Wyndam Gateway project
Dianna Yong 551485 Studio 3, Adam & Finn Semester 2, 2013
Material Choice: Wood
Veneer Sheets Charateristics of Veneer Sheets based on observation and experiment: Veneer behaves almost like paper. They vary in thickness, type of wood (orign), and grain (long or short). These different characteristics determine the bending/twisting/absorping qualities of veneer sheets. Wood is organic, it has a life span. Depending on how you treat wood, it can produce different asthetic qualities over time. The fact that veneer behaves almost like paper, allows for a number of interesting methods this project can look into to develop a design.
However, the downside is that it has limitations before the material fails. One of the aims fo this project would look towards pushing the boundaries of veneerâ€™s limitations to produce a design solution that will show inovative techniques and satisfy the Wyndham Gateway Design brief. Additionally, the experimentation and research conducted on wood and precedent studies aim to explore the way wood properties can be, or has been significantly incoperated into the design. There are also many jointing systems that can work as a structural element, an asthetic quality and as function. These sum up the qualities this project is focusing on to introduce to Wyndham City Gateway Project.
I have lived in three countries for 21 years of my life. I was born and raised in an industrial city in Indonesia, called Balikpapan. This was where I spent my childhood days playing around in mud and remains of old, worndown buildings. At the age of 6 I moved to Singapore, and this was where I spent most of my life. This included Primary and Secondary education and a complete change in enivornment or living condition. In 2010, I made a big decision to pursue my tertiary education in the University of Melbourne.
Currently, I am a thrid year student in the Bachelor of Enivronments, majoring in Architecture. Having to live in different countries, I would say that I have been exposed (not fully) to the different living conditions, culture, environment and most importantly styles of architecture. At the time when I was living in Balikpapan, architecture was solely used as a means of shelter. It is, as I would define it, a developing city as seen by the vast amount of on-going commercial and residential projects today.
Comparatively, Singapore and Melbourne are the opposite. Architecture is viewed as the identity of the country and the use of it serves for various purposes. These experiences and exposures triggered my facination with architecture and how they are represented or inspired in different context. Apart from that, I also love design and art. I find myself incorporating these fields of interest alot in my studios and how I view architecture. Recently, I have been experimenting with digital tools, and I find that though they are tricky, they present to be a useful platform to aid in illustrating my ideas. Thus, I see Studio Air as a great opportunity to develop my skill set, as well as improving my understanding on theorectical knowlegde to design.
Virtual Enivronments, Semester 1 2012. The brief for this project was to create a lantern, either wearable or just as a lantern model on its own, by using parametric design.
Fig. 1: Final lantern model worn on the neck Fig. 2: Details of the panels Fig. 3 & 4: Sketches of flowers for documentation process Fig. 5: Rhinoceros screen grab of lantern model in develoment stage Fig. 1
Virtual Environments introduced me to digital design. The aim was to contruct a NURBS model in Rhinoceros. The design of my wearable lantern was inspired by phyllotactic patterns formed by the arrangement of petals and leaves from an annular region. My inspiration developed further to tranform phyllotactic patterns into geometry, or phyllotaxis, which is the geometrical arrangement of leaves, flowers and seed. I physically studied flowers and documented them by sketches. Sketching helped me realise a repetitive circular motion that I constantly did and from there I developed a method of illustrating flowers and petals geometrically. The end result represented the stages of petal/leaf growth on my lantern. The first stage of design I adopted the use of traditonal method such as skething and plasticine models. However, it was evident that digital tools allowed me explore the design ideas beyond what tradional methods could achieve. Though I do agree that digital tools present different outcomes, I still enjoy the first few stages of employing traditional method to develop my design. For Studio Air, I hope to combine these mediums together to obtain the aim of the brief. However, it is definitely evident that the aim of this studio is to explore the capabilities of digital tools to help attain the aims of the brief and design solutions.
Expression of Interest 1:
A Case For Innovation
A.1. Architecture as a Discourse
05-06 07-08 09-12
A.2. Computational Architecture A.2 Precedent Work: ICD/ITKE Pavilion 2010 A.2 Precedent Work: Kerf-Based Com plex Wood Sytem
A.3. Parametric Modelling A.3 Precendent Work: ICD/ITKE Pavil ion 2011
A.4. Appendix - Algorithmic Explorations A.5. Conclusion A.6. Learning Outcomes A.7. Notes
23 25 26 27
A.1 Precedent Work: Dragon Skin Pavilion A.1 Precedent Work: Polymorphic
A.1 Case For Innovation
‘ We shape our building; thereafter they shape us’ - Winston Churchill
Architecture as Discourse Previously, architecture was seen as art that incorporated other forms of visual art to define the context of a space.  Commonly seen by Renaissance architects that treat buildings as an art form through decorative elements. In the quest to move forward, modernist architects focus more on the function of the building and technical aspects (material and construction) of it. However, it is not to say that architecture is narrowed down to its form or function. Architecture posses both functional aspects and aesthetic qualities that are determined by its discourse.  Architecture as a discourse can be looked at as set of ideas that is constantly evolving to enable the development of architecture (or for it to move forward). Since the Italian Renaissance, this has led to the studying, researching, testing and critically analysis of architecture. It used to be led by the people involved in this industry, such as architects, builders and engineers. However, the transition towards modern era caused a change in the discourse. As a result, it has progressed to include other fields of expertise such as mathematics and science.  In addition, it has also resulted to a change in architectural styles and approaches. Williams stated that architecture defines how we live, our movements, and even aims to moralise and discipline us.  This exemplifies how architecture goes beyond it’s functional purpose as built forms to inculcate social and political aspects. As such, architecture discourse should not be narrowed down to professionals in this fields,
but also to people who can contribute to it or those affected by it. Advancements in technology has affected not only our lives, but also the discourse of architecture. Aiming to create innovative designs is a natural progression for this field to evolve with technology. The incorporate of technology, or computers, as a tool to assist designing, has allowed for the migration of algorithmic procedures (computable function) into the design practice. Algorithms are formalized and represented in architectural practice as scripts, parametric models or technique of doing things.  This function tells the computer what to do. Consequently, it pushes the boundaries of discourse as it provides a medium to help envision and control generative processes. This shift constantly introduces new design ideas or outcomes, and a set of new design parameters. Innovative designs ( with the use of such design tools), takes into account other surrounding factors, such as the way it responds to it’s context, social and political aspects. Thus, computer programs have significantly changed the discourse, the possibilities of architecture and the way it is viewed today. The Wyndham City project looks to create a gateway that makes a “statement and arrival experience” and as an “identifier”.  This project’s direction aims to utilise computational design to fulfill the aims of creating a prominent gateway that reflects the social and cultural characteristics of Wyndham City, while encouraging the element of interaction with space.
