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WIREFLIES


Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//WIREFLIES Angelopoulou Dimitra Diamanti Vasiliki Karantaki Meropi RC7 Gamescapes Studio by Jose Sanchez Technical Assistant: Sergio Irigoyen The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL MArch GAD 2012/2013

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//Acknowledgements A research-thesis project such as this is seldom due to the efforts of the team alone. Firstly, we would like to thank UCL, for providing us the opportunity and facilities to carry out our research. We would like to deeply thank our tutor, Jose Sanchez, for constantly supporting and guiding us through the project. Without his insight the project wouldn’t have been possible. We are grateful to Sergio Irigoyen (Unity), Denis Vlieghe (Arduino), Denis Lacej (Structure) and Michalis Desyllas (3DMAX) for carrying us through the conceptual and technical difficulties. We would also like to express our special gratitude to our families and friends who have supported us throughout this experience, as well as to all GAD students. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the collaboration and support of: -Hong Kong: Michelle Poon, Will Hosikian, Cristof Crolla, Tom Verebes, Paul Wintour -Resident Crits : Simon Winters, Juan Oyarbide and Diony Kypraiou -Crits : -final: Filip Visnic Theo Spyroupolos Sean Hanna Ricardo de Ostos Martin Dittus -midterm: Tobias Klein Adam Sudcliff Igor Pantic Soomen Hahm Gary Freedman

London, 29-08-2013

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//Index 1. first term research.......................................................................................8 2. workshops..........................................................................................................22 -board game -modelling workshop 3. references.........................................................................................................38 4. air politics...........................................................................................................48 5. main idea.............................................................................................................58 6.study of fully packed systems...........................................................68 7. geometry + patterns..............................................................................78 8. idea of the wing...........................................................................................94 9. intentions.......................................................................................................102 10. physical model - Arduino................................................................112 11. the product................................................................................................140 12. game - interface...................................................................................152 13. images - info from the game.....................................................170 14. final review’ s comments...............................................................224 15.apendix.............................................................................................................230

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//1. FirstTerm Research

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//Wind Research - Kite Origami

Lift

Aerodynamic Forces

Karantaki Meropi

In first term research we were interested in lightweight structures, that uses environmental physics (and more specifically the wind) in order to trigger a behavior. In order to understand better how these structures could function a very basic study of the aerodynamics was required. As design tools for these studies we used an origami crease transformed into an type of kite. From diagram 3 we understand which are the required forces for a kite in order to fly. Three of these values are the most important for my project. The line tension, which is the force that the user applies to the system in order to control it, the Lift Force, which is the force of the wind that makes the kite able to swing and fly and the Angle of Attack (A of A). Angle of attack is the angle that the kite penetrates the wind. As the A of A increases so does lift and drag, up to a point. Too much angle results in a kite that stalls or won’t lift, or causes the kite to be overpowered by the wind. Too little angle results in not enough lift but increases the speed of the kite. In my simulation the degrees of freedom of the angles of the origami depend on the A of A. Each time a force (by the user) in being applied to the face of the unit the hinge between the two pieces is activated and folds them according to their limits (degrees of freedom). Subsequently when the unit (component) comes to the right angle (A of A) with the direction of the wind, a vertical force (Lift Force) push the unit upwards and lifts it.

x

Wind Direction

Drag C of P C of Gv

Line Tension

A of A Weight Force

x: For equilibrium, the lines of action of the wind force, nett aerodynamic force and line tension must pass through a single point.

A of A : Angle of Attack C of P: Center of Pressure C of G : Where the Weight Forces Act

Diagram 1: Aerodynamic forces acting on a kite.

Wind Direction Direction of the Face

angle = 0°

20° < angle < 70°

Diagram 2: Angle of attack.

Force Downwards

Diagram 3: Degrees of Freedom. 10

Diagram 4: Simulation process.

angle > 75°


Wireflies _ FirstTerm Research

Diagram 5: Simulation of the stages of origamis transformation.

Images from the game

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett In the final simulation we started with a composition of large pieces of origami, unfolded. When the user interacts with them (applies forces on them) they begin to fold and be lifted by the wind. During the simulation the user can differentiate the result by affecting three values, the amount of the force that is applied by the user, the mass of the unit (weight) and the limits of the folding angles (degrees of freedom). The diagram demonstrates real time transformations of the structure during the play. Concluding first termâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s wind research and after understanding the wind aerodynamics and how these could affect a form of a structure, our interest focused on the study of systems that engage an ecological way of being expressive. The notion of interactivity with the user and the scale of control over the structure, either human of robotic, were questioned as well.

Sequence of game play 12


Wireflies _ FirstTerm Research

Control points Wind

Control â&#x20AC;&#x153;ropesâ&#x20AC;? Robotic or Human Control

Image from the game

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//â&#x20AC;&#x153;Hydraâ&#x20AC;?

Angelopoulou Dimitra The main subject of this project is how networks work in terms of continuity and flow. Starting from the one unit, the question is how the one connects with another creating a system of continuity and at the same time how units can be joint to form larger and more complex systems. The chosen geometry is the truncated octahedron, because among other shapes due to its perfect symmetry this unit can create fully packed systems. In the simulation there is the possibility to rotate the unit in whichever axis you choose by 90 degrees each time. Argument All those calculations require a big amount of computation because order in the system is a very unlike thing. On the other hand the human mind can shortcut the process through pattern matching. Diagram: States of possible positions while rotating the unit in x,y,z axis

All Possible Combinations (between two units) state 1 + state 1

14 combinations

state 1 +state 2

14 combinations

state 1 + state 3

14 combinations

14 x 24 = 336 combinations //// 4 of them are correct TOTAL 336 x 24 = 8.064 combinations //// 4 x 24 = 96 correct

vast number of combinations with only one pattern in one face. If i had more??

Diagram: Successful combinations 14


Wireflies _ FirstTerm Research //SENSORS _creative way of navigating Instead of the mathematical way for the combinations, sensors are put in the geometry to control the succesful combinations. When things match, and information is transmitted you can instantly see the result of it.

Experiment/Glowing patterns: Attempt to illustrate the idea of distributing energy or light in the system.

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett //Experiment 2 Next step

_what if the one unit could sense the other (the right position) and rotate automatically?? or _what if I had more than one levels of networks?

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Wireflies _ FirstTerm Research

//Experiment 2: The aim was to perceive the network better, to look different, feel different, as a pattern that it has completely different logic from the geometry and it is carried by it. The purpose was to stop seeing the geometry and see only the line.

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//2D + 3D = 5D Diamanti Vasiliki

This project is about the dialogue between a two dimensional pattern and a three dimensional geometry, and in what way the one can affect the other or produce architectural qualities. A texture can be applied or created in a geometry in several ways. Projections in shapes can produce ambiguities of perception through the techniques of distortion, color and pattern. An image can also be used as a displacement map in order to modify the surface and create real geometry, at render time. 2D shapes translating into material effect can also be used to determine the geometry of the façade and play with architectural elements such as lighting. 2D and 3D shapes can come together and operate. From that moment, there are many possibilities that can be occur. Textures can be added to an object either as color or as a geometry texture that alters the objects surface geometry. Tetrahedron can be rotated in such way that the result appears identical to what we started with. We can observe seven different axis of rotation that provide symmetry in the geometry. If we map the texture in the surface in different ways we will take a variety of results. Because of the symmetrical system of the tetrahedron, UV can be implemented one above the other to have the same view of the texture. Very simple textures can give unexpected results when applying differently in the geometries’ UV.

Rotational symmetries

180°

De Young Museum, Herzog & de Meuron

The facade is textured to represent light filtering through a tree. Images of the existing foliage provide patterns for the design of the facade (copper).

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120°


Wireflies _ FirstTerm Research Because of the many axis of symmetry, the patterns match. so we can change all the faces and their orientations. This creates a dialogue between the elements, and the texture becomes a carrier of 2D system information. Texture, that is animated, according to the UV mapping, allow rhythm, movement and flows and is the tool that provides us with the variations and gives the possibility to the elements to match together. Texture as information can have a lot of potential. It creates a system where, the tetrahedra, after matching together, they influence each other and work as a unity. All the elements of the geometry are merged into one.

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett 2D and 3D elements actually manipulated to create something new. If patterns are combined in specific ways, new patterns are going to emerge starting an emergent effect. This effect configures a third geometrical form which occurred from this dialogue. In real world this dialogue can be achieved in many ways. A. the texture can be applied from the outside of the geometry as a video projection. B. from the inside as it creates a cover geometry round a light. Light can ooze through the texture. C. the surface can be composed by video panels which change according to the texture. D. or have sensors which interpret the environment and change the speed of the system.

Apply from the outside

Apply from the inside

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Apply in the surface


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//Board Games

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Game of Typology

Diamanti Vasliki, Karantaki Meropi ,Tsakirids George, Xiao Ying

Horizontal Connection in Hong Kong Bridge

Introduction Hong Kong is a vertical city, an example of three-dimensional urbanism. Because of the acute topography and the physical limitatons, the escalating population growth and the shortage of time, Hong Kong becomes a hyperdense city, generating new typologies for the public space which also extends vertically. Hong Kong develops a complex network of high-speed pedestrian highways, elevated walkways, pedestrian subways and footbridges which provide the connection to and through enclosed semi-public spaces. Mainly, the semi-public space of â&#x20AC;&#x153;the mallâ&#x20AC;? forms a major component of the pedestrian circulation of the city and creates an evolution of the mall typology and the relation between private and semi-private space.

visible

connect & bring

invisible

Add VALUE!

game rule of value

bridge in the game private space with buffering

0 value value bridge buffering space connection

visible connection multiple layers/different

invisible connection shopping/stores in the corridor of tube, invisible connection in people, transportation, commercial,

The game The game expresses the constant changes that happened in Hong Kong regarding the land uses and its value. The three players represent three different characters, the open space, the private space, and the privatepublic space/ buffering Zone. The goal for each player is to maintain in the game while creating a valuable network.

0 value

Transportation Pressure in Urban Scale:

Airplanes / Helicopters Funicular railways

Escalators Moving pavements Road transport Mass Transit Railway

Relationship:

Pressure in building scale

Landuse pressure

buildings density population density unit density

density of landuse not buildt up

<1,000 people/km2 <50,000 people/km2 <50,000 people/km2 >50,000 people/km2

population pressure

Building

culture pressure noise pressure heavy pollution pressure

car parking

decomposition

Pressure in Hong Kong

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Low density: person/unit 1/9=0.111

High density 10 person/unit 11/9=1.222

Population density

Unit density


Wireflies _ Board Games

â&#x20AC;&#x153;coroporate governanceâ&#x20AC;? open market

cargo from China

artificially high land prices

re-export around the globe

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//Game of Typology - Rules

General Instructions

All the rules and instructions of â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Game of Typologyâ&#x20AC;?. The cards with the three different play characters. Each player acts according to their own rules.

1.Select Your Character

Open Space

Buffering Zone

2. Make a Move and Lift the Terrain One Unit Up

Private Space

3. Rule of Density

4.Rule of Connection

Buffering Be Between Public and Private

+3 per connection Open Space

Private Space

Same Color (Type) Cube Configuration

Put Here

Right

Rule of Four

Scoring System

Open Space Expand vertically

1. Absolute Value

+1 per connection Buffering Zone

Private Space

Private Space

0.25

5 Level 4 Level

0.75

3 2 1 0

2.00

0.50 1.00

Level Level Level Level

3.00 4.00

scoring

3. Bridge Score Value

+1 per connection

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7 Level 6 Level

2. Relative Value

Be Near the Buffering Zone

Open Space

Wrong

Buffering Zone

7 Level 6 Level

2points 2points

5 Level

2points 1point 1point

4 3 2 1 0

Level Level Level Level Level

Value

2 xValue

2 x Value

1point 0point

scoring

No Bridge

1 Bridge

The Connection should be same with Left or Right


Wireflies _ Board Games The terrain of the board game is transformable. Each player, after his turn, lift a piece of the terrain by one unit with a mechanism which operates by tuning. While the terrain lifts up, it gradually loses its value.

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//On_Board Angelopoulou Dimitra, Guo Xuan, Kotsani Eythimia Manufacturing sector 9%

_Introduction The whole study of the game is inspired by the city of Hong Kong and its networks that are constituted of many different parameters. Some major parameters, such as the land use, the economy analysis, the buildings typology and the density of the city, were analyzed and led to the creation of a board game that focuses on the variety of th networks that constitutes a city and can expand from the building scale to the urban scale. _The Game Main goal of the game is the formation of two networks, conflicting or not, evolving in two different levels, that intend to expand in the areas with the most positive value.

Type A1

Other services 22.6%

water housing land other2.3% 6.1% other 2.8% 3.9%

Other sale and retail services 23.9%

10%

9% 1%

11.1%

transport 4.5% recreation area 1.8% empty/construction site 2.5% other developed land 2.3% agriculture 6.4%

78.9%

90%

public administration, social and personal services 16.9%

real estate, professional and business services 11.2%

forest 67.1%

financing and insurance 15.4% 1224

Type A2

industries

1288

other

services

Natural environment

Building area

Economy Pie Chart

Other

Land Use Pie Chart

Hong Kong density Chart

Type B

574 347

Type C1

136

Type C2 0

Type D1

Type D2

64

70

55

405

41

30

33

29

12

Points

5

Population Density (hundred/km sq)

10

Population (million) Urban Areas(km sq) Points per Building

15 20

Hong Kong

Tokyo

Mumbai

Los Angeles

high land value

New York

London

lower land value neutral zone

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Skycraper(number)

Cairo

12 - 19 Floors = 0.01 Point 20 - 29 Floors = 0.05 Points 30 - 39 Floors = 0.25 Points 40 - 49 Floors = 0.50 Point 50 - 59 Floors = 1.00 Points 60 - 69 Floors = 2.00 Points 70 - 79 Floors = 3.00 Points 80 - 89 Floors = 4.00 Points 90 - 99 Floors = 5.00 Points 100 or more Floors = 6.00 Points

HK in section


Wireflies _ Board Games

Board Components

Structural Components

16 pixels / 0 points

45 pixels / 1 points

16 pixels / -1 points

16 & 33 pixels / 2 points

16 & 24 pixels / -2 points

_Rules Of The Game _At the beggining of the game every player has all of his structural components and no network components. _ The first player must place a structural component whereas the second one is capable of placing also a network component. _ When a player decides to place network components, he can use from just one, up to the number of elements he posseses at that moment. _All the structural Components should form a network and be connected at least in one “pixel” _ The network components should also form a network _ The connection between a structural component and a bridge-like one, can be achieved only through the lifting elements. _When at least the half of a Board tile is covered by network elements , the land value drops. The positive tiles switch to negatives and the negatives double their value. The only tile that is permitted to be overpopulated is the one with 0 value. _Game Play 1 In the fist gameplay each player tries to form a network and gather the maximum of points. A way to do so is by blocking his opponent’ s network. In that case the score is individual since the game is highly competitive.

12 pixels / 3 points

4 pixels / 5 points

16 pixels /-3 points

_Game Play 2 In the second gameplay, the two players cooperate in order to form their networks. Their goal is to achieve the best common score by avoiding the board tiles with the minimum value. In that gameplay, the players compete each time their “previous selves” and try to improve their efficiency as a team by overpassing their last score.

45 pixels / 9 points

Network Components

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Step 3 _ Place a structural component

Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

or network components

Step 1 _ Configure the board

Step 2 _ Choose your mode of Game Play

Step 3 _ Place a structural component or network components

VS

Player B

Player A

OR

+

Player A

Step 4 _ Take 2 network components

Player B

Step 5 _ Place all of your Structural Components. The first

player that achieves it finish the game.

Step 6 _ Count your points

The scoring system varies according to the two different gameplays. In the fist gameplay each player tries to form a network and gather the maximum of points. A way to do so is by blocking his opponent’ s network. In that case the score is individual since the game is highly competitive. In the second gameplay, the two players cooperate in order to form their networks. Their goal is to achieve the best common score by avoiding the board tiles with the minimum value. In that gameplay, the players compete each time their “previous selves” and try to improve their efficiency as a team by overpassing their last score.

GamePlay

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Wireflies _ Board Games

//Model Photos Model experiments: 1. lego 2. blue foam 3. final model from MDF

1

2

3

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//Modeling Workshop

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Wireflies _ Modeling Workshop

“Sharp blow” is a sharp and edgy system that harvests the wind. The intention was to design a lightweight structure formed only by triangulated and squared faces (tessellated) and having only sharp edges. Networks can be developed in between the edges and distribute the air energy through the system. At starting point I experimented with tessellated surfaces of different patterns and studied their possible configurations by creating numerous generations. Sharp blow” is the 4th generation of its family.

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Wireflies _ Modeling Workshop

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//References

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Wireflies _ References

//Cubelets â&#x20AC;&#x153;Cubeletsâ&#x20AC;? is a modular robotic set that allows different behavioural blocks to be combined in different assemblings. So, every robot is completely different just because of combining differently. The pieces can be snapped together to make an endless variety of robots with no programming and without wires. It is a building set that can be serialized allowing us to embed technology into matter.

pic 1 http://www.notcot.com/archives/2012/01/ces-a-peek-inside-cubelets.php pic 2, 4 http://www.modrobotics.com/ cubelets pic 3 http://www.robotshop.com/flashlight-cubelet.html

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Curvy Game Curvy is a puzzle game which consists of board of hexagonal tiles. On each tile appears a single or double set of lines, each set of them has its own color. The whole point of that 2D game is to achieve the right color combination by rotating each unit. What is interesting in this game is that although there is an hexagonal grid, the player can add another layer of information to the geometry to create new connectivities and new networks. pic 5 http://redrodger.com/games/curvy/ pic 6, 7, 10, 11 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=net.flaminglunchbox.curvy pic 8 http://www.chromeexperiments.com/detail/curvy/

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p.8

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p.10

p.11


Wireflies _ References

//Letterhex Tilefont In his work, Sebastian Rauch tried to combine pattern and type. His goal is to get a functional tile set with as few modules as possible. The result is a set of 7-9 tiles or modules which can be used to generate a large variety of ornaments and/or write words.

pic 12,14,15,16 : http://www.typographyserved.com/gallery/Letterhex-Tilefont/4372383 pic 13 http://designspiration.net/image/941448602796/

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Wireflies _ References

//Common electrical circuit and symbols The study of the patterns and the key ingredients of an electrical circuit could work as an analogy of how information flows through a system. Moments of diverting and spreading are very important for our project and mainly for understanding its nervous system and how everything is connected.

Diagram 13: electrical symbols

Diagram: common electrical circuit 45


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Wireflies _ References

//Braun Lectron Braun Lectron toy consists of boxes and board which can be put together to create circuits. Instead of using clips, binding posts, or springs to hold parts together, each box is equipped with small magnets at the points where it is to contact another box or the board. The sides and the bottom of each box are made of clear plastic so it’s obvious what’s inside. The top of each box – carrying the schematic symbol – is opaque white. The concept has great potential for us as a teaching tool. It is possible to set up a practical circuit and its innovative design allows users to quickly assemble the boxes into customized configurations without wiring or soldering. The possibility to change any component in the circuit cause instantly change in the circuit performance. The design and the behaviour of the components have been inspirational for our project. p 17, 18, 20, 22 http://www.dasprogramm.org/electrical/lectron-system.html p 19, 21 http://makezine.com/2011/12/08/the-braun-lectron-system-retro-circuit-dominoes/

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//Air politics

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TODAY 50


Wireflies _ Air Politics

2050 51


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//Air Politics Four-fifths of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy still comes from non-renewable sources such as oil fuels etc. However there is a high interest in investing in other renewables such as the wind power and there is an assumption that in 40 years from now it would be the main source of energy. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy system is not just inefficient, it is also disconnected, aging, dirty and insecure. So it needs refurbishment. By 2050 though, it could become efficient, connected and distributed with elegantly factories and buildings all relying on a modern, secure and resilient electricity system. Energy harvesting is emerging as one way to provide alternative energy Options for harvesting are already being explored for medical devices, small home appliances like smoke alarms, and a number of other applications. Wind power currently supplies about 2.5 percent of global electricity consumption. Industry projections show that wind power will, with the right policy support, double in capacity by 2015 and again by the end of this decade. This will deliver somewhere between 8 and 12 percent of global electricity supply. Wind power is present today in over 79 countries, with 24 countries having more than 1,000 MW installed. The top five markets in the world in 2012 were USA, China, Germany, India and the UK. Wind provides 30% of electricity in Denmark and also makes a double digit contribution of 16% in Portugal and Spain. It contributes more than 40% of annual electricity in three German states and 20% of South Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity.

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Percentage of Wind Power Installed 53


Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Wind to Light ‘Wind to light’ is a project commissioned by onedotzero and light lab for architecture week 2007 in the UK, executed by Jason Bruges studio. Jason Bruges studio produces a wide range of diverse work including interactive light sculptures, interactive environments, events and screen based installations. Their objective is to explore the applications of interactivity and the relationship between individuals and their environment through the creative use of highly imaginative and innovative technologies. “Wind to light” is a custom built, site-specific installation consisting of 500 miniature wind turbines directly generating the power to illuminate hundreds of integrally mounted LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The effect is to create ‘firefly-like fields of light’ where the wind can be visualized as an ephemeral electronic cloud in the atmosphere. The turbine and LED modules are attached to their base by flexible poles which allow them to slightly sway in the wind, animating the movement of the wind by a digital, electronic means. The self-powered, autonomous installation illustrates the simplicity and directness of wind power and its potential, literally and symbolically closing the gap between power generation and consumption.

p. 23 http://www.jasonbruges.com/projects/uk-projects/wind-to-light

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Wireflies _ Air Politics “Wind to light” presents the perspective that wind power can be an attractive or even potentially beautiful addition to the landscape, contrary to many widespread opinions that wind turbines are a man-made, visual and physical intrusion upon scenery and its natural beauty. Practically, the turbine and LED modules are attached to their base by flexible poles, which allow them to slightly sway in the wind, animating the movement of the wind by a digital, electronic means. The relocation of wind power from the rural environment to urban surroundings literally brings it closer to us and suggests that as our requirements from wind power have evolved since the use of windmills so should our attitudes towards its application and location. ‘Wind to Light’ was an idea that visualized wind movement across the built form with the use of mini turbines and LEDs and draws attention to the potential of harnessing wind power as a source of energy. p. 24-26 http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/windtolight.html pic 27 http://onedotzero.com/projects/wind-to-light-jason-bruges

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//Raspberry Fields Jason Payne explores the architectural surface, from “skin” to “hide”, in a full-scale reconstruction of part of the roof of Raspberry Fields. The design of the building faces will prevail winter storms as well as the solar exposure. Payne influences us in pushing digital design and fabrication toward the integration of product, experience, affect and atmosphere. p. 28, 29 http://www.hirsuta.com/RASP.html

//Wind Veil

Ned Kahn’s wind installations Ned Kahn is an environmental artist and sculptor, that works usually by capturing an invisible aspect of nature and making it visible; examples include building facades that move in waves in response to wind; indoor tornadoes and vortices made of fog, steam, or fire, etc. A 260’ long by 6-story tall facade of a parking garage in Charlotte, North Carolina was covered with 80,000 small aluminum panels that are hinged to move freely in the wind. Viewed from the outside, the entire wall of the building appears to move in the wind and creates the impression of waves in a field of metallic grass. Inside the building, intricate patterns of light and shadow, similar to the way light filters through the leaves of trees, are projected onto the walls and floor as sunlight passes through this kinetic membrane. In addition to revealing the ever-changing patterns of the invisible wind, the artwork was designed to provide ventilation and shade for the interior of the parking garage.

p.28

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p. 30-32 http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/wind-veil/

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Wireflies _ Air Politics

//Little Shinning Man Little Shining Man, a collaboration between two artists Heather Peak and Ivan Morison, is a sculpture that has the potential for flight. The design of the structure is based around the tetra kites of Alexander Graham Bell, multiplied out into colliding cubes that take their form from the cubic formations of the mineral Pyrite. A double wing module has been duplicated and arranged into a tight cellular structural arrangement that appears as a heavy, un-flyable mass. Utilising lightweight materials and the symmetry of the module and composition, it is able to fly freely and steadily. Little Shinning man is a cube shaped structure, made from over 23,000 individual components, designed to fly like a kite. The structure is built from carbon fibre rods, the material stretched between them is Cuben fibre -- a man-made composite found in the sails of racing yachts, whereas these pieces are kept together by 3D-printed nylon joints, achieved the perfect combination of strength and weight. The visual impact of the fabric produces an ethereal sense of depth and refraction that gives the heavy mass the lightest touch. Little Shinning Man influenced us to add in our first thoughts the ideas of lightness in the structure. p. 33, 34 http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-12/22/little-shining-man-kite

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//Main idea

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Concept The project is related to ideas such as the directionality, the information flow, the flexibility and the lightness in a structure. What we are trying to understand is how “clear” networks work, how things are travelling and in general, how the information is expressed through the fabric of architecture. Wireflies project explores the potentials of creating an architectural system through a playful design process. It is about user’s creative expression, who through decision making explores new strategies in architectural design. Wireflies game explores new building blogs of architecture working around the collection of the wind energy and its distribution. Players can use light patterns to intuitively redefine the topology of the circuits and information networks that run through the building fabric. The diagram represents the main idea of capturing and transferring the wind inside the system.

Wind

P R E S S U R E

AIR CAPTURER

Diagram: System of capturing air and generating energy

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Diagram: support a structure


Wireflies _ Main Idea

//Diagrams - Wind capture The 4 main criteria that define the system is capturing energy, transmitting that energy and in the meantime supporting a structure and creating space.

Constantly transformable structure.

Wind

Wind is the main element of Wireflies’ system. The collection of the wind contributes to the design process and helps the architectural configuration as it triggers the expression of the facade of the building in an ecological and economic way. Wing components can open up in the air, expand in order to channel and guide the air inside the component. They are designed to work like a “funnel”, in order to concentrate more wind to a smaller space. Wing’s elastic deformation captures the air and through a mechanism (turbine) that is placed inside the component, it converts the kinetic energy of motion into electricity. Wings start from discrete truncated octahedron units and when they open up they begin blurring the geometry, going from one unit to the whole, from a series of components to one piece.

The wind lifts the wing.

Wind power is produced inside of each component.

Diagram: The transformability of the stracture and the production of energy. 61


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//Patterns For now, we are using line - patterns as stripes of light in order to give the idea of the directionality of information. In the next step the pattern could easily become geometry and by rule you cannot connect anything in that face because there is a difference at the surface. Based on kit assemblies concepts, the physical representation of Wireflies’ system suggests the communication of units in a local coordinate system, the project implements computation in the construction process. Components’ discrete connections allow for a pass of information between them, or else a “digital” communication.

