresh and salt water. Spawning takes place in fresh water.

Life Strategy: Striped bass spawn in fresh water, and although they have been successfully adapted to freshwater habitat, they naturally spend their adult lives in saltwater (i.e., it is anadromous). Four important bodies of water with breeding stocks of striped bass are: Chesapeake Bay, Massachusetts Bay/Cape Cod, Hudson River and Delaware River.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striped_bass http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

6

Species #: 5

Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinoptergii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomatomidae

Geography / Habitat: Bluefish are widely distributed around the world in tropical and subtropical waters. They are found in pelagic waters on much of the continental shelves along eastern America (though not between south Florida and northern South America), Africa, the Mediterranean and Black Seas (and during migration in between), Southeast Asia, and Australia. They are found in a variety of coastal habitats: above the continental shelf, in energetic waters near surf beaches, or by rock headlands. Life Strategy: Adult bluefish are typically between 20 and 60 cm long, with a maximum reported size of 120 cm and 14 kg. They reproduce during spring and summer, and can live for up to 9 years. Bluefish fry are zooplankton, and are largely at the mercy of currents. Spent bluefish have been found off east central Florida, migrating north. As with most marine fish, their spawning habits are not well known. In the western side of the North Atlantic, at least two populations occur, separated by Cape Hatteras in North Carolina. The Gulf Stream can carry fry spawned to the south of Cape Hatteras to the north, and eddies can spin off, carrying them into populations found off the coast of the mid-Atlantic, and the New England states

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluefish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

Species #: 6

Common Name: Bonefish Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Albulidae

Geography / Habitat: An anphidromous species, it lives in inshore tropical waters and moves onto shallow mudflats to feed with the incoming tide. Adults and juveniles may shoal together, and they may be found singly or in pairs Life Strategy: The bonefish feeds on benthic worms, fry, crustaceans, and mollusks. Ledges, drop-offs, and clean, healthy seagrass beds yield abundant small prey such as crabs and shrimp. It may follow stingrays to catch the small animals they root from the substrate

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonefish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

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Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 7

Common Name: Mandarin Fish Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymida

Geography / Habitat: Mandarinfish are reef dwellers, preferring sheltered lagoons and inshore reefs. While they are slow-moving and fairly common within their range, they are not easily seen due to their bottom-feeding habit and their small size (reaching only about 6 cm). They feed primarily on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Life Strategy: Mandarin dragonets have been bred in captivity. They are pelagic spawners, the male and female both rise up in to the water column to release eggs and sperm.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 8

Common Name: Bluehead Wrasse Scientific Name: Thalassoma bifasciatum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: The bluehead wrasse is found in coral reefs of the Atlantic Ocean. Its main range includes the Caribbean Sea and the southeast area of the Gulf of Mexico.

Life Strategy: Like many other wrasse species, the bluehead wrasse is a protogynous sequential hermaphrodite; individuals may begin life either as males or females, but females can change sex later in life and become males.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blueheawrasse http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Salwater

Species #: 9

Common Name: Yellow Tang Scientific Name: Zebrasoma flavescens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Acanthuridae

Geography / Habitat: It is commonly found in shallow reefs, from 2–46 metres (6.6–151 ft) deep, in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, west of Hawaii and east of Japan. Hawaii is the most common place for aquarium harvesting, where up to 70% of the yellow tangs for the aquarium industry are sourced from.

Life Strategy: Their reproductive effort is peaked in late spring and summer with females producing large numbers of eggs and spawning for at least two consecutive days.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Sub-terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowtang http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 10

Common Name: Spiny Butterfly ray Scientific Name: Gymnura Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Myliobatiformes

Family: Gymnuridae

Geography / Habitat: This species has a patchy and discontinuous distribution in Atlantic tropical and warm-temperate waters. In the western Atlantic it is found from Massachusetts, USA to Buenos Aires Province, Argentina; it is rare in the Gulf of Mexico and common in the mouths of tidal creeks along the Virginia coast. In the eastern Atlantic, it is found from Portugal to Ambriz, Angola, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary Islands. Life Strategy: Spiny butterfly rays are ovoviviparous and give birth to live young. They have an annual reproductive cycle with a gestation period of 4 to 9 months. The embryos initially subsist on a yolk sac; later in development long villi develop from the uterine wall into the embryos' spiracles, which direct uterine milk into the oral cavity.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinybutterflyray http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 11

Common Name: Atlantic Salmon Scientific Name: Salmo salar Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Atlantic salmon is found in the northern Atlantic Ocean and in rivers that flow into the north Atlantic and, due to human introduction, the north Pacific

Life Strategy: Most Atlantic salmon follow an anadromous fish migration pattern, in that they undergo their greatest feeding and growth in salt water; however, adults return to spawn in native freshwater streams where the eggs hatch and juveniles grow through several distinct stages. Atlantic salmon do not require salt water.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanticsalmon http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 12

Common Name: Pollock Scientific Name: Pollachius virens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Gadidae

Geography / Habitat: The Pollock is a popular fish available to anglers from inshore bays to offshore banks and occurs on both sides of the North Atlantic. Life Strategy: Male pollock become sexually mature at 4 to 7 years and females at 5 to 7 years of age. Fecundity (the number of eggs a female produces in a given season) increases with age and size. Large females may produce as many as 4,000,000 eggs in a spawning season. Pollock generally spawn during the autumn and early winter in 90 to 300 feet deep.

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Body Form or Style:Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollock http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

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Title: Saltwater Species #: 13 Common Name: White Seabass Scientific Name: Atractoscion nobillis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: is a species of croaker occurring from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Juneau, Alaska. They usually travel in schools over deep rocky bottoms (0-122 m) and in and out of kelp beds.

Life Strategy: At the minimum legal length of 28 inches, the average white seabass is about 5 years of age, weighs about 7.5 pounds and has been sexually mature for at least one spawning season.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiteseabass http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

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Species #:14

Common Name: Barrier Reef Anemonefish Scientific Name: Amphiprion akindynos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentridae

Geography / Habitat: It is native to reefs and marine lagoons of the Western Pacific.