A.1 Architecture As A Discourse | 06
Dragon Skin Pavilion Hong Kong, 2012 Fig. 7
The way wood is used in this pavilion by architects Emmi Keskisarja, ekka Tynkkynen, Kristof Crolla and Sebastien Delagrange, sparked my interest in the material wood, and itâ€™s properties. This architecture installation is made up of tessellated pieces of post-formable plywood. The connection of each wood piece has a unique slot bent on one single mould. In order to achieve this, parametric modelling is used and a CNC milling machine creates the joins that connect the pieces together. This process of manufacturing creates a very accurate method of construction that would be quite impossible to achieve with tradional methods. Due to the nature of the pieces, an alogrithmis procedure would be used to calculate the placement of the slots. 
In addition to its individually designed pieces, the way the material is treated in this project exhibits the qualities of plywood. Heating and pressing the material allows it to form different shapes. For this pavillion, it appears to be that a curve struture is the result of scale like shape pieces and the gradual placement of them. It also appears that no other forms of connection, rather than the slots made, are used. This method of connections creates a self-supporting stable structure. The methodology of the Dragon Skin Pavillion shows new way of designing and constructing For the Gateway project, I think these characteristics can be applicable into the proposed design. From the method of utilizing plywood and the treatment of it adds to the discourse of archiecture.
A.1 Architecture As A Discourse | 08
Columbia University Polymorphic is kinetic and interative installation that uses Grasshopper script to generate its components.  The movement of see-saw was the inspiration behind this project. Polymorpic illustrates how interaction coupled with design and construction solution fosters innovative designs. When weight is applied, the motion changes the shape of the bench.
The design idea also puts the limits and capabilities of digital fabrication to test. Due to the kinetic nature of the installation, the use of digital tools would ensure that each piece of plywood fits perfectly in its postion. The contruction system adopted should have considered the amount of weight it can withstand and a solution if any
part of the mechanism were to fail. In addition, the size of the bench can be made longer or shorter, depending on availability of resources.  The design idea behind this installation has shown a number of complex ways that serves itâ€™s functions by incoperating interactive qualites as factor of the design asthetics. It takes into account the properties of the material, the users, the technology and uses these elements to respond to the context of its environment. This quality in design impacts the discourse of architecture and thinking, and the idea satisfies a number of criterias on the brief that will thrive towards the success of the Gateway project.
A.1 Architecture As A Discourse | 10
A.2 Case For Innovation
â€˜Digitally-driven design processes, characterized by dynamic, open-ended and unpredictable but consistent transformations of three-dimensional structures, are giving rise to new architectonic possibilities.â€™ Branko Kolarevic
Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3 13
Computational Architecture Before going into the topic of computational architecture, it is important for one to understand the role of computers. Computers are analytical engines that do no make mistakes. They are able to store data, evaluate information at a very fast pace and present it to in a readable form. However, computers are incapable of creating new instructions, lack creativity and are dependant on the user (humans) to function.  In a sense, computers are designed to be compatible for human use as they both make up for the qualities each of them lack. Thus it is essential that the user understands the language needed to communicate with the engine for it to be used effectively. The development of computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) has created new opportunities that were impossible before.  Computerisation and Computation are two design tools or engines that has changed the discourse of architecture in terms of methodology and thinking. Computerisation is defined when the user treats computers as medium to illustrate and edit their ideas and designs.
However, it does not automatically establish the design as innovative. Computation uses computers to produce ideas. It can be viewed as puzzle making instead of problem solving.  The role of the architect is to then be selective over the resources available to work with in order to fulfill the task, or not only to invent but to remake. Computation is a useful tool for architects to allow them to assess components of the design. They are able to judge and make amendments for a better design solution. As a result, it enables the architect to study the properties of the material so as to use it effectively and efficiently in the design. Additionally, it allows reconsiderations on the type of material used or construction technologies.
A.2 Computational Architecture | 14
ICD/ITKE Pavilion 2010 University of Stuttgart
A.2 Computational Architecture | 15
This temporary pavilion was constructed by The Institute of Computational Design (ICD) and The Institute of Building Structures and Structural design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart in 2010. The use of computational design to evaluate material elements allows the design to be defined by the bahaviour of the material instead of the form.  This explifies how, with design parameters, material behaviour becomes the determining factor of the design and fabrication and result in architectural possibilites.
This project was constructed with thin birch veneer plywood strips and it looks at the elastic bending behaviour of the plywood. Using computation to assess the elastic properties enabled â€œa series of behavioural components that spatially mediate an intricate network of forcesâ€? and to produce a unique space.  The design process of this pavilion portrays how computational tools assist in creating innovative designs. It has been chosen as a precendent because the process/stages are applicable to the method of approach for the Gateway Project. Firstly, the use of plywood in the pavilion shows the potential of the material properties. There are also vast amounts of information on the test this project conducted on wood, which could be of use as a design parameter. Moreover, it has introduced ways of using computational tool to explore materials, and produce a design that satisfies the material selection and the brief for the project.