WIND

WING / CONVERTOR

WIRE

LAMP

BATTERY

LAMP

Diagram: logics of combinations 62


Wireflies _ Main Idea

linear with 2 exits

(opposite)

linear with 2 exits

curvy 2 exits

curvy 3 exits (branching)

NETWORK 1

linear with 2 exits

(opposite)

Diagram: different types of “wires”

Diagram: type of connection in 2D

linear with 2 exits

curvy 2 exits

curvy 3 exits (branching)

NETWORK 2

faces that connect with wires to “save” energy

faces that connect with wires to “distribute” energy

Diagram 17: battery

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//Elements of the component

//Set of components

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Wireflies _ Main Idea

//Successful Combinations

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//CA Rules Nowadays, cellular automata, and other models of pattern formation are not only used in various research fields, but also are employed in architectural experimentation. Computation plays an important role in architecture and it involves the writing of code through simple rules. Referencing to Turing only, Wolfram suggests that in computation, simple rules are sufficient to generate complex phenomena and explore their self-organization over time. All the cells in a cellular automaton follow exactly the same rules but it is possible to obtain considerable complex structures and behavior. Some of them become parts of the regular background, can create chaotic patterns, homogeneous or periodic structures, while others become parts of “complex localized structures”, as Wolfram explains. That is because the simple operations, when applied over and over, create different configurations of cells with different sequences of information, which can produce different kinds of behavior. Each cell is considered to be in two states, ON and OFF, or have black and white color, states that represent whether the cell is alive or dead, respectively. Cellular Automata are input- output machines related to computation and information flow, as they constitute an informationprocessing system “resulting output values over time”. In Wireflies project the distribution of energy between the components behave like a CA. In this case there are 5 states that can be recognised from 5 different colours, in oder to represent the amount of energy they have in every sequence.

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Wireflies _ Main Idea

//CA Rules

Distribution of energy (color / light pattern

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//Study Of Fully Packed Systems

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//Fully Packed Geometries Studies of geometries that pack space. Based on the number of neighbors and the angles of forces the chosen geometry for this research is the truncated octahedron. It was necessary to chose a geometry that would allow the patterns to be developped along the different faces. However, many of the others geometries donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow to go between one face to another, and hint the directionality of where the pattern goes. So it was not only the ability of filling space but also the number of faces and the shape of the geometry that contributed to the final decision.

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Wireflies _ Fully Packed Systems

//Space Filling Polyhedra convex with regular faces

Cube

Triangular Prism

Hexagonal Prism

//Space Filling Combinations

Gyrobifastigium

elongated dodecahedron

rhombic dodecahedron

truncated octahedron

//Space Filling Hendecahedra examples with irregular faces

Tetrahedron

Bisymmetric hendecahedron

Sphenoid hendecahedron

Rhombic dodecahemioctahedron

Octahedron 71


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//Hexagonal Prism

72


Wireflies _ Fully Packed Systems

//Gyrobbifastigium

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//Elongated dodecahedron

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Wireflies _ Fully Packed Systems

//Rhombic dodecahedron

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//Rhombic dodecahemioctahedron

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Wireflies _ Fully Packed Systems

//Truncated octahedron

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//Geometry and Patterns

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//Component deformations- element computation Bearing in mind the idea of connecting the lighting pattern with wires as the visual output of information flow, the design process had been affected to a great extent. Geometry studies took place in order to modify the part in which the information would flow. Hence, the selected faces, which became curvy after transformation developments, indicate the path where the electricity passes. This results in a discrete and continuous representation of information, with patterns expressing a simplified representation of the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s complexity. Based on this logic, the components that were designed were the linear, the non-linear, and the splitter. Different categories of elements transmit the electricity in a different manner. For instance, linear components compute a linear distribution of the information. Furthermore, the energy flow can be branched with several splitters. Splitters are very important elements, as they can lead electricity to every possible direction, unlike a single circuit, which expands along the wire. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Power and information flow like a train making station-by-station stops.â&#x20AC;? Splitters provide complexity to the system, and form the path that the information will flow, as determined by the user. Apart from that, transformed faces show how two units could work together and aim at blending the geometries in the aggregation, making it more difficult to identify the component, and adding one more constraint in the placing of the next components. The transformed faces compute the placement of the next move based on the demonstrating encoded information. More analytically, apart from the wing, all the elements of the system become recognizable on account of the pattern they conduct, which describes the behavior to which they had been adjusted. The linear, the non-linear elements, the splitter and the lamp determine the position and the quantity of their neighbors, according to their pattern. Hence, the combinations are predefined by the designer.To conclude, the computation that takes places in order to determine the next placement of the components suggests a system and a network, which is totally reconfigurable. It also maximizes the different outcomes that the information can provide. Moreover, the possibility of placing the first component at the beginning of the network, in the rotation that the user decides, creates a flexible circuit and many possible configurations.

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Wireflies _ Geometry and Patterns

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//Geometry set 1

82

Linear

Linear

Spliter

Triple A

Output

Triple B


Wireflies _ Geometry and Patterns

//Geometry set 2

Linear

Non Linear B

Non Linear A

Non Linear C

Spliter

Output

Triple

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//Geometry set 3

84

Linear

Linear

Triple

Triple A

Output

Triple B


Wireflies _ Geometry and Patterns

//Geometry set 4

Linear

Output A

Output B

Spliter

Base

Battery

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//Component deformations The elements compute by developing specific behaviors. In the first phase, the user of the system rotates the components in the three axis in order to match the pattern. In the second phase, the elements compute and by positioning one next to the other they automatically start rotating until they found the right rotation in which they match. This describes the material computation that the elements undertake in order to create the light pattern on their own and make the information flow visible. The computation happens thanks to the sensor system that is embedded in the geometries which form the network. As long as the sensors in the two geometries canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t detect each other, the second one continues rotating. For the aforementioned component rotation computation, a study of patterns had been taken place in order to investigate the most successful combination. The diagrams show the patterns that the linear and the splitter can carry, in one or more faces. The different combinations of these studies can lead to different aggregations and a variety of outcomes.

86


Wireflies _ Geometry and Patterns

//Study 1

1 face

2 faces

3 faces

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//Study 2

3 faces

4 faces

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Wireflies _ Geometry and Patterns

//Study 3 2 faces

3 faces

4 faces

5 faces

2 faces

3 faces

4 faces

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//Study 4 2 faces

3 faces

4 faces

3 faces

4 faces

5 faces

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Wireflies Wireflies _ Geometry _ Fully Packed and Patterns Systems

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//The Idea Of The Wing

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//The idea of the Wing Wind is the main element of Wireflies’ system. The collection of the wind contributes to the design process and helps the architectural configuration as it triggers the expression of the facade of the building in an ecological and economic way. Therefore the placement of the wing should be strategic because they are going to define mainly the surface of the structure, in order to capture the air and embed the energy to the system. In first experiments, (study1-3) the design of the wing was based on ideas of springs and flexibility. It was a deformation of the basic unit, that was happening in some faces of the basic unit, in order to maintain the sense of the geometry. In the final model, wing components open up in the air, expand in order to channel and guide the air inside the component. They are designed to work like a “funnel”, in order to concentrate more wind to a smaller space. Wing’s elastic deformation captures the air and through a mechanism (turbine) that is placed inside the component, it converts the kinetic energy of motion into electricity. Wings start from discrete truncated octahedron units and when they open up they begin blurring the geometry, going from one unit to the whole, from a series of components to one piece.

Diagram of the wind flow from the wings to the inside of the building fabric.

96


Wireflies _ The Idea Of The Wing

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Wing Study 1 Close Wing

Open WIng

Top

Front

Aggergation

Left

Perpective

98


Wireflies _ The Idea Of The Wing

//Wing Study 2 Close Wing

Open WIng

Top

Front

Aggergation

Left

Perpective

99


Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//Wing Study 3 Close Wing

Open Wing

Top

Front

Aggergation

Left

Perpective

100


Wireflies _ The Idea Of The Wing

//Wing Study 4 - Final

Final Model v.1

Final Model v.2

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//Intentions

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Wireflies _ Intentions

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Wireflies _ Intentions

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Wireflies _ Intentions

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Wireflies _ Intentions

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//Physical Model

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett Option 1 / square faces with negative force of magnetism

//Magnetic connections Models were fabricated in order to study the connections and define the rules of the system.

One of the main elements of the component is the magnetic connection between the units. After analyzing the symmetry of the geometry, little magnets were placed in the 14 faces of the truncated octahedron in a way that enabled its fully packed abilities. In the meantime the properties of th e magnets facilitated the process of the fabrication.

Option 2 / square faces with positive force of magnetism

Diagram: forces of magnetism in the model

unlike pole attraction

Diagrams: magnetic fields 114

like pole repulsion

Diagrams: magnetic connections of units


Wireflies _ Physical Model

//Experiment 1

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Wireflies _ Physical Model

//Experiment 3 Air makes the system operates, as the wings are opening and closing in order to collect the air.

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//Experiment 5 The wing is connected with the battery and sypply it with electricity. Key component in this experiment is the â&#x20AC;&#x153;spliterâ&#x20AC;? which divides the power, that collects, in two neighbours. Because of the battery, there are two circuits in one network, the one sypplies the battery, and the other transmits it to the system, when it is necessary. The pattern expresses the flow and the direction of the air/information as it can be transmited from one face to another. The patterns allow the component to behave and to be combined differently offering the flexibiliy, which is related to the idea of the wind.They also define the faces tha can not be connected.

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Wireflies _ Physical Model

//Experiment 6 Fabricatiion: Dental Plaster and Magnetic Connections In the fabrication process we experiment with different materials and different types of connections. In this stage the card material, which provides lightness, had been replaced with a more durable one, with dental plaster. The mixture of Basic Alpha, Plaster Polymer and Fiber Glass constitutes the dental plaster material which is more accurate and welldesigned. Magnets had been embedded in the construction of each component in order to reassure the functionality of the system. With the use of contuctive ink in the component surface we create circuit and succeed the electricity transmission from the one model to the other.

EXPERIMENT 1 Basic Alpha

EXPERIMENT 2

EXPERIMENT 3

EXPERIMENT 4

EXPERIMENT 5

EXPERIMENT 6

360 gr

320 gr

220 gr

160 gr

160 gr

160 gr

Plaster Polymer 120 gr

120 gr

80 gr

60 gr

60 gr

60 gr

Fiber Glass

X

X

X

X

50

30

Weight

439 gr

431 gr

299 gr

215 gr

230 gr

220 gr

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//Arduino Workshop

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//Pressure Resistance Experiment In a more advanced phase of the fabrication processe, the Arduino Software was used, applied in 3D printed models of Wireflies units in order to implement computation in the constraction process. The encapsulation of the sensors as the notion of computer coding applied to electronics or robotics, was attempted in order to hide the complexity that is behind and allow users to create their systems in a much more playful way. During the Arduino Workshop, in collaboration with Denis Vlieghe, we had the chance to experiment that in practice with two different experiments, the Pressure Resistance Experiment and the Data Distribution Experiment.

Force Sensitive Resistor

ARDUINO

Diagram of the way the Arduino software would integrated, connect and work with the components. 124

LAMP


Wireflies_ Arduino Workshop

The pressure sensor isbecoming red when the component with the smart behaviour (bottom one) receives a critical mass.

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//Pressure Resistance Experiment In the first experiment, the “pressure sensing” component was designed in order to embed on its surface a force sensitive resistor (pressure sensor) and an RGB LED light . The sensor was programmed to detect the mass pressure and inform the user by lighting the RGB LED, when the structure reaches a critical mass and the system is about to collapse. These units interact with each other and the RGB LED, the “pattern” changes color or starts blinking. More specifically, these “special” units including the sensing device, provide feedback to the system. This turns to be valuable information to the user as it raises awareness about the forces and it facilitates him to properly place the next component. The size of the components and the qualities of the material were the factors that should be taken into consideration for the programming of these units. In this experiment, the sensors were used to cal­culate the resistance capacity of the material in a vertical aggregation, whereas they could be used to calculate horizontal pressures as well and contribute to the structural stability of the system.

Force Sensitive Resistor

Two different kind of units were designed, one to embed only the Force Sensitive Resistor in it while leaving the RGB LED outside, and the other to embed both of them it its surface.

ARDUINO

ARDUINO BOARD

126


Wireflies_ Arduino Workshop

3D Printed models that have the RGB LED embeded on them.

127


Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett Conductive ink allows the user to paint circuits instead of using the traditional printed circuit boards or wires. It can act as a potentiometer that interfaces with a microcontroller, for example, it can create a touch sensor that reacts to the skin by turning on a little light. It can be used in a circuit to power devices and light sources, such as small speakers and LED lights. It is also well for screen-printing. Conductive ink has extensively been used by artists, and recent developments indicate that we can use it in pens. Bare Paint is an electrically conductive paint, a material which is designed for people of all ages to explore and learn about electronics by painting circuits. Bare Paint can be applied to almost any surface, including metal, cardboard vellum, paper, wood, plaster, wallpaper, walls, textiles, and some plastics and rubbers. Bare Paint is considered to be a great electronics prototyping tool as it replaces conventional acid etching, it creates an electrical circuit without the need of wiring, it dries quickly at room temperature and can be removed with soap and water. More analytically, it has a surface resistivity according to the thickness of the layer. It is only available in black, but it can easily be over painted with a wide range of paints, offering color possibilities. Standard acrylics can also be used alongside Bare Paint to act as an insulator.

p.36

p.39

Wireflies team had the chance to collaborate with Matt Johnson, a designer and engineer who provides a Bare Paint electric paint jar. p. 35- 38 http://www.bareconductive.com/ p. 39- 41 http://www.bareconductive.com/liquidity

p.37 p.40

p.35 128

p.38

p.41


Wireflies_ Arduino Workshop

//Bare Paint Experiment

Pin A0

Circuit in parallel

OFF

OFF ON

ON

ON

ON

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// Data Distribution Experiment In the second experiment, the â&#x20AC;&#x153;data distributorâ&#x20AC;? component, was designed such as to embed a simple LED light in it and was painted with conductive ink (bare paint) to transmit electricity. Emphasis was given to the structure of the inter­connection topology, a special LEGO-like connection was designed and copper sheets were used, in order for each element to be easily reassembled and for the light network to be reconfigurable. In that experiment, the component was programmed to calculate the wind capacity and the energy inventories in the structure and activate only the number of lights, the brunches, that the available energy could support, in order to avoid trembling or dull lights, or the crushing of the system.

Diagrammatic representation of the copper connections that enable the conductivity and the transfer of data.

Priority Brunch

C o o p e r

Secondary Brunch

C o n n e c t i o n s A0 Diagrammatic representation of the data distributor component, which calculates the energy in the system and according to the values it lights one or both branches in order to preserve the LED lights. 130

A0 Pin

Pin

A0 Pin


Arduino Workshop Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

Copper Connections

Components with conductive ink and copper connections

Top View

131


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//Average Wind Speed in UK

source: http://billinghamweather.com/wxwindgraph.php Hurricane

In that point, there was an attempt to develop further the system by using some sort of connection with real time data such as the average wind values in UK.

Violent Storm Storm

The more intense the wind is, the brighter the pattern becomes, making information explicit as a visual outcome. Moreover, wind speed affects the system as it determines the amount of electricity that can be produced. Information about the average wind speed is saved and it is a reference point that influences the light network. Every splitter divides the network in two branches, to the primary and the secondary branch. On that account, when wind speed is equal or bigger than the average value, both branches are activated thanks to the sufficient amount if electricity that is produced. On the other hand, if wind speed is lower than the average value, only the priority branch will be activated and its pattern is lit up.

Strong Gale Gale High wind Strong B. Fresh B. Moderate B. Gentle B. Light Breeze Light Air Calm 0

10

20

30

40

Calm

Light Air

Light Breeze

Gentle B.

From

0

1

3

7

12

17

mph

1

2

4

5

5

7

50

Moderate Fresh B. Strong B. B.

70

80

90

High wind

Gale

Strong Gale

Storm

24

30

38

46

54

63

72

7

8

8

8

9

9

9

Violent Hurricane Storm

Avg Wind Speed Last 30 days (April 2013)

Avg Wind Speed Last 24 hours 9

14

8

12

7

10

6

8

5 4

Average 3.5 mph

3

6

Average 6 mph

4

2

2

0

0

02:01 03:01 04:01 05:01 06:01 07:01 08:01 09:01 10:01 11:01 12:01 13:01 14:01 15:01 16:01 17:01 18:01 19:01 20:01 21:01 22:01 23:01 00:01 01:01

1

Time

132

60

6

8

10 12 14 16 18

20

22 24

26

28

30

2

4

6

Days/ April - May


Wireflies_ Arduino Workshop

//Real Time Data_ Priority Brunching Secondary Brunch

Priority Brunch

CASE A when wind speed is

7-

CASE B when wind speed is

7+

different direction

Priority Brunch

Secondary Brunch Secondary Brunch

Priority Brunch Priority Brunch

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// Data Distribution Experiment Physical model of the Data Distributor Experiment. In the first image both brunches are on. In the second image one more component is added and then only the priority brunch (green) remains on, because the system calculates that it cannot support all of the components to be lighted.

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// Data Distribution Experiment

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//Prototype In the final stage of the fabrication process, the creation of a product-like unit of Wireflies system is being explored. Moreover, through the physical manifestation of Wireflies system we can understand practically which would be the challenges and difficulties of implementing this system in the real world. The creation of a physical version of the video game is being suggested, using industrially produced components, in a manipulable size by people, and human’s decisionmaking as the main factors for the creation of different formations. Based on kit assemblies concepts, the physical representation of Wireflies’ system suggests the communication of units in a local coordinate system, the project implements computation in the construction process. Components’ discrete connections allow for a pass of information between them, or else a “digital” communication. In the physical model the energy/electricity flows through the network of wires, the copper connections enable the conductivity and transferring of data, while the LED infrastructure indicates the transmission and creates a glowing pattern. The components are kept together thanks to magnetic connections. For the fabrication of the prototype 3D Printed material were used. The component can be handled by people and has the scale and the notion of a toy. It embeds the intelligent that is needed, (lights, cables and copper connections for the conductivity) Creative construction games can be played by assembling, dis-assembling and rotating the unit in order to trigger the light.

The physical representation of the component. By rotating the component the pattern matches, as well as the copper connection, that provides conductivity and lights the embeded LED. 136


Wireflies_ Physical Model

//Prototype

Technical details of the mechanism inside the 3D printed component. Cables, RGB LEDs and copper copper parts are melted and stuck together with soldering.

137


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magnets

lamp

copper 138

This way of modelling suggests magnetic connections, in contrast with the previous Lego- like ones. This provides to the model the possibility to assemle for a variety of outputs.

Prototypes. For the 3D Prints were used SLS white material for the base and semi-transparent material for the pattern part.


Wireflies_ Physical Model

//Prototype

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//The Product

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//The product Based on concepts of kit assemblies, LEGO-like structures and discrete materials, Wireflies can be a physical game-system, creating a physical version of the video game, using manufactured components, in a manipulable size by people, and humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decisionmaking as the main factors for the creation of different formations. Taking one step further the prototyping and the fabrication processes, we designed and suggest Wireflies Kit as an industrially prodused product.

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//The product

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//The product Wireflies the Kit. Consists of four main types of units, the Structural Elements, the Wires, the Wind Harvesting Elements and the Wind Saving Elements. All the units can be combined together and create a structural formation that work as an electrical circuit. Moreover the Wind Harvesting Elements have the ability to can harvest the wind and produce energy, adding a sense of fluidity to the whole system.

Structural Elements These units are used as structural elements, in order to stabilize the formation to the ground, create its foundations, provide a solid floor or just fill up the gaps. They can be connected with every other Wirefliesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; unit.

Basic Unit

Fountation Base

Floor Base

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Wireflies_ Product

//The product Wires

Wind Harvesting Elements

Energy Saving Elements

“Wire” units are the ones that transmit the electricity into the structure. They also bare the light pattern creating different light networks on different combinations. They can be connented mostly together and with the “Wind Harvesting” units.

“Wind Harvesting” units collect the wind and transmit it to electricity, being the ones that provide the energy for the whole system to work. They can also redirect wind and bring it to the inside. They connect with “Energy Saving” units and “Wires”.

“Energy Saving” units are used as energy storage elements. They collect and save the energy produced by the “Wing” units, in order to keep the system always “alive”, even in cases that there is no wind.

Linear Wire

Wing

Splitter Wire

Hole

Battery

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett

//The product

The wing unit The mobile part of the wing has the ability to open and close towards the direction of the wind, capturing it and directing it to the inside of the unit.

Foundation and Floor Base The Foundation and the Base Components are combined together in order to create the foundations for the assembly and a flat terrain-base .

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Wireflies_ Product

//The product

Small Wireflies Assembly 14 Wireflies Units Used

Wires The Wire unites light their patters-wire when they are connected to a Wing unit.

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//The product

The sense of the Wireflies units in light and dargk mode.

148

Detail.


Wireflies_ Product

//The product

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//The product

150


Wireflies_ Product

//The product

Medium Sized Wireflies Assembly 80 Wireflies Units Used

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//The Game

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//Minecraft Minecraft is a game about breaking and placing blocks in a 3d world. The primary motivation was to create an experience where each individual component felt fun. A game that could be both accessible and emergent. At first, people built structures to protect against nocturnal monsters, but as the game grew players worked together to create wonderful, imaginative things. “Let’s go to a place where everything is made of blocks. Where the only limit is your imagination. Let’s go wherever you wanna go, climb the tallest mountains, venge you down to the darkest caves, build anything you want, day or night, rain or shine, cause this is the most significant sandbox you’ll ever set foot in. Build a majestic castle, invent a new machine or take a ride on a roller coaster, play with friends, build your own little community, protect yourself with the strongest armor that you can craft and fight off the dangers of the night. Nobody can tell you what you can or cannot do. With no rules to follow, this adventure it’s up to you.” MINECRAFT trailer

p.43

p.46

Minecraft is split into two separate game modes. Creative and Survival. Builds in each mode mean different things in terms of effort, time and creativity. You can play both of them in multiplayer. If you’re mostly interested in making huge structures from scratch with unlimited resources, Creative mode is your best bet. You won’t see any enemies, and you can pull blocks of all shapes and sizes out of thin air. It’s a peaceful world. In Survival mode you’ll need to protect yourself from the creatures that come out at night. popular block-building video game p.42 http://minecraft.net/ p. 43- 47 http://www.minecraftwiki.net/wiki/Enchanting

p.42 154

p.44

p.45

p.47


Wireflies _ The Game Minecraft may be a game about designing, constructing and exploring virtual worlds, but the most fascinating thing about it is the meaningful impact it’s having on multiple aspects of the real world, from education to how cities are planned, whereas the different outcomes range from stunning architecture to pixel art to complex contraptions. In Minecraft you use your imagination to create whatever you want. It might be a story, it might be a machine, it might be some interesting place where you can go and play. But whatever it is, it’s a reflection of you and your intention and your creativity. Minecraft is a wonderful combination of accessibility and depth, allowing for complex output with simple input. And it is introducing a whole new generation of kids to computer programming. A lot of people are trying to figure out how to teach 7-year-olds to code, and it’s a tricky thing to do. Minecraft is one of the clear landmarks along that path. Furthermore, it is a well-designed, innovative game which achieved mass market success and become a creative passion for millions. For all these reasons it has been inspiration for Wireflies project. p.48-50 http://88creative.ca/minecraft-the-best-social-content-creating-videogameever/

p.48

p.49

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//Sim City This is a new SimCity that delivers unprecedented depth of simulation. The model-like world and detail of the simulation make this the most responsive and personal SimCity ever. This is also the most expansive city management game yet where you can control a region that delivers true multi-city scale and play a single city or up to 16 cities at once each with different specializations. Multiplayer is also a first for the series, which adds a new dimension to your game as your decisions impact both your city and your region and creates new ways to play by collaborating or competing to earn achievements. Finally, SimCity is a live service that simulates real time updates from new challenges to new features and content. p. 51, 56 http://www.simcity.com/ p.52, 53, 55 http://www.simcity.com/en_US/media/screenshot p.54 http://www.simcity.com/en_US/product/simcity4

p.52

p.55

p.53

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p.54

p.56


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//LittleBits LittleBits is a library of discrete electronic components pre-assembled in tiny circuit boards. These simple, intuitive, space-sensitive blocks make prototyping with sophisticated electronics a matter of snapping small magnets together. An iteresting detail is that magnets prevent the user from putting things the wrong way. LittlePits is another one kit that allows the user to create circuits, play with light, sound, sensing and buttons without wiring, soldering or programming, and assemble the pieces the way he wants. p. 57, 58, 60, 61 http://www.littlebits.com/products p. 62 http://www.littlebits.com/kits/starter-kit p. 59 http://littlebits.cc/

p.57 p.60

p.58

p.61

POWER

p.59

INPUT

WIRE

OUTPUT

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// Game Platform Unity Platform was used for the development of “Wireflies”. “Unity is a game development system: a powerful rendering engine fully integrated with a complete set of intuitive tools and rapid workflows to create interactive 3D content; easy multiplatform publishing; thousands of quality, ready-made assets in the Asset Store and a knowledge-sharing Community.”

