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Skate (Konrad)______________________Pag 1 Long (Konrad)_______________________Pag 2 Muay Thai (Konrad)__________________Pag3/4 Surf (Konrad)________________________Pag 5/6 Windsurf (Konrad)____________________Pag 7/8 Apnea (Dani)________________________Pag 9/10 Wingsuit (Dani)______________________Pag 11/12 Snowboard (Dani)____________________Pag 13/14 Bmx (Dani)__________________________Pag 15 Red Bull Rampage (Dani)______________Pag 16 Puenting (Guille)_____________________Pag 17/18 Dakar (Guille)_______________________Pag 19/20 Parkour (Guille)______________________Pag 21/22 Rafting (Guille)_______________________Pag 23/24
Skateboarding was ﬁrst started in the 1950s, when all across California surfers got the idea of trying to surf the streets. No one really knows who made the ﬁrst board - instead, it seems that several people came up with similar ideas at the same time. Several people have claimed to have invented the skateboard ﬁrst, but nothing can be proved, and skateboarding remains a strange spontaneous creation.
These ﬁrst skateboarders started with wooden boxes or boards with roller skate wheels slapped on the bottom. Like you might imagine, a lot of people got hurt in skateboarding's early years! It was a sport just being born and discovered, so anything went. The boxes turned into planks, and eventually companies were producing decks of pressed layers of wood -- similar to the skateboard decks of today. During this time,
skateboarding was seen as something to do for fun after surﬁng. In 1963, skateboarding was at a peak of popularity, and companies like Jack's, Hobie and Makaha started holding skateboarding competitions. At this time, skateboarding was mostly either downhill slalom or freestyle.
With the evolution of skateparks and ramp skating, the skateboard began to change. Early skate tricks had consisted mainly of two-dimensional freestyle manoeuvres like riding on only two wheels ("wheelie" or "manual"), spinning only on the back wheels (a "pivot"), high jumping over a bar and landing on the board again, also known as a "hippie jump", long jumping from one board to another, (often over small barrels or fearless teenagers), or slalom. Another popular trick was the Bertlemann slide, named after Larry Bertelemann's surﬁng manoeuvres.
Longboarding is the art/sport/hobby of riding a long skateboard, from 24" to 80". Longboarding has its roots in surďŹ ng, which is why many longboards resemble surf boards. Skateboarding in general evolved from surďŹ ng in the 70s. Much of the success and popularity of skateboarding is due to the west coast, where skaters would skate in empty pools. This style of skating still lives on today, but in relative obscurity. Longboarding started to become popular when these pool skaters started to age. Utilizing these longer skateboards let anyone, no matter their age or skill level, enjoy skateboarding.
Disciplina surgida en Tailandia, la cual se desarrolló ya que ésta se hallaba constantemente en conﬂicto bélico con reinos vecinos como Birmania y Camboya. Por esto, la ciudad se vio obligada a que sus soldados pudieran manejar con destreza las lanzas, espadas, y la utilización del cuerpo como un arma en situaciones de combate a distancia corta. Técnicas como las patadas, golpes con el puño, rodillas, espinillas, codos y ciertas maneras de derribar al adversario, fueron desarrolladas en ese entonces. Durante este pe-
riodo el muay thai era considerado como un arte esencial, y parte del currículum real para poder aspirar al trono. Durante los siglos siguientes, el arte continuó evolucionando. No fue hasta el reinado del rey Narai (1604-1690), caracterizado por ser una época de paz, cuando se convirtió en deporte profesional. Las peleas se efectuaban en un espacio delimitado, consistente en una cuerda sobre el piso formando un cuadro para indicar el área de combate. Las reglas eran simples: pelear hasta que uno
quedara de pie, o que uno de los dos se rindiera. No había limitaciones en cuanto a peso, estatura o edad, las aldeas competían unas contra otras y se efectuaban apuestas.
WAI KRU Debe empezar el combate con un ritual. Este ritual consta de varios pasos o en su mayoría de varios rituales, los cuales sirven para ahuyentar a los supuestos malos espíritus para que el combatiente tenga una buena actuación y sobre todo, mantenga una conexión con los supuestos maestros. Estos supuestos maestros se dicen que existieron en la antigüedad y se deben contactar en la actualidad para no salir del cuadrilátero muerto y conservar la vida. El ritual previo al combate se llama wai kru.