Elaborating on the relationship between material and form, one does not exist without the other. Computational tools also play an important role in this relationship as a verdict on performance issue such as force of form.  However, these forces are apparent in materials that make up the form. As mentioned before, it is therefore crucial to understand how material works. The material focus of this project is wood, specfically plywood (for the at scale of 1:1) and timber veneer for models (scale 1:20/1:50) . 17
There are many different types of wood and each type has a different set of properties, which are affected by environmental conditions. For instance, trees adapt to lateral forces, such as wind, by growing branches or roots in areas needs to resist the the uplifting caused by the force.  Applying this theory to architecture can be done with the use of computers to evaluate the performance criteria and to determine the forces, loads, bending and elasticity of the material. It would then affect components of the design to make it structurally sound and/or method of realising the design.
Kerf-Based Complex Wood System Harvard Gsd
Fig. 21: Detailed view of kerfing on the wood Fig. 22: The form of the design based on the behaviour of kerfing on each individual component Fig. 23 & 24: Precise cuts on wood made by robot tool Fig 25: Jointing system
Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems is a research project done by Brad Crane, Andrew McGee, Marshall Prado and Yand Zhao from Hardvard GSD in 2010. It explores complex wood systems made from â€œfree-form wooded slats and formed through strategic accumulative local weakening and disruption of fiber continuity by kerfingâ€?.  Kerfing is a fabrication technique of bending wooden parts. This project demonstrates how computer controls are used to test degree of kerf (length, deoth, orientation) to achieve variations of bending and warping structures.  To control the parameters of this project, a robot tool is used to carry out the constructing and assembly process. Computational tools produce individual kerf patterns with is communicated to the robot tool. It enables the unique kerf of each piece to be precise and efficient on resources. Similar to the context of the ICD/ITKE Pavilion, the materials taken into consideration during the early stages of design. Both examples have shown the properties of wood has generated complex innovative design. Additionally, the kerfing would be beneficial in the event that the proposed design combines elements of bending and twisting. It would allow th wood to bend with lesser resistance and could act as an asthetic quality in the Gateway Project.
A.2 Computational Architecture | 18
A.3 Case For Innovation
Parameteric Modelling the relationship between elements. Or as stated by Burry, “Designing the design”. 
Schumacher’s introduces parametricism as a new approach for architectural design, where it changes the thinking about architecture. The most important thing about parametricism is that it concerns relations. It uses nurbs, splines to produce shapes that are controlled by ‘attractors’ with the use of scripting.  The communication level of the user and parametric design is based on design components, such as adding (drawing), subtracting (erasing), etc. The user can choose to use any of these tools and the changes will be integrated into the system that represents them visually. An example of this is Grasshopper. The visual representation in through Rhinoceros. The reason why most architects adopt parametric modelling is because of the generative
In addition, parametric design makes it possble for architects to design with high precision, changing the discourse of architecture by the styles and quality parametric design generates. Parametric modelling also aims to improve the way amendments are made with design tools without having to affect undesired parts. However, there are also disadvantages to parametric modelling that needs to be addressed. The user must be fluent with these tools in order to know what they want to achieve. Woodbury also stated that designs using parametric modelling might produce unoriginal designs because of the nature of scripting.  For example, a practioner is able to use someone else’s design and manipulte it to call it their own In spite of the points mentioned above, Parametic modelling helps to create new possibilites in architecture and bring to life what architects envision. I also believe that it is a powerful tool to communicate between the built environment and out society. Employing this technology to the Gateway project would achieve the aims of the brief to have a design that is innovative and contributes to the dis-
A.3 Parametric Modelling | 20
2011 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion University of Stuttgart
Institute for Computational Design, Institute of Building Structures & Structural Design.
The 2011 ICD/ITKE research pavilion showcases a level of innovation by the means of â€œextending the recognized bionic principles and related performance to a range of different geometriesâ€? achieved by computational tools.  This is illustrated by the thin sheets of plywood that make up the pavilion. It represents the morphology of a sea urchins skeleton plate. Computational tool and computer-controlled manufacturing by robotic production are implemented into the design process. Again, the choice of material and joint systems caught my attention. How sheets of plywood can be used to create geometrical shapes to form the cells in this precedent is different from how plywood was used in the previous precedent. It also exhibits how using different joint systems can result to form different outcomes.
To form the geometrical cell shape, the plywood is connected using a dovetail joint. As a result it provides high load bearing capacity. How this form can about also interest it. Interpreting the skeletal form of a sea urchin using different techniques in parametric modelling triggered my curiosity to wonder what other types of structures it can produce. However, I realise that projects like these are normally done in small scale because of the cost or funding. Practicing economical production, similar to this project, and choosing the right materal could make a significant difference. As of now, smaller scale projects could be useful to test the possibilies and potential of parametric modelling, which coud hopefully be used in bigger projects in the future.
A.3 Parametric Modelling | 22
A.4 Case For Innovation
Lofting and Baking
This simple lofting exercise done by Grassgshopper allows the shape to be edited in Rhinoceros.
Grid Shell Different renditions of Grid shell can be obtained by having different base shapes drawn in Rhino and the sequence of setting the curve 23
Curve Menu Creating the arches in Grasshopper. There are a number of ways to form the shape of these arches that will help in fabrication. The number of points can also be edited
Edited in Grasshopper, the script allowed me to pick which end I would like to be rendered and to change the way the line run on the rendered surface.
This is chair and hammock looking thing that I did using Pipes in Grasshopper. I experienced a few problems with this. I was unable to resize the diameter of the pipes.