Life Strategy: The Barrier Reef Anemonefish is a nesting fish. A few days before mating aggression from the dominant male towards the female increases, and at the same time he begins clearing a nest site, usually on a rock close to the host anemone.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform Mouth Position:Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrierreefanemonefish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes

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Species #: 15

Common Name: Blue Tang Scientific Name: Acanthurus leucosternon Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family:Acanthuridac

Geography / Habitat: The species' range is broad, but it is common nowhere. It can be found throughout the Indo-Pacific. It is seen in reefs of East Africa, Japan, Samoa, New Caledonia, and the Great Barrier Reef. The Blue tang is one of the most common and most popular Marine Aquarium fish all over the world. Life Strategy: Males aggressively court female members of the school, leading to a quick upward spawning rush toward the surface of the water during which eggs and sperm are released. The eggs are small, approximately 0.8 mm in diameter. The eggs are Pelagic, each containing a single droplet of oil for flotation. The fertilized eggs hatch in twenty-four hours, revealing small, translucent larvae with silvery abdomens and rudimentary caudal spines. Blue tangs can also, when faced with danger or dark spaces, make themselves semi-transparent, in order to help with evasion and light passivity, respectively.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetang http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 16

Common Name: Picasso Fish Scientific Name: Rhinecanthus aculeatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodotiformes

Family: Balistidae

Geography / Habitat: It occurs in the western Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Life Strategy: Pair-spawning takes place around sunrise, with the egg masses being attached to sand, coral rubble or algae. They hatch the same day around sunset. Although paternal care is normal in teleost fishes with external fertilization, it is the mothers in this species that guard and care for eggs until they hatch. The mother remains above the eggs for about 12–14 hours, fanning the eggs with her pectoral fins to improve aeration for perhaps 30% of the time.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position:Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picassofish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 17

Common Name: Atlantic Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class:Vertebrata

Order: Percifomes

Family: Istiophoridae

Geography / Habitat: Atlantic Blue Marlin is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. Life Strategy: Marlin breed in late summer and fall. Females may spawn as many as four times in one season. They often release over seven million eggs at once, each about 1 mm (0.039 in) in diameter.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position:Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanticbluemarlin http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 18

Common Name: Fluffy Sculpin Scientific Name: Ologocottus snyderi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Scorpaeiformes

Family: Cottidae

Geography / Habitat: The fluffy sculpin, is a marine species and is only found along the Pacific Coast of the United States, Canada and Mexico, where it is native. It is a common species found throughout the temperate, rocky intertidal zone from as far south as Baja California and northern Mexico, to as far north as Sitka, Alaska. Life Strategy: Reproduces using internal fertilization, and the males have a developed penis and clasping anal ray that assist in this process (Morris, 1956). The first anal ray on the males is set apart and is prehensile. The male “bends this ray anterolaterally around the female” and uses it to hold the two fish together as they mate.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.coldwatermarineaquatics.com/products/fluffy-sculpin-oligocottussnyderi-mixed-colors http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 19

Common Name: California Sheephead Scientific Name: Semicossyphus pulcher Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopertygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: Native to the eastern Pacific Ocean. Its range is from Monterey Bay, California to the Gulf of California, Mexico.

Life Strategy: California sheephead populations vary spacially in reproductive potential and reproductive capacity, and these differences are correlated with the natural sea surface temperature gradient. It is possible that fish in cooler waters may require less energy for growth and may be able to convert more energy into reproduction than fish at warmer sites

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Californiasheephead http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Fishes

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Species #: 20

Common Name: Clownfish Scientific Name: Amphiprion Ocellaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacentrdae

Geography / Habitat: Clownfish are found in the warm waters of Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, Australia’s Barrier Reef, and the Indian Ocean. They live in shallow lagoons and sheltered reefs. Life Strategy: The largest and most aggressive female is found at the top. Only two clownfish, a male and a female, in a group reproduce through external fertilization. Clownfish lay eggs on any flat surface close to their host anemones.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clownfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Salwater

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Species #: 21

Common Name: Peacock Flounder Scientific Name: Bothus lunatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinoptergii

Order: Pleuronectiformes

Family: Bothidae

Geography / Habitat: The species is found widely in relatively shallow waters in the IndoPacific, also ranging into warmer parts of the east Pacific. Life Strategy: Peacock flounders breed in late winter and early spring. After the female releases two to three million eggs, males fertilize them. The fertilized eggs float close to the surface carried by the currents, and hatch in 15 days. Before hatching the eggs sink to the bottom.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacockflounder http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 22

Common Name: Tarpon Scientific Name: Megalops atlanticus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Elopiformes

Family: Megalopidae

Geography / Habitat: Tarpons are large fish of the genus Megalops; one species is native to the Atlantic, and the other to the Indo-Pacific Oceans. Life Strategy: Tarpons breed offshore in warm, isolated areas. Females have high fecundity and can lay up to 12 million eggs at once. They reach sexual maturity once they are about 75–125 cm in length. Spawning usually occurs in late spring to early summer.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Supraterminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarpon http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

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Species #: 23

Common Name: Leather Bass Scientific Name: Dermatolepis dermatolepis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: Its range extends from the Gulf of California, where it is rare, to Ecuador. It is abundant around Revillagigedo islands. The leather bass Inhabits rocky reefs and areas near the base of rocky faces. Life Strategy: This species undergoes a sex change in which some of the females change into males and become larger than the males. The larger size of the females allows them to produce many eggs. They are voracious feeders and appear to breed in selected locations. This behavior makes them susceptible to over-fishing once their breeding areas become known.

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Body Form or Style: Compessiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://oceanoasis.org/fieldguide/derm-der.html http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

Species #: 24

Common Name: Cleaner Fish Scientific Name: Labriodes dimidiatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Labridae

Geography / Habitat: The best known cleaner fish are the cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Life Strategy: Hermaphroditism allows for complex mating systems. Labroids exhibit three different mating systems: polygynous, lek-like, and promiscuous mating systems. Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems.

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Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcaragiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrasse http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

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Fish Species Title: Saltwater

26

Species #: 25

Common Name: Sandbar Shark Scientific Name: Carcharthinus plumberus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: Native to the Atlantic Ocean and the Indo-Pacific. Life Strategy: The embryos are supported in placental yolk sac inside the mother. Females have been found to exhibit both biennial and triennial reproductive cycles, ovulate in early summer, and give birth to an average of 8 pups, which they carry for 1 year before giving birth

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbarshark http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

27

Species #: 26

Common Name: Fangtooth Scientific Name: Anoplogaster cornuta Kingdom:Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Beryciformes

Family: Anoplogasteridae

Geography / Habitat: Fangtooth that live in the deep sea.

Life Strategy: Fangtooths have planktonic larvae and are assumed to not be egg guarders; spawning frequency and time are not certain, but some activity has been reported from June– August. The juveniles of common fangtooths begin to assume adult form from about 8 cm (3 in) in length, at which time they begin to descend into deeper water.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fangtooth http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

28

Species #: 27

Common Name: Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Scientific Name: Thunnus thynnus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Atlantic bluefin are native to both the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Mediterranean Sea.

Life Strategy: Female bluefin are thought to produce up to 30 million eggs. Atlantic bluefin tuna spawn in two widely separated areas.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlanticbluefintuna http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

29

Species #: 28

Common Name: Wolf herring Scientific Name: Chirocentrus dorab Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Chirocenntridae

Geography / Habitat: It is exclusively marine in habitat, occurring in the Indian Ocean and in the western Pacific to Japan and eastern Australia. Life Strategy: Wolf herring reproduce by spawning, though little information is available regarding specific mating systems of this species.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfherring http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

30

Species #: 29

Common Name: Black Drum Scientific Name: Pogononias cromis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scianidae

Geography / Habitat: The black drum is usually found in or near brackish waters. Larger, older fish are more commonly found in the saltier areas of an estuary (closer to the ocean) near oyster beds or other plentiful food sources. Black drum are found from Nova Scotia to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, the Antilles (uncommon), and the southern Caribbean coast; also from the Orinoco delta to Argentina. Life Strategy: After reaching maturity by the end of their second year, black drum spawn in and around estuarine waters.