// shortcuts----------------------//components-------------------if(Input.GetKey( ‘1’ )){ mode = 1; modeName = “LINEAR”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘2’ )){ mode = 2; modeName = “SPLITER”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘3’ )){ mode = 3; modeName = “BASIC”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘4’ )){ mode = 4; modeName = “TERRAIN”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘5’ )){ mode = 5; modeName = “BATTERY”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘6’ )){ mode = 6; modeName = “WING”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘7’ )){ mode = 7; modeName = “BASE”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘8’ )){ mode = 8; modeName = “OUTPUT”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘0’ )){ mode = 10; modeName = “HOLE”; } //behaviours---------------------if(Input.GetKey ( ‘z’ )){ typeOfBeh = “ROTATE X”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘x’ )){ typeOfBeh = “ROTATE Y”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘c’ )){ typeOfBeh = “ROTATE Z”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘v’ )){ typeOfBeh = “KILL OBJECT”; } if(Input.GetKey ( ‘b’ )){ typeOfBeh = “AUTO ROTATE”; } // light +camera-----------------if (Input.GetKeyDown ( ‘n’ ) ){ night(); } //cameras------------------------if (Input.GetKeyDown(‘m’) ) { came(); }

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#pragma strict

function OnGUI(){

//var myCol: Color = Color (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1); //var myCol2: Color = Color (1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1); var mat1 : Material; var mat2 : Material; var parent : GameObject; var searching : boolean = false; var isConnected : boolean = false; //private var trigger : GameObject; private var dapre : GameObject; var count : int = 0; var endtime : float = 0; var connectedToWing : boolean = false; var electric : boolean = false;

if (Input.GetKey(‘i’)) { var mousePos = Input.mousePosition; if (mode == 0) { GUI.Label (Rect(mousePos.x -15,Screen.height - mousePos.y -45, 200,60), “Choose an element and right click to place it”,styleB ); } if (mode == 1) { GUI.Label (Rect(mousePos.x -15,Screen.height - mousePos.y -45, 200,60), “Place a Linear”,styleB ); } if(mode == 2){ GUI.Label (Rect(mousePos.x -15,Screen.height - mousePos.y -45, 200,60), “Place a Spliter”,styleB ); } if(typeOfBeh == “rotate x”){ GUI.Label (Rect(mousePos.x -75,Screen.height - mousePos.y -45, 200,60), “Rotate x!”,styleB ); } } //GUI.Label(new Rect(120,20,258,89),”Element: “ + modeName,style); GUI.matrix = Matrix4x4.TRS(new Vector3(Screen.width - 258*GUIsF.x,Screen.height 89*GUIsF.y,0),Quaternion.identity,GUIsF); GUI.Label (Rect (150,40,258,89), “SHORTCUTS” , style); GUI.matrix = Matrix4x4.TRS(new Vector3(GUIsF.x,Screen.height 89*GUIsF.y,0),Quaternion.identity,GUIsF); count9=count1+count2; GUI.Label (Rect (15,30,258,89), “ “ + count9, style); count9=count1+count2; GUI.Label (Rect (55,30,258,89), “ “ + count3, style); GUI.Label (Rect (100,30,258,89), “ “ + count4, style); GUI.Label (Rect (140,30, 258,89), “ “ + count5, style); GUI.Label (Rect (180,30,258,89), “ “ + count6, style); GUI.Label (Rect (15,10,258,89), “ELEMENT: “ , style); GUI.Label (Rect (80,10,258,89), “ “ + modeName, styleC); GUI.Label (Rect (350,10,258,89), “BEHAVIOUR:” , style); GUI.Label (Rect (435,10,258,89), “” + typeOfBeh, styleC); GUI.Label (Rect (220,30,258,89), “Total Elements: “ + total , style); GUI.Label (Rect (220,30,258,89), “ “ , style); GUI.Label (Rect (220,60,258,89), “Wing Score: “ + yscore, style); GUI.Label (Rect (220,60,258,89), “”, style); //progress bar--------------------------------------------------------------------------//GUI.Label (Rect (20,77.5,258,89), “ “ + totalEnergyWasted , style); //GUI.Label (Rect (-130,77.5,258,89), “T.E.R.:” , style); GUI.Label (Rect (855,10,258,89), “ “ + totalEnergyGenerated , style); GUI.Label (Rect (580,10,258,89), “Structural Capacity:” , style); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(730,10,120,14), progressBarEmpty); //GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(-100,42.5,(total/10) * 258, 89 ), progressBarFull); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(735, 10,120 * Mathf.Clamp01(totalEnergyGenerated * 0.005), 14), progressBarFull3); GUI.Label (Rect (855,40,258,89), “ “ + totalEnergySaved, style); GUI.Label (Rect (580,40,258,89), “Total Energy collected:” , style); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(730,40,120,14), progressBarEmpty); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(735, 40,120 * Mathf.Clamp01(totalEnergySaved * 0.01), 14), progressBarFull2); GUI.Label (Rect (855,70,258,89), “ “ + totalEnergyWasted, style); GUI.Label (Rect (580,70,258,89), “Successful Combinations:” , style); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(730,70,120,14), progressBarEmpty); GUI.DrawTexture(Rect(735, 70,120 * Mathf.Clamp01(totalEnergyWasted * (-0.01)), 14), progressBarFull); //top right //GUI.matrix = Matrix4x4.TRS(new Vector3(Screen.width - 258*GUIsF.x,GUIsF.y,0),Qua ternion.identity,GUIsF); //GUI.Label (Rect (170,18,258,89), “T.E.: “ + total , style); //GUI.Label (Rect (170,40,258,89), “W.S.: “ + yscore, style); //GUI.Label (Rect (210,40,258,89), “”, style); }

function Start () { //trigger = GameObject.Find(“function”); dapre = GameObject.Find(“function”); } function Update () { //Am I connected to a wing? if(electric && (dapre.GetComponent(pre). totalEnergy > 0 )){ transform.renderer.material = mat1 ; }else{ transform.renderer.material = mat2 ; } //call behaviours over time:------------------if(Time.time < endtime){ if(!isConnected && !electric){ //do random rotation------------------------var randy : float = Random.Range(0,100); if(randy < 33){ gameObject.transform.Rotate(90 ,0, 0); }else if(randy > 33 && randy < 66){ gameObject.transform.Rotate(0 ,90, 0); }else{ gameObject.transform.Rotate(0 ,0, 90); } } } } function searchConnection(time : float){ endtime = Time.time + time; }


Wireflies _ The Game

//SENSORS _creative way of navigating The approach from the beginning was very hands on in unity. It was just about creating a sensing system and basically playing on how to combine these units in a way that whould be very explicit to the user. Sensors were put in the geometry to control the succesful combinations. When things match, and information is transmitted you can instantly see the result of it.

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// Cataloge of prototypes

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// Cataloge of prototypes

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// Cataloge of prototypes

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// Cataloge of prototypes

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// Cataloge of prototypes

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//Images - Info From The Game

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ELEMENTS 1. WIRES loop, slpiter, linear

PLACE AN ELEMENT

131

1. WING

Total elements used in this structure : 148

120

2. HOLE

Total elements used in this structure : 53

352

234

3. BATTERY

Total elements used in this structure: 23

73 2. STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS basic, base

4. WIRES

65

3. STORAGE ELEMENTS battery

Total elements used in this structure: 837

23

5. BASIC

Total elements used in this structure: 73

148 4. WIND ELEMENTS wing, hole

6. BASE

Total elements used in this structure: 65

53

WING 837 172

73

65

23

148

1146 603


Wireflies_Info from the Game

1. ELEMENTS

Click on one icon to select one element. Choose between 5 different components, the wire the plain, the base, the battery and the wing. Check your total number of elements and your wing evaluation.

AUTO ROTATE

607 531 255

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2. BEHAVIOUR

Click on the behaviour you want to use. Choose to rotate your block in the three axis (x,y,z,), delete it or try the -intelligent behaviour-, for example the autorotation for achieving quicker successful combinations.

BEHAVIOURS

1. ROTATE in axis x 2. ROTATE in axis y

3. ROTATE in axis z

4. DELETE COMPONENT

5. AUTOROTATE

MENU 1. DAY -NIGHT MODE

2. CAMERA VIEW

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1

2

3

4

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Wireflies_Info from the Game

4. MENU

Use the shortcuts for a PRO Game! Change to night mode by pressing [N]. Change cameras by pressing [M].

Z

X

C

V

N

B

M

AUTOROTATE

0

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3. SCORING

SCORING / SUCCESSFUL COMBINATIONS 1. LINEAR CONNECTION linear+linear, linear +spliter

Click on one icon to select one element. Choose between 5 different components, the wire the plain, the base, the battery and the wing. Check your total number of elements and your wing evaluation.

+1

+

+2

+1

+

2. SPLITER CONNCTION spliter+spliter

+2

+

WING 837 176

73

65

23

148

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Wireflies_Info from the Game

+2 +2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1

+1 +1

+1

+2

+1

+1 +1

+1

+1

+1 +1

+1

+1 +1

+1 +1

+1

+1

AUTO ROTATE

607 531 255

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3. SCORING

SCORING / TOTAL ENERGY COLLECTED

Click on one icon to select one element. Choose between 5 different components, the wire the plain, the base, the battery and the wing. Check your total number of elements and your wing evaluation.

1. ENERGY COLLECTED +used

2. ENERGY COLLECTED +not used

3. ENERGY CONSUMED + light up the patterns

WING 837 178

73

65

23

148

1146 603


Wireflies_Info from the Game

+690V

+530V +420V

AUTO ROTATE

607 531 255

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//Diagrams - Structural Analysis During the last developments of the Wireflies project, all the components exchange information and compute compression and tension. According to that, the system behaves like a CA, where information starts bouncing on every frame until it provides the final structural evaluation. Each component communicates with its neighbors and passes on to them their structural information.

The first of the interface scors is the structural evaluation of the assembly. By enabling the so called â&#x20AC;&#x153;structural modeâ&#x20AC;? in the game, a different coloration applies over the components informing the player of the resistant capacity of each one and the structural efficiency of the overall structure, indicating readjustments or alterations in the configuration. The components provide construction information. In the first experiment, the components interact with the pressure sensors and inform the pattern, which indicates the forces that are exerted. More specifically, some special units include some sensing device and provide feedback to the system. These units interact with the other components, whose pattern changes color or it may start blinking. Thus, the system informs the user that the structure is reaching a critical mass or that it is going to collapse, respectively. This turns to be valuable information to the user as it raises awareness about the forces and it facilitates him to properly place the next component. During the last developments of the Wireflies project, all the components exchange information and compute compression and tension. According to that, the system behaves like a CA, where information starts bouncing on every frame until it provides the final structural evaluation. Each component communicates with its neighbors and passes on to them their structural information. Computation and visualization happen at the same time, providing an ongoing feedback loop to the system. Each component expresses information which varies from blue to red color, depending on the compression values. Throughout this process, the different colors are organized in a feedback loop, and the continuously changeable outputs become the new inputs, which influence the behavior of the structure. This color system reflects the accuracy of the automatic construction control system, making explicitly clear which part of the structure absorbs most of the compression. In the case of a red component, the user can adapt his design in order to avoid this phenomenon; by placing more neighbors the computation changes the outcome immediately, whereas the moment the structure reaches the ground again, it provides new data as a feedback loop. The intelligence behind the coloring scheme makes it clear how the structure works, which elements are over- stressed, while providingaccurate and complete technical information that enables the decisionmaking in the design process. Furthermore, it helps the structure evolve into an adaptive architectural system.

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1 base

4 on top

8 on top

2 up diagonal (a)

5 on top + diagonal (a)

9 on top + diagonal (b)

3 up diagonal (b)

6 up diagonal (c)

10 on top + diagonal (c)

7 up diagonal (d)

11 hanging unit

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Wireflies_ GAD _ The Bartlett Color-coding represents a powerful way of expressing the information flow in the system and how local interactions produce global results. All these give the potential to the project to become totally automated, and the information provided by the signal will make the components reorganized, adjust their behavior and respond accordingly. For instance, it may distribute the forces differently or make a different aggregation. At the same time, the stability of the structure can be ensured by magnetic connections between the components that would lock them together.

Screenshot from real time play_ Attempt to create a structure

Screenshot from real time play_ Structural analysis

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1 base

4 on top

8 on top

2 up diagonal (a)

5 on top + diagonal (a)

9 on top + diagonal (b)

3 up diagonal (b)

6 up diagonal (c)

10 on top + diagonal (c)

7 up diagonal (d)

11 hanging unit

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//Feedback - Beta Testers The main goal of the research was to prove how game mechanics can suggest a new design thinking. The only way to do so was by releasing an operational prototype of the game in order to get and evaluate feedback from the data collection process. From the beginning “Wireflies” was not about a specific architectural outcome, but it was about making a link with the community of players that could hopefully suggest what is the fertile ground where this project could exist. The truth is, that by releasing the first “alpha test” of the game we did not know what to expect and what would be the first reaction from the public. Most of our gameplay results were quite expected, since we had predefined intentions. However, a lot of unexpected formations from the public did occur. People improvised and used the system in many different ways. There were moments in which people formed random and not interesting staff, however, there were some others in which people tried to fit very particular desires, creating completely unexpected structures, like the model of a house.

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John, Glasgow

Despoina, Athens

Silia, Athens

Alkis, London

Maya, Berlin 185


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//Final Images

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START THE GAME

GO FOR FORM

STRUCTURE FROM GROUND

CANNOPY

GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

WINGS IN HIGHER PLACES

WINGS IN LOWER PLACES

STORE ENERGY

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Wireflies_Final Images

SCULPTING

LANDSCAPE

GO FOR FOR SUCCESSFUL COMBINATIONS

MORE LIGHTS

MONUMENTAL

LESS LIGHTS

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for form The most interesting thing about designing Wireflies as a game is that it offers multiple solutions to a certain problem according to the playerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; s special desires and priorities. The challenge of the project had mostly to do with motivation and engagement of different users. Therefore having three different categories of scoring led to 3 main design strategies. As show in the diagram above those are the creation of a stable structure (GO FOR FORM) the creation of an energy efficient system (GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY) and the creation of a system with the most succcessful combinations (GO FOR SUCCESSFUL COMBINATIONS). This image was created in an effort to design a tall monumental stucture. Furthermore, in this example the score of the right combinations is quite high, although the main design strategy was to create a structure.

GO FOR FORM

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MONUMENTAL


Wireflies_Final Images

//Multiple Solutions-Go for form The main design strategy for this image was to create a structural system that would look like a cannopy or a shelter. Therefore the score of the structural capacity is high while there is no score of energy efficiency and successful combinations

GO FOR FORM

CANNOPY

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for successful combinations The main design strategy for this image was to create a bright structure. Therefore the focus was more on the successful combinations and less on the final form

MORE LIGHTS

GO FOR SUCCESFUL COMBINATIONS

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for energy efficiency The main design strategy for this image was to create a landscapy system that will harvest the wind and will produce the maximum amount of energy. Therefore there is no score of structural capacity and successful combinations.

GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY WINGS IN LOWER PLACES

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for form Similar to the first image this one was created in an effort to design a tall monumental stucture. However the functional use of a shelter was added in order to achieve higher score in the structural capacity of the system.

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for successful combinations This image was created in an effort to design a brighter structure and more explicit to the user. Therefore the night mode of the game was chosen.

GO FOR SUCCESSFUL COMBINATIONS

NIGHT MODE

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//Multiple Solutions-Go for form This image was created in an effort to design a tall monumental stucture. However there was a balance in all three categories of scores since the system not only has the necessary structural capacity but also proved to be energy efficient as the wings are placed strategically.

GO FOR FORM

196

MONUMENTAL


Wireflies_Final Images

//Multiple Solutions-Go for energy efficiency The main design strategy for this image was to create an energy efficient system that will store the energy that is produced. For achieving that goal a lot of batteries were placed strategically to the structure.

GO FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY STORE ENERGY

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//Design Process

1.

These images (1.. to 4.) are the sequence of the same game play, showing the different stages of design. The user - palyer can have at any point of the game interesting results that can trigger his imagination and results in different-multiple outcomes.

3.

198


Wireflies_Final Images 2.

4.

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//Multiple Outcomes

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//Multiple Outcomes

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//Multiple Outcomes - Plan Studies

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//Multiple Outcomes - Info

208


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//Multiple Outcomes - Info

210


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//Perspective - Day Mode

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//Perspective - Night Mode

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Wireflies _ Final Images

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//Elevation

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//Plan

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//Section

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Wireflies Final Images

+3.50

+1.00

0.00

-0.50

-1.00

-1.50

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//Interior View

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//Perspective

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//Final Reviewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Comments

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Wireflies _ Tutor’s Comments VISITING TUTORS: Filip Visnic (F.V) Theo Spyroupolos (T.S) Sean Hana (S.H) Ricardo de Ostos (R.O) Martin Dittus (M.D) Manuel Jimenez Garcia (M.G) GAD BARTLETT TUTORS: Alisa Andrasek (A.A) Stephen Gage (S.G) Philippe Morel (P.M) Jose Sanchez (J.S)

A.A. I think this is really successful. Practically, you can go the market already, very quickly. This one has the openness, and this idea of open ended. It would be really nice in the future to develop for this kind of game, some sort of connection with real data. I mean wind location, 3d scanning or some sort of sensors, devices that can capture wind values. So, I think that it has lots of potential, but that means much more open endness and I think it would be nice in the next two months to release it to test it and see what kind of reaction there is out of this. M.D. It is also very good to see that you have tested it, on at least two people. S.C. I would like to see it lot more real. I would like to see real landscape, real topologies, and real visualizations of wind speed. However I do agree with you, I think that you should talk with wind experts. See what your constraints are, distance for example. With longer wires in the ground, you got the idea that people might have preserved views that they hate to put anything on. You got the idea that some places are really desirable from your point of view, but really hateful from other’s people’s point of view. So there maybe some differences that you will have to start naming. And I think that, in that point it becomes a game of social engagement in the landscape context. There is so much more dynamic on what you are doing, and you should try it in the next two months. S.H. I was about to say the same thing in the same time. Not that it has to be absolutely real. You have done such a clever thing with the structure. You are saying that I will not analyse it more from structural analysis but you have those gentles moves and you can do the same sort of thing. You did have some different landscapes in the video that they did not in exist in the game. Changing the landscape certainly changes the wing value as well, which you can simulate as just a series of different velocities and different heights. So, this objective to go higher and gain more electricity might be better, however there might be a conflict with at least the structure. It could be a game version of different things. Think of different rules and how add a structure from reality to game. J.S. Yes I think that in a way this is an interesting point to me. Many of these processes as we were working through them, like that kind of tray that tries to be real time, are not completely accurate. But we are not pretending that this is the kind of most accurate process that you will get from a wing simulation. But having that information of that kind of rough scenario at the moment of design suggests that you are not having a workflow. That is completely disassociated from that information and then potentially it can post analysed and somehow bring in that thought a real time moment of decision-making. And I think that in a way that is an interesting conversation that it has a lot to offer, because you could, as technology evolves, have real time things happen, but ultimately we don’t. So do we get those informed decisions even with these simple rules or orientations of the wing or height and things like that? I think that it can be much more accurate when you have a loading bar that brings you more actual data, because it might be very different of what you are thinking of.

S.H. There is an exciting game version of all these real things. You showed us different types of landscapes. Imagine go to the next level where things are different and look different but it is also more difficult to solve. I don’t know, maybe ground is actually slippery in the next level, and every time you place one of these things on the ground it starts sliding. So, these are all game versions of real things, they are simple but they are actually simulating a lot of complex real things, like lightness in a structure. J.S. The conversation that we have inside the studio is that the fact that we have this kind of platform right now, one way of looking at it is suggesting that there are clear developments of that unit but the moment that you suggest that you have that uncertainty of the future, and open it to the community in a stage which is still under development… I think that you have the potential to do so. I think that even making something playful as the final video, in a way it is a mechanism that suggests hey I don’t have the answer, I want help I want to collaborate, I have this idea. There stages of the project at this level that could potentially connect with other people. And I think that for the amount of resources that you put in to that I think that you should really kind of playing that out, try to go to places that people could play get that actual feedback because yes some of these outcomes might definitely need to make more real, but which ones those are, is something that you should open up I think. And I would be very curious to see of what people’s reaction is. T.S. There is probably two ways to go about that feedback. One is that latest release could contribute to more optimized result to sale it to the world better. The other is what Alisa was mentioning, create the game and let the people be creative with it.

M.G. Maybe there are references such Minecraft, where people actually start creating. I think that is what you need to explore. First of all, I want to congratulate you for the speculative level that you reached your project. I really appreciate your work, I think it is fantastic. I would say that I could go even more radical in opening up the system and actually allow things to happen, for example I am really kind of curious of knowing what would happen if I actually hack you system and this not just that I use your components but also create my own components. This makes the whole mechanism a little bit more real. Like in a sense, if I am not an architect, but I see something creating from wing forces and I realize that I don’t want just to make an LED to blink but I actually want to connect my microwave, you know. I maybe hack in to it and create almost like a microwave component that needs and requires much more energy. So you can leave that more open to seem more real but also incorporate more design opportunities and see it more as a kind of collaborative design. Be radical in the way of looking at it. At least that would be what I would be exploring these couple of months because already there are some unexpected situations that you are getting from freeing the application to other people.

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Wireflies _ Tutor’s Comments I couldn’t expect that feedback, I expected everything of your steps of different scenarios because maybe we are architects but you know I couldn’t expect those. And I think that if you leave that

kind of door semi opened I think that we are going to have a really nice conversation in two months.

F.V. I really enjoy it. It is a very nice project. You play and it works by itself. You create this environment, you apply some simple rules, and it has quite obvious results. It fits of the catalogue of Minecraft. But then at the same time it becomes consumable, it about me invest my time to build these objects. And there are people, like in Minecraft, that can go crazy with the thing that they build. The question to ask yourselves is what are the benefits of creating that system that has no particular purpose? Besides maybe raising awareness about social energy, if you want to point at that direction which may have an interesting angle because then this becomes the vehicle. But then you should take a position and ask yourselves what is the number two version of the game that allows people to learn about energy etc. I think you should clarify your context; it is not about spending hours in just clicking.

J.S. It is interesting that people from Fold it, the videogame about molecules, solve a protein problem. They suggested that they would actually pay players to kind of spend their time randomly play. And eventually maybe one of them out of thousands would just come to a solution of something that would be meaningful. But I think that the context, the vehicle for the game is harvesting energy. And I think that is also suggesting that a lot of what is going to come out of this will be random, meaningless and perhaps not interesting staff. Hopefully, someone would just send you an email saying that I figured this out. And I think that yes we could speculate that this would happen or not but still you are trying to link the design thinking with that thing of unknown and I think you should present it like that. T.S. But I really wouldn’t have so much faith that somehow realising it is going to give you that much. Maybe I am a little bit suspicious. J.S. I think everybody is a little bit tired so lets leave it here. Thank you guys. Thank you all for being here today.

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//Appendix

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Wireflies_Hong Kong Game Jam We took part in the Hong Kong Game Jam 2013, developing the video game “Abort it”.A game about “Heartbeats” and abortion.

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From human computer symbiosis to GAME as an architectural medium: Defining “GAMIFICATION” Angelopoulou Dimitra (RC7)

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From human computer symbiosis to GAME as an architectural medium: Defining “GAMIFICATION”

Angelopoulou Dimitra RC7 Gamescapes studio by Jose Sanchez Report Tutor : David Andreen The BartlettSchool of Architecture UCL, July 2013

Abstract Gamification is the idea of applying game design strategies in non-game activities to engage users and by having fun to perform everyday activities or even to solve problems. The term of gamification is quite new so the number of gamified systems and the people involved in those is constantly increasing. Consequently, defining gamification is probably going to be an on going process, which will include not only what this idea is, but also what it is not. However, a lot of people appear to be very critical of its value and a debate on whether gamification has positive or negatives results has started. This paper aims to introduce the history of man – computer symbiosis conception that can be tracked back in 1960. Selected works from Licklider are presenting while these are compared / related to the new idea of gamification evolved in 2008. Furthermore, this report will suggest that the game has the potential to work as an architectural medium for design. Based on the studio agenda and my research, I will try to propose a new definition of gamification as a tool in the design process since it is still a term “in the making”.

Contents Abstract................................................................3 Acknowledgements..............................................5 Contents...............................................................7 1. Introduction......................................................8 1.1.Hypothesis.........................................8 1.2. Outline..............................................9 2. Human - Computer Symbiosis.........................10 3. Gamification.....................................................12 3.1. good or bad?.....................................12 3.2 case studies........................................15

Search Key words:

4. Gamification and Games in Architecture.........17

Games, gameful design, play, interaction, man-computer symbiosis, gamification, crowdsearch, open ended, game mechanics, feedback.

5. Conclusion........................................................26 Bibliography.........................................................31

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1.2 Report outline 1.2 Report outline

me people claim in contrast to the human to the In human a nutshell, this aimsthis to increase general Somethat people claim that in contrast In areport nutshell, report aims to increase general nd, machinesmind, are faster and more powerful beknowledge of gamification by exploring how machines are faster and more powerful beknowledge of gamification by can exploring how can use they can cause work they on high speed and perform game mechanics improve human improve performance in performance a can work on high speed and perform game mechanics human in a ks much quicker without errors. But the question rule based system and how possible it is to end up tasks much quicker without errors. But the question rule based system and how possible it is to end up Can the computer human to the in an environment where everything is a game and is a game and is: Canbethecompared computertobethecompared human in an environment where everything ain in terms of creativity, making and everyone the rulesfollows of thatthe game almost allgame almost all brain in termsdecisionof creativity, decisionmaking and follows everyone rules of that aptability? adaptability? the time. It willthe alsotime. explain gamification in detail It will also explain gamification in detail and explore not only how and why it works, butwhy alsoit works, but also and explore not only how and the ages of information and network societies, the in what ways that concept can be used in architecIn the ages of information and network societies, the in what ways that concept can be used in architecationship between the computer and the human tural design. relationship between the computer and the human tural design. come more and more more complex extremelyand is extremely become and and moreis complex rd to coordinate. – computerMan symbiosis can symbiosis 1.1 can Hypothesis hardMan to coordinate. – computer 1.1 Hypothesis tracked backbe to tracked Licklider who in 1960 claimed back to Licklider who in 1960 claimed t machines and could together In my paper, suggest the suggest game inthat general thathumans machines andwork humans couldinwork together in- I will In my paper,that I will the game in general actively. has the potentialhas to work as an architectural medium teractively. the potential to work as an architectural medium for design. for design. erefore, the main subjecttheofmain my research is my not research Andisspecifically, I will try to giveI an thean answer to the Therefore, subject of not And specifically, willanswer try to to give ly about “ the only right about symbiotic relationship” among following topic: “ the right symbiotic relationship” among following topic: mputation andcomputation human creativity, but also about but also •Do about we need the•Do game a medium in architectural and human creativity, weasneed the game as a medium in architectural w that symbiosis is build. In order to investigate design? And if so, how can game mechanics lead to how that symbiosis is build. In order to investigate design? And if so, how can game mechanics lead to s, this report this, explores the new idea of gamificathinking? this report explores the new idea of innovative gamifica- design innovative design thinking? n. Gamification is Gamification the idea of applying game tion. is the idea of deapplying game den strategies insign non-game activities to drive user to drive user strategies in non-game activities havior. [1] This report will to explain how behavior. [1] also This try report will also try to explain how mification is gamification defined and how it works, both is defined and how in it works, both in actice and in theory. It is really crucial in that point practice and in theory. It is really crucial in that point distinguish the gamification to difference distinguish between the difference between gamification a trend or fashion and true systems that work as that work as as a trend or fashion and true systems mes, that havegames, been designed with social search that have been designed with social search o them. into them.