A.4 Alogorithmic Explorations | 24
A.5 Case For Innovation
After tackling all the readings required and looking through precedents, I realise that as an architect, one needs to understand the purpose of their building/work. Architecture influences our lives, social structure and culture. In the bid to constantly be on the fore front of architecture, it is important to know that computational the capabilities of computational tools that can help us realise our visions. As technology advances at a fast pace, it will affect the pace of architecture discourse. I foresee that parametric modelling, though utilized only on small scale projects now, will be heavily vested in the future. These small projects are just a glimpse of what parametric modelling can do. I believe that with a better literacy and software, one will be able to create the next innovative design that will affect architecture as a discourse. Thus, it it important for us to keep up with these technologies and practices for something out of thing world might just present itself at any moment. For the Wyndham Cury Gateway project, I believe is a great opportunity to put these tools and practices to a test to create a design that will stand against time. What the brief calls for can be satisfied by utilizing parametic modelling tools to generate a design. Furthermore, the use of wood, a material that has been around for more than centuries will show using computational tool can change the way it was conventionally used. It will introduce ways of working and designing with wood that will reflect the community of Wyndham as well
A.6 Case For Innovation
Learning Outcomes Before this commencement of this subject, I would say that i have not been fully exposed to architecture theories yet. My skills in progams are also limted and I have always thought that computational tools were a way of making our lives easier. I never saw the actual reason, apart from how it is treated a form of help in designing. Through all the research, readings and discussion in studio, I realise that architecture is not just subjective to the individual, but it is a means to show progression, whether you like it or not. The idea and technology used would reflect the time it was designed, and its function. I hope to be able to incoperate what I have learnt and will be learning into my design ideas. Having learnt that there are two types of using computers, computerisation and computation, puts my ideas and learning into better perspective. I would say that different countries have their take on these tools in architecture, and it is fascinating to see how these tools are made to work in different context. It is therefore important to keep your eyes open, for seeing is learning, and learning is believing, and believing is making things possible. I have now a better understanding of architecture around me and i am looking forward to seeing what comes next in this industry. I am not as fluent as I would like to be in Rhinoceros or Grasshopper. However, I think with more practice, I would be able to familiarize myself to the basics needed to work the program. From there, I hope to explore and find out what I can do from learning about architecture, and what these computational tools have to offer me.
A.6 Learning Objectives | 26
1. Williams, R. ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. 2. Schumacher, P. ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 28. 3. Definition of “algorithm” in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 4. Hill, J.(2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 5. Definition of “algorithm” in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil eds(1999) in The Mit Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (London: The MIT Press) pp.11-12 6. Wyndham City Gateway Design Project, retrieved from https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3962725-dt-contentrid-10327484_2/courses/ABPL30048_2012_SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20-%20COMMENTED.pdf. Comments by Stanislav Roudavski v.02 7. Dragon Skin Pavillion, Laboratory Of Explorative Architecture & Design, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> 8. Dragon Skin Pavillion, Laboratory Of Explorative Architecture & Design, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> 9. Charlieable, 2011. ‘Polymorpihc’. Retrieved on 15 Ausgust, 2013, from <http://www.charlieable.com/Polymorphic> 10. Charlieable, 2011. ‘Polymorpihc’. Retrieved on 15 Ausgust, 2013, from <http://www.charlieable.com/Polymorphic> 11. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 12. Kolarevic, B. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 - 28 13. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 14. Achim Menges, ‘Material Computation: Material Behaviour’ in Architectural Design (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ), 82. 2. pp. 44-51 15. Achim Menges, ‘Material Computation: Material Behaviour’ in Architectural Design (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ), 82. 2. pp. 44-51 16. Kotnik, T. & Weinstock, M. ‘Material Computation: Material Form’ in Architectural Design (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ), 82. 2. pp. 104111 17. Kotnik, T. & Weinstock, M. ‘Material Computation: Material Form’ in Architectural Design (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ), 82. 2. pp. 104111 18Menges, A. 2010. ‘Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems’ Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Retrieved on 15 August, 2013 from < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5006> 19. Menges, A. 2010. ‘Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems’ Harvard University Graduate School of Design. Retrieved on 15 August, 2013 from < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5006> 20. Schumacher, P. 2010. ‘Patrick Schumacher on Parametricism: Let the style wars begin”. Architects Journaln. Retrieved on 16 August, 2013 from < http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article> 21. Schumacher, P. 2010. ‘Patrick Schumacher on Parametricism: Let the style wars begin”. Architects Journaln. Retrieved on 16 August, 2013 from < http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article> 22. Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71 23. Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-22 24. Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-22 25. Menges, A. 2011. ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011’ University of Stuttgart. Retrived on 15 August fron < http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=6553>
A.6 Case For Innovation
Notes References Images
Fig. 6: Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig. 7: Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig. 8: Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig. 9 Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig. 10.Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig 11. Dragon Skin Pavillion Photograph, 2012, retrieved on 14 August 2013, from <http://www.l-e-a-d.pro/projects/ dragon-skin-pavilion/2259> Fig. 19: 2010 Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems Photograph. Fig. 20: 2010 Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems Photograph.
Fig. 12: Polymorphic Photograph, 2011, retrieved on 15 August from < http://www.charlieable.com/ Polymorphic> Fig. 13: Polymorphic Photograph, 2011, retrieved on 15 August from < http://www.charlieable.com/ Polymorphic> Fig. 14: Polymorphic Photograph, 2011, retrieved on 15 August from < http://www.charlieable.com/ Polymorphic> Fig 15. Polymorphic Photograph, 2011, retrieved on 15 August from < http://www.charlieable.com/ Polymorphic> Fig. 16: Polymorphic Photograph, 2011, retrieved on 15 August from < http://www.charlieable.com/ Polymorphic> Fig. 17: 2010 ICD Research Project Photograph. Institute of Computational Design, University of Stuttgart. Retrieved on 14 August 2013, from < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458> Fig. 18: 2010 ICD Research Project Photograph. Institute of Computational Design, University of Stuttgart. Retrieved on 14 August 2013, from < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458> Fig. 19: 2010 ICD Reaearch Project Photograph Fig. 20: 2010 ICD Reaearch Project Photograph Fig. 21: 2010 Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems Photograph. Harvard GSD. Retrieved on 15 August, 2013 from < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=5006> Fig. 22: 2010 Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems Photograph. Fig. 23: 2010 Kerf-Based Complex Wood Systems Photograph.