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Body Form or Style: Compessiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

31

Species #: 30

Common Name: Nassau Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus striatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Serranidae

Geography / Habitat: The Nassau grouper lives in the western Atlantic Ocean, from Bermuda, Florida and the Bahamas in the north to southern Brazil, but it is only found in a few places in the Gulf of Mexico, most notably along the coast of Belize. Life Strategy: It spawns in December and January, always around the time of the full moon, and always in the same locations. By the light of the full moon, huge numbers of the grouper cluster together to mate in mass spawning.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassaugrouper http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

Species #: 31

Common Name: Queen Parrotfish Scientific Name: Scarus vetula Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Osteichthyes

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scaridae

Geography / Habitat: Fairly common throughout the shallow waters of the Caribbean Found mainly in the back reef and fore reef zones. Life Strategy: Spawning activity occurs in the early morning just after sunrise.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://oceana.org/en/explore/marine-wildlife/queen-parrotfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

32


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

33

Species #: 32

Common Name: Whitetip Reef Shark Scientific Name: Traenodon obesus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichtyes

Order: Carcharhiniformes

Family: Carcharhinidae

Geography / Habitat: The whitetip reef shark is distributed widely across the entire IndoPacific region.

Life Strategy: Like other members of its family, the whitetip reef shark is viviparous; once the developing embryos exhaust their supply of yolk, the yolk sac is converted into a placental connection through which the mother delivers nourishment for the remainder of gestation. Mature females have a single functional ovary, on the left side, and two functional uteruses. The reproductive cycle is biennial

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitetipreefshark http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

Species #: 33

Common Name: Rainbow trout Scientific Name: Oncarhynchus myliss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. Life Strategy: Rainbow trout usually returns to freshwater to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcaranjiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbowtrout http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

34


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

35

Species #: 34

Common Name: French Angelfish Scientific Name: Pomacanthus paru Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Pomacanthidae

Geography / Habitat: found in the western Atlantic from Florida and the Bahamas to Brazil, and also the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, including the Antilles, and the eastern Atlantic from around Ascension Island and St. Paul's Rocks, at depths of between 2 and 100 m. Length is up to 41 cm. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs from April through September. French angelfish have been observed spawning over deep reef areas in the early morning hours.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation:http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/FrenchAngelfish/FrenchAngelfish. html http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

36

Species #:35

Common Name: Zebra Shark Scientific Name: Stegostoma Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chrondrichthyes

Order: Orectolobiformes

Family: Stegostomatidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific.

Life Strategy: The courtship behavior of the zebra shark consists of the male following the female and biting vigorously at her pectoral fins and tail, with periods in which he holds onto her pectoral fin and both sharks lie still on the bottom. On occasion this leads to mating, in which the male curls his body around the female and inserts one of his claspers into her cloaca. Copulation lasts for two to five minutes.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zebrashark http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

37

Species #: 36

Common Name: Spiny Puffer Scientific Name: Diodon holocanthus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Tetraodontiformes

Family: Diodontidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found mostly in the tropics from the West Indies to Florida, and is found along the Atlantic coast, sometimes as far north as Cape Cod, and regularly during the late summer and fall in the vicinity of New York.

Life Strategy: It spawns off New Jersey in July. Juveniles are also found in the Chesapeake Bay in the summertime.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striped_burrfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

38

Species #: 37

Common Name: Manta Ray Scientific Name: Manta birostris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Myliobatidae

Geography / Habitat: Mantas can be found in temperate, subtropical and tropical waters.

Life Strategy: Mating takes place at different times of the year in different parts of the manta's range. Courtship is difficult to observe in this fast-swimming fish, although mating "trains" with multiple individuals swimming closely behind each other are sometimes seen in shallow water. The mating sequence may be triggered by a full moon and seems to be initiated by a male following closely behind a female while she travels at around 10 km (6.2 mi) per hour.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantaray http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

39

Species #: 38

Common Name: Thornback ray Scientific Name: Raja clavata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Chondrichthyes

Order: Rajiformes

Family: Rajidae

Geography / Habitat: It is found in coastal waters of Europe and the Atlantic coast of Africa, possibly as far south as Namibia and even South Africa. Life Strategy: Female thornback rays are sexually mature between 9 and 12 years old, males between 7 and 12 years. This means there is a good chance that the thornback ray is caught (while fishing for flatfish with a beam trawler) before it is able to reproduce. The eggs are laid in the spring

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Rajiform Mouth Position: Subterminal

Citation: http://www.ecomare.nl/en/encyclopedia/animals-andplants/animals/fish/rays/thornback-ray/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

40

Species #: 39

Common Name: Striped Mullet Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Mugiliformes

Family: Mugilidae

Geography / Habitat: The striped mullet is cosmopolitan throughout coastal tropical to warm temperate waters. In the western Atlantic Ocean, it is found from Nova Scotia, Canada south to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico. It is absent in the Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the striped mullet occurs from the Bay of Biscay (France) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The eastern Pacific Ocean range includes southern California south to Chile. Life Strategy: The striped mullet is catadromous, that is, they spawn in saltwater yet spend most of their lives in freshwater. During the autumn and winter months, adult mullet migrate far offshore in large aggregations to spawn. .

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/StripedMullet/StripedMullet.html http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Saltwater

41

Species #: 40

Common Name: Skipjack Tuna Scientific Name: Katsuwonus pelamis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Scombridae

Geography / Habitat: Skipjack tuna are distributed circumtropically. Additionally, they are present along the oceanic coast of Europe and throughout the North Sea, but are absent from the Mediterranean Sea and Black Seas. Life Strategy: Skipjack are oviparous. In warm equatorial waters, skipjack spawn year-round while futher away from the equator, spawning season is limited to the warmer months. Sexual maturity may occur as small as 15 inches (40 cm) length, however most fish appear to mature at larger sizes. Larger females produce significantly more eggs than smaller females, with the average adult producing 80,000 to 2 million eggs per year.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/Descript/SkipjackTuna/SkipjackTuna.html http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

42

Species #: 41

Common Name: Kiyi Scientific Name: Coregoonus kiyi

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Beryciformes

Family: Anoplogasteridae

Geography / Habitat: Kiyi are endemic to the Great Lakes of North America. It previously inhabited Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron and Lake Ontario, but is now believed to persist only in Lake Superior where it is common. Life Strategy: Spawning takes place in autumn or early winter, and has been reported in depths of 106–165 metres (348–541 ft). Ciscoes are known to exhibit large fluctuations in reproductive success and will produce several years of strong year classes followed by several years of poor reproductive success.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position:Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiyi http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species

Title: Freshwater

43

Species #: 42

Common Name: Common Goldfish Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Callionymidae

Geography / Habitat: Originated in China, but can be found all over the world.

Life Strategy: Breeding common goldfish is relatively easy. In breeding condition the male will develop small white spots on his gill covers and the female will become plump. The male will chase the female until she releases her eggs, then the male will release milt and they will become fertilized. The eggs will then stick to any available surface

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commongoldfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

44

Species #: 43

Common Name: Kissing Gourami Scientific Name: Helostoma temmincki Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Helostomatidae

Geography / Habitat: These fish originate from Thailand to Indonesia.