Conclusion Chapter 2: Human – Computer symbiosis Conclusion Chapter 2: Human – Computer symbiosis The focus of this be chapter on whatwill are be theon what are the This chapter will provide information on information the relaThechapter focus will of this This chapter will provide on the reladifficulties the benefits and the the benefits potentials if we tionship among tionship computation andcomputation human creativity. difficulties and the want potentials if we want among and human creativity. to use games as a medium in architectural design. Which is the right wayisfor to collaborate to use games as a medium in architectural design. Which thehumans right way for humans to collaborate What are the most important taken from the taken from the with machines and how they can use technology in What are the lessons most important lessons with machines and how they can use technology in study of this new term and what games can bring augmenting human intelligence would be the main study of this new term and what games can bring augmenting human intelligence would be the main that may alter value architecture? questions of thisquestions section. of this section. that to may alter value to architecture?

me people saySome that gamification is “a meaninglessis “a meaningless people say that gamification zzword that gets games wrong, mistaking incidenbuzzword that gets games wrong, mistaking incidenproperties like points and levels for primary featal properties like points and levels for primary feaes like interactions withinteractions behavioral with complexity” tures like behavioral complexity” , although others claim that it is a very innova[2], although others claim that it is a very innovae and pioneertive concept. For me, the main question and pioneer concept. For me, the main question out this idea about (though it idea may (though seem quite superfithis it may seem quite superfil) is: What arecial) the aspects of gamification that can is: What are the aspects of gamification that can lly improve people’s experience and how it can really improve people’s experience and how it can rk as a systemwork of motivation and in severas a system ofcontrol motivation and control in severfields. When does gamification make things meanal fields. When does gamification make things meangless and wheningless does things become and when doesproductive? things become productive?

erefore, a newTherefore, definitionaofnew gamification tool definition as of agamification as a tool the design process will be presented as the final in the design process will be presented as the final rt of the report. part of the report. 8 240

Chapter 3.1: Gamification: or bad? good or bad? Chapter 3.1:good Gamification: This chapter willThis provide information on how gam- on how gamchapter will provide information ification is defined and how this idea is related ification is defined and how this to idea is related to the model of human-computer symbiosis. In short, the model of human-computer symbiosis. In short, the promoters ofthe thispromoters idea suggest thatidea the way gamof this suggest that the way gamification works,ification is very works, simple. isUnfortunately, very simple. in Unfortunately, in everyday life, we are often presented with activities everyday life, we are often presented with activities we do not like. So if like. we live a world we what do not So in what if wewhere live in a world where everything will everything become a game? In a way, people will become a game? In a way, people will feel that theywill arefeel partthat of that so they would theygame are part of that game so they would probably perform their tasks better. On the other probably perform their tasks better. On the other hand, the opponents idea areofvery hand, of thethis opponents thiscritical idea are very critical since they arguesince for many reasons that gamification they argue for many reasons that gamification is a quite superficial term that seems term to have is a quite superficial thatnothing seems to have nothing to promise. Badges for example, are one of the most to promise. Badges for example, are one of the most controversial mechanics in gamification andgamification I will controversial mechanics in and I will try to explain why. try to explain why. Chapter 3.2: Gamification: studies Chapter 3.2:case Gamification: case studies In the previous chapter, the focus was onthe thefocus theory In the previous chapter, was on the theory and the mechanics behind gamification. Although, and the mechanics behind gamification. Although, gamification as agamification new idea is as still in theidea very a new is beginstill in the very beginning, it is challenging to think about how it can be how it can be ning, it is challenging to think about applied to the real world.toYet, are already a lotare already a lot applied the there real world. Yet, there of examples of of working gamified systems. In thissystems. In this examples of working gamified chapter, I’ll study some I’ll of them orderoftothem underchapter, studyinsome in order to understand the relationstand between theory and practice. the relation between theory and practice. Chapter 4: Gamification Games in architecChapter 4:and Gamification and Games in architecture ture In this chapter, IInwill to introduce a new way of a new way of thistry chapter, I will try to introduce approaching the approaching concept of gamification. Sogamification. far it is the concept of So far it is applied to websites and applications. Is it possible to applied to websites and applications. Is it possible to use it in architecture Would it effective? use itasinwell? architecture asbe well? Would it be effective? All those, are questions that I will try to answer also All those, are questions that I will try to answer also through my project sincemy it isproject based since on theitgame de- on the game dethrough is based fig.1: source: http://www.google.co.uk/images/gamification sign agenda. sign agenda. fig.1: source: http://www.google.co.uk/images/gamification

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2 Human – Computer 2 Human –symbiosis Computer symbiosis My interest for this hasfor arisen exploring Mytopic interest this while topic has arisen while exploring in my project how unitsproject can behow jointunits to form larger in my can be joint to form larger and more complex structures creating a system of and more complex structures creating a system of continuity. Therefore, it wasTherefore, necessaryittowas calculate continuity. necessary to calculate all the combinations two elements and elements – and all thebetween combinations between– two they were reallythey a lotwere (fig.3). Because order in my really a lot (fig.3). Because order in my system was a very unlike thing, I came to thing, the consystem was a very unlike I came to the conclusion that this clusion kind of that calculations a big required a big this kindrequired of calculations amount of computation the humanwhile mind the could amountwhile of computation human mind could shortcut that process through pattern matching. So matching. So shortcut that process through pattern when do computers us and where whenhelps do computers helpsshould us andwewhere should we use human intelligence? Consequently, into use human intelligence?taking Consequently, taking into consideration that the design should dia- become a diaconsideration that thebecome design ashould logue between human and computer, did computer, not use I did not use logue between humanI and the mathematicalthe way for the combinations. Instead, mathematical way for the combinations. Instead, I put sensors in the geometry to control I put sensors in order the geometry in the order to control the successful combinations through pattern matching. successful combinations through pattern matching. It was J.C.R Licklider, back in 1960, who It was J.C.R Licklider, backclaimed in 1960, who claimed first that machines and humans could work to- could work tofirst that machines and humans gether interactively, one expressing of the mostone of the most getherexpressing interactively, challenging newchallenging visions of the computer’s new visions ofabilities. the computer’s abilities. He wrote, “in the future, human He near wrote, “in the near brains future,and human brains and computing machines will bemachines coupled will together very together very computing be coupled tightly, and that tightly, the resulting partnership will partnership think and that the resulting will think as no human brain ever thought process as nohashuman brain hasand ever thought and process data in a way not approached information data in a way by notthe approached by –the information – handling machines we know today.” [3] handling machines we know today.” [3] fig.2: possible states of fig.2: rotation in axisstates x,y,z of rotation in axis x,y,z possible fig.3: successful combinations fig.3: successful combinations

the modes of working as well as the way designers The main subjectThe of main Licklider’ s paper (Man-Comthe modes of working as well as the way design subject of Licklider’ s paper (Man-Comthe environment andenvironment formulate their puter Symbiosis)puter is based on the fact that computperceive the andvalues. formulate their valu Symbiosis) is based on the fact thatperceive computers and humans ers haveand their own unique capabilities. The new role of The the architect process humans have their own unique capabilities. new role in of the the design architect in the design proc Therefore, he believes that the most important is has changed of different compuTherefore, he believes that the most important is by the hasdevelopment changed by the development of different com aiming on a relationship thata will increasethat efficiency aiming on relationship will increase tational efficiency systems.tational Therefore, the architect is not anysystems. Therefore, the architect is not a from both parts. According to Licklider, theretoare acfrom both parts. According Licklider, there areresponsible acmore for organizing and matter, more responsiblespace for organizing space and ma tivities that machines canthat manage withcan more accurativities machines manage with more butaccuramostly for designing complex and multilayered but mostly for designing complex and multilaye cy over human and inversely human can thinkhuman solu- can think cy over human and inversely solu-The whole systems. idea The behind computational systems. whole idea behindarcomputational tions that computers ”Man will set the”Man goals,will setchitecture tionscannot: that computers cannot: the goals, is thatchitecture the computer-aided design should is that the computer-aided design sho formulate the hypotheses, the criteria, and the criteria, formulatedetermine the hypotheses, determine supportand and notsupport overpass of creative andthenotprocess overpass the process of crea perform the evaluations. Computing machines will machines perform the evaluations. Computing designwill activity. In the meantime, the user (designdesign activity. In the meantime, the user (desi do the routinizable work that must be done pre- be done do the routinizable work thattomust pre- in the er) to remains of that process er)center remains in the centermaking of that all process making pare the way forpare insights and decisions in and technical the way for insights decisions inthe technical crucial decisions of the final design, while the the crucial decisions of the final design, while and scientific thinking.” [3] thinking.” [3] and scientific system generatessystem multiples developments give generates multiplesand developments and g different alternatives. different alternatives. “Man-computer “Man-computer symbiosis,” he symbiosis,” wrote, “is hean wrote, “is an expected development, expected incooperative development, interaction incooperative interaction To sum up, the To most important is to always sum up, the thing most important thing is to alw between man and electronic It will inbetween mancomputers. and electronic computers. It will infind ways to improve the symbiotic relationship find ways to improve the symbiotic relations volve very closevolve coupling the human and the human and verybetween close coupling between between human and computer that Licklider first between human and computer that Licklider electronic members of the members partnership”. Thepartnership”. main electronic of the The main talk about it back in about 1960. itTherefore, the very new the very n talk back in 1960. Therefore, aims, he pointedaims, out, “are 1) to letout, computers facilhe pointed “are 1) to let computers facilidea of gamification could be a proposed method idea of gamification could be a proposed met itate formulativeitate thinking as they thinking now facilitate formulative as theythenow facilitate the that will redefine the will role redefine of computer and of technolothat the role computer and techno solution of formulated problems, and 2) to enable solution of formulated problems, and 2) to enable gy in every day life. gy in every day life. man and computers co-computers operate intomaking deci- in making decimantoand co- operate sions and controlling complex situations without sions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined inflexible dependence onprograms.” predetermined programs.” [3] Licklider did [3] notLicklider suggest indid any case that humans not suggest in any case that humans should be replaced by be the replaced computerbynor should thehumans computer nor humans work for the computer. Instead he proposed that theproposed that the work for the computer. Instead he relation betweenrelation them should further developed. between thembeshould further be developed. His main ambition was to enhance the symbiosis His main ambition was to enhance the symbiosis among the human and the interaction and interaction and among thecomputer human and the computer interdependence.interdependence. Although it wasAlthough back in 1960, believed it wasLicklider back in 1960, Licklider believed that it was only athat matter of only time afor man of – computit was matter time for man – computer symbiosis to be developed to and to the most er symbiosis belead developed and lead to the most creative and exciting period. yearsAlmost later, 55 years later, creative and Almost exciting55 period. technology is already the new reality. Furthermore, technology is already the new reality. Furthermore, our way of thinking has indeed been augmented: For augmented: For our way of thinking has indeed been example, we areexample, able to perform data to comparisons we are able perform data comparisons and computationsand much quicker than in Licklider’ s in Licklider’ s computations much quicker than time. Moreover, time. as Howard Rheingold said “the fuMoreover, as Howard Rheingold said “the future limits of thisture technology in the hardware limits ofare thisnot technology are not in the hardware but in our minds”. but[4] in our minds”. [4] This transition from to machines and torobots Thishuman transition from human machines and robots has also occurredhas in the field of architectural design. also occurred in the field of architectural design. Technology has altered a lot the trends and Technology hasdesigning altered a lot the designing trends and

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Gamification 3 Gamification

the opening of her book Reality is Broken, Jane Furthermore, some people argue that one reason In the opening of her book Reality is Broken, Jane are Furthermore, people isargue cGonigal writes: that games important to some architecture that that one reason McGonigal writes: that take games are important to architecture is that they let the players decisions and “construct they thewant. players he truth is this: In today’s society, computer and environments” the wayletthey [9] take decisions and “construct “The truth is this:human In today’s environments” the way they want. [9] deogames are fulfilling genuine needssociety, that computer and are fulfilling genuine e real world isvideogames currently unable to satisfy. Gameshuman needs that the realthat world is currently unable e providing rewards reality is not. They areto satisfy. Games are providing rewards that reality aching and inspiring and engaging us in ways that is not. They are teaching and inspiring and engaging ality is not. They are bringing us together in ways us in ways that reality at reality is not”. [5] is not. They are bringing us together in ways that reality is not”. [5] ames are considered to be a source of motivation, are considered to be agames source of motivation, gagement andGames learning. Playing video engagement and learning. Playing video games s become a worldwide phenomenon that merits has become a worldwide phenomenon that merits ention. Some argue that what makes video games Someofargue that what makes video games engaging is a attention. combination different sources so engaging is a combination of motivation such as clear goals and direct feed-different sources of motivation such as clear goals and direct feedck. fig.4: gamification is the use of game design elements in non game contexts. This differback. fig.4: gamification is the use of game design entiates it from serious games and design forcontexts. This differelements in non game that point, is really crucial to understand the playful interactions. [17] “Gamification : To-games and design for entiates it from serious that point, is really crucial nesis of gameIntheory and how it could build to a understand the ward a Definition” playful interactions. [17] “Gamification : Toof game theory andtheory how it could build a nnection with genesis architecture. In short, game ward a Definition” connection short, game theory not about learning how towith win architecture. in a game, it In does not about learningashow to win t even relate toiswhat is considered a game. At in a a game, it does not even relate to what is considered At a or bad? 3.1 good sic level, game theory is more about how people as a game. 3.1 good or bad? basic level, is more in about how people ke decision and try to find game out thetheory best strategy take decision and try to find out the best strategy in Gamification is by definition, the use of game deery case. Consequently, the meaning of the term is by definition, Consequently, the meaning ofsign thestrategies term inGamification non-game activities. Although,the theuse of game deame” does notevery implycase. fun and leisure. Instead, in sign strategies in non-game activities. “game” does not imply fun and leisure. Instead, in term of gamification might be quite new, the psy- Although, the me theory, “game” is defined as any kind of strateterm gamification be The quite new, the psygame theory, “game” defined as any kindchology of stratebehind it, hasofbeen there for might decades. c behavior or interaction between theisplayers. chology behind it, has been there gic behavior or interaction between the players. first documented use of the word gamification canfor decades. The first documented of the(aword be tracked back in 2004, when Nickuse Pelling gamegamification can ccording to Von Neumann, game theory is similar be tracked back in 2004, when Nick Pelling (a game According to Von Neumann, game theory is similar programmer) referred to it as the act of converting a “mathematical discipline” and focuses on the programmer) referred to itHis as the to a interaction “mathematical discipline” and focuses on the device an electronic to a gaming platform. ideaact of converting ediction of human in multiparticipants an electronic device to a gaming platform. His idea prediction of human interaction in multiparticipants was to help companies evolve their products into d strategic situations. [6] Game theory assumes was to help companiesit was evolve their products into strategic situations. [6] Game assumes platforms. [10] However in the at each player and “forms rational beliefs about what theoryentertainment entertainment platforms. [10] However it was in the that each player “forms rational beliefs about what second half of 2010, when several industries and her players in the game will do and then chooses a second half 2010, when several industries and players in the game will and thenconferences chooses a popularized moreofthis new idea. sponse to thoseother strategies that maximizes its do payconferences popularized more this new idea. response to those strategies that maximizes its payfs”. [7] offs”. [7] In short, the promoters of this idea suggest that the short, the promoters of Unfortuthis idea suggest that the way gamificationInworks, is very simple. “Space Fighter” by MVRDV one of the main waylife, gamification is very simple. Unfortu“Space Fighter” MVRDV the main in everyday people areworks, often presented estions is whatInrole can games play by in urban plan-one ofnately, nately, in everyday life, people questions is what role can games play in urban planwith activities they do not like. So what if we liveare in often presented ng and architecture. Given that a game can go bewith activities do not like. SoInwhat if we live in ning and Given a game can go bea world where everything willthey become a game? nd scenarios, Winy Maasarchitecture. tries to explain thatthat only a world where everything will become a game? In yond scenarios, Winy Maas tries to explain that only a way, people will feel that they are part of that game ough games is possible to produce an unlimited a way, people will feeltasks that better. they are part of that game through unlimited they would probably perform their mber of outcomes. [8] games is possible to produce anso so they would probably perform their tasks better. number of outcomes. [8] 242

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One of the biggest promoters of gamification is Gabe Briefly, game mechanics and dynamics are both One of the biggest promoterswe of will gamification is Gabe Briefly, game“one mechanics and dynamics are both Zichermann. “Gamification is the meaning sides of the same equation: take real-world Zichermann. “Gamification is the we willand puts sides thea same “one take real-world enrich, educations we will improve, health we willmeaning problems themofinto game,equation: the other takes enrich, we willtheimprove, we will problems putsit them a game, the other takes foster and lives we will educations lengthen through appli- health game design thinking andand puts into into real-world fosterdesign and lives lengthenour throughproblems.” the appli- [12] game design thinking and puts it into real-world cation of gamification thatwe willwill be among cation ofhe gamification problems.” [12] most important legacies” noted. [11]design that will be among our most important legacies” he noted. [11] Although there are many game mechanics, I will Although there are or many game mechanics, I will Nevertheless, we should be really skeptical of that focus here on the most important usual ones. should be of of thatpeople focus here gifts, on the mostgoods important new term becauseNevertheless, it seems quitewe superficial to really be the skeptical A lot argue that virtual and or usual ones. new term that because it seemssuggests. quite superficial to be theplay a A lot of people that gifts, answer to all the problems Zichermann currency significant role argue in engaging usersvirtual goods and answer all gamification the problemscould that Zichermann significant role in engaging users There is always the risk to that betosuggests. participate or currency interact inplay somea activity. However, There is alwaysofthe risk thatcontrol gamificationI could be-that gamification to participate some activity. However, come a corporate mechanism alienated believe canorbeinteract much in more that come corporate mechanism controlusers make I believe thatIngamification be much more that where the user has noaoption and he is simply of fol-alienated engaging a profit. short, beyondcan badgusercredits. has no option and he is simply makedevelopments, a profit. In short, beyond badglowing the ruleswhere to gainthe more es and folcollectionsengaging of pointsusers and level lowing the rules to gain more credits. game mechanicses and collections of points and level developments, should include, desired behaviors, include, desired behaviors, In his book, “Gamification by Design”, Zichermann comparisons andgame givingmechanics feedback.should Moreover, a real his book, by Design”, Zichermann comparisons and giving feedback. distinguishes theIntwo main “Gamification elements in gamified game mechanic should be simple and very explicitMoreover, a real distinguishes twodynamics. main elements intogamified game mechanic should be simple and very explicit systems, game mechanics andthe game the user. systems, game mechanics and game dynamics. to the user. The main challenge of gamification is the The first and the most important thing is to consider The main challenge Therefore of gamificationwhat is might the motivate The first thing is to consider customer’ s engagement and motivation. the and userthe notmost onlyimportant to start ens engagement andgames motivation. gaging Therefore what activity might motivate not only to start engame mechanics customer’ are “the tools used to create with a specific but also tothe feeluser excited game mechanics are “the while tools used gaging with a specificItactivity but also to feel excited that motivate behaviors from the players, dy- to create and games keep his long-term engagement. is all about that motivate behaviors the players,creating while dyandofkeep his long-term engagement. namics are the reason that people do fellfrom motivated a system motivation by simple rules, It is all about namics[11] areFor the example, reason that people motivated creating system motivation by game mechanics”. game me-do fell which through play and afun, couldoflead to higherby simple rules, by challenges, game mechanics”. [11] For example, productivity. game mewhich through play and fun, could lead to higher chanics consist of motivations, levels, consist of game challenges, motivations, levels, productivity. points and virtualchanics currencies while dynamics pointsstatus, and virtual currencies while gameIndynamics include achievement rewards and competiaddition, comparisons could also encourage in a include achievement status, rewards andcertain competiIn addition, comparisons could also encourage in a tion. real-world problems.” [12] degree user’ s engagement. We all like to win tion. real-world problems.” [12] certain degree s engagement. and be the best among others. user’ Therefore, allowingWe all like to win and themselves be the best toamong Therefore, allowing players to compare othersothers. may proplayers to involvement. compare themselves to others may promote participation and user mote participation and user involvement. Finally feedback, is one of the game mechanisms Finally feedback, is one of the game mechanisms that has the greatest impact on the project developthat hastothe on the project development. Giving feedback thegreatest users isimpact really helpful Giving feedback to thequickusers is really helpful for them becausement. they learn to use the system for them they learnthe to feeduse the system quicker and more efficient. But because in the meantime, er and But useful in the meantime, the feedback provided from the more users efficient. is extremely for the users is and extremely useful for the project itself,back sinceprovided it leads from to improvement the project itself, since it leads to improvement and speeds up the development. speeds up the development. However, the importance of gamification remains However, the importance of gamification remains controversial. The opponents of this idea are very opponents of this idea are very fig.5: According to Richard Bartle there are four main critical since theycontroversial. argue for manyThe reasons that gamitypes of players, characterized as explorers, achievers, fig.5: According to Richard Bartle there are four main is a quitecritical sinceterm theythat argue for many reasons that gamification superficial seems to have socializers and killers. types of players, characterized as explorers, achievers, fication is a quite superficial term that seems to have source: [17] “Taking socializers gamification to the next level”. nothing to promise. and killers. source: [17] “Taking gamification to the next level”. nothing to promise. 13 13


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3.2 case studies 3.2 case studies Ian Bogost has referred Ian Bogost to the hasterm referred as a to “marketthe term as apoints “marketout that gamification points out that doesgamification not include does whatnot include what ing trend” and believes ing trend” thatand “exploitationware” believes that “exploitationware” is a is important is a for is games. important In a for recent games. blog Inpost a recent she blog post she more accurate definition more accurate for the definition games of for thatthe field. games ofwrote: that field. “What we’re wrote: currently “What terming we’re currently gamification terming gamification He has also suggested He hasthat alsogamification suggested that is “just gamification an is is in “just factan the process is inoffact taking the process that thing of that taking is least that thing that is least extension of existing extension ideas of in marketing existing ideas likeinloyalty marketing like essential loyalty to gamesessential and representing to games and it asrepresenting the core of it as the core of programs.” [2] programs.” [2] the experience. Points the experience. and badges Points haveand no badges closer have no closer relationship to games relationship than they to games do to websites than theyand do to websites and Even Jane McGonigal, Even Jane although McGonigal, she is although a big fanshe is fitness a big apps fan and loyalty fitness cards. apps and They’re loyalty great cards. tools They’re for great tools for of the idea that games of the idea can influence that games ourcan lives influence and ourcommunicating lives and progress communicating and acknowledging progress andeffort, acknowledging effort, change the world,change she refuses the world, to adopt shethe refuses gamificato adopt thebut gamificaneither pointsbut norneither badgespoints in anynor way badges constitute in any way constitute tion label as she tion believes labelthat as she rewarding believes (badges) that rewardinga (badges) game.” [13] In aaddition, game.” [13] this trend In addition, of gamification this trend of gamification may be the main may idea befor thegamification, main idea for butgamification, it is of but adding it ispoints of andadding badgespoints has been and badges characterized has been characterized not for the “gameful not for design”. the “gameful design”. as the perfect way as to themake perfect meaningless way to make and meaningless boring and boring things to seem much things more to seem interesting. much more (Jesseinteresting. Schell). (Jesse Schell). For game designers, For badges game designers, (game currency) badges are (game not currency) [14]are not [14] only the perfect way only to thepromote perfect their way to products promote buttheir products but also they represent also achievements they represent or trophies, achievements whichor trophies, Nevertheless, which in my Nevertheless, opinion, instead in myof opinion, being part instead of of being part of show the progress show of the play progress within of the system. play within the a constant system. debatea of constant what isdebate right or of wrong what isthe right fo- or wrong the foHowever, badgesHowever, are not appreciated badges are from not appreciated everyfrom cus should every- be on understanding cus should be on theunderstanding broader meaning the broader meaning one, because a lot one,of because people questioned, a lot of people whether questioned,ofwhether gamification. How of gamification. a system ofHow motivation a systemcan of motivation can virtual badges are virtual enough badges to motivate are enough people to motivate in activate people in the users activate and beyond the users colors andand beyond rewards colors and rewards real world activities. real world activities. how the symbiosis howthat the Licklider symbiosissuggested that Licklider can suggested can For example, the For game example, designerthe Margaret game designer Robertson Margaretbe Robertson achieved? be achieved?

Although, gamification Although, as a gamification complete concept as a complete is still concept Whatisisstill the mostWhat interesting is the most about interesting this example about is this exampl in progress, it is in challenging progress, ittoisthink challenging about how to think it about the problem-solving how it the problem-solving approach. The designers approach.ac-The designers can be applied tocan realbeworld. applied So to farreal theworld. most promSo far the most cept that promthey don’t cept have thatthe they answer don’tto have theirthe problem answer to their prob ising areas for applying ising areas gamification for applying are marketing, gamification are and marketing, they ask fromand non-experts they ask from to collaborate, non-expertsusing to collaborate, us customer engagement, customer education, engagement, healthcare, education, crowdhealthcare, collective crowd-intelligence collective as a intelligence design innovation. as a design innovation. sourcing (“the practice sourcing of obtaining (“the practice needed of obtaining services needed services and ideas”) and and employee ideas”)productivity. and employee However, productivity. However, experts expect that experts this idea expect could that also thisbeidea further could de-also be further developed in fields veloped such as in thefields financial suchservices, as the financial the services, the employee trainingemployee and why training not in architecture. and why not in architecture. One of the most One successful of the “gamified” most successful examples “gamified” in examples in the field of the customer the field of engagement the customer is the engagement Fouris the Foursquare example square used byexample Starbucks usedin by 2010. Starbucks The in 2010. The whole plan of this whole app plan was based of thison app getting was based play- on getting players to check in ers to multiple to checklocations in to multiple by offering locations by offering discounts to people discounts who were to people the most who loyal were visitors. the most loyal visitors. fig.7:http://www.google.co.uk/images foursquare - source: http://www.google.co.uk/images Another very interesting Anotherexample very interesting is Nike example Plus app,is Nikefig.7: Plusfoursquare app, - source: which tried to make which fitness tried atopleasant make fitness activity. a pleasant Acactivity. According to statistics cording less than to statistics 20% of less Americans than 20% getof Americans get exercise. So, theexercise. idea wasSo, thethe creation idea was of athe social creation of a social running application running that will application encourage thatrunners will encourage to runners to follow their dailyfollow fitnesstheir program. daily fitness The concept program. of The concept of gamification wasgamification used in that was case,used in order in that to case, mo- in order to motivate the playerstivate by providing the players them by social providing support them social support and constant feedback and constant as theyfeedback could connect as they on could connect on Facebook and update Facebook their feeds and update by posting their informafeeds by posting information of their regular tionrunning of theirprogram. regular running program.

fig.8: NikePlusApp - fig.8: source: NikePlusApp http://www.google.co.uk/images - source: http://www.google.co.uk/image

fig.6: badges - the virtual fig.6:currency badges -- the source: virtual http://www.google.co.uk/images/badges currency - source: http://www.google.co.uk/images/badges

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Finally, in 2008, Finally, Adrien Treuille in 2008, and Adrien his Treuille group re-and his group released the puzzleleased game the Fold-it puzzle thatgame also adopted Fold-it that the also adopted the idea of gamification. idea of Thegamification. developers of Thethis developers game of this game were aiming to a were “revolutionary aiming to scientific a “revolutionary discovery scientific discovery game that allow the game player thatto allow contribute the player to chemistry to contribute to chemistry by folding and designing by foldingproteins”. and designing [15] The proteins”. play- [15] The players were enabled ers through were that enabled gamethrough to find that optimum game to find optimum folding solutions folding at the edge solutions of scientific at the edge knowledge. of scientific knowledge. In a very short period, In a very users short managed period,tousers solvemanaged the to solve the problem of how problem to configure of how and to redesign configure the and pro-redesign the protein, that scientists tein, struggled that scientists for 15 years. struggled Therefore, for 15 years. Therefore, Fold-it was one Fold-it more successful was one more example, successful of the example, of the potential of the use potential of gamification of the useinofscientific gamification re- in scientific research since the gamified search since approach the gamified to a realapproach problem to a real problem proved to be really proved efficient. to be really efficient. fig.9: Foldit - source: fig.9: http://www.google.co.uk/images Foldit - source: http://www.google.co.uk/images

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4 Gamification and Games inand architecture: research by design 4 Gamification Games in architecture: research by design

he end of thisAtchapter, gamification the endisofclear this that chapter, is clear that gamification not replace game design but game is not design meaningless cannot replace but is not meaningless er, there are some taken from either,important there are lessons some important lessons taken from study of thisthe new term.of Game mechanics (if mechanics (if study this new term. Game sen properly)chosen can become a really powerful properly) can become a really powerful that will also enable human sym- computer symtool that will alsocomputer enable human sis. The general ambition is to take into considbiosis. The general ambition is to take into considion all the existing about this conceptabout this concept erationarguments all the existing arguments try to prove that, way, gamification could be and in tryato prove that, in a way, gamification could be lied to different fieldstosuch as thefields architectural applied different such as the architectural gn. But beforedesign. that, itBut is necessary to understand before that, it is necessary to understand gamification that is a gamification long, complicated process and is a long, complicated process and an easy and cheap some might that be some might be not ansolution easy andthat cheap solution ching for. searching for.

his context, the purpose of my In this context, the project, purposewhich of my project, which ased in the game design agenda, to become is based in the gameisdesign agenda, is to become omputational simulation that will use game a computational simulation thatmewill use game menics to addresschanics the decision making to address the process. decision making process.