Expression Of Interest
Content Design Approach
Contents B.1 Project Proposal B. 1.1 IN-DESIGN Mind Map
B. 2 Material Research B. 2.1 Material Research Part 1 B. 2.2 Material Research Part 2
B. 3 Design Matrix Approach
B. 4 Case Studies B. 4.1 Voussoir Cloud B. 4.1.1 Case Study Matrix B. 4.2 ICD Pavillion B. 4.2.2 Case Study Matrix
43-44 45-48 49-50 51-52
B.5 Technique Matrix B. 5.1 Technique Explorations B. 5.2 Final Design Proposal B. 5.3 Final Prototype B. 5.4 Final Prototype Part 2
53-54 55-56 57-60 61-62
B. 6 Leaning Outcomes Feedback Precedent: Parametric Dune
B. 7 References
Design Approach | 30
Community Efficient Use Of Materials
Emerging City Innovative Technique
What You See Is What You Perceive It To Be
Bending (Tension & Compression) Material Performace
Kerfing Jointing Systems Shou Sugi Ban Levels of Concentration
B.1 Design Approach
Over the years, Wyndham City has been placing emphasis on itâ€™s image. To address this, Wyndham has been taking on projects to reshape the physical image the growing city.  The city is proud of its support for the public art and sculpture, which is evident in Wyndham City. Progressively, art has been strongly interwined and used as means of connection for the communtiy and the place itself.  Hence, the primary goal of this project is to symbolise Wyndham City as an emerging city in Victoria. In order to convey this message, the design will aspire to form an innovative technique by capitalizing on the material performance of wood and through embracing its different properties. It will also have reverence to the effcient and effective uses of material as we are constantly revolutionizing the method of design. The proposed design will seek to incoperate the element of user interactions by creating views from different angles. These views are susceptible to the userâ€™s personal experience with the installation, which would most likely cause them to remember this installation as an icon for Wyndham City.
This proposal will be administered by exhausting all possible outcomes of the idea development to attain the best or most suitable one that illustrates the aim of the project. Thus, a sufficient level of understanding algorithmic processes would be beneficial to this project. These computer tools would be able to perform test that is impossible to do without proper equipments, and would provide a platform to explore effects and practicality of merging material performance into the design. As the brief calls for a design that would stand through the discourse of architecture, it is crucial that this project has reverence to both innovative techniques and social aspects, by potentially creating a new phase in the discource that would influence future designs.
Design Approach | 32
B.1.1 Design Approach
Logic Knowledge Literature Control Technique Analyse
Tool Function Insight Trial Personify
Organisation Context Interest Unique
B.1 Expression Of Interest | 34
WOOD Wood itself is a fibrous material that forms that main substance of a tree trunk. Isolating these substances from its main composition, and we obtain individual planks or sheets of wood that have a different and new set of properties. This produces a new collection of wood types, such as plywood or veneer. Wood appears to be solid on the surface, but internally, they are made up of porous grains that can absorb moisture. They can be carved, cut, bent and treated in various ways. These flexible properties of wood that allows the users to investigate with triggered our fascination with this material. What is seen is not exactly what is obtained. By having an understanding on how wood works, we will be able to control the properties to meet our desired effect.
B.2.1 Design Approach
Material Research Part 1 Fig. 1
One of the reason for using wood, specifically plywood and veneer, for the design is because of the manipulative properties wood possess. These properties can be used to enhance, shape or become the drving force for the Wyndham Gateway design. Based on studies, it is found that mechanical properties, such as the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the modulus of elasticity (MOE), are important for building construction.  Hence, the ideas generated for the design were centered around the mechanical properties of wood. The experiments and research conducted involved various methods to test the structural capacity of plywood and veneer, as well as looking for ways to control the loads applied and degree of bending that will shape the design. Following this report are the types of experiments undertaken on veneer and plywood.
The first e sheets. Ve er), fragile amount of material is could be e Having a s this mater to look sp and mould sesses.
The expe 1. Looking (Fig. 1) 2. Soakin sorbance 3. Mouldin into desire
experiments conducted were on veneer eneer is almost paper like (slightly thicke and is easily ruptured under a certain f stress. The reason for selecting this s because of the flexible quality, which easily engineered into different shapes. small understanding to the limitations of rial, the experimentation proceeded on pecifically on grains, level of absorbance ding that the various types of veneer pos-
eriments are as follows : g at the behavior of long and short grains
ng in water for 24hrs to test level of aband to soften material in order to bend it ng as an alternative to bending the sheets ed shapes. (Fig. 5, 6, 7)
The results are as follows (respectively) : 1. Bending against short grains cause the sheets to break very easily, as compared to long grains. Bending parallel with the long grains reduces the chances of rupture. (Fig. 8) 2. Some sheets changed its properties after being soaked. They soften and it becomes easier to bend and twist them. Some did not respond well to this experiment and ruptured when bent or twisted. (Fig. 9) 3. Making a mould with wave like shapes and casting it on the sheets. Prior to this stage, the sheets have to be soaked in order for them to get moulded As concluded from the results of the experiments, veneer is a very delicate material to work it. However, there are ways in which the properties can be manipulated for it to work desirably. One of the most important findings from the experiments is the effects of soaking. Moisture is absorbed by the grains, making it swell and it softens the material. Based on this, soaking was used as the first stage in all other experiment. B.2.1 Expression Of Interest | 38
The next set of experiments focused on joint systems and application of load. These experiments illustrates how to work with the MOR and MOE of veneer. Using slots as the a jointing mechanism has forces the degree bending to be in relation to the length of the piece it is joint to below. For instance, if the slots are placed closer, the degree of bend would be high. However, there is a threshold between the allowable degree of bending the material has. Joints are important elements of a design. It can be the success or failure of it. Also for this project, the design is aiming towards using the components of the material itself as joints, instead of using other components such as bolts or screws to construct the design
Experiment #1 : Based on the studied precedents, a common theme was found, which was the use of a skeletal structure to act as the supporting component. In this experiment, two materials are used. The plywood (center piece) acts as the skeleton to stabilize the bend caused by the inserting the veneer sheets (top and bottom) into the slots. This system was rather sturdy and held its shape. However, the veneer pieces began to rupture at the connections (Fig. 10, 12) because of the tension it is trying to resist to snap back into its original straight shape.