Life Strategy: Spawning occurs from May to October in Thailand. Kissing gouramis are openwater egg scatterers; spawning is initiated by the female and takes place under cover of floating vegetation. The eggs, which the adults do not guard, are spherical, smooth, and buoyant. Initial development is rapid: the eggs hatch after one day, and the fry are free-swimming two days thereafter. The kissing gourami does not care for its young.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kissinggourami http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

Species #: 44

Common Name: Creeper Scientific Name: Oncarhynchus mykiss Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat:

Life Strategy:

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Sub-caranjiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandarinfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

45


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: Rainbow darter Scientific Name: Chirocentrus dorad Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Clupeiformes

Family: Chirocentridae

Geography / Habitat: It is a small perch-like fish found in freshwater streams in North America.

Life Strategy: The rainbow darter spawns in clean, rocky riffles from March through June. It has a lifespan of about four years.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbowdarter http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

46


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

47

Species #: 46

Common Name: Green sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actiopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The green sunfish is native to a wide area of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, from the Hudson Bay basin in Canada, to the Gulf Coast in the United States, and northern Mexico. Life Strategy: Green sunfish begin spawning in the summer with the exact time varying with location and water temperature. When they do spawn, the males create nests in shallow water by clearing depressions in the bottom, often near a type of shelter such as rocks or submerged logs.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/Greensunfish http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

48

Species #: 47

Common Name: Central Stoneroller Scientific Name: Campostoma anomalum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: This species of central stoneroller is widespread in freshwater streams throughout a large portion of the eastern, central, and midwestern United States. It is present in the Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mississippi River, and Hudson Bay basins in the U.S., from New York east to North Dakota and Wyoming and south to South Carolina and Texas. Isolated populations are also found in Canada and Mexico Life Strategy: Maturity is reached in one to four years. Breeding males begin building nests in late winter and continue throughout midsummer, creating large, bowl-shaped depressions in calmer waters by rolling stones along the bottom with their noses, giving them their common name. The males aggressively defend their nests against rival males. Spawning occurs in early spring and summer, varying by region, with those fish in warmer climates generally spawning earlier than those in colder climates

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centralstoneroller http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: Sheatfish Scientific Name: Silurus glanis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Siluridae

Geography / Habitat: Native to eastern Europe and Asia. It has been introduced to several other areas including Germany, France, Spain, England, Greece, Turkey and the Netherlands. Life Strategy: There is little known about mating behavior in this species. Males create nests where females deposit their eggs. Males then guard the eggs until they hatch.

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Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Silurus_glanis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

49


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

50

Species #: 49

Common Name: Blackchin Talapia Scientific Name: Sarotherodon melanotheron Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: Widespread in coastal regions throughout North-western Africa, being found in Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Liberia, Togo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Benin, Gambia, GuineaBissau, Republic of Congo, Mauritania, Ghana and Sierra Leone. Life Strategy: Courtship in this species is fairly lengthy and is initiated by the female. When in condition, she will begin to excavate a pit in the substrate. When a male is receptive, he joins the female in excavating the spawning site. At this point the pair begin to show a marked increase in territorial behaviour, particularly the male.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://www.seriouslyfish.com/species/sarotherodon-melanotheron-melanotheron/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

51

Species #: 50

Common Name: Razorback Sucker Scientific Name: Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Geography / Habitat: Are restricted to a relatively small number of sites in the Colorado River system, from southwestern Wyoming to southeastern California. Life Strategy: Razorback suckers are polyandrous. Males aggregate together and when a female comes by, several males will pursue and position themselves for mating (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998). The group spawns over a depression and then disperses.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Xyrauchen_texanus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

52

Species #: 51

Common Name: Piranha Scientific Name: Pygocentrus nattereri Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae

Geography / Habitat: Piranha usually live in whitewater streams. They live in South America and also can be found east of the Andes in Amazon basin and Parana-Paraquay. Life Strategy: Piranha mate with ventral to ventral interactions. They lay eggs in clusters. The eggs are attached to the bottom of vegetation.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piranha http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

53

Species #: 52

Common Name: Betta Scientific Name: Betta splendens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Belontiidae

Geography / Habitat: The wild Siamese Fighting fish can be found swimming amongst the inland waters of the Orient. It is native to Thailand, but can be found worldwide in pet stores as a domesticated fish. Life Strategy: Mating begins with the male Betta building a nest of bubbles. After spawning has occured, the male then guards the nest, taking care of the eggs until the young hatch 24 to 48 hours later, depending upon the temperature of the water.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Betta_splendens/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

54

Species #: 53

Common Name: Warpaint Shiner Scientific Name: Luxillus coccogenis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Found in North America. It is common in the upper Tennessee River basin as well as in the Savannah River, the Santee River, and the New River in North Carolina. Life Strategy: Both male and female warpaint shiners reach sexual maturity at the age of two years and spawn for the first time during their third summer. They are nest parasites, spawning on the margins of nests built by river chub.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Luxilus_coccogenis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

55

Species #: 54

Common Name: Central Mudminnow Scientific Name: Umbra limi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Escociformes

Family: Umbridae

Geography / Habitat: Central mudminnows are native to the Nearctic, found in both Canada and the United States.

Life Strategy: Spawning is most likely prompted by warming water temperatures and flooding in spring.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Umbra_limi/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

56

Species #: 55

Common Name: Yellow bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) range throughout the eastern United States, extending north to southeastern Canada and west to the Great Plains and Rio Grande drainage. Life Strategy: Yellow bullhead males dig nests, which may range from a shallow depression in muddy sediment to a deep burrow in the stream bank. Protected nest sites near rocks and stumps with dense vegetation are preferred.

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ameiurus_natalis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

57

Species #:56

Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. Life Strategy: An egg-layer, a typical adult female can lay 300,000 eggs in a single spawn. Although carp typically spawn in the spring, in response to rising water temperatures and rainfall, carp can spawn multiple times in a season. In commercial operations, spawning is often stimulated using a process called hypophysation, where lyophilized pituitary extract is injected into the fish.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commoncarp http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

58

Species #: 57

Common Name: Long nose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Semionoti

Family: Lepisosteridae

Geography / Habitat: Long nose gar is found along the east coast of North and Central America in freshwater lakes and as far west as Kansas and Texas and southern New Mexico. Life Strategy: They spawn in temperatures close to 20°C in late April and early July. Eggs have a toxic, adhesive coating to help them stick to substrates, and they are deposited onto stones in shallow water, rocky shelves, vegetation, or smallmouth bass nests

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Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longnosrgar http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

59

Species #: 58

Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Sciaenidae

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum inhabit backwaters and areas of slack current in a wide range of habitats including deep pools in medium to large rivers and large, deep to shallow lacustrine environments. They have a vast distribution range that extends from as far north as the Hudson Bay to their extreme southern range in the Rio Usumacinata Basin of Guatemala. They are found as far east as the western banks of the Appalachian Mountain range in the eastern U.S. and extending as far west as Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Life Strategy: Freshwater drum breed seasonally in open water. The eggs are fertilized and left floating near the surface of the water, where the eggs, and subsequently the larvae, are carried by currents.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aplodinotus_grunniens/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