Surﬁng is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a "surfer", rides on the forward face of a wave, which is most often carrying the surfer towards shore. Waves suitable for surﬁng are primarily found in the ocean, but can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, modern-day surﬁng can also be done in man-made sources such as wave pools and boat wakes.The term "surﬁng" refers to the act of riding a wave and not the form (with or without a board) in which the wave is ridden. For instance, the native peoples of the Paciﬁc surfed waves on alaia, paipo, and other such crafts on their belly, knees, and feet. Not to mention, Bodysurﬁng, the act of surﬁng a wave without a board, is considered by some to be the purest form of surﬁng. That much said, the more modern day deﬁnition of surﬁng tends to refer to when a surfer rides a wave standing up on a surfboard, which is referred to as stand-up surﬁng or paddleboarding. Although, another prominent form of surﬁng in the ocean today includes bodyboarding, which refers to when a surfer rides a wave either on the belly, dropknee, or stand-up on a bodyboard.
Windsurﬁng is a surface water sport Some credit S. Newman Darby with Windsurﬁng can be said to stradthat combines elements of surﬁng the origination of windsurﬁng by dle both the laid-back culture of and sailing. It consists of a board 1965 on the Susquehanna River, surf sports and the more rulesusually 2 to 3 metres long, with a Pennsylvania, USA when he inven- based environment of sailing. Alvolume of about 60 to 250 liters, po- ted the "sailboard", which, inciden- though it might be considered a wered by wind on a sail. The rig is tally, he did not patent.In 1964, minimalistic version of a sailboat, connected to the board by a free-ro- Darby began selling his sailboards. A a windsurfer oﬀers experiences tating universal joint and consists of promotional article by Darby was that are outside the scope of any a mast, 2-sided boom and sail. The published in the August 1965 edi- other sailing craft design. Windsail area generally ranges from 2.5 tion of Popular Science magazine. surfers can perform jumps, inverm2 to 12 m2 depending on the con- While Darby's "sailboard" incorpo- ted loops, spinning maneuvers, ditions, the skill of the sailor and the rated a pivoting rig, it was "square and other "freestyle" moves that type of windsurﬁng being underta- rigged" and suﬀered all the associa- cannot be matched by any sailken. ted limitations. boat. Windsurfers were the ﬁrst to ride the world's largest waves, such as Jaws on the island of Maui, and, with very few exceptions, it was not until the advent of tow-in surﬁng that waves of that size became accessible to surfers on more traditional surfboards. Extreme waves aside, many expert windsurfers will ride the same waves as wavesurfers do (wind permitting) and are themselves usually very accomplished without a rig on a conventional surfboard.
At one time referred to as "surﬁng's ginger haired cousin" by the sport's legendary champion, Robby Naish, windsurﬁng has long struggled to present a coherent image of the sport to outsiders. As a result of attempts to claim the word "windsurfer" as a trademark, participants have been encouraged to use diﬀerent names to describe the sport, including "sailboarding" and "boardsailing". The term "windsurﬁng" has persisted as the accepted name for the sport, and the word "windsurfer" persists for both participants and equipment. Windsurﬁng is predominately undertaken on a non-competitive basis. Organised competition does take place at all levels across the world and typical formats for competitive windsurﬁng include Formula Windsurﬁng, speed sailing, slalom, course racing, wave sailing, superX, and freestyle. These events are exciting to watch as sailors push the limits both physically and creatively with moves that look as impossible as thinking them up in the ﬁrst place.
Windsurﬁng, as a sport and recreational activity, did not emerge until the latter half of the 20th century. But before this, there have been sailing boats of various designs that have used wind as the driving force for millennia, and Polynesians have been riding waves for many of them, undertaking day trips over oceans standing upright on a solid board with a vertical sail. In 1948, 20-year old Newman Darby was the ﬁrst to conceive the idea of using a handheld sail and rig mounted on a universal joint so that he could control his small catamaran—the ﬁrst rudderless sailboard ever built that allowed a person to steer by shifting his or her weight in ordzto tilt the sail fore and aft. Darby did not ﬁle a patent for the sailboard. However, he is widely recognized as its inventor as well as the ﬁrst to conceive, design, and build a sailboard with a universalzjoint. In his own words, Darby experimented throughout much of the 1950s and 1960s and it wasn't until 1963.Windsurﬁng, as a sport and recreational activity, did not emerge until the latter half of the 20th century. But before this, there have
Freediving (or free-diving) is a form of underwater diving that relies on a diver's ability to hold his or her breath until resurfacing rather than on the use of a breathing apparatus such as scuba gear. Examples include breath-hold spear ﬁshing, freedive photography, recreational breathhold diving, apnea competitions, and to some degree, snorkeling. The activity that garners the most public attention is the extreme sport of competitive apnea in which competitors attempt to attain great depths, times, or distances on a single breath.