Experiment #2 : Continuing on with the use of moulds, this experiment used moulds to obtain the a fixed form/shape. These two pieces of veneer were then attached together at both ends. Force was applied at both ends in the opposite direction (Fig. 20) to test how the shape is effected and how push/pull force can the veneer take before rupturing. 39
B.2.2 Design Approach
Material Research Part 2
Material Research Part 2 41
B.2.2 Design Approach
Experiment #2 :
This experiment was focused on the method of layering, where the top piece of veneer relies directly on the bottom piece to withstand its shape (Fig. 13). Similar results to Experiment #1 were collected, where rupture started to present itself at the connection parts of the veneer. This method could have been more successful if a skeletal piece was used as the base, instead of a veneer sheet. In addition, this experiment also looked at the ways veneer can be twisted or bent further (Fig. 17). The sheets can be twisted easily (Fig. 18) , however in order for the twisted sheets to hold its form was a challenge. A new collection of jointing systems would be needed to resolve this issue.
Experiment #4 : Before soaking the veneer, some portions were cut out. Initially, this method was thought of as a way to enhance bending. However, the veneer started tearing when it was bent (Fig. 21). The tears were seen on the sides and center of the sheets. This could be because of the thin length of veneer left which was not able to support the degree of bending, hence it tore.
Design Approach Development
B.3 Design Approach
Taking what has been learnt from the experiments into Rhinocerous and Grasshopper, formed a path to try different ways of creating concentrated and dispersed segments of different forms of scripts. We have decided to do this because of our aim to exploit the various techniques that can be performed on wood.
Additionally, for the proposed design, to attain the desired effect of different views from different angles, can be achieved by having a variety of different concentration levels on the installation. Hence, with this mind set, we tried to explore ways in which the surfaces can be divided into the concentrated and dispersed parts. This also allow us to deem if the method fabricating is practical.
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Notes A3 : I like how the concentration has a gradient effect (from clutter to spread). It is one method that can be used in the design to enhance the potential of the view.
B2: Using attractor points to segregate points from the center. Among the B-collection matrix, this was selected because it resembled on the the experiments we did, where the center was removed
C3: The wave like charateristic of this form creates an interesting illusion to the eye. Combining the concentration levels with various heights can create a unique form that tricks the eye into thinking it is something else.
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Design Approach Matrix
Notes D4: Another example that plays with the different depth. Using a waffle structure can be used as a source of inspiration for methods of joints.
E3: This Panel Dispatch matrix was aimed at trying to form skeletal structure and to use the cut-outs to allow light to transmit through it, or to create shadows.
F2: Though this model looks complicated and everything seems to be clutter on to one and other, I have chosen it because it replicates the way veneer can be formed using moulds.
F3: This model was the most applicable to the design idea and experimentations. By having the panels rotated at 35degs, it creates an opening between each other. There are also sections of the panel are twisted, similar to the experiment done. This matrix can be further developed to test other mechanical proterties of wood.
Design Approach Matrix
B.4.1 Design Approach
Case Study: Voussior Cloud The Voussoir Cloud definition was selected among the other provided Grasshopper definitons. This was due to the way material has been used, the use of internal surface tension of wood, compressive form finding and the jointing system used, which have been achieved with the use of parametric tools and modeling. 
Before the scripting any definitons, the architects made a handmade model of to test the compression, tension and flexibility of the material. This was similar to the way this project has been laid out to be, where the very first stages of design was focused on exploring the material. Additionally, the vaults are used as a framework to support the whole structure, which is a method of construction we have been experimenting on
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B. 4.1 Case Study Matrix
1: The Voussoir Cloud without any alterations made to it. 2-4: Small alterations done to the Z-Unit, making it longer or shorter 5-6: Distorting the form of Voussior by moving the point in elevation (Front View)
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B.4.1 Design Approach
Case Study Matrix Notes Column 7-11: Changing the Top view of each Voussoir by moving the points, changing the Extrusion value
B. 4.1 Case Study Matrix Notes Initial shape of Vorroni. By changing the radius of the Vorroni, it changes the entire form. Changing the location of the vaults by allocating points. By moving the points around it to create a sections that have concentrated and dispersed vaults. This is clearly illustrated in Collumn B. Collumn D shows the list of Triangulated surfaces (Geometry), which we were interested in.
B.4.2 Design Approach
Case Study: ICD Pavilion 2010
The ICD Pavilion 2010 was chosen as one the case studies for very obvious reasons. Firstly, it is contrusted by plywood, one of the materials this project has been experimenting with. Secondly, the pavilion is formed by bending wood from the center to the outer edges.
Having the Grasshopper script would permit further exploration on this pavilion, which is applicable to this exploration needed for the proposed design. In addition, it also exemplifies how joinery system is used effectively to hold and support the bending of plywood.
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B. 4.2 Case Study Matrix
Notes 1A: Original form of ICD pavilion 1B: Creating weaving on the surface by Cull 1C: Increaseing the shaping between the weaves 1D: Offseting weaves 2A: Reverse engineering to create a weaving system 2B: Changing the center shape, making it oval 2C: Decreasing the dismeter of the oval and using weave panels 2D: Reducing diameter of the circle to create a dent in the center. 3A: Isolating the panels and increasing the width 3B: Forming strips withing strips 3c: Increasing width of strips.
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B.5 Design Approach
Technique Development This technique is formed by the experiments conducted, Design Development Approach and the Case studies selected. From each stage, elements that have been learnt, understood and tested have been placed into this Technique Development.
Furthermore, based on out research, we have determined that using a thicker material as the base and supportive element of the structure will result in producing a more stable and sturdy model. Thus, arriving at this form for the prototype.
From the experiments done, the shaped formed by the slotting pieces together is an arc. Thus, forming the geometrical pattern we have chosen to pursue.
Illustrated on the right, are a collection of Technique Experimentation done in Rhinocerous and Grasshopper. The basic form of each component has been drawn out. But playing around with the function and script, we are able to obtain different shapes, forms and design.