60

Species #: 59

Common Name: Oscar Scientific Name: Astronotus ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: Cichlids are mainly found in the lowland, freshwater areas of tropical and subtropical regions. However, some of the most primitive species, which are found in Madagascar (17 species) and Asia, also inhabit brackish waters. Some other areas with brackishwater species include coastal India and Sri Lanka (three species), and Cuba and Hispaniola (four species). Most cichlids inhabit lakes or the sluggish areas of rivers but there are a few species adapted to swift flowing streams, including some Crenicichla species. Life Strategy: In one extraordinary case, sex roles are essentially reversed. Sarotherodon melanotheron males nurture eggs and fry in the mouth for 15 days after spawning, while females are capable of spawning just a week later. This creates a situation where the availability of males to brood the eggs is the limiting factor in reproduction. Behavioral studies reveal that male Sarotherodon melanotheron are less aggressive, and more selective, choosing larger females.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cichlidae/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

61

Species #: 60

Common Name: Yellow Madtom Scientific Name: Noturus flavipinnis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Occur within two distinct geographic areas within the Central Highlands of the United States. They inhabit clear streams with rocky or gravel bottoms. Life Strategy: No sexual dimorphism related to color pattern or fin size and shape exists for slender madtoms. Females are typically shorter than males, and weigh less per mm of standard length. During the breeding season the males develop enlarged flattened heads with swollen lips as a means to guard nests. In females and males alike the genital papillae change, with the males’ becoming swollen and more elongate and tissues surrounding the female papillae swelling

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Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Noturus_exilis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

62

Species #: 61

Common Name: Carpsucker Scientific Name: Carpiodes carpio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Catostomidae

Geography / Habitat: Carpiodes carpio was originally distributed in the Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Montana. They have a preference for large and deep rivers that have sand or silt bottoms with slower-moving current even though the river carpsucker has high adaptability to various kinds of habitats. Life Strategy: Reproduction of the river carpsucker usually occurs in late spring. In a breeding season, this species gathers in large groups and spawns. Although the spawning peak is not well described, ripening time is quite different for individuals and does not occur synchronously. Some females spawn more than once per year. This carpsucker broadcasts eggs randomly and usually releases over 100,000 eggs.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position:Supraterminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carpiodes_carpio/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

63

Species #: 62

Common Name: Frontasa Cichlid Scientific Name: Cyphotilapia frontos Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Cyphotilapia frontosa are found between 5-50 meters in depth. Cyphotilapia frontosa is found in coastal waters. They are most commonly found along rocks in water 30-50 meters deep. Life Strategy: C. frontosa release their fry about twenty meters deep. This leads to the belief that fry and adults require less oxygen than other mouthbrooders. This is an advantage for the fish, because water twenty meters deep is much less populated than is shallow water.

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Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Cyphotilapia_frontosa/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

64

Species #: 63

Common Name: Zebra Danio Scientific Name: Danio rerio Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Danio rerio is native to inland streams and rivers of India Zebrafish live in freshwater streams and rivers but are more often considered floodplain species. They are most often found in shallow, slow-moving water near the edge of streams or in ditches. Life Strategy: Zebrafish are promiscuous and breed seasonally during monsoon season. Mating behavior is also heavily influenced by photoperiod, as spawning begins immediately at first light during breeding season and continues for about an hour. In order to initiate courtship about 3 to 7 males chase females and try to lead female towards a spawning site by nudging her and/or swimming around her in a tight circle or figure eight.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Danio_rerio/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

65

Species #: 64

Common Name: Ganges River Dolphin Scientific Name: Platanista gangetica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Cetaccea

Family: Plataninstidae

Geography / Habitat: Ganges River dolphins occupy freshwater river systems in southern Asia. Limited to southern Asia, Platanista gangetica inhabits the Ganges and Indus rivers and the many associated tributaries and connected lakes. This species is restricted to freshwater. Life Strategy: Breeding in Platanista gangetica occurs year round, as does birthing. Most births are from October to March, with a peak in December and January, preceding the beginning of the dry season. Gestation is typically about 10 months but can be from 8 to 12 months.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Platanista_gangetica http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

Title: Freshwater

Species #: 65


Fish Species

66

Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Lota lota Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gadiformes

Family: Lotidae

Geography / Habitat: Burbot, Lota lota, are a holarctic species native to the cold fresh waters of the Nearctic and Palearctic regions found between 40 and 70 degrees North latitudes. Burbot are demersal fish found in deep temperate lake bottoms and slow moving cold river bottoms between 4 and 18 degrees C. Life Strategy: Burbot breed once per year in the winter, migrating to shallow water or to a smaller stream to spawn (Cohen 1990). Burbot move to spawning areas individually and males tend to arrive before females. Spawning occurs during the night when individuals form a globular mass, each fish pushing toward the center and releasing eggs or sperm.

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Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lota_lota/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

67

Species #: 66

Common Name: Cardinal tetra Scientific Name: Paracheirodon axelrodi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Characidae

Geography / Habitat: Cardinal tetras live in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela, in the upper Orinoco and Negro River drainages. Life Strategy: Female cardinal tetras release their eggs during the rainy season. The eggs become fertilized by the milt (sperm) of males in close proximity. Mating takes place at twilight during the rainy season. The male embraces the female while swimming. Fertilization is external. As the female scatters about 500 eggs into the water, males fertilize the eggs.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Paracheirodon_axelrodi/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

68

Species #: 67

Common Name: Brook Strickleback Scientific Name: Culaea inconstans Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Gasterosteiformes

Family: Gasterosteidae

Geography / Habitat: Culaea inconstans is common and abundant in its native range which includes Arctic and Atlantic drainages from Nova Scotia to the northern territories of Canada, Great Lakes-Mississippi River basins from southern Ohio to New Brunswick, Canada and west to Montana and eastern British Columbia. They typically inhabits the shallow edges of cool, clear lakes and ponds with moderate to dense vegetation cover. Life Strategy: When the photoperiod and temperature requirements are met, adult brook stickleback move from deeper water into the warmer, shallow waters along the shoreline where vegetation is plentiful. The males establish territories and begin nest construction; they also change coloration from the non-mating olive to dark green or black. They typically construct the nest on a vertical piece of grass or a stick by using materials such as algae, plant fibers, dead leaves and small twigs

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Culaea_inconstans/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

69

Species #: 68

Common Name: Bloater Scientific Name: Coregonus hoyl Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Coregonus hoyi is endemic to the Great Lakes basin of North America where it inhabited all lakes except Lake Erie. Bloaters exist in both pelagic and benthic regions of deep, freshwater lakes. Life Strategy: Spawning generally takes place in February and March, but some spawning occurs throughout the year as indicated by observations of ripe, nearly ripe, and spent male and females in almost all months. Spawning occurs over almost all bottom types at a depth between 36 and 90 m. Egg production ranges from 3000 to 12000 per female, with larger females producing more eggs than smaller individuals.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coregonus_hoyi/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