In this chapter I tried to chapter investigate through the de- through the deIn this I tried to investigate sign process, what the difficulties signareprocess, what arethe thebenefits difficulties the benefits and the potentialsand of using gamification as agamification tool in the potentials of using as a tool in architectural design. So far, gamification is applied architectural design. So far, gamification is applied to websites and applications. Would game mechanto websites and applications. Would game mechanics be effective toicsuse in architectural be them effective to use themdesign in architectural design as well? as well? In very simple words, gamification for me is an easy for me is an easy In very simple words, gamification way to take as an example, operationssimple like operations like way to take simple as an example, games that are successful, why they games thatunderstanding are successful, understanding why they work and trying towork implement them other settings. and trying to in implement them in other settings. Taking that into consideration, someone could claim Taking that into consideration, someone could claim that a lot of thingsthat anda aspects of ourand lives couldofbeour lives could be lot of things aspects “gamified”, although that expression often load- is often load“gamified”, althoughisthat expression ed with bad connotations. Thus, in reactionThus, to this, ed with bad connotations. in reaction to this, the term “gameful or “design as a game” thedesign” term “gameful design” or “design as a game” will be used to indicate the selective embedment will be used to indicate the selective embedment of game mechanics to a system. Therefore, in thatTherefore, in that of game mechanics to a system. point the question is, the howquestion can game mechanics point is, how can game mechanics improve the architectural design and what design are theand what are the improve the architectural advantages compared to a conventional proadvantages compared todesign a conventional design process? cess? In general, wireflies project (the title of the project) In general, wireflies project (the title of the project) explores the potentials of the creating an architectural explores potentials of creating an architectural system through asystem “gameful design” process. design” It is process. It is through a “gameful about user’s creative who expression, through de-who through deaboutexpression, user’s creative cision-making explores new strategies architeccision-making exploresinnew strategies in architectural design. Thetural idea design. is to create The an ideaopen is tosandbox create an open sandbox video game as a video discrete kit of that could game as parts a discrete kit of be parts that could be assembled and dis-assembled resulting on different assembled and dis-assembled resulting on different aggregations. Wireflies game explores new building aggregations. Wireflies game explores new building blogs of architecture around the collection blogsworking of architecture working around the collection of the wind energy its distribution. can of and the wind energy andPlayers its distribution. Players can use light patternsuse to intuitively redefine the topololight patterns to intuitively redefine the topology of the circuits gy andofinformation that runnetworks that run the circuits networks and information fig.11: “Main Idea - Tile Sets” fig.11: “Main Idea - Tile Sets” through the building fabric. through the building fabric.

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3. 1. look like a game 1. look like a game

operational prototype

3.

operational In addition, prototype

Inaaddition, since a game is addressed since game is addressed to the public, to the public, the challenge of the project had also to do with simthe challenge of the project had also to do with simtake feedback take feedback plicity. In an effort to decrease the number of differplicity. In an effort to decrease the number of differcomponents thethe necessary for the gameplay, ent components ent to the necessarytofor gameplay, Game Game they divided in 5 main categories (fig.15) that they were divided in were 5 main categories (fig.15) that the user could easily The wing, which the user could easily distinguish. Thedistinguish. wing, which Game mechanics Game mechanics defines it tries to capture the air, defines the surface sincetheit surface tries to since capture the air, the batteries, which help the energy system collect energy the batteries, which help the system collect and the which into the distributors and the wires which are wires divided into are the divided distributors 2. system of motivation 2. system of motivation splitters theystrategicalshould be put strategicaland the splittersand andthe they shouldand be put interface, opposite scores,interface, evaluation opposite scores, evaluation ly in aorder to create a structure. Finally, the output ly in order to create structure. Finally, the output or the final node, which makes the system become or the final node, which makes the system become fig.12: “Research’ s fig.12: Diagram” “Research’ s Diagram” expressive, is the last from which more expressive,more is the last component fromcomponent which On a first stage, On this a first research stage,focuses this research on howfocusesthe on“player” how canthe “player” mainly usethat the has electricity that has mainly use can the electricity the whole system the whole can besystem designed can inbe a designed way inbeen a produced way been produced by capturing theby air.capturing the air. that it would look that like it would a game. lookThe likefirst a game. step, inThe first step, in order to give theorder flexibility to give to the the flexibility system to to be the easily system toBriefly, be easily Briefly, theis whole is based the whole system based system on the right com-on the right comtransformed intotransformed a game wasinto to figure a gameoutwas how to the figure outbinations how the (fig.16)binations (fig.16) components of the different components menof the different mendifferent small units different couldsmall be combined units could in abeway combined that in ationed way that tioned above, the user will choose. To make the above, that the user willthat choose. To make the they would workthey andwould cooperate workasand a game cooperate kit. The as a gamesystem kit. The systemthe more explicit, the rules are of connections are more explicit, rules of connections main elements of main the elements chosen component of the chosen (shown component in (shown in simple in an other effort players to allowtoother players to very simple in very an effort to allow fig.14) were carefully fig.14) designed were carefully so as to designed remindsoa as to remind a and understand explore themany gamerewithout many reunderstand explore the and game without game and attract game the and public. attract Thisthe is the public. mainThis rea- is the strictions. main rea- Besides, strictions. Besides,before as mentioned before (in chapter as mentioned (in chapter son that a glowing soncolor that awas glowing chosen color for the waspattern chosen for the 3.1) game mechanics rules simshould be very sim3.1)pattern game mechanics and rules shouldand be very (wire) while there (wire) was an while attempt theretowas embed an attempt real time to embedple realtotime pleIttoisunderstand. It is that verythe important understand. very important rules that the rules movement to themovement wing which to the is the wing most which important is the most would important actually actions that players take, actually would limit the actionslimit that the players take, part of the component part of since the component is the element sincethat is the cap-elementtothat cap- pressure to create pressure andlead consequently create and consequently to quick lead to quick tures the wind and tures converts the wind it into and energy. converts it into energy. and efficient decisions. and efficient decisions. Moreover, Moreover, an actual game an actual game mechanic is really short andit specific mechanic is really short and specific since should since it should In the same time, In having the same in time, mind having that a game in mind canthat a describe game canin a simple describe a simple what way in either what way you either are able to you are able to exist both in physical exist both andindigital physical world, and the digital ele- world,dothe ele-a limit.do set is a limit. So, reason this is the or set So,orthis the main whymain the reason why the ments of the unitments were of designed the unitinwere a scale designed that could in a scale that could number is of strictly components is strictly restricted and the number of components restricted and the also facilitate thealso physical facilitate aspect the of physical it. Meaning aspectthat of it. Meaning player shouldand think carefully and strategically about playerthat should think carefully strategically about they could be portable they could and be canportable be transferred and canallbetotransferred totheir placement. theirallplacement. gether. All the tested gether. examples All the tested that were examples mentioned that were mentioned above (case studies) abovedeal (case with studies) gamified dealvirtual with gamified envirtual environments. However, vironments. in thisHowever, project byinfocusing this project on by focusing on the magnetic connections the magnetic in order connections to lock in theorder com-to lock the components togetherponents and make together a stable andstructure, make a stable I will structure, I will try to prove thattry “gameful to provedesign” that “gameful can work design” in realcan work in real world as well. For world thatasreason, well. For a lotthat of physical reason, aexlot of physical experiments were periments conducted were and by conducted using conductive and by using conductive ink and magnetsink (fig.13), and magnets we managed (fig.13), to we be literalmanaged to be literally playful with how ly playful that system with how could that build system blocks. could build blocks. However, the physical However, aspect theof physical the game aspect put several of the game put several limitations of size limitations and scaleofbecause size anda scale game because is sup- a game is supposed to be easily posed handled to beby easily human handled hands.by human hands. glow animation simplicity environment

18

glow animation simplicity environment

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fig.13: “Physical experiment fig.13: “Physical with conductive experiment ink”with conductive ink”

fig.14: “The Kit - Elements fig.14: “The of theKit Component” - Elements of the Component”

fig.15: “The Kit - Setfig.15: of Component” “The Kit - Set of Component”

fig.16: “Rules of Combinations” fig.16: “Rules of Combinations”

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based on that the aassumption ally based onFinally the assumption game envi-that a game environment can make design even more realistic ment can make the design even the more realistic and helparchitectural us understand architectural complexities, help us understand complexities, another part verywas important part of wasthethe choice of the ther very important the choice landscape. The “grassy” environment was mainly dscape. The “grassy” environment was mainly chosen First for two reasons. Firstwithout of all, it makes without sen for two reasons. of all, it makes themuch wholemore scenery muchand more gameful and bt, the wholedoubt, scenery gameful secondly strengthensofthetheappearance of the wind, ondly it strengthens theitappearance wind, is one of the ofmain ch is one of which the main elements the elements design. of the design. does noton imply anything on the location wever it does However not implyitanything the location of the project, it iselement only a graphic element of he project, since it is only asince graphic of design the main goal through design and thethe main goaland through the project was the project was to suggest different uggest different opportunities foropportunities the system tofor the system to fig.17: “No environment” fig.17: “No environment” be adapted. adapted.

fig.21-22: “Environment options” fig.21-22: “Environment options”

8 “Environment fig.18 option”“Environment option”

19 “Environment fig.19 option”“Environment option”

20: “Environmentfig.20: option”“Environment option”

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On a second stage, researchstage, emphasized on The general usingaim simple Onthis a second this research emphasized on aim was, The by general was,diagrams, by using simple diagrams, how a system of motivation thatofismotivation usually used icons and illustrations to and create a “clear”, to “well or-a “clear”, “well orhow a system that is usually used icons illustrations create in games could potentially work in architectural ganized” environment that will guide the user to in games could potentially work in architectural ganized” environment that willaguide the user to a design as well. Thedesign first step was toThe allow playdecision making process through theprocess game. through the game. as well. firstthe step was to allow the playdecision making er navigate himselferinnavigate the system through the aphimself in the system through the appropriate virtual interface. theinterface. user would be the user Thewould most important partmost of the research part in that stage propriateThus, virtual Thus, be The important of the research in that stage motivated to take several decisions that will form the was to decide which is the purpose of the game, what motivated to take several decisions that will form the was to decide which is the purpose of the game, what final output. A veryfinal simple interface you want to achieveyou through whichthrough is the main output. A veryenvironment simple interface environment want ittoand achieve it and which is the main was designed in order to provide the minimum of motivation for the players. For all the reasons menwas designed in order to provide the minimum of motivation for the players. For all the reasons menchoices to the player. Briefly, through that, he has above, necessary a system to define a system choices to the player. Briefly, throughtioned that, he has it was tioned above,toit define was necessary the possibility to choose firstly the kind of element of evaluation. Besides, gameful design and game design and game the possibility to choose firstly the kind of element of evaluation. Besides, gameful that he wants to use, a wing (thateither converts mechanics are based on targeting the desires and the desires and thateither he wants to use, a wing (that converts mechanics are based on targeting air into electricity) air or into a wired element (that carries motivations of the players-users in order to get in order to get electricity) or a wired element (that carries motivations of the players-users in itself that electricity as athat lightelectricity pattern) and the and mostthen interesting results in itself as a then light pattern) the and mostdesirable interesting and from desirable results from apply to it the rightapply behavior by rotating it, in order them. to it the right behavior by rotating it, in order them. to achieve the mostto successful combinations. achieve the most successful combinations. Moreover, it is really crucial for design process Moreover, it isthe really crucial for the design process to let the player choose of choose the elements thatof the elements that to letthe theorder player the order he wants to place, (having always in mind thatalways there in mind that there he wants to place, (having is a restricted number each component available) is a ofrestricted number of each component available) in order to receive multiple data collection. in order to receive multiple data collection.

Specifically, for checking the structural capacity of Therefore, the implication having three oppoSpecifically, for checking the structural capaci Therefore,of the implication of having three oppothe system, it is important that during the gameplay site scores suggestssite a more complicated decisionthe system, it is important that during the gam scores suggests a more complicated decisionyou can constantly you switch and see which are and see whic making process. making process. canmode constantly switch mode the points of the structure that need more support. the points of the structure that need more suppo

fig.24: “Opposite Scores” fig.24: “Opposite Scores”

Those 3 different scores based onscores the amount Those are 3 different are based on the amount of energy collected,ofonenergy the successful collected,combinations on the successful combinations fig.27: “calculation of the compression in the system” fig.27: “calculation of the compression in the system” that are achieved and structural of thaton arethe achieved andcapacity on the structural capacity of the system. the system.

fig.25: “Scoring System/Energy collected from the wing” fig.25: “Scoring System/Energy collected from the wing”

fig.23: “Interface” 22

fig.23: “Interface” 22

fig.26: “The wing caprtures the air” fig.26: “The wing caprtures the air”

fig.28-29: “Real Time Screenshots / Structural Capacity ” the red fig.28-29: “Real Time Screenshots / Structural Capacity ” color indicates the units that need more support color indicates the units that need more23support 247


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To sum user does notpurpose, have a specific purpose, sum up, the user doesup, notthe have a specific since it is all about an open-ended ce it is all about an open-ended process where heprocess where he do whatever he wants, following do whatevercan he wants, following his own crite- his own criteria. minecraft example thatbewas from the bein minecraft As for inexample thatfor was from the ginning a very inspirational game. In ning a very inspirational game. In such games the such games the potential is be how peopleand canhow be creative and how y potential is only how people can creative they can redefine and reprogramming y can redefine and reprogramming the fabric of the fabric of architecture byasimply hitecture by simply playing game. playing a game.

factfinal for us that the final outFor example, it For was example, a fact forituswas thata the outapart the from the air and creating light come apart fromcome capturing aircapturing and creating light patterns should also create space. patterns should also create space. However, it wasHowever, it was only when we received “flying” structures (fig.33) only when we received “flying” structures (fig.33) that we decided to implement the score of structural that we decided to implement the score of structural capacity to motivate users playing with a differcapacity to motivate the users playingthe with a different strategy. ent strategy. Finally, although feedback that receiving Finally, although that receiving is stillfeedback is still an ongoing process,led it has an ongoing process, it has already not already only to led not only to technical improvements of the game (bugs solving), technical improvements of the game (bugs solving), but also contributed to the of a powerbut also contributed to the development of development a powerful design tool that is more comprehensive for the ful design tool that is more comprehensive for the public. public.

fig.31: Feedback sentfig.31: from Feedback beta testersent from beta tester Feedback from tester before the implementation fig.33: Feedback sentfig.33: from beta tester sent before thebeta implementation of the 3 opposite scores / flying structure of the 3 opposite scores / flying structure

fig.30: MineCraft - source: http://www.google.co.uk/images 0: MineCraft - source: http://www.google.co.uk/images

On the final thethis main goal of this research the final stage, main stage, goal of research was to prove how game mechanics s to prove how game mechanics can suggest a can suggest a new design thinking. way to do so was w design thinking. The only way toThe do only so was by releasing an operational prototype releasing an operational prototype of the game in of the game in to getfeedback and evaluate feedback the data fig.32: frompeople beta tester / how er to get andorder evaluate from the data fromfig.32: Feedback sent fromFeedback beta testersent / how tried to fit people tried to fit very particular desires very particular desires collection process. From the beginning “Wireflies” lection process. From the beginning “Wireflies” not about a specific architectural s not about awas specific architectural outcome, but outcome, but it was about making a link with the community of was about making a link with the community of players that could hopefully suggest yers that could hopefully suggest what is the fer- what is the fertile ground where this project could exist. ground where this project could exist.

truth is, that the first e truth is, thatThe by releasing the by firstreleasing “alpha test” of “alpha test” of did to notexpect knowand what to expect and what game we didthe notgame knowwe what what The may final not outcomes not be the desirable ones, would be the first reaction from the Most of outcomes The final be the may desirable ones, uld be the first reaction from the public. Most of public. however thewe comments such as from our gameplay results were since quite we expected,however since wethe comments that received that suchwe as received from gameplay results were quite expected, where do I start, when and how does the game finish, had predefined intentions. However, a lot of unexwhere do I start, when and how does the game finish, predefined intentions. However, a lot of unexhow many components I use etc, were really pected fromoccur. the public howPeople many components should I use etc,should were really ted formations fromformations the public did Peopledid occur. helpful, since the players did things improvised and used the system in many different helpful, since the players did things that were com- that were comprovised and used the system in many different pletely from mind of the programmers. ways. Thereinwere moments which people formed pletely outside from theoutside mind of the the programmers. ys. There were moments which people in formed Of course, that gave us the possibility random and not interesting staff, however, there Of course, that gave us the possibility to design with to design with dom and not interesting staff, however, there clearer It was really important to underwere some others which people fit very clearer intentions. It wasintentions. really important to underre some others in which peopleintried to fit very tried to stand that, what was meaningful for the users might particular desires (fig.32), creating completely unexstand that, what was meaningful for the users might ticular desires (fig.32), creating completely unexnot be for structures, the model of a house. not(fig.31) be for the designers or the designers opposite. or the opposite. ted structures,pected like the model oflike a house. (fig.31) 24 248

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5 Conclusion5 Conclusion Assuming that architecture can architecture become computreleasing an operational of the prototype game, Assuming that can becomeBycomputBy releasingprototype an operational of the game, er generated andercrowdsourced, based onmainlyusers backgrounds, that did not have generated andmainly crowdsourced, basedfrom on different users from different backgrounds, that did not have Licklider’s first ideas, I reached conclusion any relation have access to ithave access to it Licklider’s first the ideas, I reachedthat the conclusion that to architecture any relationcould to architecture could design as a gamedesign has definitely a lot inform us sendustheir feedback. Even us, the designers, as a game hastodefinitely a lot to and inform and send their feedback. Even us, the designers, on creating dynamic and engaging environments in environments every time we followed a different de- a different deon creating dynamic and engaging in we played, every time we played, we followed architecture. Besides, game mechanics notmechanics some- aresign strategy andsign that strategy led of course to very different architecture. Besides, are game not someand that led of course to very different thing entirely new, it isentirely just a proposal integrate the purpose of the thing new, it istojust a proposal tooutcomes. integrate Besides, outcomes. Besides, theproject purposewas of the project was them in architecture so as users can follow not to arrive to one perfect solution, because maythemasinwell, architecture as well, so as users can follow not to arrive to one perfect solution, because maythem in a highly intuitive be in that case, design as a case, gamedesign wouldas have failedwould have failed them in away. highly intuitive way. be in that a game and players would have felt trapped to a system that to a system that and players would have felt trapped The most interesting designing no option.gives On the hand, The thing most about interesting thingWireflies about designinggives Wireflies noother option. Onapplying the othergame hand, applying game as a game in contrast to conventional pracmechanics open-ended systems like as a game in contrast design to conventional design prac- in complex mechanics in complex open-ended systems like tices is that it offers to a certain Wireflies way toisincrease be- productivity beticesmultiple is that itsolutions offers multiple solutions to a certainis the only Wireflies the onlyproductivity way to increase problem according to the player’ s special cause they a vast they openoffer spacea of combinations problem according to thedesires player’and s special desires and offer cause vast open space of combinations priorities. The challenge the challenge project hadof mostly and mostly possibilities to thepossibilities users. priorities.ofThe the project had and to the users. to do with motivation of different to do and withengagement motivation and engagement of different users. And this isusers. whereAnd the this use of game mechanics is where the use of game mechanics made wireflies a made successful experiment. wireflies a successful experiment. fig.35-36: Real Time fig.35-36: Screenshots / Different Solutions / Different Solutions Real Time Screenshots

fig.34: Real Time Screenshot / Different Solution / Different Solution fig.34: Real Time Screenshot 26

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Another important point is that one of the goals from the very beginning was to find someone play better than the designer of the game. But unfortunately, that proved to be the main difficulty of the research. There were moments in which people create several unexpected results and it is unavoidable to notice that the creation of a powerful “design tool” gave the possibility to take back interesting feedback. However, a lot of what it came out was random and meaningless, but hopefully as people would get more familiar with the game, someone will figure out something more exciting. Finally, in the beginning of the research it seemed that “gameful design” could be applied both in physical and digital world. But in reality only in digital world, the experiment did proved quite successful and promising although a lot of difficulties came out. The complexity of the system, since it was dealing with various parameters, such as the capturing of the wind and the distribution of electricity did not allow the whole system to be transferred in real world. But the main reason was that the physical aspect of the

fig.38: “Game Menu” 28 250

fig.37: Feedback sent from beta tester

game put several limitations of size and scale and therefore it could not give the outcomes that were provided through the digital environment. To conclude, design as a game could definitely open channels for new design thinking in virtual environments. A link between the designers and the community could be achieved and consequently that could lead to a design innovation where several users will be the center of a “game algorithm”.


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Bibliography Bibliography [11]: Zichermann and Cunningham [1]: “Gamification”, URL: http://www.gamification. [11]:Gabe Zichermann Gabe and ChristoCunningham Christo[1]: “Gamification”, URL: http://www.gamification. pher, “Gamification by Design: Implementing Game org, (accessed org, on March 2013). pher, “Gamification by Design: Implementing Game (accessed on March 2013). Mechan- ics inMechanWeb andics Mobile Apps” (O’REILLY, in Web and Mobile Apps” (O’REILLY, Canada, August 2011) [2]: Ian Bogost,[2]: “Gamification is a Bullshit”, Canada, August 2011) Ian Bogost, “Gamification is a Bullshit”, http://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bullhttp://www.bogost.com/blog/gamification_is_bull[12]: Per Hagglund, “Taking gamification the shit.shtml (accessed on March 2013). [12]: Per Hagglund, “Taking togamification to the shit.shtml (accessed on March 2013). next level. A detailed overview of the past, the presnext level. A detailed overview of the past, the present and a possible future of gamification”, (2012). [3]: Licklider, [3]: J.C.R., “Man-Computer Symbiosis”, ent and a possible future of gamification”, (2012). Licklider, J.C.R., “Man-Computer Symbiosis”, URL:http://www8.cs.umu.se/education/examina/ (IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, URL:http://www8.cs.umu.se/education/examina/ (IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, Rapporter/PerMafrost.pdf vol. HFE- 1, 4-11, Mar 1960). URL: http://groups. Rapport- er/PerMafrost.pdf vol. HFE- 1, 4-11, Mar 1960). URL: http://groups. csail.mit.edu/ medg/people/psz/Licklider.html csail.mit.edu/ medg/people/psz/Licklider.html [13]: Kristen [13]: Bourgault, “Gamification in EducaKristen Bourgault, “Gamification in Education: Epic Win or Epic Fail?” URL: http://www.dig[4]: Howard Rheingold, “Tools For Thought .The tion: Epic Win or Epic Fail?” URL: http://www.dig[4]: Howard Rheingold, “Tools For Thought .The italpedagog.org/?p=1416 (accessed on April 2013)on April 2013) History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technolitalpedagog.org/?p=1416 (accessed History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technol[14]: Jesse Schell, “The Schell, art of “The game art design”, ogy”, (MIT Press, URL: 1995), http://dlc.dlib.in[14]: Jesse of game design”, ogy”, 1995), (MIT Press, URL: http://dlc.dlib.inURL: http:// diegoricchiuti.altervista.org/worddiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/22/Tools_ URL: http:// diegoricchiuti.altervista.org/worddiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/han- dle/10535/22/Tools_ press/?p=1033, (accessed on April 2013)on April 2013) For_Thought.pdf press/?p=1033, (accessed For_Thought.pdf

[21]: Shyam Sankar, “The Sankar, rise of human – com[21]: Shyam “The rise of human – computer cooperation”. URL:http://www.youtube.com/ puter cooperation”. URL:http://www.youtube.com/ watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ltelQ3iKybU watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ltelQ3iKybU (accessed on January 2013) (accessed on January 2013) [22]: Ian Bogost, “Unit [22]: Ian Operations”, Bogost, “Unit(2008) Operations”, (2008) [23]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ [23]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ J._C._R._Licklider (accessed on January 2013) wiki/ J._C._R._Licklider (accessed on January 2013) [24]: Jose Sanchez, (June 2013) (June 2013) [24]: “Gamescapes”, Jose Sanchez, “Gamescapes”,

Images

Images

_fig.10-29 & 31-38 : “Wireflies” in collabo_fig.10-29 & 31-38project : “Wireflies” project in collaboration with Diamanti Vasiliki and Karantaki Meropi ration with Diamanti Vasiliki and Karantaki Meropi

[15]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ [5]: McGonigal, “RealityJane, is Broken, [15]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ [5]: Jane, McGonigal, “RealityWhy is Broken, Why wiki/ Foldit (accessed on April 2013) games make usgames bettermake and how they can change the wiki/ Foldit (accessed on April 2013) us better and how they can change the world” (VIN- TAGE BOOKS, London, 2011) world” (VIN- TAGE BOOKS, London, 2011) [16]: McGonigal, (March 2013). Gaming2013). can Gaming can [16]:Jane McGonigal, Jane (March make a bettermake world. [6]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ a URL: better http://www.ted.com/ world. URL: http://www.ted.com/ [6]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_ can_make_a_betwiki/John_ von_Neumann#Game_theory, (accessed talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_ can_make_a_betwiki/John_ von_Neumann#Game_theory, (accessed ter_world.html.ter_world.html. on April 2013).on April 2013). [17]: Deterding, Sebastian, DanSebastian, Dixon, Rilla Khaled, [7]: Jacob W. [7]: Crandall, of Game Theory”, [17]: Deterding, Dan Dixon, Rilla Khaled, Jacob “Basics W. Crandall, “Basics of Game Theory”, and Nacke, Lennart E. “Gamification: Toward a (Febru- ary 11,(Febru2008) ary URL: http://www.mit.edu/~and Nacke, Lennart E. “Gamification: Toward a 11, 2008) URL: http://www.mit.edu/~Definition”, (2011). jcrandal/16.499/GameTheoryBasics.pdf Definition”, (2011). jcrandal/16.499/GameTheory- Basics.pdf [18]: “Computing andMachinery Intelligence” [8]: MVRDV /[8]: DSD, “Space/Fighter. The evolution[18]:Machinery “Computing and By Intelligence” By MVRDV DSD, “Space Fighter. The evolutionA. M. Turing, (accessed on January 2013). URL: ary city (game)”, in collaboration with the Berlage A. M. Turing, (accessed on January 2013). URL: ary city (game)”, in collaboration with the Berlage http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html Institute, MIT Institute, and cThrough. http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html MIT and cThrough. [19]: Nigel Cross, Design and of Inno[9]: Antonio Saggio, “The Saggio, new mental [19]:Department Nigel Cross,ofDepartment Design and Inno[9]: Antonio “Thelandscape. new mental landscape. vation, “Natural intelligence in design”, (The Open Why Games Are Important for Architecture”, in vation, “Natural intelligence in design”, (The Open Why Games Are Important for Architecture”, in University, Milton Keynes,Milton MK7 Keynes, 6 AA, UK) Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture University, MK7 6 AA, UK) Space Time Play. Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism:and TheUrbanism: Next Level, (Berlin, 2007) The Next Level, (Berlin, 2007) [20]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ [20]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Intelligence_amplification (accessed on Janu[10]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Intelligence_amplification (accessed on Janu[10]: “Wikipedia”, URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ ary 2013) wiki/ Gamification, (accessed on March 2013). ary 2013) wiki/ Gamification, (accessed on March 2013). 30

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The Matter of Control IN THE DESIGN PROCESS TOWARDS A HYBRID APPROACH

//Abstract We are leaving in an era of rapid and unprecedented convergence of technological and algorithmic developments. Artificial intelligence, complex computational programs and automation determine and affect almost every field of human endeavor, from financial prices to medicine, movie scripts to architecture, while they challenge the notion of human control in most of these cases. In the design process, the use of complex systems, like algorithms and agentbased modeling, has given the ability to architects to produce intriguing results and complex outcomes, while it has revolutionized the way architecture is conceived and produced. Now architects design processes/systems (made by algorithms) instead of design forms. At the same time, the use of these tools raise questions regarding the levels of interaction between program and outcome, the levels of automation and control by the user, as well as the effectiveness, reliability and â&#x20AC;&#x153;characterâ&#x20AC;? of the design solutions. Inside the field of video games, there are many game examples suggesting a model of control that couples human monitoring with computational processes. This report will speculate on a design methodology that puts human control at the same levels with algorithmic control, following the notions of game mechanics.