From the Design Developement Approach, we looked at controlling the level of concentration and dispersal of points, as well as variable depth/height. Taking these elements into consideration, we produces a serious arc that run along the same plane. We have decided to build the arcs vertically upwards (for the prototype) because of the illusive quality seen from the one of the Approaches. In Grasshopper, we are able to control the placement of the next set of arcs (which decreases in number as it continues to stack upwards) and the sizes/ shapes. The Case Study has proven the different way wood can work. It also shows the similarity of having a supporting system, much like a skeletal frame, to hold the prevent the structure from collasping.
By playing around with the script in Grasshopper, the design can be drastically changed, as see by comparing 4C and 1A. This allowed us to exhausted all possible solutions before arriving at a decision.
Notes The decision to select this form as the final prototype was based on how the forme exhibits the sturdiest and stable looking form as compared to the other technique experimentations. The variation in arc sizes changes slightly, as the layers increase, because it would be impossible for the structure to withstand
uneven loads that are distributed downwards and it would not be able to withstand lateral loads. Despite the flaws, this selection embodies the quality of personal perception and uses the material properties to its advantage.
B.5.2 Design Approach
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B.5.3 Design Approach
After Fabrication, we encountered several problems while assembling the prototype. As our past experiments have soon, soaking the wood would soften the wood and allows it to bend. Despite soaking the fabricated pieces for 24 hours, the small pieces would not bend according to our desired shape. The bigger panels were not as rigid, but still posed some amount to resistance to bending. Thus, we resorted to find an alternative method to bend the wood.
As seen in Fig. 26, the scores have been added, and the degree of bending would depend on the number of kerfs and spacing between the kerfs, both of which are relative to the surface area of the panel (Fig. 30)
Another problem we encounter was the slots as jointing systems. Slots worked fined on Veneer, however we overlooked the fact that we had changed our material into plywood, which affected a number of our mechanical systems in the design. As a result, we remove a small Looking at Kerf-Based Complex square on the edges of each Wood System Precedent in Part end of the panel (Fig. 31), to A, we decided to incorporate create a locking system (Fig. 33 the kerfing technique on the & 34). fabricated panels, so that they would bend. Kerfing works in a Shou Sugi Ban (Fig 35) is a way where some strips of mate- method of bringing the grain out rial is removed to reduce the and preserving the wood. We intension and break the resistend for this effect to act as an tance of bending in the material aesthetic quality and enhance . the users level of interaction.
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B.5.3 Design Approach
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B.5.4 Design Approach
Final Prototype part 2 Fig. 41
As fabricated model failed to get constructued due to the small panels that make it impossible for it to bend and there are a few pieces that broke. As a result we hand-crafted another model to show the key components of the model. The hand-crafted model features the jointing systems of slots (Fig. 43), the kerfing detaill to bend the plywood (Fig. 46), and the different in size of each panel (Fig. 41 & 47).
B.6 Design Approach
Learning Outcomes & Feedback Throughout the course of working on the Expression of Interest and the design development process, I realised that having the kknowledge to work with computational tools are important. My groupmate and I faced a number of challenges while using these design tools and it caused us to to be withstrained by the boundaries of only what we knew on Rhinocerious and Grasshopper. The experiments we have done has helped a fair bit in understanding how wood behaves and performs. However, the results of these experiments are not 100% accurate or reliable. What is tested is just an idea of how the material can behave. From this we would be able to shape our design from the findings, which could increase the possibility of it working. However, computational tools should make up for the lack of informative on materials, that could resolve the problems we face.
The feedback we received questioned what did we actually developed. Where does it show in the prototype the aims you are trying to achieve. The comments question why we did not develop a more interesting idea that would reflect strongly on the technique what we are trying to display. Reflecting on these feedbacks, I realise how we have overlooked some of the interesting results that we have obtained from the experiments. We focused alot on trying to manipulate wood, instead of focusing on one aspect of it. We got into Rhino/Grasshopper alittle too late to digitally experiment and develop our idea. We took a few steps back to return to the experimental stage, but this time in Rhinocerous an Grasshopper. We decided to develop the on the idea of twisting wood from our experiment and from looking at the Parametric Dune precedent.
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B.7 Design Approach
Notes Reference 1: Wyndham City Gateway Design Project, retrieved from https://app.lms. unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3962725-dt-content-rid-10327484_2/ courses/ABPL30048_2012_SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20 -%20COMMENTED.pdf. Comments by Stanislav Roudavski v.02 2: Wyndham City Gateway Design Project, retrieved from https://app.lms. unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-3962725-dt-content-rid-10327484_2/ courses/ABPL30048_2012_SM1/Project/Project%20Document%20 -%20COMMENTED.pdf. Comments by Stanislav Roudavski v.02 3: Bal, B. C. & Bektas, I. (2012). ‘The effects of wood species, load diection and adhesives on bening properties of laminated weneer lumber”. Bioresources 7(3). pp 3103-3112. 4: Triangulationblog, (2011). Voussior Cloud. Retrieved from < http:// www.triangulationblog.com/2011/06/voussoir-cloud.html>, on 20 September 2013. 5: Hoffer, Miranowski, Macke, Crain (ND). Kerf. Retrieved from < http:// stuff.mit.edu/afs/athena/dept/cron/project/kerf/7_Presentation/KERF_ Documentation_Summary.pdf> on 23 September 2013. 6: SMD Arquitects (2010). Parametric Dunes. Retrieved from < http:// www.smdarq.net/parametric-dunes/> on 24 September, 2013. 7: SMD Arquitects (2010). Parametric Dunes. Retrieved from < http:// www.smdarq.net/parametric-dunes/> on 24 September, 2013. 8:SMD Arquitects (2010). Parametric Dunes. Retrieved from < http:// www.smdarq.net/parametric-dunes/> on 24 September, 2013.