70

Species #: 69

Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Stizostedion vitreum Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percidae

Geography / Habitat: Walleye are native to the Nearctic Region. Walleye are abundant in many lakes and larger rivers over much of North America, from the Northwest Territories across Canada east of the Rocky Mountains to Labrador, southward along the Atlantic Coast to North Carolina, west to Arkansas, and north along the Missouri River. Walleyes prefer deep lake and river water but will move into shallow flats to feed during early evening and night. Life Strategy: Adults migrate to tributary streams in late winter or early spring to lay eggs over gravel and rock, although there are open water reef or shoal spawning strains as well. Some populations are known to spawn on sand or on vegetation.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Sander_vitreus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

71

Species #:70

Common Name: Hatchet fish Scientific Name: Gasteropelecus sternicla Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Characiformes

Family: Gasteropelecidae

Geography / Habitat: Gasteropelecus sternicla is known to naturally occur in the Amazon river basin and most of its tributaries. Most of the scientific expeditions that have collected this particular species have done so in the far north of the Amazon river system.

Life Strategy: Research has shown that Gasteropelecus sternicla only breed for a short period coinciding with the start of the rainy season. The eggs are laid by the female, then the male will swim near the eggs and release his sperm. It is not known if the female releases all of her eggs at once, or if they are deposited at different times during the breeding season.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gasteropelecus_sternicla/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

72

Species #: 71

Common Name: River Blackfish Scientific Name: Gadopsis marmoratus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Gadopsidae

Geography / Habitat: River blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) have a relatively limited range, inhabiting freshwater rivers in southeastern Australia. Although river blackfish can be found in both slower and faster flowing waters, they prefer to stay in low-velocity (0 to 20 cm/s), highly sheltered pools of lowland rivers. Life Strategy: River blackfish reproduce sexually, but their mating system is unknown. Fertilization of eggs occurs outside of the mother’s body, and eggs are normally laid inside hollow logs. Egg deposition has also been observed inside of man-made structures (e.g., hollow pipes), which may simulate the conditions of hollow logs.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Gadopsis_marmoratus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

73

Species #: 72

Common Name: Chinook Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Salmoniformes

Family: Salmonidae

Geography / Habitat: Chinook Salmon are found natively in the Pacific from Monterey Bay, California to the Chukchi Sea, Alaska in North America and from the Anadyr River, Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan in Asia. The Chinook Salmon is anadromous– born in freshwater, migrating to the ocean, and returning as mature adults to their natal streams to spawn. Life Strategy: The Chinook Salmon have seasonal runs in which all adults return to their natal streams and spawn at approximately the same time of year. Sexual maturity can be anywhere from 2-7 years, so within any given run, size will vary considerably. Salmon are semalparous, and shortly after spawning they die.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Oncorhynchus_tshawytscha/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

74

Species #: 73

Common Name: Macquarie Perch Scientific Name: Macquaria australasia Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Percichthyidae

Geography / Habitat: Macquarie Perch is an Australian native freshwater fish of the MurrayDarling river system. Life Strategy: The Macquarie perch is primarily an upland native fish and has a breeding biology clearly adapted to flowing upland rivers and streams. (For this reason, the species has proven difficult to breed artificially, as captive females do not produce ripe eggs when kept in still broodponds or tanks). Macquarie perch breed in late spring at temperatures of 15 to 16 °C, in flowing water over unsilted cobble and gravel substrate. The demersal (sinking) eggs fall into the interstices (spaces) between the gravel and cobble, where they lodge and are then protected and incubated until hatching.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macquarie_perch http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

Species #: 74

Common Name: Smallmouth bass Scientific Name: Micopterus dolomieu Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: One of the black basses, it is a popular game fish sought by anglers throughout the temperate zones of North America, and has been spread by stock to many coolwater tributaries and lakes in Canada and more so introduced in the United States. The smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River–Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin. Life Strategy: Like other centrarchids, the male will excavate and guard a small, round nest. Suitability for nest-building is maximized between 1-2.5 m in depth, with particle size of substrate near 30 mm.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Micropterus_dolomieu/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images

75


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

76

Species #: 75

Common Name: Channel catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: The native range of Ictalurus punctatus is the Neartic in lower Canada and throughout the midwest of the United States. Channel catfish can live in both fresh and salt water and brackish water yet they are generally found in freshwater environments. Life Strategy: Ictalurus punctatus is monogamous and has an extensive courtship behavior that might only last one mating season. The male and female mate in the summer but the relationship is established earlier in the year. Mating takes place when the male swims along the female in the opposite direction. Their tails wrap around the others head to begin mating.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ictalurus_punctatus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

77

Species #: 76

Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Redear sunfish are native to the central and southern United States and can be found in the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River drainages, as well as the Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages. Redear sunfish prefer warm and calm or stagnant waters. Life Strategy: During mating season, male redear sunfish make popping sounds while in close proximity to females, which are used to gain the attention of potential mates. During courtship, males repeatedly surge toward potential mates while making popping sounds, which are made by clapping the jaws shut.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_microlophus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com/images


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

78

Species #: 77

Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis megalotis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: The native territory of the longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, is exclusive to North America; it is found primarily in the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds.

Life Strategy: Goddard and Mathis (1997b) found that female longear sunfish prefer male longears with longer opercular flaps, and they found that opercular flaps grew significantly faster than pelvic fins in males, both of which they argue indicate flap length serves as sexual ornamentation.

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Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Lepomis_megalotis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

79

Species #: 78

Common Name: Silver Carp Scientific Name: Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, are native to eastern Asia and are commonly found in northeastern China and Siberia. Silver carp live in freshwater in temperate (6 to 28 °C) to subtropical climates. They are commonly found in impoundments or backwaters of large slow flowing rivers or large lakes. Life Strategy: Silver carp generally reproduce during the spring or summer. Reproduction is primarily cued by increased water temperature. Like other species of carp, silver carp participate in broadcast spawning. During spawning, a female releases eggs and males fertilize them within the water column. A single female can carry as many as 2 million eggs.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Hypophthalmichthys_molitrix/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

80

Species #: 79

Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Cypriniformes

Family: Cyprinidae

Geography / Habitat: Fathead minnows are native to the Nearctic region. The northern limits of their geographic ranges extends from Quebec to Alberta and Northwest Territories, Canada. In addition to small rivers and ponds. Fathead minnows are commonly found in muddy pools of headwaters and creeks. Life Strategy: Fathead minnows are polygynandrous and spawn between the months of May and September, producing anywhere from 1000 to 10000 offspring per season. During breeding season, reproductively mature males are responsible for the selection and preparation of nest sites on the underside of horizontal objects.