Keywords: control, feedback , autonomous systems, hybrid control systems, decision making, models of alteration

The Matter of Control IN THE DESIGN PROCESS

TOWARDS A HYBRID APPROACH Meropi Karantaki - rc7

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Acknowledgments.................................................................................................3 Abstract.................................................................................................................5 1. Introduction.......................................................................................................8 2. The emergence of control...............................................................................10 2.1. A brief historical reference in autonomous control 2.2. The power of control systems today 3. Types of control systems..................................................................................11 3.1. The hierarchical control system of KIVA? 3.2. The algorithm behind 3.3. The contribution of feedback in the ecology of the system 4. Hybrid control systems in video games...........................................................14 4.1 Dwarf Fortress and the virtues of failure 5. Hybrid control system in the architectural design process..............................16 5.1. Cellular semi-Autonoma 5.2. Hybrid control in an architectural system 5.2.1. - Wireflies the Game 5.3. Partial control 5.4. Automation VS Partial Automation 5.5. Hybrid control and physical manifestation 5.5.1. Pressure sensor 5.5.2. Data distributor 5.5.3. Implications beyond the simulation 6. Conclusion.......................................................................................................28 Image Credits.......................................................................................................31 References...........................................................................................................33

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1. Introduction // 1. Introduction

er the last 60 years, welast witnessed information - communication Over the 60 years, we witnessed information - technologies communication technologies d computationand to computation radically revolutionize therevolutionize developmentthe of development various fields.of various fields. to radically wadays, highlyNowadays, complex systems and autonomous control are able control to nego-are able to negohighly complex systems and autonomous te with large populations and populations deal with uncertainty. Traffic control systems, tiate with large and deal with uncertainty. Traffic control systems, tomated highway systems, airplane formation flights, product distribution sys- distribution sysautomated highway systems, airplane formation flights, product ms in ports (e.g. Rotterdam) and airports, have already been tested and consoltems in ports (e.g. Rotterdam) and airports, have already been tested and consolted. In the artsidated. field, glitch, algorism, drone imagery and satellite photography In the arts field, glitch, algorism, drone imagery and satellite photography chty,2013] are[Lichty,2013] the artifacts of design processes.design (fig.1,2) aresemi-autonomous the artifacts of semi-autonomous processes. (fig.1,2)

thin the architectural research field several experiments have been madehave in been made in Within the architectural research field several experiments der to better understand the interdisciplinary relation between sciences, soorder to better understand the interdisciplinary relation between sciences, sol sciences, biology, architecture andarchitecture computation.and Academics like John Frazer like John Frazer cial sciences, biology, computation. Academics d Nicholas Negroponte argued for evolution and computation while dealt with while dealt with and Nicholas Negroponte argued for evolution and computation sues” of control in the of past. In the project by the Machine “issues” control in SEEK the past. In the SEEKArchitecture project by the Architecture Machine oup of the M.I.T in 1970, a robotic machine could gradually learn and adapt Group of the M.I.T in 1970, a robotic machine could gradually itlearn and adapt itf by observingself theby interaction some gerbils with theirgerbils habitat. [Negroponte, observingofthe interaction of some with their habitat. [Negroponte, 73] This experiment was experiment conceived both an initialboth model of adaptive and of adaptive and 1973] This was as conceived as an initial model rning systemslearning and as an example between living beings (gerbils) systems andofassymbiosis an example of symbiosis between living beings (gerbils) d machines. and machines.

thin that context questions are raised regarding the degrees of autonomy of of autonomy of Within that context questions are raised regarding the degrees e machines and amount and of human control. we have the Do tools cre- the tools to crethethe machines the amount of Do human control. wetohave so powerful algorithms that could overwrite human decision making? Which ate so powerful algorithms that could overwrite human decision making? Which uld be the implications Steven Shaviro his textShaviro “Against would be of thethat? implications of that?inSteven in Self-Organhis text “Against Self-Organtion”, argues that according to Whitehead there should be always a ‘certain ization”, argues that according to Whitehead there should be always a ‘certain nt of (human)point decision’ [Shaviro, 2009]. [Shaviro, 2009]. of (human) decision’

oponents of automation that architecture should keep pace with the Proponentsargue of automation argue that architecture should keep pace with the hnological developments and integrate them in practice. On the other hand, technological developments and integrate them in practice. On the other hand, ubts are beingdoubts expressed regarding the reliability of these are being expressed regardingand therobustness reliability and robustness of these thods, questioning the role of the architect in the overall process. Machine methods, questioning the role of the architect in the overall process. Machine timization strategies are being developed towards this respect, but this will always optimization strategies are being developed towards respect, but will always k the ability to critical asses a working model and its outcomes. However, lack the ability to critical asses a working model and its outcomes. However, fig.1: Drone Imageryfig.1: [http:// Drone Imagery [http:// ybe the answer is notthe in answer the extremes, maybe the answer is to the findanswer a way to maybe is not in the extremes, maybe is to find a way to diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/ diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/ gotiate and agree with the a way create aahybrid controlsystem us-diverts-spy-drone-from, Acnegotiate andmachine, agree with theto machine, way tosystem createof a hybrid of control us-diverts-spy-drone-from, Accessed: 5 July 2013] cessed: 5 July 2013] tween humansbetween and machines. humans and machines.

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Hypothesis

By using the game as game a design tool,as designers opportunity to opportunity to By engine using the engine a designhave tool,the designers have the put decision making processes at the same level with self-organizing logics. The put decision making processes at the same level with self-organizing logics. The way humans influence matterinfluence is becoming equal to the wayequal matter influence way humans matter is becoming to the way matter influence matter. Moreover, designing by using a game engine gives designers the ability matter. Moreover, designing by using a game engine gives designers the ability to interact directly with complex and operations, acquiring easier acquiring an to interact directlysystems with complex systems and operations, easier an overall monitoring of them. This can be an interesting mechanism for shifting overall monitoring of them. This can be an interesting mechanism for shifting where control is,where combining human intelligence withintelligence complex mechanics and mechanics and control is, combining human with complex create a hybrid -create hierarchical design methodology. a hybrid - hierarchical design methodology. The following paragraphs will attempt to examine the implications of aimplications hybrid The following paragraphs will attempt to examine the of a hybrid control system incontrol the design process, asprocess, a medium, game system in theusing design using as amechanics. medium, game mechanics.

fig.2: Containers in fig.2: Rotterdam’s Containers in Rotterdam’s port. The distribution thedistribution of the port. ofThe containers is happening by au-is happening by aucontainers tomated systems. tomated [httpwww1. systems. [httpwww1. iaphworldports.orggalleryTeriaphworldports.orggalleryTerminal-Containerindex.html, Acminal-Containerindex.html, Accessed: 22 April 2013] cessed: 22 April 2013]


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// 2. The emergence of control // 2. The emergence of control

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// 3. Types of control systems // 3. Types of control systems

2.1. A brief historical reference in autonomous control 2.1. A brief historical reference in autonomous control The first inventions of autonomous control were mostly motivated by practical concerns and can befirst tracked back inof theautonomous ancient world. Therewere weremostly devicesmotivated by practiThe inventions control whose operation and could by imposing capacities for There were devices calmaintenance concerns and can be besimplified tracked back in the ancient world. automatic regulation. A Greek named “Ktesibios is credited with inventing whose operation and maintenance could be simplified by the imposing capacities for first honest-to-goodness automatic device”A[Kelly,1995,145], a float regulator for with inventing the automatic regulation. Greek named “Ktesibios is credited a water clock in Alexandria in the first half ofautomatic the third device” century[Kelly,1995,145], BC. For the next a float regulator for first honest-to-goodness thousand years, devices like clock float regulators, temperature self-cona water in Alexandria in the firstregulators, half of theorthird century BC. For the next trolling mechanismsthousand for agricultural operations would continue temperature to be designed. years, devices like float regulators, regulators, or self-conIn recent years, the first automatic feedback was created by the contributrolling mechanisms for system agricultural operations would continue to be designed. tion of James Watt In in recent 1769, years, who invented the flyball feedback governorsystem mechanism for the first automatic was created by the contribusteam engines (fig.3), to of stabilize motor and make it safer. Then it was governor Maxtion James the Watt in 1769, who invented the flyball mechanism for well who first formalized described in mathematic terms whether a governor steamand engines (fig.3), to stabilize the motor and make it safer. Then it was Maxsteam engine combination or not,and anddescribed introduceinwith that theterms “con-whether a governor well whowas firststable formalized mathematic trol theory”. After the Industrial Revolution, it took a long before steam engine combination wasquite stable or not, and automatic introduce with that the “concircuits, such as feedback loops, to be the transferred into the “realm of electronics” trol theory”. After Industrial Revolution, it took quite a long before automatic [Kelly,1995,150]. It was in 1929 that telephone invented circuits, such as H.S.Black feedback aloops, to be engineer, transferred into thethe “realm of electronics” first electrical feedback loop, trying to improve thethat quality of distance calls and [Kelly,1995,150]. It was in 1929 H.S.Black a telephone engineer, invented the “the first electrical self born”.feedback [Kelly,1995,150] Finally, the roleof distance calls and firstwas electrical loop, trying to catalytic improve was the quality of Norbert Wiener, originator of cybernetics, who in his[Kelly,1995,150] book introducedFinally, the no“the first electrical self was born”. catalytic was the role tion of feedback for of almost every technical field. of cybernetics, who in his book introduced the noNorbert Wiener, originator tion of feedback for almost every technical field.

2.2. The power of control systems today 2.2. The power of control systems today Nowadays, we observe great technological developments in every field. After the industrial revolution, that the big machines were constructed in orderin every field. After Nowadays, we first observe great technological developments for people to interact their revolution, environment, great has beenwere madeconstructed in order the with industrial that the progress first big machines in terms of scale, speed and capabilities. advancesgreat can be obfor people to interact Continued with their rapid environment, progress has been made served in computation, as well. The levels ofand computation areContinued much faster thanadvances can be obin terms of scale, speed capabilities. rapid a few years before,served that everything were being calculated manually by people in computation, as well. The levels of computation are much faster than (mathematical tables 1938). Today a mobile can do 10-100 more compu-manually by people a few years before, that phone everything were being calculated tation than everybody in the planet.[Slavin,2011] Furthermore, sensor (mathematical tables 1938). Today a mobileadvanced phone can do 10-100 more computechnology is accessible sensors can beFurthermore, placed in advanced sensor tationand thanaffordable everybodybyineveryone, the planet.[Slavin,2011] every device, from the micro-scale to the macro-scale.[D’Andrea, 2012] All sensors these can be placed in technology is accessible and affordable by everyone, together combined every with control there to revolutionize the way we device, systems from theare micro-scale to the macro-scale.[D’Andrea, 2012] All these control and interacttogether with our combined environment. with control systems are there to revolutionize the way we control and interact with our environment. fig.3: Watt’s Flyball governor

mechanism for steam engines, fig.3: Watt’s Flyball governor the first automatic feedback mechanism for steam engines, system that was of the size of the first automatic feedback a room. [http://peake-engines. system that was of the size of com/musee-des-arts-et-metiers. a room. [http://peake-engines. php, Accessed: 10th July 2013] com/musee-des-arts-et-metiers. php, Accessed: 10th July 2013]

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Programming and computation used to be thought as domains of pure control: programming was the way to direct machine’s actions. NorProgramming anda computation used toNot beaccidentally, thought as domains of pure cont bert Wiener used the term cybernetics from the Greek word for “steersman” to programming was the way to direct a machine’s actions. Not accidentally, N define “the scientificbert study of control communication the the animal andword the for “steersman Wiener used and the term cyberneticsinfrom Greek machine”. [Wiener,1948] However, with the introduction of emergence and chadefine “the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and otic systems, the notion of control has started being altered inside the fieldsofofemergence and c machine”. [Wiener,1948] However, with the introduction Artificial Intelligenceotic (AI).systems, Within architecture, the notion of control has the notion of control has started beingdifferent altered inside the field implementations asArtificial well. TheIntelligence use of algorithmic simulations in an attempt to of ex-control has differ (AI). Within architecture, the notion plore complex formsimplementations through complexassystems led to the production of multiple well. The use of algorithmic simulations in an attempt to outcomes towards aplore convergent notion optimum, basedsystems on certain complex formsofthrough complex ledrules to thesuch production of multi as biological and evolutionary references or structural and economic criteria. outcomes towards a convergent notion of optimum, based on certain rules s These rules togetheraswith the designers’ intentions translated of code, biological and evolutionary referencesinto or layers structural and economic crite resulted the final outcome. Through that process, the designer or programmer is into layers of co These rules together with the designers’ intentions translated considered to position himself an external to the system, more or programme resulted theasfinal outcome.factor Through thatdesign process, the designer like a spectator than part of the system, as there is a “chronological” distance considered to position himself as an external factor to the design system, m between his actionslike anda the algorithmic indirectasdecision spectator than outcome, part of theansystem, there ismaking, a “chronological” dista an indirect manipulation and control of the system. between his actions and the algorithmic outcome, an indirect decision mak Trying to briefly sortanthe control systems within the technology world, we can indirect manipulation and control of the system. divide them in threeTrying main to categories: the centralized, the decentralized the briefly sort the control systems within theand technology world, we “hybrid” one. divide them in three main categories: the centralized, the decentralized and “hybrid” one. a. Centralized control systems In centralized or topa. down approaches a system starts developing from the whole Centralized control systems fig.4: Stair topologies designed and then it breaks down from there into smaller segments. [Top-Down In centralized or top down approaches a system startsDesign, developing from the wh using the Processing language, fig.4: Stair topologies 2011] designed and then it breaks down from there into smaller segments. [Top-Down Des an agent based design system. using the Processing language, it is usually associated with the conventional design where the In architecture, 2011] The final outcome was quite unan agent based design system. expected. [Topological Monsters architect given the architectural program should design based on an architec- design where In architecture, it is usually associated with the conventional The final outcome was quite un- Workshop] tural concept, according thearchitectural École des Beaux-Arts the early 1900s expected. [Topological Monstersa “parti”, architect giventothe program of should design based on an archi - Workshop] [Rybczynski, 2011], tural a master plan. In that process, the contribution of programconcept, a “parti”, according to the École des Beaux-Arts of the early 19 ming is only auxiliary and the full2011], control and decision making and thethe design is [Rybczynski, a master plan. In that process, contribution of progr acknowledged to the designer. ming is only auxiliary and the full control and decision making and the desig acknowledged to the designer. b. Decentralized control systems In decentralized or bottom up approaches, the relatively simple elements of the b. Decentralized control systems system are first self-organized to generate a more global-macro behavIn decentralized or bottom up complex, approaches, the relatively simple elements of ior. system are first self-organized to generate a more complex, global-macro beh In architecture theyior. are usually associated with computational and agent-based design. Decentralized been associated accused of with not enabling the and agent-ba In approaches architecture have they often are usually computational full control of the user. Proponents themselves point out that they are non “utter design. Decentralized approaches have often been accused of not enabling anarchies: they obeyfull rules thatof the user defines in advance, but those rules control the user. Proponents themselves point out only that they are non “u govern the micromotives. The macrobehavior is another matter. You don’t conanarchies: they obey rules that the user defines in advance, but those rules o trol that directly. Allgovern you canthe domicromotives. is set up the conditions that you think will make The macrobehavior is another matter. You don’t c that behavior possible. Then you press play and see what happens”(Johnson, trol that directly. All you can do is set up the conditions that you think will m 2002, 169). (fig.4) that behavior possible. Then you press play and see what happens”(Johns 2002, 169). (fig.4) c. Hybrid control systems In hybrid control systems, thecontrol individual base elements of the system are specic. Hybrid systems fied by their own rules, whilecontrol at the same time, a central operator monitors of and In hybrid systems, the individual base elements the system are sp directs the whole process. One of the most well-known applications of a hybrid fied by their own rules, while at the same time, a central operator monitors control system can be foundthe in the fieldprocess. of robotics more specifidirects whole Oneengineering of the mostand well-known applications of a hy cally in the work of Raffaello D’Andrea, professor of Dynamic Systems and Control control system can be found in the field of robotics engineering and more spe cally in the work of Raffaello D’Andrea, professor of Dynamic Systems and Con 255


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in ETH Zurich. Raffaello focuses on autonomous systems and robots, ETH Zurich. Raffaello D’Andrea focusesD’Andrea on autonomous systems and robots, an emphasis onlearning. adaptation and learning. h an emphasiswith on adaptation and

3.3. The of contribution feedback 3.3. The contribution feedback inof the ecologyinofthe theecology system of the system

The implementations of thisintype of controlisinpart architecture is part of this report’s e implementations of this type of control architecture of this report’s and will be developed on. First,initsother implications posal and willproposal be developed further on. First,further its implications fields in other fields are going for to be examined for a betterofunderstanding of its notion. going to be examined a better understanding its notion.

Raffaello D’Andrea uses feedback systemsofasconstant a technique of constant self-correcRaffaello D’Andrea uses feedback systems as a technique self-correctionof and ofIn the algorithms. Slalom project, tion and adaptation theadaptation algorithms. Slalom project,Infeedback is usedfeedback in the is used in the initial learning process, following the “trial and In error” initial learning process, following the “trial and error” method. that method. project In that project algorithms are created to to allow a vehicle to slalom fly an arbitrary slalom inalgorithms are created in order to allowinaorder vehicle fly an arbitrary inbetween some poles. At the vehicle initial stage, the vehicle flies above the poles between some certain poles. At certain the initial stage, flies above the poles in several iterations orderabout to learn and in several iterations in order to learninmore itselfmore and about how ititself reacts to how its it reacts to its commands. Using the feedback system it can and change its behavcommands. Using the feedback system it can compensate andcompensate change its behavior in order to optimize it followsThen the is trajectory. Then ior in order to optimize the way it followsthe theway trajectory. the system thatis the system that determines after 3-4 iterations) thetovehicle is ready determines (usually after 3-4(usually iterations) when the vehiclewhen is ready low down to to low down to height do the actualany slalom without any errors. the poles’ heightthe andpoles’ do the actualand slalom without errors.

3.1. Thecontrol hierarchical control . The hierarchical system of KIVAsystem of KIVA

of Raffaello’s D’Andrea most well-known projectsdistribution is KIVA robotic distribution e of Raffaello’sOne D’Andrea most well-known projects is KIVA robotic In KIVA simulation thousands robotsachieving move around, lities. In KIVAfacilities. simulation thousands of robots move of around, very achieving very complex maneuvers and at behaviors the same learn how to optimize mplex maneuvers and behaviors while the samewhile timeatlearn how totime optimize their the and morebythey drive and by acquiring information about their ir navigation by thenavigation more theybydrive acquiring information about their environment, order to inform one another. robots share ironment, in order to informinone another. KIVA robots shareKIVA information withinformation with other, they communicate.(fig.6,7) of the most parts of this h other, theyeach communicate.(fig.6,7) One of the mostOne significant parts significant of this system in is taking the difficulty in taking the appropriate decision based on distributed tem is the difficulty the appropriate decision based on distributed information across the network. In order achieve KIVA ormation across the network. In order to achieve that, to KIVA robotsthat, don’t act robots don’t act completelythey autonomously, they decidetheir by themselves their assignments, mpletely autonomously, don’t decide by don’t themselves assignments, A* the algorithm finding the fig.5: A* algorithm fig.5: finding but they are coordinated. central human machine, is indisthey are coordinated. A central humanAoperator, a stateoperator, machine,aisstate indisway within a grid, repshortes way within shortes a grid, reppensable order to direct controlbehaviors. their complex behaviors. This hierarchinsable in order to directinand control theirand complex This hierarchiresented resented as software data.as software data. [ h t t p : /is / mthe i c h a l h r.[ hethtops: t/./pml /i c h a l h r. e h o s t . p l / calunlike control system, unlike completely decentralized distributed control system, completely decentralized distributed approaches is theapproaches blog/?tag=path-algorithm, Acblog/?tag=path-algorithm, Acway thatefficiency, KIVA succeeds efficiency, reliability and robustness. y that KIVA succeeds reliability and robustness. cessed: 22 April 2013] cessed: 22 April 2013]

3.2. The algorithm behind . The algorithm behind

1 1 KIVA system operates usingalgorithm the A* (Awhich star) algorithm is used in path find-“Theseus” Shannon’s A system operates using the A* (A star) is used in which path findShannon’s Maze- “Theseus” MazeSolving Mouse Solving Mouse in 1952 was one in 1952 was one ing, and graph traversal and problem-solving, basedfirst on introduced mechanics first introduced graph traversal problem-solving, based on mechanics of the of the first experiments onfirst pathexperiments on path 1 1 Peter Hart, finding Nils Nilsson Peter Hart, Nils. Nilsson in Shannon’s “Theseus” Maze-Solving in 1952 Shannon’s “Theseus” Maze-Solving Mouse in 1952 .Mouse logics while it was touchlogics while itfinding was touchand Bertram Raphael of Stanford Research Institute first described the d Bertram Raphael of Stanford Research Institute first described the algorithm ing on issues of Human-Computingalgorithm on issues of Human-Computer Symbiosis. Symbiosis. [Hart,P. E. Nilsson,N.1968] J. Raphael,B., 1968] creating an 1968 [Hart,P. in E. 1968 Nilsson,N. J. Raphael,B., by creating and by revising an anderrevising called A1 algorithm, based on a heuristic forofthe navigation of tially called A1initially algorithm, based on a heuristic approach for theapproach navigation the Robot in a room full of obstacles. A*algorithm key the RobotShakey in a room full of obstacles. A*algorithm achieves the bestachieves pos- the best possible performance (with respect to time),as it searches and finds e performance (with respect to time),as it searches and finds a least-cost path a least-cost path fromnode a given node to one node, out possible goals given in a grid. m a given starting to starting one target node, out target possible goals given in a grid. using a heuristic is capable calculating the distances erforms usingItaperforms heuristic function which isfunction capable which of calculating theofdistances every in a grid to one targetwhich and distinguish which of these nodes every node in of a grid tonode one given target and given distinguish of these nodes is closer the target. A* algorithm is commonly usedlike in applications like games loser to the target. A*to algorithm is commonly used in applications games many other fieldslike of production technologyplanning, like production planning, d many other and fields of technology resource alloca- resource allocationsystems. and navigation n and navigation (fig.5) systems. (fig.5)

KIVA systems’ simulation. fig.6: KIVA systems’fig.6: simulation. Robots always on a grid, Robots navigate always on anavigate grid, obstacles or one anavoiding obstacles avoiding or one another. [http://www.kivasystems. other. [http://www.kivasystems. Accessed 10th Apr 2013] com/, Accessed 10thcom/, Apr 2013] 256

A feedback control consistspath, of thefrom forward path,actuating from the loop actuating A feedback control loop, consists ofloop, the forward the loop to signal the loop signal and thefrom feedback path, from sigthe loop output sigsignal to the loopsignal output andoutput the feedback path, the loop output nal to thesignal. loop feedback signal. In Raffaello’s D’Andrea systems, nal to the loop feedback In Raffaello’s D’Andrea systems, feedback allows feedback allows you tofrom shift the sensitivity forward path path. to theThe feedback path. The forward you to shift sensitivity forwardfrom paththe to the feedback forward is expensive to whereas make it precise, whereas theisfeedback path is expensivepath to make it precise, the feedback path quite easypath to is quite easy to make itonprecise. Based on that, Raffaello creates veryby robust systems by make it precise. Based that, Raffaello D’Andrea createsD’Andrea very robust systems using “rough” actuators but which precisereduces sensors,a which a lot the overall cost. using “rough” actuators but precise sensors, lot thereduces overall cost. Thissystem is the feedback KIVA uses in order to make reli[Raffaello, 2012] [Raffaello, This is the 2012] feedback that KIVAsystem uses inthat order to make reliand robust robots outcomponents of inexpensive like sensors, algorithms able and robust able robots out of inexpensive likecomponents sensors, algorithms fig.7:KIVA system in reality, “perfig.7:KIVA system in reality, “perand computation. and computation. tasks in the warehouse. forming” tasks in theforming” warehouse. The grid can be noticed on the The grid can be noticed on the floor. [http://www.kivasystems. floor. [http://www.kivasystems. Accessed 10th Apr 2013] com/, Accessed 10thcom/, Apr 2013]