Competitive freediving is currently governed by two world associations: AIDA International (International Association for Development of Apnea) and CMAS (World Underwater Federation). Most types of competitive freediving have in common that it is an individual sport based on the best individual achievement. An exception to this rule is the bi-annual World Championship for Teams, held by AIDA, where the combined score of the team members makes up the team's total points. There are currently nine disciplines used by oﬃcial governing bodies and a dozen disciplines that are only practiced locally. In this article, the recognized disciplines of AIDA and CMAS will be described. All disciplines can be done by both men and women and, while done outdoors, no diﬀerences in the environment between records are recognized any longer. The disciplines of AIDA can be done both in competition and as a record attempt, with the exception of Variable Weight and No limits, which are both done solely as record attempts.
A E N P A
Another variation on which studies are being focused is the so-called wingpack, which consists of a strap-on rigid wing in carbon ﬁbre. It is a mix between a hangglider and a wingsuit. The wingpack can reach a glide ratio of 6 and permits transportation of oxygen bottles and other material. On 31 July 2003, the Austrian Felix Baumgartner, jumping from 29,360 ft (9 km), successfully crossed the English Channel in 14 minutes using a wingpack, having covered over 35 km (21.8 mi).
Wingsuit ﬂying is the sport of ﬂying the human body through the air using a special jumpsuit, called a wingsuit, which adds surface area to the human body to enable a signiﬁcant increase in lift. Modern wingsuits, ﬁrst developed in the late 1990s, create the surface area with fabric between the legs and under the arms. Wingsuits are sometimes referred to as a birdman suit (after the makers of the ﬁrst commercially available wingsuit), ﬂying squirrel suit (due to their resemblance to the animal. Squirrel is now the name of a commercial wingsuit manufacturer), or bat suit (due to their vague resemblance to the animal or perhaps the superhero).A wingsuit ﬂight normally ends with a parachute opening. So a wingsuit can safely be ﬂown from any point that provides suﬃcient altitude for ﬂight and parachute deployment (normally a skydiving drop aircraft or BASE jump exit point). The wingsuit ﬂier wears parachute equipment designed for skydiving or BASE jumping.
Snowboarding is a winter sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow while standing on a board attached to a rider's feet, using a special boot set onto a mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surďŹ ng and skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. In 2002 competitive snowboarders formed the World Snowboard Tour.
Snowboarding has been around since the 1920s, when boys and men would tie plywood or wooden planks from barrels to their feet using clotheslines and horse reins in order to steer themselves down hills. Modern snowboarding began in 1965 when Sherman Poppen, an engineer in Muskegon, Michigan, invented a toy for his daughter by fastening two skis together and attaching a rope to one end so she would have some control as she stood on the board and glided downhill.
Shaun White Shaun Roger White is an american professional skateboarder and snowboarder.He is a two time Olympic gold medalist.In the last eleven years he has won 28 gold medals, 6 silver medals and 3 bronce medals.
White was born in San Diego, CaliWhite has participated in two fornia. His ancestry includes Irish Winter Olympics in his career. At and Italian. He was born with a Tetralogy of Fallot, a congenital heart both the 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympics, White won gold in the defect for which he endured two open-heart operations before the snowboard halfpipe event. White age of one. He stands 5'8" (1.73 m) has also participated in the Wintall. White spent his formative years ter X Games, where he has won a riding Okemo Mountain and Bear medal every year since 2002. InMountain, small ski resorts found in cluding all winter X Games comLudlow, Vermont, and the San Ber- petitions through 2009, his medal nardino Mountains of Southern Cali- count stands at 15 (10 gold, 3 silver, 2 bronze), among which is fornia. the ďŹ rst quadruple win streak by a male athlete in one discipline, the .
The 1972 motorcycle racing doBicycle motocross or BMX is the sport of racing bicycles in motocross style on tracks which use an inline start and have obstacles, and also re- cumentary On Any Sunday is generally credited with inspiring the fers to the bicycle itself, which is designed for dirt and motocross cycling.BMX began in the early 1970s when children began racing their movement nationally in the Unibicycles on dirt tracks in southern California, inspired by the motocross ted States; its opening scene stars of the time. The size and availability of the Schwinn Sting-Ray and shows kids riding their Sting-Rays oﬀ-road. By the middle of that deother wheelie bikes made them the natural bike of choice for these races, since they were easily customized for better handling and perfor- cade the sport achieved critical mance. BMX racing was a phenomenon by the mid-1970s. Children were mass, and manufacturers began racing standard road bikes oﬀ-road, around purpose-built tracks in Cali- creating bicycles designed especially for the sport. fornia. George E. Esser founded the National Bicycle League as a nonproﬁt bicycle motocross sanctioning organization in 1974. Before they set up the NBL, Esser and his wife, Mary, sanctioned motorcycle races with the American Motocross Association (AMA). Their two sons, Greg and Brian, raced motorcycles, but also enjoyed riding and racing BMX with their friends. It was their sons’ interest, and the lack of BMX organizations in the East, which prompted Esser to start the NBL in Florida.