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Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Termina

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Pimephales_promelas/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater

81

Species #: 80

Common Name: Texas Blindcat Scientific Name: Satan eurystomus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Siluriformes

Family: Ictaluridae

Geography / Habitat: Satan eurystomus is known only from the Edwards Aquifer in Bexar County near San Antonio, Texas. Widemouth blindcats live in the fresh waters of the subterranean Edwards Aquifer. These waters ranges from 305 to 582 m below the surface. Life Strategy: Little is known about the mating system of widemouth blindcats. It has not been studied in the natural habitat. Specimens which have been studied appeared to be juveniles, having not reached sexual maturity. Among ictalurids, both monogamy and polygamy have been observed. Spawning season usually varies by habitat.

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Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Satan_eurystomus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

82

Species #: 81

Common Name: Moon jelly Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Scyphozoa

Order: Semaeostomeae

Family: Ulmaride

Geography / Habitat: Aurelia aurita are found near the coast, in mostly warm and tropical waters (but they can withstand temperatures as low as -6 and as high as 31 degrees Celsius). They are prevalent in both inshore seas and oceans. Their habitat includes the costal waters of all zones, and they occur in huge numbers. Life Strategy: Sexual maturity in Aurelia aurita commonly occurs in the spring and summer. The eggs develop in gonads located in pockets formed by the frills of the oral arms. The gonads are commonly the most recognizable part of the animal, because of their deep and conspicuous coloration.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aurelia_aurita/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

83

Species #: 82

Common Name: Blackwater brittlestar Scientific Name: Ophiocoma echinata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Ophiuroidea

Order: Ophiurida

Family: Ophiocomidae

Geography / Habitat: The spiny brittle star can be found along the eastern coastlines of Central and South America to Brazil, Florida, and the majority of the islands in the Caribbean Sea. Spiny brittle stars occupy reefs and reef flats, particularly those abundant in rubble. Life Strategy: Spiny brittle stars have testes and ovaries consisting of clusters of gametes in saclike cavities called bursae. An individual 22 mm in disk length can contain 888,000 eggs. Sexes are separate, however, no sex differences have evolved because no sex recognition is necessary in the spawning process.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ophiocoma_echinata/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

84

Species #: 83

Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Octopoda

Family: Octopodidae

Geography / Habitat: Considered the most intelligent of all invertebrates, the common octopus is found the tropical and temperate waters of the world’s oceans. They prey on crabs, crayfish, and mollusks, and will sometimes use their ink to disorient their victims before attacking. Life Strategy: Mating season takes place in early spring. Males and females can mate with each other for several hours, but they will still mate with other partners. Females will release around 500,000 eggs.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonoctupus http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

85

Species #: 84

Common Name: Chambered Nautilus Scientific Name: Nautilus pompilius Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Nautilida

Family: Nautilidae

Geography / Habitat: Nautilus pompilius is found in the Indo-Pacific area. They primarily live near the bottom, in waters up to 500 meters deep, but rise closer to the surface throughout the night. Life Strategy: This species reproduces sexually through internal fertilization and reaches sexual maturity at age 15 to 20 years. Four of the tentacles on the male form the spandix, which transfers sperm by means of a spermatophore. A spermatophore contains an elongated sperm mass that adheres to the female's mantle wall.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Nautilus_pompilius/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

86

Species #: 85

Common Name: American Lobster Scientific Name: Homarus anericanus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Nephropidae

Geography / Habitat: Homarus americanus, the American lobster, is found along the Atlantic coast of North America in the region from Labrador, Canada to North Carolina, United States. The American Lobster lives on the bottom of the ocean. Life Strategy: A female is ready to mate at about 5 years of age. Mating must occur within 48 hours after the female molts, and the process usually lasts about a minute. The female will spawn her eggs between one month and two years after mating, at which time they become fertilized by sperm that has been stored.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Homarus_americanus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

Species #: 86

Common Name: Sea Monkeys Scientific Name: Artemia salina Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Branchiopoda

Order: Anostraca

Family: Artemiidae

Geography / Habitat: The brine shrimp is found in inland salt water bodies such as the Great Salt Lake in northern Utah, on the rocky coast south of San Francisco, and in the Caspian Sea. Artemia salina have a remarkable resistance to change and are able to live in a wide variety of water salinity. Life Strategy: In the Great Salt Lake studies have shown that many males are present and reproduction occurs when a male clasps a female with his large second antennae and fertilizes her eggs, producing diploid zygotes. Then she lays the eggs in a brood sac in the water.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Artemia_salina/ http://images.search.yahoo.com

87


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

88

Species #: 87

Common Name: Land Hermit Crabs Scientific Name: Coenobita perlatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Coenobitidae

Geography / Habitat: Coenobita perlatus is found in the Indo-Pacific from the Islands of Aldabra, Mauritius, and Seychelles through Samoa. These areas are located in the south central Pacific Ocean about 1,600 miles northeast of New Zealand, north of Madagascar and directly above the 10 degree latitude line. Life Strategy: These creatures reproduce sexually and will not reproduce in captivity. Reproduction occurs while both individuals are in intermolt (hard-shelled stage), often in or near the burrows of males, or on land near the sea. Male C. perlatus place a spermatophore on the female (externally) which is then dissolved by secretions as the eggs are released.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Coenobita_perlatus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

89

Species #: 88

Common Name: Blue Crab Scientific Name: Callinectes sapidus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropodia

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Portunidae

Geography / Habitat: Although the natural range of Callinectes sapidus spreads from the western Atlantic Ocean from Nova Scotia to Argentina, it was introduced, accidentally or deliberately, into both Asia and Europe. It has also been introduced into Hawaii and Japan. Life Strategy: Spawning peaks in Callinectes sapidus are closely associated with the region they inhabit. Unlike males, female C. sapidus mate only once in their lifetime, after the pubertal or terminal molt.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Callinectes_sapidus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

90

Species #: 89

Common Name: Vampire Squid Scientific Name: Vampyroteuthis infernalis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Cephalopoda

Order: Vampyromorpha

Family: Vampyroteuthidae

Geography / Habitat: The vampire squid occupies meso- to bathypelagic depths throughout the world's tropical and temperate oceans where little to no light penetrates. The vampire squid lives in the tropical and subtropical oceans of the world at depths ranging from 300-3000m with a majority of squids living between the ranges of 1,500-2,500m. Life Strategy: Because small vampire squids occupy deeper water than larger squids, spawning probably occurs in very deep water. It is most likely that males transfer spermatophores to the female from their funnel. The female vampire squid is larger than the male and discharges the fertilized eggs directly into the water. Mature eggs are fairly large at 3-4mm in diameter and are found free-floating in small masses in deep water.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Vampyroteuthis_infernalis/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Saltwater/Marine Invertebrates

91

Species #: 90

Common Name: Sea hare Scientific Name: Aplysia californica Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Opisthovarnchia

Family: Aplysidae

Geography / Habitat: Sea Hares are marine animals that inhabit coastal regions thick with vegetation. This particular species, Aplysia californica, ranges from Northern California to Baja California. Aplysia californica are marine animals that inhabit coastal regions thick with vegetation. This particular species ranges from Northern California to Baja California. Life Strategy: A. californica is hermaphroditic. Armed with a single aperture and duct for the sperm and ova, this species reproduces sexually. They travel to deeper waters to spawn around spring time

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Aplysia_californica/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species

Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

92

Species #: 91

Common Name: Tasmanian Giant Freshwater Crayfish Scientific Name: Astacopsis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum:Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Parastacidae

Geography / Habitat: This species is found in the rivers, streams, and reservoirs that drain into Bass Straight including the Arthur River System. The species can be found mostly in dark, slow moving rivers. They feed around large rotting logs and other submerged structures. Life Strategy: This species of crayfish reaches reproductive maturity late in its life. Males reach maturity at about 9 years and females do not reach maturity until about 14 years. Even after they reach maturity, females only breed every two years. They mate and spawn in the autumn and the eggs will hatch the next summer.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Astacopsis_gouldi/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

93

Species #: 92

Common Name: Common yabby Scientific Name: Cherax destructor Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Parastacidae

Geography / Habitat: The common yabby, Cherax destructor, is an Australian freshwater crustacean in the Parastacidae family. Yabbies are common throughout Victoria and New South Wales, although the species also occurs in southern Queensland, South Australia and parts of the Northern Territory, making it the most widespread Australian crayfish.