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4. Hybrid control systems in video games // 4. Hybrid // control systems in video games probably fair “power to say that, the “power control”characteristic is an inherent characteristic It’s probably fairIt’s to say that, the of control” is an of inherent video games. they imply interactivity, they of video games.ofMoreover, sinceMoreover, they implysince interactivity, they entail a shift in entail a shift in control, from the programmer or the algorithm to the user. In control, from the programmer or the algorithm to the user. In the late nineties,the late nineties, like “Tap, Write” and are the and firstchalto examine and chalgames like “Tap, games Type, Write” andType, the OSS code, arethe theOSS firstcode, to examine lenge the sense of control. [Johnson, 2002: 179] In both of them, users interact lenge the sense of control. [Johnson, 2002: 179] In both of them, users interact the system but either don’t really (Tap, Type, Write) with the systemwith but either they don’t reallythey understand howunderstand (Tap, Type, how Write) or they are uncertain that their actions, actually, affect the system (OSS code). or they are uncertain that their actions, actually, affect the system (OSS code). After thisof first generation of games challenging the notion control, a new more After this first generation games challenging the notion of control, a newofmore is starting to emerge with games taking more determined onedetermined is starting toone emerge with games taking more advantage of theadvantage of the virtues of control while being developed based on self-organized logics. virtues of control while being developed based on self-organized logics. In his game “Gearhead”, Zimmerman a purely emergent system and In his game “Gearhead”, Zimmerman creates a purelycreates emergent system and makesPlayers it interactive. Playersofdecide which of thewill game objects makes it interactive. decide which the game objects release to will release to the arena and the rest are being done by themselves. The control the arena and the rest are being done by themselves. The control of the player of the player over his game elements quite thing is that over his game elements is quite limited. is“The keylimited. thing is“The thatkey once you’ve re- once you’ve released your toys, they’re autonomous. You are only affecting the leased your toys, they’re autonomous. You are only affecting the system from the system from the margins,”[Johnson, 2002: 179] the In other words, works in two different margins,”[Johnson, 2002: 179] In other words, system worksthe in system two different levels of control combined together, through the “collaboration” levels of control combined together, through the “collaboration” of the program- of the programmer,thewho controls the of micro-behavior play, who and the player, who controls mer, who controls micro-behavior the play, and of thethe player, controls the macro-behavior that they produce. the macro-behavior that they produce. The“multi-layered” results of this control “multi-layered” control system becomeinmore The results of this system become more evident Will evident in Will Wright’s classicIngame SimCity. In SimCity, thethe player the task of founding Wright’s classic game SimCity. SimCity, the player is given task isofgiven founding and developing his own city, achieving the highest possible level and developing his own city, achieving the highest possible level of happiness for of happiness for with the less possible budget. outcome is constantly changing, the citizens withthe thecitizens less possible budget. The outcome is The constantly changing, depending on elements such as industry, commerce, residence, depending on elements such as industry, commerce, residence, transportation, transportation, traffic,and crime, energy Here theof different of control are closely traffic, crime, energy others. Hereand theothers. different levels control levels are closely TheForworld of Dwarf Forfig.8: The world offig.8: Dwarf interrelated, as the impact of the player to the system is inversely to the interrelated, as the impact of the player to the system is inversely related to the related tress screengameplay [ingame screentress gameplay [ingame of thereby the system andcontrol thereby the control of the programmer. shot by autonomy of theautonomy system and to the ofto the programmer. shot by Meropi Karantaki ] Meropi Karantaki ]

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4.1. Dwarf Fortress and virtues of failure 4.1. Dwarf Fortress and the virtues ofthe failure

are role-playAnother game that clearly illustrates this collaborative-hybrid model of cont Roguelike games areRoguelike role-play-gamesAnother game that clearly illustrates this collaborative-hybrid model of control, ing video games, between characterized ing video games, characterized between the controlled algorithmically controlled theFortress user, is Dwarf Fortr the algorithmically objects and the objects user, is and Dwarf by the use of ASCII graphics, levby the use of ASCII graphics, lev(fig.8).isDwarf Fortress isgame a single-player running in real-time, programm (fig.8). Dwarf Fortress a single-player running ingame real-time, programmed elturn-based randomization and turn-based el randomization and 2 by Tarn and Zach Adams first released in 2006. Like roguelike games2 , it ext movement. , it extenby Tarn and Zach Adams first released in 2006. Like roguelike games movement.

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uses while ASCII graphics, while generated it’s procedural generated and the gamep sively uses ASCIIsively graphics, it’s procedural and the gameplay evolves out of randomly generatedaffected environments, affectedtransby the players tra evolves out of randomly generated environments, by the players the system and “chaos” -random- generators. actions with the actions system with and “chaos” -randomgenerators.

Similar to KIVA systems’ (fig.9), uses Dwarf uses an Similar to KIVA systems’ software (fig.9), software Dwarf Fortress, anFortress, A* algorithm as A* algorithm a path finding for itsIt’s game It’s permutation a pre described permutation syst a path finding tool for its gametool objects. a preobjects. described system of rigid simulations of dynamics materials,and fluidpressures. dynamicsInand of rigid simulations of materials, fluid thispressures. game theIn this game trying to guide “an entire tribe of semi-autonomous dwarves (each w player is trying toplayer guideis“an entire tribe of semi-autonomous dwarves (each with unique name, personality and stats)” [Sweigart,2013] -his agen a unique name, apersonality traits, skills, andtraits, stats)”skills, [Sweigart,2013] -his agentsa digital aiming to construct maze orand elsesurvive. a fortress in a digital worldinaiming to world construct a maze or else aafortress Theand survive. T game that the player makes hypothesis a win strategy, he is assi game suggests that thesuggests player makes a hypothesis of aawin strategy,ofhe is assigning(agents) to his dwarves kinds of design decisions or tasks and th ing to his dwarves different(agents) kinds ofdifferent design decisions or tasks and then there are that“shortest” try to findway theto “shortest” toThe perform them. T there are the dwarves thatthe trydwarves to find the perform way them. player, like theinstate in KIVA which directs the defines whole process, defi player, like the state machine KIVAmachine which directs the whole process, the next assignment and turn, have the in the next assignment for his dwarves for andhis thedwarves dwarves, in the turn,dwarves, have thein intelligence find their through and defend themselves against ligence to find their waytothrough andway defend themselves against an enemy, like an enemy, have to thefind intelligence find their way insideavoiding the warehouse avoiding robots have the robots intelligence their waytoinside the warehouse obstacles.anInalgorithm both cases, an algorithm usedininorder a localtoscale order to deal w stacles. In both cases, is used in a localisscale deal in with the resources of the global scale. the administrator ofadministrator resources andofmaterials ofand the materials global scale.

In theFortress game ofthe Dwarf Fortress the system performfail. andIntereventually fail. Int In the game of Dwarf system will perform andwill eventually enough, theends game tutorial endsloosing with the line:Failure loosingis is fun. Failure estingly enough,estingly the game tutorial with the line: is fun. fig.9: simulaleft: KIVA systems simulafig.9: left: KIVA systems thesuggest mechanism suggest that aisgame - modelthan is less working than another o the mechanism to that atogame - model less working another one tion, the mathematical repretion, the mathematical repreorall. notThe working atthrough all. Theconstant player through constant iterations and feedback loo or not working at player iterations and feedback loops sentation ofa the warehouse, a sentation of the warehouse, between andability failure, the abilityhow to understand his dwarves opera between play and failure, play has the tohas understand his dwarveshow operate, grid, place where the robots grid, the place where thethe robots navigate [http://www.kivasysevaluateand his alter hypothesis and alterInhis In the game’s discussion foru navigate [http://www.kivasysevaluate his hypothesis his strategies. thestrategies. game’s discussion forum, tems.com/, 10th Apr tems.com/, Accessed 10th AprAccessed a player states took 120 himfailures, more than 120 failures, start a player states that it took him that moreitthan to start “getting to into the“getting into 2013] of, right: 2013] , right: A scene the A scene of the swing of things.” [Johnston,2013] In every turn of a game, the swing of things.” [Johnston,2013] In every turn of a game, the same set of al- same set of game game Dwarf Fortress, dueDwarf to theFortress, due to the gorithmic (first level of control) is under of thethe monitoring of the u graphics of the game the scenes gorithmic intelligence (firstintelligence level of control) is under the monitoring user graphics of the game the scenes like the actual simulation. look like the actuallook simulation. control), deploysitand re-deploys it according (second level of (second control),level whoof deploys andwho re-deploys according to his experi- to his exp [http://lparchive.org/Dwarf-For[http://lparchive.org/Dwarf-Forence fromfor failure, aiming of forathe creation of asystem more lucrative ence from failure, aiming the creation more lucrative followingsystem his following tress-Boatmurdered/Update%20 tress-Boatmurdered/Update%20 intuition and critical assessment. intuition and critical assessment. Accessed 11th Apr 2013] 1-11/, Accessed 11th1-11/, Apr 2013]

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5. Hybrid control // 5. Hybrid system control in thesystem architectural in the architectural design process design process 5.2.1. Wireflies 5.2.1. the Game Wireflies the Game

“The knowledge “The of gaming knowledge goes beyond of gaming data-driven goes beyond exercises. data-driven Game theory exercises. Game theory ncorporates frivolous incorporates elements frivolous that seem elements impossible that seem to parametrize impossibleortodigitize parametrize or digitize (quantify) such elements (quantify) assuch intuition.” elements [Mass, as intuition.” 2007:28] [Mass, Space Fighter 2007:28] Space Fighter

In order to examine In order that to in examine practice, that the design in practice, research the design projectresearch has created project an has created an architectural system architectural through an system intuitive through - playful an intuitive design process. - playful More designspecifiprocess. More specifically, an open sandbox cally, anvideo opengame, sandbox named video Wireflies, game, named has been Wireflies, created, has asbeen a dis-created, as a discrete kit of partscrete that could kit of be parts assembled that could and bedis-assembled assembled andresulting dis-assembled numerous resulting numerous of different aggregations. of different The aggregations. initial conceptual The initial framework conceptual of theframework Wireflies game of the Wireflies game is the collection of is the wind collection energy, as of an wind ecological energy, way as anofecological producingway electricity, of producing and electricity, and the distribution of theit distribution into the building of it into fabric thefor building the infrastructure fabric for the orinfrastructure for external or for external use. Players can use. assemble Players and can re-assemble assemble and different re-assemble types ofdifferent game components types of game components with particular characteristics, with particularredefining characteristics, the topology redefining of the topology patterns that of the runpatterns that run through the architectural through the fabric. architectural The system fabric. consists The of system 4 different consists types of 4ofdifferent com- types of components: the convertors ponents:(wings), the convertors which capture (wings),the which windcapture and define the wind the surface, and define the surface, the depositoriesthe (batteries), depositories which(batteries), collect and which storecollect the energy, and store the distributors the energy, the distributors (wires), which transmit (wires), the which energy transmit and the finally energy the outputs and finally (lamps the or outputs sockets), (lamps or sockets), which provide the which energy provide for external the energy use.for In the external course use. of In thethe game course the of player the game the player uses these gameuses components these game as building components blogsasinbuilding order toblogs create in order a structure, to create a structure, while at the same while time,ataims the same for the time, bestaims combination for the best of them combination in order of tothem collectin order to collect the highest amount the of highest wind amount energy (fig.11). of windThe energy light(fig.11). patternsThe that light arepatterns being crethat are being created, confirm a correct ated, confirm “move”a -correct combination, “move”whilst - combination, indicate that whilst theindicate energy is that the energy is transmitted through transmitted the system, through creating the system, networks creating of information networksflow. of information Similar to flow. Similar to open-ended games open-ended like Mindcraft, gamesWireflies like Mindcraft, game aims Wireflies to give game freedom aims of to choice give freedom of choice to the players without to the restricting players without them restricting with rules,them in order with torules, allowinthem order toto take allow them to take the maximum control the maximum over the control system over and play the system with their andcreativity. play with their creativity.

ough the design Through research, the design a hybrid/hierarchical, research, a hybrid/hierarchical, multilayered model multilayered of con- model of conl is tried to betrol applied is tried in to thebedesign applied process, in the challenging design process, the distinction challengingbethe distinction beeen top-downtween and bottom-up top-down approaches. and bottom-up Using approaches. game mechanics Using game as design mechanics as design uristics, a design heuristics, methodology a design based methodology on play and based intuition on play is being and intuition suggested, is being suggested, isting toward assisting this respect. toward this respect.

1. Cellular semi-Autonoma 5.1. Cellular semi-Autonoma

a first stage, On an attempt a first stage, was an made attempt to examine was made whattowould examine be the what result would of be the result of eal time interaction a real time in a CA interaction simulation. in aAccording CA simulation. to Wolfram According [Bogost, to Wolfram 2006: [Bogost, 2006: 95] , CA are considered 94,95] , CAtoare beconsidered information-processing to be information-processing systems, where the systems, indi- where the indiual cells perform vidual calculations cells perform on the calculations initial configuration on the initial resulting configuration output resulting valoutput vals as long as the ues system as long operates. as the system What operates. would be the What result would of abe CAthe simulation result of a CA simulation he user could define if the user andcould change define at any and time change the initial at anyortime current the initial configuration or current configuration affecting the state by affecting of the cells? the state In this of the example cells?the In this userexample can define the which user can willdefine which will fig.10: The CA simulation fig.10: The in aCA simulation in a the cells thatbewill thebecells “alive” thatand willtherefore be “alive”trigger and therefore the behavior.(fig.10) trigger the behavior.(fig.10) The The state of a constant state loop, of by athe constant loop, by the ut of the userinput altersofthe thealgorithmic user alterscalculations the algorithmic in real calculations time and certain in real time char-and certain charinteraction of the user interaction a new cellof the user a new cell activated and is being new patactivated and new pateristics, such as acteristics, the density such oras directionality the density of or the directionality patterns, seems of the to patterns, be more seemsistobeing be more terns will emerge. terns [RC7 will studio emerge. [RC7 studio ected. The significance directed. of Thecontrol significance is being ofevaluated control is being as crucial, evaluated despite asthe crucial, fact despite the fact work] work] t it is yet oblique, that the it is resulting yet oblique, system the resulting of normssystem and patterns, of norms when andviewed patterns, as when viewed as whole, is noticeably a whole, affected is noticeably by the user. affected by the user.

2. Hybrid control 5.2. Hybrid in an control architectural in an architectural system system

a second stage, Onthe a second designstage, research the project design research explores project the potentials explores ofthe a hybrid potentials of a hybrid del of controlmodel appliedofincontrol an architectural applied in context. an architectural How could context. multiple Howlayers couldofmultiple layers of ntrol affect thecontrol designaffect process theand design which process wouldand be the which results would tobe thethe architecresults to the architecal outcomes?tural As mentioned outcomes?before, As mentioned the hybrid before, modelthe lieshybrid in themodel convergence lies in the convergence op down and of bottom top down up approaches. and bottomMore up approaches. specifically,More the hybrid specifically, systemthe sughybrid system sugts that the user gests hasthat at the thelevel userofhas hisatfinger the level the ability of his finger to literally the ability release toalgoliterally release algohmic intelligence rithmic or processes intelligence -bottom or processes up methodologies-, -bottom up methodologies-, but from a very top but from a very top wn perspective. down A cooperative perspective. relationship A cooperative between relationship the player between and the thesystem player and the system being encouraged. is being Theencouraged. actions of the The player actions affect of the theplayer macroaffect behavior the of macro the behavior of the tem, which is system, yet buildwhich uponisthe yetmicro build behavior upon theof micro its components. behavior of its components.

i Bryant writing Leviabout Bryant flatwriting ontology about andflat Object-Oriented ontology and Object-Oriented Ontology (OOO) Ontology ex(OOO) exins that “humans plainsare that no“humans longer monarchs are no longer of being monarchs but areofinstead being but among are instead among ngs, entangled beings, in beings, entangled and implicated in beings,inand other implicated beings.”in[Bryant,2011, other beings.” 40]. [Bryant,2011, 40]. e designer puts Thehimself designer at the putssame himself level at of thewhat same helevel is designing, of what he consideris designing, considerhimself “entangled” ing himself at the “entangled” simulationatand the part simulation of the and simulation. part of The the simulation. use The use game mechanics of game as design mechanics heuristics as design enables heuristics users toenables literally users be part to of literally the be part of the sign process, adopting design process, a gameadopting role and aacting gamedirectly role andwith acting thedirectly game units withas the game units as hey were game if they unitswere by themselves. game unitsInbythat themselves. case, game In that components case, game become components become agents of thethe simulation agents ofand theusers’ simulation control and can users’ be directly controlapplicable can be directly in realapplicable in real e. The player time. is becoming The player central is becoming to the “game central algorithm”. to the “game algorithm”. 258

In the following In paragraphs, the following the paragraphs, implementation the implementation of the hybrid model of the of hybrid controlmodel of control

fig.11: top: Diagrammatic fig.11: repretop: Diagrammatic reprein Wireflies inisWireflies going togame be examined is going and to beexplicitly examined explained. and explicitly In which explained. part In which part sentation of the exploration sentation of the exploration of game the comonent’s features. the comonent’s botfeatures. bot- process of the design of theautomation design process takesautomation place and in takes which place theand human in which decision the human decision tom: The components tom: of Thethecomponents of the making? Moreover, making? the results Moreover, of thisthe implementation results of this implementation are going to be discussed. are going to be discussed. game (convertors, depositories, game (convertors, depositories, Which are the different Which are actions the different taken in this actions design taken model in this and design which model the possible and which the possible distributors, outputs)[Wireflies distributors, outputs)[Wireflies advantages compared advantages to more compared autonomous, to more bottom autonomous, up approaches? bottom up approaches? project] project]

Glowing Glowing patternConductive - data LEDs - Lights - Outpus LEDs - Lights - Outpus connec- Conductive connecThe Wind - Sensing wind The Wind - Sensing windpattern - data distribution distribution tions tions direction direction

Convertor

Convertor

Depository

Depository

Distributors

Distributors

Output

Output


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5.3. Partial control 5.3. Partial control Towards as design a next step, the is design research is developing a design Towards this respect, as athis nextrespect, step, the research developing a design system that will not work completelybut autonomously, but with a limited amount system that will not work completely autonomously, with a limited amount the minimum amountcontrol. of automated control. Automation could be or the minimumor required amountrequired of automated Automation could be selectively, in parts of the game where would humanrequire decision would require speused selectively, used in parts of the game where human decision specialized knowledge and time. Acomponents few “smarter” cialized knowledge and time. A few “smarter” thancomponents the others, than au- the others, auagents or NPCsCharacters) (Non-Playable have been added, sensing tonomous agentstonomous or NPCs (Non-Playable haveCharacters) been added, sensing and interacting with one automatically another, acting and interacting with one another, acting or automatically just indicatingortojust theindicating to the player would be aleaving “better” leaving yet the to him. A player which would be which a “better” move, yetmove, the final decision to final him. decision A doublecontrol level ofhas design has been attempted. Moreover, double level of design beencontrol attempted. Moreover, adaptation and adaptation and learning techniques or path finding and research allocation algorithms, as they learning techniques or path finding and research allocation algorithms, as they mentioned above, have contributed in building of thethese intelligence of these were mentionedwere above, have contributed in building the intelligence components. components. In thethree Wireflies three types of algorithmic control been set as an opIn the Wireflies game typesgame of algorithmic control have been set ashave an opchoice the user.rotation, An automatic rotation, applicable tional choice fortional the user. An for automatic applicable on every compo-on every component, finds the of correct rotation of in theorder component order to match its pattern nent, finds the correct rotation the component to matchinits pattern withtothe one’s next to it and the lightelectricity it allowing electricity to flow. (fig.14) This with the one’s next it and light it allowing tothe flow. (fig.14) This “smarter” behavior to a balanced distribution the electricity and “smarter” behavior contributes to a contributes balanced distribution of the electricityof and saves theand usereffort from of time and effort of rotating manually the component saves the user from time rotating the component in the manually in the tree axis,optional while bydoesn’t being optional doesn’t restrict his actions. The second one is tree axis, while by being restrict his actions. The second one is the structural assembly. enabling the so called “structural the structural evaluation of theevaluation assembly.of Bythe enabling the By so called “structural mode” in the game, a different applies over the components informing mode” in the game, a different coloration appliescoloration over the components informing player capacity of the resistant each one and the structural efficiency of the player of thethe resistant of each capacity one andof the structural efficiency of the overall structure, indicating or alterations in the configuration. the overall structure, indicating readjustments orreadjustments alterations in the configuration. Theauto last correction one, is an of auto of (wing’s) the convertor’s (fig.13) The last (fig.13) one, is an thecorrection convertor’s position.(wing’s) position. In the game, a wind simulation running, being programmed In the game, a wind simulation is running, beingisprogrammed to change speedto change speed and direction to real values. Enabling behavior to the convertors and direction according to realaccording values. Enabling this behavior to this the convertors allows themtheir to auto correct their rotation and position, to the velocallows them to auto correct rotation and position, according to the according velocfig.12: could be an aufig.12: Wireflies be anWireflies auity and of the air, in order to capture the highest values could ity and directionality of directionality the air, in order to capture the highest possible values possible tonomous system. Example of an tonomous system. Example of an of wind energy. This users behavior assists users in achieving higher values regarding of wind energy. This behavior assists in achieving higher values regarding early research on the electricity early research on the electricity the wind exploitation them from angles and each the wind exploitation saving them fromsaving calculating anglescalculating and readjusting eachreadjusting distribution distribution as a CA. [Wireflies as a CA. [Wireflies project] project] component separately. component separately.

with fig.13: (top) In-gamefig.13: scenes(top) withIn-game scenes 14.i. theoff“structural the “structural mode” and on. mode” off and on. A different A different coloration is appliedcoloration is applied every component according to on every componenton according to compression and tension valthe compression andthe tension values. Thefrom colour range starts from ues. The colour range starts blue indicating blue indicating the normal values the normal values to redvalues. indicating critical values. to red indicating critical [Wireflies project] [Wireflies project]

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fig.14:(right) In-gamefig.14:(right) scenes: The In-game scenes: The pattern is not correctly matched pattern is not correctly matched in the first image (14.i.) requiring in the first image (14.i.) requiring the rotationinof the component in the rotation of the component 3 axis, with the use 3ofaxis, autowith rota-the use of auto rotathe component can “find” by tion the component tion can “find” by itselftothe right position to match itself the right position match the the pattern the pattern and light net- and light the network. [Wireflies project] work. [Wireflies project] 259


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5.4.VS Automation VS partial automation 4. Automation partial automation

In Wireflies system every can transfer electricity and contain inforWireflies system every component can component transfer electricity and contain information. Thatcomponent enables every component to beThereby, programmed. Thereby, Wireflies’ tion. That enables every to be programmed. Wireflies’ systemcompletely could perform completely a CA. Wireflies tem could perform autonomous as aautonomous CA. Wirefliesasdesign research design research attempted to explore the results of altering between the relationship between user’s input empted to explore the results of altering the relationship user’s input Two different designwere methodologies were used for that experid automation.and Twoautomation. different design methodologies used for that experithe design by the having enabledfunctions the automatic all the time ent. First, the ment. designFirst, by having enabled automatic all thefunctions time following the rules like and a CAsecond, simulation second, the design d following theand rules - indications, like- aindications, CA simulation the and design through gameplay, intuition andtake inputplace to largely ough gameplay, allowing human allowing intuition human and input to largely over take place over the controlObserving of the system. Observingthe andresults comparing theprocessresults of both processe control of the system. and comparing of both the following comments can be concluded: the followinges, comments can be concluded:

In the “automated” process vast amount of “optimum solutions” was produced, he “automated” process a vast amount ofa“optimum solutions” was produced, toset theofalgorithmic of rules. The distribution electricity, the struccording to the according algorithmic rules. The set distribution of electricity, theofstructuralthe efficiency and the exploitation of wind were on their best possible al efficiency and exploitation of wind energy were on energy their best possible valuesinand succeeded in of a short ofall time. However, all of the “solutions” ues and succeeded a short amount time.amount However, of the “solutions” seemed to converge on similar after certain Some of the emed to converge on similar formations afterformations certain iterations. Someiterations. of the assemblies, networkand configurations and thethat lightemerged patternswere that emerged were emblies, network configurations the light patterns looking quite alike to eachtoother, looping to the same norms. (fig.15) king quite alike to each other, looping the same norms. (fig.15)

In the second a muchoflarger amount freedom the second process, a muchprocess, larger amount freedom was of given to thewas user.given to the user. The electricity the structural and the exploitation of the e electricity distribution, thedistribution, structural capacity and thecapacity exploitation of the wind were nothighest always capacity on their highest capacity or equally balanced, however the nd were not always on their or equally balanced, however the useautomation of the optional automation towards the of these vale of the optional assisted towardsassisted the improvement ofimprovement these values. Decision making taking outside constraints, the algorithmic s. Decision making was taking placewas outside theplace algorithmic usu-constraints, usually towards a certain respect, perturbingofthe the code and giving y towards a certain respect, perturbing the normality thenormality code and of giving someand unforeseeable and more intentional More specifically, a vast me unforeseeable more intentional outcomes. Moreoutcomes. specifically, a vast amountconfigurations of unexpectedresulted configurations an intuitive ount of unexpected from anresulted intuitivefrom and almost man-and almost manualmanipulation placement and of the blocks.light More complexand light networks and placement and of manipulation the blocks. More complex networks created an attempt of more expressive outcomes. Moreover, emblies wereassemblies created as were an attempt ofas more expressive outcomes. Moreover, none of thesecould configurations easily been pre programmed since none ne of these configurations have easilycould beenhave pre programmed since none of them follows any specific norms. them follows any specific norms.