Red Bull Rampage
The Red Bull Rampage is an invite-only freeride mountain bike competition held near Zion National Park in Virgin, Utah, USA, just to the north of Gooseberry Mesa. Previously it was held oﬀ the Kolob Terrace Road, on the western boundary of Zion National Park. The competition was held from 2001–2004 and then canceled due to the increasing risk competitors were taking. The Rampage however was re-introduced for the 2008 season. In 2010, the event was held October 1–3. The event is similar to freestyle skiing and snowboarding, where competitors are judged on their choice of lines down the course, their technical ability and the complexity of tricks. For the 2008 event wooden features have been introduced to what has previously been a 'Natural' only course.
Bungee jumping is an activity that involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large elastic cord. The tall structure is usually a ďŹ xed object, such as a building, bridge or crane; but it is also possible to jump from a movable object, such as a hotair-balloon or helicopter, that has the ability to hover. When the person jumps, the cord stretches and the jumper ďŹ‚ies upwards again as the cord recoils, and continues to oscillate up and down until all the energy is dissipated.
The highest jump In August 2005, AJ Hackett added a SkyJump to the Macau Tower, making it the world's highest jump at 233 metres (764 ft).The SkyJump did not qualify as the world's highest bungee as it is not strictly speaking a bungee jump, but instead what is referred to as a 'Decelerator-Descent' jump, using a steel cable and decelerator system, rather than an elastic rope.On 17 December 2006, the Macau Tower started operating a proper bungee jump, which became the "Highest Commercial Bungee Jump In The World" according to the Guinness Book of Records.
PU EN TI
The Dakar Rally is an annual Dakar Series rally raid type of oﬀ-road race, organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation. Most events since the inception in 1978 were from Paris, France, to Dakar, Senegal, but due to security threats in Mauritania, which led to the cancellation of the 2008 rally, the 2009 Dakar Rally was run in South America.It was the ﬁrst time the race took place outside of Europe and Africa. It has stayed in South America from 2009 to the present (2013). The race is open to amateur and professional entries. Amateurs typically make up about eighty percent of the participants.
Despite its 'rally' name, it is an oﬀ-road endurance race, properly called a rally raid rather than a conventional rally. The terrain that the competitors traverse is much tougher and the vehicles used are true oﬀroad vehicles rather than the modiﬁed on-road vehicles used in rallies. Most of the competitive special sections are oﬀ-road, crossing dunes, mud, camel grass, rocks and erg among others. The distances of each stage covered vary from short distances up to 800–900 kilometres (500–560 mi) per day.The three major competitive groups in the Dakar are the motorcycle (moto) class (including quadbikes as one of the sub-classes), the car class, (which ranges from buggies to small SUVs) and the truck class.
Many vehicle manufacturers exploit the harsh environment the rally oﬀers as a testing ground and consequently to demonstrate the durability of their vehicles, although most vehicles are heavily modiﬁed or purpose built.Over 190 diﬀerent countries take the international feed of the event with a roundup of every day being made into a 26-minute programme. This has been commentated on by Toby Moody for ten years, but Ben Constanduros speaks on the 2011 edition.A television documentary Race to Dakar described the experiences of a team including the actor Charley Boorman in preparation for and entry into the 2006 Dakar Rally.
In 1982, Mark Thatcher, son of the then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, along with his French codriver Anne-Charlotte Verney and their mechanic, disappeared for six days. On January 9, the trio became separated from a convoy of vehicles after they stopped to make repairs to a faulty steering arm. They were declared missing on January 12; after a large-scale search, a Lockheed L100 search plane from the Algerian military spotted their white Peugeot 504 some 50 km (30 mi) oﬀ course. Thatcher, Verney and the mechanic were all unharmed. The organiser of the rally, Thierry Sabine, was killed when his Ecureuil helicopter crashed at 07:30 p.m. on Tuesday 14 January 1986, into a dune at Mali during a sudden sand-storm. Also killed onboard was the singer-songwriter Daniel Balavoine, helicopter pilot François-Xavier Bagnoud, journalist Nathalie Odent and Jean-Paul Lefur who was a radiophonic engineer for RTL.Six people were killed during the 1988 race, three participants and three local residents. In one incident, Baye Sibi, a 10-year-old Malian girl, was killed by a racer while she crossed a road. A ﬁlm crew's vehicle killed a mother and daughter in Mauritania on the last day of the race.