Life Strategy: During spawning, the male yabby places a spermatophore between the female’s fourth and fifth pair of walking legs. The female breaks open the spermatophore and mixes the sperm with the eggs she expels. The fertilised eggs are placed within the “brood chamber” where they become firmly attached to the pleopods.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_yabby http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

94

Species #: 93

Common Name: Faucet snail Scientific Name: Bithynia tentaculata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

Order: Decapoda

Family: Bithyniidae

Geography / Habitat: This snail lives in slow-running freshwater habitat such as low-velocity rivers, and standing-water bodies such as lakes. The species flourishes in calcium-rich waters.It is commonly found in freshwater ponds, shallow lakes, and canals. Life Strategy: Bithynia tentaculata is dioecious (it has two separate sexes) and lays its eggs on rocks, wood and shells in organized aggregates arranged in double rows, in clumps of 1–77. Egglaying occurs from May to July when water temperature is 20°C or higher, and sometimes a second time in October and November by females born early in the year.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faucet_snail http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

95

Species #: 94

Common Name: Tadpole Shrimp

Scientific Name: Triops cancriformis Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthopoda

Class: Branchiopoda

Order: Notostraca

Family: Triopsidae

Geography / Habitat: They are found worldwide in freshwater, brackish water or saline pools, as well as in shallow lakes, peat bogs and moorland. Life Strategy: Within the Notostraca, and even within species, there is variation in the mode of reproduction, with some populations reproducing sexually, some showing self-fertilisation of females, and some showing a mix of the two.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadpole_shrimp http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

96

Species #: 95

Common Name: Redrock crab Scientific Name: Graspus graspus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Grapsidae

Geography / Habitat: Grapsus grapsus is found along the Pacific coast of Mexico, Central America, South America (as far south as northern Peru), and on nearby islands, including the Galápagos Islands. It is also found along the Atlantic coast of South America, but is replaced in the eastern Atlantic Ocean (Ascension Island and West Africa) by its congener Grapsus adscensionis. Life Strategy: Juveniles remain in intertidal and shallow subtidal associated with macroalgae until 2nd summer; breeding occurs in inshore waters.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapsus_grapsus http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

97

Species #: 96

Common Name: Freshwater jelly Scientific Name: Craspedacusta sowerbyi Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chidaria

Class: Hydrozoa

Order: Hydroida

Family: Olindiidae

Geography / Habitat: C. sowerbii is usually found in calm, freshwater reservoirs, lakes, impoundments, gravel pits or quarries. They have also been seen in river systems such as the Allegheny River, the Ohio River and the Tennessee River in the United States and the Wang Thong River of Thailand. They prefer standing water, and are not generally seen in fast flowing streams or rivers. Life Strategy: C. sowerbii begins life as a tiny polyp, which lives in colonies attached to underwater vegetation, rocks, or tree stumps, feeding and asexually reproducing during spring and summer. Some of these offspring are the sexually reproducing medusae. Fertilized eggs develop into small ciliated larvae called planula.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freshwater_jellyfish http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

98

Species #: 97

Common Name: Catspaw Scientific Name: Epioblasma obliquata Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae

Geography / Habitat: Historically Epioblasma obliquata was found in the Ohio River drainage and the Detroit River, however its range has been greatly reduced to one population in Indiana. Specific habitat requirements are unknown since this species is rare. However, populations recently found were in high gradient streams in riffles with gravel. In Michigan this species was historically found in the Detroit River and Lake Erie. Life Strategy: Age to sexual maturity for this species is unknown. Unionids are gonochoristic (sexes are separate) and viviparous. The glochidia, which are the larval stage of the mussels, are released live from the female after they are fully developed.

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Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position:

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Epioblasma_obliquata/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

99

Species #: 98

Common Name: Eastern Pearl Shell Scientific Name: Magaritaifera margaritifera Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Molluska

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Margaritiferidae

Geography / Habitat: Margaritifera margaritifera, also known as the freshwater pearl mussel or the eastern pearlshell, is native to European rivers and streams. Freshwater pearl mussels live buried or partly buried in stream bed substrates that have sandy patches surrounded by boulders and large rocks. Life Strategy: Freshwater pearl mussels are dioecious, meaning that females and males exist in the species. Both sexes can also change into hermaphrodites, although males rarely do. Hermaphrodites frequently can be found in low-density populations, where there are not enough males to fertilize all of the females.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Margaritifera_margaritifera/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

100

Species #: 99

Common Name: Salamander Mussel Scientific Name: Simpsonaias ambigua Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Unionoida

Family: Unionidae

Geography / Habitat: The salamander mussel is found in the Ohio River drainages, north through Lake Erie in southern Michigan, west to Iowa sandsouth to northern Alabama. Its eastern range extends from Pennsylvania south to the western half of Tennessee. Life Strategy: Age to sexual maturity for this species is unknown. Unionids are gonochoristic (sexes are separate) and viviparous. The glochidia, which are the larval stage of the mussels, are released live from the female after they are fully developed.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Simpsonaias_ambigua/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species

Title: Freshwater Invertebrates

101

Species #: 100

Common Name: Eastern Grass Shrimp Scientific Name: Palaemonetes paludosus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Malacostraca

Order: Decapoda

Family: Palaemonidae

Geography / Habitat: Palaemonetes paludosus, commonly known as glass shrimp, eastern grass shrimp, or ghost shrimp, is naturally found in freshwater ponds, lakes, and streams in the coastal plain of North American east of the Allegheny Mountains, from Florida to New Jersey. Eastern grass shrimp are primarily found in freshwater habitats. Life Strategy: Eastern grass shrimp reproduce sexually. In pre-spawning females, their ripening ovaries take on a greenish color. Females become receptive to males after molting, during which time their exoskeleton is soft. Copulation occurs within seven hours of molting. The male only recognizes the female as a potential mate if physical contact is made with her exoskeleton.

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Body Form or Style: N/A Swim / Locomotion Style: N/A Mouth Position: N/A

Citation: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Palaemonetes_paludosus/ http://images.search.yahoo.com


Fish Species

102


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