The coming second out feature coming out of thatelement process,ofis the the real element e second feature of that process, is the time of the real time feedback. Indesign computational that useslogics, self-organizing logics, the distance dback. In computational that usesdesign self-organizing the distance user’s from the outcome, propitiate the from his own actions, user’s actions of from theactions outcome, propitiate the designer from hisdesigner own actions, suggesting, sometimes, a larger the process of ggesting, sometimes, a larger “objectivism” in “objectivism” the process ofincomputation. Di-computation. Difig.15 (right page): Different fig.15 intent (right page): Different rect manipulation and decision-making less evident, making design t manipulation and decision-making are less evident,are making design intent configurations configurations of different game of different game more obscure. Unlike that, in thethe hybrid the fact that design decisions ore obscure. Unlike that, in the hybrid model, fact model, that design decisions plays made plays made by using either theby using either the are taken thethe same time of at thethe simulation, at the actual stage give e taken the same time of simulation, actual stage of design, give of design, automated automated or the hybrid meth-or the hybrid methodology. The configurations The configurations designer the opportunity tohis critically assess and theodology. outcomes. e designer thethe opportunity to critically assess decisions andhis thedecisions outcomes. made by using the “automated” made by using the “automated” a series of real time iterative test-and-observe designer is able to rough a seriesThrough of real time iterative test-and-observe actions designer actions is able to on similar forprocess converge onprocess similarconverge fordistinguish thethe weak points ofmake the system and make the necessary readjustments tinguish the weak points of system and the necessary readjustments mations, having almost the same mations, having almost the same to the Similar the way that failure contributes of the the code. Similar to code. the way that to failure contributes to the formationtoofthe theformation pyramidal shape, while the patpyramidal shape, while the patternsand arethe mostly linear and the terns are mostly right strategy inthe Dwarf Fortress, creation a system thatthe might not work the linear ht strategy in Dwarf Fortress, creation of athe system that of might not work gathered at the top. wings are gatheredwings at theare top. way it should, enables the designer reevaluate his actions and change them. y it should, enables the designer to reevaluate histoactions and change them. The configurations made by usThe configurations made by usIn Wireflies of the code alterations andsucceeded readjustmentsing succeeded Wireflies project, most of project, the codemost alterations and readjustments ing the hybrid process, express the hybrid process, express higher diversity of assembles, a higher diversity ofa assembles, through an iterative constant feedback loop between play and experimentation. ough an iterative constant feedback loop between play and experimentation. more complex formations, with more complexwith formations, after a of certain of plays, the of the initial design oreover, after aMoreover, certain number plays,number the improvement of improvement the initial design different light patterns or with different light patterns or with strategies was succeeded, as of thethe capabilities the automatic were ategies was succeeded, as the capabilities automaticofprocesses were processes no patterns no patterns and wings at all, ac-and wings at all, according to user’s intentions(15. to user’s intentions(15. better understood thestrategic user andmanipulations more strategicofmanipulations them could tter understood by the user and by more them could of cording vii.) [Wireflies project] vii.) [Wireflies project] be organized. (fig.16.) organized. (fig.16.) 260

fig.15 made top: configurations made using the “automated” process. fig.15 top: configurations using the “automated” process. fig.15 bottom: made using the hybrid process. fig.15 bottom: configurations madeconfigurations using the hybrid process. 15.v.

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Overall, can the be conclusions can to bethe summarized Overall, the conclusions summarized following:to the following: 1. the contribution is of undoubtedly automation effective is undoubtedly 1. the contribution of automation to the effective design to the design process, regarding aspects of design that would require a lot of time and effort process, regarding aspects of design that would require a lot of time and effort from a human mind, from a human mind, 2. the hybrid system of control in the design process, enables designers for 2. the hybrid system of control in the design process, enables designers for a real time interaction and experimentation with the algorithm and the ability to a real time interaction and experimentation with the algorithm and the ability to produce unexpected results according to their intuition and design intention, produce unexpected results according to their intuition and design intention, Some more developed fig.16: Some morefig.16: developed

3. the direct feedback, the constant loop between the human’s reflexivity 3. the direct feedback, the constant loop between the human’s reflexivity configurations configurations made after cer- made after certain loops and the positivism of computational design, integrates the human’s critical astain loops of iterations. After of a iterations. After a and the positivism of computational design, integrates the human’s critical aslot of feedback loops user is able lot of feedback loops user is able sessment in the enabling design process, enabling for robust and reliable outcomes. sessment in the design process, for robust and reliable outcomes.

to and asses, manipulate and conto asses, manipulate control the system more efficiently, trol the system more efficiently, in order to produce more diverse in order to produce more diverse and intentional aggregations. and intentional aggregations. Until the currently presented stage of the design research, the implementation Until the currently presented stage of the design research, the implementation The “gamy” The “gamy” environment (the environment (the of the hybrid model of control regards the design process that takes place in a of the hybrid model of control regards the design process that takes place in a interface) assists towards that interface) assists towards that digital - virtual environment, in a simulation. It is a proposal of a design methoddigital - virtual environment, in a simulation. It is a proposal of a design methodprocess, by constantly making process, by constantly making the values of the elecevident the values evident of the elecology, that aims in combining the benefits of technological innovations with the ology, that aims in combining the benefits of technological innovations with the tricity distribution, the structural tricity distribution, the structural virtues human’s and taking the greatest advantage of it. virtues of human’s mindof and taking mind the greatest advantage of it. The outcomes ofThe outcomes of capacity and capacity and the exploitation of the exploitation of this methodology are not restricted in specific types of architecture, but can be this methodology are not restricted in specific types of architecture, but can be wind (scores). [Wireflies [Wireflies the wind (scores). the project] multiple, applicable for different purposes and architectural contexts. (fig.16.iii.) project] multiple, applicable for different purposes and architectural contexts. (fig.16.iii.)

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5.5. Hybrid controlmanifestation and physical manifestation 5. Hybrid control and physical

Pressure sensor 5.5.1. Pressure5.5.1. sensor

Asthe therelationship final step, the relationship between and the the simulation the final step, between the simulation physicaland is the physical is being explored, as well as the effects of this hybrid model in the ing explored, as well as the effects of this hybrid model in the “construction” “construction” phase Therefore, of architecture. Therefore, the physicalofmanifestation of Wireflies system ase of architecture. the physical manifestation Wireflies system has been attempted, in order to understand practically which would be the chals been attempted, in order to understand practically which would be the challengesof and difficulties ofthis implementing thisreal system in The the creareal world. The creanges and difficulties implementing system in the world. tion of a physical version of the video game is being suggested, on of a physical version of the video game is being suggested, using industriallyusing industrially produced a manipulable size human’s by people, and human’s decisionoduced components, in components, a manipulableinsize by people, and decisionmaking as the main factors for the creation of different formations. aking as the main factors for the creation of different formations. Based on con- Based on concepts ofLEGO-like kit assemblies, LEGO-like structures and discrete materials, suggesting pts of kit assemblies, structures and discrete materials, suggesting the communication of units in a local coordinate system, the project implements e communication of units in a local coordinate system, the project implements computation in the construction process. Components’ discrete mputation in the construction process. Components’ discrete connections al- connections allow for a pass of information between them, or else a “digital” w for a pass of information between them, or else a “digital” communication. communication. The strategic placement of sensors in components some particular e strategic placement of sensors in some particular andcomponents not in all and not in all of them aims to add a local autonomous control in the micro-scale them aims to add a local autonomous control in the micro-scale of the system, of the system, makingand it more robust yet andallowing functional, yet allowing human participation in macaking it more robust functional, human participation in macro/human-scale, as well as keep the system cost effective. The /human-scale, as well as keep the system cost effective. The encapsulation ofencapsulation of thenotion sensors the notion of computer applied electronics or robotics, e sensors as the of as computer coding applied tocoding electronics orto robotics, was attempted in order to hide the complexity that is behind and allow users to as attempted in order to hide the complexity that is behind and allow users to create systems in a much more playful way. eate their systems in atheir much more playful way.

In the first the “pressure sensing” was designed in order In the first experiment, the experiment, “pressure sensing” component was component designed in order embed on itssensitive surface aresistor force sensitive resistor sensor) and an RGB to embed on its to surface a force (pressure sensor)(pressure and an RGB LED light The sensor was to detect theand mass pressure and inform LED light . The sensor was. programmed to programmed detect the mass pressure inform the the userRGB by lighting the the RGBstructure LED, when the structure a critical mass and the user by lighting LED, when reaches a criticalreaches mass and the system is about collapse. The size of the the system is about to collapse. The to size of the components andcomponents the qualitiesand the qualities of thethe material the factors that should be taken into for the of the material were factorswere that should be taken into consideration forconsideration the these units. In this sensors were used to calprogramming ofprogramming these units. Inofthis experiment, theexperiment, sensors werethe used to calculatecapacity the resistance capacity in ofathe material in a vertical aggregation, whereas culate the resistance of the material vertical aggregation, whereas they be used to calculate horizontal as welltoand they could be used tocould calculate horizontal pressures as wellpressures and contribute thecontribute to the structural stability(fig.18) of the system. (fig.18) structural stability of the system.

For the implementation of these concepts, two experiments r the implementation of these concepts, two experiments have been madehave been made with the use of the arduino software, together with twoofdifferent th the use of the arduino software, together with two different types sen- types of senfig.17: of the way the fig.17: Diagram wayDiagram the sors, the onepressure in sensing pressurethe andresistance thereforecapacity the resistance of the of the rs, one in sensing andthe therefore of the capacity arduino software would integratarduino software would integratstructure, the other controlling of thedata distribution of data both ructure, and the other inand controlling theindistribution (electricity), both(electricity), ed, with connect ed, connect and work the and work with the components. in 3d printed components. [Wireflies project] [Wireflies project] 3d printed physical models.physical (fig.17) models. (fig.17)

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In that example, the user’s input isofthe theautomablocks and the automaIn that example, the user’s input is the placement theplacement blocks andofthe fig.18: Theis pressure sensor is fig.18: The pressure sensor becoming red when the compotion is the fact that these blocks will automatically calculate their position accordbecoming red when the compotion is the fact that these blocks will automatically calculate their position accordnent with the smart behaviour nent with the smart behaviour ing to and theirinform neighbors and about informtheir the user aboutcapacity their structural ing to their neighbors the user structural at that capacity at that (bottom one) receives a critical (bottom one) receives a critical point, whether or not they need reinforcement, whether need more dense point,- whether or not they need reinforcement, whether they need more they dense mass.- [Wireflies project Arduimass. [Wireflies project Arduiand should bedirection the suggested direction to aggregate next. no Workshop] areas and whichareas should bewhich the suggested to aggregate next. no Workshop]

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5.5.3.- beyond Implications - beyond the simulation 5.5.3. Implications the simulation

In the second experiment, the “data distributor” was designed such In the second experiment, the “data distributor” component, was component, designed such as to embed a simple LED light in it and painted with conductive ink (bare as to embed a simple LED light in it and was painted withwas conductive ink (bare paint) to transmit electricity. Emphasis was given to the structure of the interpaint) to transmit electricity. Emphasis was given to the structure of interconnection topology, a special LEGO-like connection was designed and copper connection topology, a special LEGO-like connection was designed and copper fig.19: Diagrammatic represenfig.19:and Diagrammatic represensheets were used, in order for each element to be easily for sheets were used, in order for each element to be easily reassembled andreassembled for tation and physicaltation modelandof physical model of network to beInreconfigurable. In that the component was the light networkthe to light be reconfigurable. that experiment, the experiment, component was data distributor component, the data distributor the component, programmed to calculate the wind capacity and the energy inventories in the thewhich calculates the energy in programmed to calculate the wind capacity and the energy inventories in the which calculates energy in the system and according to the system and according to structure the number lights that the available energy could structure and activate onlyand theactivate numberonly of lights that theof available energy could the values the values it lights one or bothit lights one or both order to or avoid or dull lights,oforthe thesystem. crushing of the system. support, in ordersupport, to avoid in trembling dulltrembling lights, or the crushing branches in order to preserve branches in order to preserve (fig.19) (fig.19) the LED lights. Diagrammatic the LED lights. Diagrammatic of the copper the copper In thatindicates case the system indicates the user whenforthere is a need a better dis- of representation In that case the system to the user whento there is a need a better dis- forrepresentation connections that enable the connections that enable the tribution of the components, while it conserves the system of a “wrong” action. tribution of the components, while it conserves the system of a “wrong” action. conductivity and theconductivity transfer of and the transfer of The density and the complexity of the light patterns were being The density and the complexity of the light patterns were being algorithmically algorithmically data. [Wireflies project - Arduino data. [Wireflies project - Arduino Workshop] controlled, whereas the configuration of theguided networks were guided by the user. Workshop] controlled, whereas the configuration of the networks were by the user.

In both the use of partial automation worked adequately, ass In both experiments theexperiments use of partial automation worked adequately, assisting towards the a more robust and reliable structure. Moreo ing towards the construction of aconstruction more robustof and reliable structure. Moreover, the application of the automation only partially, suggested a way of keeping the application of the automation only partially, suggested a way of keeping the between human cost. These experime balance betweenbalance efficiency, humanefficiency, participation andparticipation cost. These and experiments, however, seem to be working models only for a very specific however, seem to be working models only for a very specific range of applica-range of appl tions,crowd like interactive crowd games, installations orsettlements, contemporary settleme tions, like interactive games, installations or contemporary complementing towards ideas of “design through play” as they were mention complementing towards ideas of “design through play” as they were mentioned above. Scale seems to be a (fig.20) catalyticThe factor. (fig.20) The arising above. Scale seems to be a catalytic factor. arising challenge from challenge fr now on, would be to transfer and explore this model in the larger scale of c now on, would be to transfer and explore this model in the larger scale of conwithin architecture. In this are case,raised questions are raised structions withinstructions architecture. In this case, questions regarding the regarding relation between the components’ size and material, the human relation between the components’ size and material, the human control and the control and of the system. How could the virtues human’s direct manipulati efficiency of the efficiency system. How could the virtues of human’s directofmanipulation be maintained, when the components become hard handle and the assista be maintained, when the components become hard to handle and thetoassistance of construction machines is required? if the density of the “smart of construction machines is required? Moreover, if the Moreover, density of the “smarter” elements in the building fabric is higher in order to achieve reliability in a lar elements in the building fabric is higher in order to achieve reliability in a larger scale, could thecost system still beWould cost effective? it be commore beneficial co scale, could the system still be effective? it be moreWould beneficial paring to conventional constructive methods? Clear conclusions paring to conventional constructive methods? Clear conclusions require deeper require dee analysis and experimentation overgoing thesebeyond aspects,the going beyond the resea analysis and experimentation over these aspects, research area of this report, which could be only considered as a starting area of this report, which could be only considered as a starting point, scratching point, scratch the surface the surface of this vast topic.of this vast topic.

The physical represenfig.20: The physicalfig.20: representation ofThe the component. The tation of the component. component can be component handled by can be handled by people and has thepeople scale and has the scale and notion of a toy. It embeds the notion of a toy.the It embeds intelligent that is needed, the intelligent that the is needed, (lights, concables and copper con(lights, cables and copper nections for the conductivity) nections for the conductivity) construction games can Creative constructionCreative games can be played by assembling, dis-asbe played by assembling, dis-assembling sembling and rotating the unitand in rotating the unit in to trigger the light. [Wireorder to trigger the order light. [Wireflies project] flies project] 20.i.

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6. Conclusions // 6. Conclusions

a fact, that the It ismatter a fact,ofthat control the matter in the design of control process in theis design gradually process and conis gradually and conntly changing,stantly adapting changing, to current adapting developments. to currentHybrid developments. approaches Hybrid are alapproaches are aldy working models ready working in arts field, models engineering in arts field, fieldengineering or system related field ortosystem au- related to aumation (like distribution tomation (like systems). distribution At the same systems). time, Atinside the same the video time, games’ inside the video games’ rld, the notionworld, of thisthe hybrid notion model of this of control hybrid has model been of control a prominent has been feature a prominent of feature of ast variety of games, a vast variety almostof asgames, an inherent almost characteristic. as an inherent characteristic.

sent conditions Present of architecture, conditionsplace of architecture, digital computational place digitaldesign computational and com- design and comer simulation puter software simulation as leading software designasmethodologies. leading design The methodologies. integration of The integration of omation or ofautomation other technological or of other updates technological within architecture, updates within sooner architecture, or lat- sooner or latseems inevitable. er, seems Therefore, inevitable. it is important Therefore, the it way is important that designers the way arethat going designers are going approach andto negotiate approachwith andthese negotiate developments. with theseTaking developments. advantageTaking of theadvantage of the hnology selectively technology could selectively be a way. could be a way.

he discussed In project, the discussed a vigorous project, attempt a vigorous was made attempt to argue wasfor made a hybridto argue for a hybridrarchical design hierarchical methodology design that methodology by developing thatdesign by developing strategiesdesign through strategies through me mechanics game and playful mechanics processes, and playful wouldprocesses, couple automation would couple and decision automation and decision king attempting making to develop attempting a notion to develop of designa as notion human-computer of design as human-computer symbiosis. symbiosis. Wireflies project The Wireflies developed project withindeveloped the realmwithin of thisthe hybrid realm system of this of hybrid con- system of con, enabling thetrol, userenabling to deploy the AIuser through to deploy an iterative AI through system an of iterative feedback system and of feedback and ration. The advantages alteration.of The this advantages hybrid process of thisashybrid they resulted process from as they theresulted play from the play Wireflies gameofcan Wireflies be concluded game can in two be concluded main points: in two main points:

t, it enabled the First, user it enabled to directly theinteract user to with directly theinteract system by with monitoring, the systemreby monitoring, reusting or disabling adjusting the algorithmic or disablinginput the algorithmic according to input his intuition, accordingresulting to his intuition, resulting more unexpected on more and deliberate unexpectedoutcomes. and deliberate More outcomes. specifically,More it resulted specifically, so- it resulted soons that couldn’t lutions be that preprogrammed couldn’t be preprogrammed as the design methodology as the design didn’t methodology foldidn’t folany norms but lowitany wasnorms more but of aitmanual was more intuitive of a manual process intuitive of placing process build- of placing buildblocks and using ing blocks automation and using complementary automation as complementary a way to improve as a technical way to improve technical tures (structural features capacity) (structural or increase capacity) the aesthetic or increase experience the aesthetic (light experience pattern (light pattern tching). matching).

ond, it addedSecond, to the system it added a second to the system layer ofacontrol, second that layerofofhuman control,reflecthat of human reflecn and critical assessment tion and critical that could assessment prevent that unexpected could prevent algorithmic unexpected behaviors algorithmic behaviors errors, that sometimes or errors, can thatbe sometimes inevitablecan no be matter inevitable the degree no matter of machines the degree of machines timization. Moreover, optimization. the fact Moreover, that this the process fact that is happening this process through is happening an itera-through an iteraprocess of feedback tive process loopsofbetween feedbackthe loops userbetween and his the outcomes user and interpreted his outcomes interpreted ough a “gamy” through environment, a “gamy” makes environment, system’s functions makes system’s more evident functionsand more evident and nageable by the manageable designer. In bythe theWireflies designer.game In thea Wireflies lot of thegame algorithmic a lot of“dethe algorithmic “deging” made through bagging” that made process, through as well thatasprocess, the developing as well asofthe thedeveloping monitoringof the monitoring tegies in order strategies to createina order more to efficient createand a more reliable efficient design and system, reliablethat design as- system, that ass towards more sists anticipated towards more outcomes. anticipated outcomes.

erall, through the Overall, hybrid through modelthe of control, hybrid model the entanglement of control, the of entanglement human intui- of human intuin and critical thinking tion andincritical the algorithm thinking in is being the algorithm suggested, is being as an suggested, “unwritten”as an “unwritten” of code that line addsoftocode the outcome that addsthe to the design outcome intention the and design reliability intention of and the reliability of the man involvement human and involvement control. In anand era control. that developments In an era that in developments architecture proin architecture proe a variety of pose tool sets a variety for the of exploration tool sets forofthe theexploration design space, of the multidisciplidesign space, multidiscipliy design processes nary design are being processes introduced are being and initiatives introduced likeand theinitiatives open source like the open source

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architecture broaden architecture the possibility broaden space the of possibility construction, spacethis of construction, methodologythis canmethodology can be considered asbe a model considered that aims as a model in integrating that aims andincompromising integrating and these compromising asthese aspects with humanpects involvement, with human while involvement, keeping them while equally keeping balanced. them equally balanced. Additionally, in an Additionally, attempt toinexamine an attempt the possible to examine implications the possible of this implications meth- of this methodology outside the odology virtual outside environment, the virtual butenvironment, in “real” architecture but in “real” as well, architecture deas well, design research proposed sign research the useproposed the hybrid the control use the model hybrid forcontrol a constructive model for level a constructive level of architecture. More of architecture. specifically,More the partial specifically, use ofthe automation, partial useembedded of automation, in embedded in building components building is being components suggested is as being another suggested way ofasdesigning, another way through of designing, a through a real-time “tangible” real-time game. “tangible” Wireflies system game. was Wireflies transferred systeminwas thetransferred physical world in the physical world as an open endedasgame an open thatended uses peoples’ game that intuition uses peoples’ for creation. intuition Following for creation. initia- Following initiatives like Raffaello’s tives D’Andrea like Raffaello’s KIVA systems, D’Andrea Wireflies KIVA systems, project Wireflies suggestedproject a buildsuggested a building blog system as ingablog discrete system kit of as parts a discrete that use kit ofautomation parts that only use automation in a few of only in a few of them, in order tothem, assist in humans order to in building assist humans more robust in building (structural more robust capacity) (structural and capacity) and functional (light control) functional formations, (light control) whileformations, keeping thewhile cost keeping of the components the cost of the components in the lowest possible in thevalues. lowestSafe possible conclusions, values. Safe however, conclusions, can be made however, onlycan forbe a made only for a very limited rangevery of architectural limited rangeapplications, of architectural since applications, reality’s scale since factor reality’s raisesscale factor raises a variety of difficulties a variety andofquestions, difficultiesturning and questions, this last part turning of the thisresearch last partmore of the research more to a stimulus andto starting a stimulus pointand for starting further experimentation. point for further experimentation.


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// REFERENCES Books _Bogost, I. (2006): Unit Operations - An approach to videogame criticism. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The MIT Press _Borries, F., Walz, S.P., Böttger, M. ed. (2007): Space Time Play - Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: the next level. Basel: Birkhäuser Basel_Boston_Berlin _ Bryant, L. (2011): The Democracy of Objects. Series: New Metaphysics, An imprint of MPublishing, University of Michigan Library, Michigan: OPEN HUMANITIES PRESS _Dade-Robertson M. (2011): The architecture of information-Architecture, interaction design and the patterning of digital information. New York. Routledge _Hillier, B. (2007): Space is the machine. electronic ed. London: Space Syntax _Johnson, S. (2002): Emergence : the connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software. London, Great Britain: Penguin Books _Kelly, K. (1995): Out of Control: the new biology of machines. London: Fourth Estate _Maas, W (2007). Space Fighter, the evolutionary city (game:). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Actar. _Morton, T. (2010): The Ecological Thought. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: Harvard University Press _Negroponte, N (1973). The Architecture Machine: Toward a More Human Environment. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.

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_ D’Andrea, R. (2012): Feedback Control and the Coming Machine Revolution. Lecture for the Bartlett International Lecture Series, London _Domínguez A., Saenz-de-Navarrete J., de-Marcos L., Fernández-Sanz L., Pagés C., Martínez-Herráiz J. (2013): Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes, Computer Science Department, University of Alcalá, Dpto Ciencias Computación, Edificio Politécnico, Ctra Barcelona km 33.1, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain[online]. Available from: journal homepage: www.elsevier. com/locate/compedu [Accessed 20 March 2013]. _Hart, P. E.; Nilsson, N. J.; Raphael, B. (1968). A Formal Basis for the Heuristic Determination of Minimum Cost Paths. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics SSC4 4 (2) [online]. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4082128 [Accessed 16 March 2013]. _Jakovich, J., Beilharz, K., Echanove, M. (2006): Symbiosis between participation and system design: from interactive art to urban development, CoDesign: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 2:4, 249-257 [online]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15710880601008067 [Accessed 25 March 2013]. _ Johnston, C. (2013). Dwarf Fortress: Ten hours with the most inscrutable video game of all time, Available from: http://arstechnica.com/gaming/2013/02/dwarffortress-ten-hours-with-the-most-inscrutable-video-game-of-all-time/ [Accessed 7th July 2013] _Kiva Systems. (2003). Kiva Systems. Available: http://www.kivasystems.com/. [Accessed 10th Apr 2013]. _Lichty P. (2013). New Aesthetics: Cyber-Aesthetics and Degrees of Autonomy. Available from: http://www.furtherfield.org/features/articles/new-aestheticscyber-aesthetics-and-degrees-autonomy. [Accessed 1st April 2013].

_Wiener, N. (1948): Cybernetics, or Communication and Control in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge: MIT Press.

_Morton. Ecology without Nature. (24 January 2012): Deleuzian Architecture. [online]. Available from: http://ecologywithoutnature.blogspot.co.uk/2012/01/ deleuzian- architecture.html [Accessed 9 January 2013].

Electronic resources

_Rybczynski, W. (2011). Think Before You Build. Available from: http://www.slate. com/articles/arts/architecture/2011/03/think_before_you_build.html. [Accessed 5th April 2013].

_Anon. (2011): Top-Down Design (Introduction to Statistical Computing). Available from: Masi.cscs.lsa.umich.edu. [Accessed 18th Sep 2012]. _Abel, C. (February 1996): Visible and invisible complexities. Publication info: The Architectural Review 199. 1188 (Feb 1996): 76. [online]. Available from: Pro Quest [Accessed 26 March 2013]. _Brown Z.B. , Dowlatabadi H., Raymond J. Cole (2009): Feedback and adaptive behavior in green buildings, Intelligent Buildings International, 1:4, 296-315. [online]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3763/inbi.2009.0034 [Accessed 20 March 2013]. _D’Andrea, R. (). Raffaello D’Andrea: Control of Distributed, Autonomous Systems. Available from: http://www.idsc.ethz.ch/Research_DAndrea. [Accessed 5th April 2013]

_Slavin, K. (2011).Kevin Slavin: How algorithms shape our world - TED Talk, Available from: http://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_slavin_how_algorithms_shape_our_ world.html [Accessed 4th July 2013] _Shaviro, S. - The Pinocchio Theory. (2009): Against Self-Organization. [online]. Available from: http://www.shaviro.com/Blog/?p=756 [Accessed 30 December 2012]. _Sweigart, A. - The “Invent with Python” Blog (2013).Text Adventure vs. MUD vs. Roguelike vs. Dwarf Fortress, Available from: http://inventwithpython.com/ blog/2013/06/05/text-adventure-vs-mud-vs-roguelike-vs-dwarf-fortress/ [Accessed 7th July 2013]

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Wireflies_ Angelopoulou Dimitra_Diamanti Vasiliki_Karantaki Meropi  

RC_7 Gamescapes, M. Arch Graduate Architectural Design (GAD), The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL, 2012-2013. Download game at: www.ple...

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