PARKOUR Parkou is a holistic training discipline using movement that developed out of military obstacle course training. Practitioners aim to move quickly and eďŹƒciently through their environment using only their bodies and their surroundings to propel themselves, negotiating obstacles in between. They try to maintain as much momentum as possible without being unsafe. Parkour can include running, climbing, swinging, vaulting, jumping, rolling, quadrupedal movement and more, if they are the most suitable movements for the situation. Parkour is non-competitive. It may be performed on an obstacle course, but is usually practiced in a creative (and sometimes playful) reinterpretation or subversion of urban spaces.Parkour involves 'seeing' one's environment in a new way, and imagining the potentialities for movement around it.Developed by Raymond Belle, David Belle, SĂŠbastien Foucan and others in the late 1980s,Parkour became popular in the late 1990s and 2000s through ďŹ lms, documentaries and advertisements featuring these practitioners and others.
Parkour is not widely practiced in dedicated public facilities. Although efforts are being made to create places for it, some traceurs do not like the idea as it is contradictory to Parkour's value of freedom.Traceurs practice Parkour in both rural and urban areas such as gyms, parks, playgrounds, offices, and abandoned structures.
There is no equipment required, although practitioners normally train wearing light casual clothing like comfortable running shoes, ones that are generally light, with good grip and ﬂexibility are encouraged.Various sport-shoes manufacturers, such as Nike, with its "Free run" shoes, have developed shoes speciﬁcally for Parkour and Freerunning; and many other companies around the world have
started oﬀering Parkour-speciﬁc products.
There have been a few documentaries about Parkour on major television networks. Jump London is a 2003 documentary which explains some of the background to Parkour and culminated with Sébastien Foucan, Johann Vigroux, and Jérôme Ben Aoues demonstrating their Parkour skills. Jump London was followed by Jump Britain in 2005, which featured Foucan and Ben Aoeus.
Rafting or white water rafting is the challenging recreational outdoor activity of using an inﬂatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or diﬀerent degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid1970s. It is considered an extreme sport, as it can be dangerous.The modern raft is an inﬂatable boat, consisting of very durable, multilayeredsmall as 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) long and weigh as little as 4 pounds (1.8 kg).
Rafts come in a few diﬀerent forms. In Europe and Australasia, the most common is the symmetrical raft steered with a paddle at the stern. Other types are the asymmetrical, rudder-controlled raft and the symmetrical raft with central helm (oars) or Stern Mounts with the oar frame located at the rear of the raft. Rafts are usually propelled with ordinary paddles and or oars and typically hold 4 to 12 persons. In Russia, rafts are often hand made and are often a catamaran style with two inﬂatable tubes attached to a frame. Pairs of paddlers navigate on these rafts. Catamaran style rafts have become popular in the western United States as well, but are typically rowed instead of paddled.Below are the six grades of diﬃculty in white water rafting. They range from simple to very dangerous and potential death or serious injuries.
White water rafting can be a dangerous sport, especially if basic safety precautions are not observed. Both commercial and private trips have seen their share of injuries and fatalities, though private travel has typically been associated with greater risk. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering raft operators may exist in legislation. These range from certiﬁcation of outfitters, rafts, and raft leaders, to more stringent regulations about equipment and procedures. It is generally advisable to discuss safety measures with a rafting operator before signing on for a trip. The equipment used and the qualiﬁcations of the company and raft guides are essential information to be considered.Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, and equipment has become more specialized and increased in quality. As a result the diﬃculty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example would be the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon or Jalcomulco River in Mexico, which has swallowed whole expeditions in the past, leaving only fragments of boats. In contrast, it is now run safely by commercial outfitters hundreds of times each year with relatively untrained passengers.Risks in white water rafting stem from both environmental dangers and from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained consistently so despite the passage of time. These would include "keeper hydraulics", "strainers" (e.g. fallen trees), dams (especially low-head dams, which tend to produce river-wide keeper hydraulics), undercut rocks, and of course dangerously high waterfalls. Rafting with experienced guides is the safest way to avoid such features. Even in safe areas, however, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
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