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Part C. Project Prop
Content C. 1 Gateway Project: Design Concept C. 1.1 Regroup, Refocus C. 1.2 Precedent Study C. 1.3 Reverse Engineering Model C. 1.4 Revised Project Argument C. 1.5 Proposal Idea C. 1..5.1 Design Concept C. 1.5.2 Design Concept Matirx C. 1.5.3 Design Analysis: Form C. 1.5.4 Design Analysis: Panel C. 1.5.5 Design Analysis: Final Design C. 1.5.6 Shou Sugi Ban
80 81-84 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 101
C. 2.1 Gateway Project: Final Model Location
C. 3.1 Tectonic Elements C. 3.2 Tectonic Elements: Scale 1:5
C. 4.1 Final Model: Intended C. 4.2 Final Model: Reality C. 4.2.1 Final Model : In Site Context
111-114 115- 118 119
C. 5.1 Learning Objectives and Outcomes
D DESIGN AIMS DISTR
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C. 1.1 Gateway Project
INNOVATIVE DESIGN DECISION
Based on the feedback received from the panel of critics, we realized that we have spent too much time focusing our attention on the experiments, instead of making critical design decision. At this point of the project, it would be beneficial in our favour to narrow down on specific experiments that mostly exhibits the characteristics of wood that we want to show, and focusing our development on it. Doing so would allow us to form, analyze and develop innovative solutions that would work for the design. Thus, we believe that through this approach, we would be able to produce the best solution for Wyndham City Gateway Project.
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C. 1.2 Gateway Project
Precedent Studies Precedent: Parametric Dunes Parametric Dunes project showcases an interesting way wood is been treated. The design illustrates how the bent in the wood is created by the use of computational tools, through the analysis of wood curves and the degree of elasticity of bending . These qualities are similar to the qualities this project aims to shows.
As we intend to develop the twisting effect of wood, the first step would be to generate it in Rhino and fabricate it test how the it would twist. From there, amendment can be made accordingly to achieve the desired outcome for the proposed design.
Parametric Dunes also uses a skeletal system as a supporting rib in the structural element of the design. These skeletal systems also take on loads and are used as a frame to attach the veneer and plywood sheets on . As the selected material for this design is veneer, there needs to be a support system that sustains the shape and hold the veneer in tension. Referring to this precedent gives the project a sense of direction to progress and focus on for the next phase of the design process. Fig. 1
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C. 1.3. Gateway Project
Reverse Engineering of Parametric Dunes Model
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Efficient Use Of Materials
WYNDHAM CITY COMMUNITY
C. 1.4 Gateway Project
Revised Project Argument
Shou Sugi Ban
Double Skin Effect
Material Performance & Flexibility
What You See Is What You Perceive it To Be
Bending & Twisting Tension Compression Jointing Systems Weaving / Growing Project Proposal | 88
Proposal Idea The purpose of this design is to bring attention to Wyndham as an emerging city by making the design an icon in Victoria. By bringing attention and awareness to Wyndham through the design, it would make it an attraction for people to visit in Victoria. One of the factors that were taken into consideration during the design process is the rapid growth and culture of Wyndham, which this project aspires to represent in the design. We believe that by forging a design that portrays its emergence and is welcoming, through itâ€™s habitable quality, it would reflect the cultural factors of Wyndham. The way wood is treated and manipulated are set to attain these characteristics in the design.
The ideas of the design for the Gateway Project are a compilation of results from the experiments conducted, the analysis of precedent studies, and the explorations of the matrix diagrams and reverse engineering, done earlier in this project. Bits and pieces from each segment inspired the overall design concept.
In an attempt to explore and expand these features, the design idea took a great interest in the twisting and bending of veneer strips and the effect it has on the compressive and tensile features. From the prototype (FIG ...), the panels show the technique and concept this project is driving towards.
The first design idea was formed during the experimentation stages. The results (PG...) and types of experiments physically looked at wood veneers and itsâ€™ compressive and tensile potential. Based on this, the experimentation narrowed down its idea to a system that is supported by the corresponding layer of strips below it (FIG ...).
The form and overall design/ arrangement of panels were stimulated by the matrix diagrams and reverse engineering. It explores the scripts in Grasshopper to generate iterations and to predict the possibilities of whether the technique of the design would be achievable. From this, we concluded that the ideal method of showing the bending and twisting qualities can be done by have concentrated and dispersed sections of panels on the shape of the design.
By studying precedents that looked at the compression and tensile forces of wood, it took the initial design idea further.
Design Concept Development Form Finding The initial silhouette of the design was a tunnel-like structure that draped across an area within Site B. However, this form did not fully accentuate the unique feature of wood that the design was intended for. With continuous form finding in Grasshopper, we realized that adding a vertical extrusion element in the design, it would create a surface for the panels to drape fluidly. The extrusion also reduces the chances of the panels from severe deformation and segregation. Hence, the extrusion developed into a chimney form to the existing tunnel form.
Feature of Design In order to introduce the City of Wyndham and the unique qualities of veneer to users/visitors, it must be able to draw their attention and motivate them to approach the design. Accordingly, emphasis is placed on the interactive feature of the design. By making the design an icon of Victoria, it must be recognizable and unforgettable. Essentially these expressions are linked with the relationship one fosters with the object. Hence, creating opportunities for interaction would provide a platform for unforgettable experiences that is personal and would encourage people to visit Wyndham more often.
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C. 1. Gateway
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C. 1.5.3 Gateway Project
Having a tunnel structure would enable users to inhabit, explore the structure and look at the details of veneer.
Extruding a portion of the structure creates an interesting perspective on the landscape. It also directs users to look up the chimney and see a layering effect the panels create.
Design progressed to resemble a Wind Tunnel. While inside, users experience the sensation of wind forces vertically generated by the shape (opening and vertical element). This sensation is similar to driving at high speed with the car windows down. This ambience is to enhance the userâ€™s personal experience.
Why This Shape/Form? WIND TUNNEL Designed to allow users to Inhabit. The chimney showcases the flexibility of wood. OPENING / ENTRANCE Design to be big in scale to attract users to approach (THE NAME OF THE DEISGN)
AIM Personal Experience through Interaction. Examine the capabilities of Wood. Reflect the Spirit and Growth of Wyndham.
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C. 1.5.4 Gateway Project
Design Analysis Panel Analysis
The aim is to produce an innovative solution that embraces this flexibility (twisting and bending) in the material performance.
A weaving method is employed in the design to increase the level of complexity in the system. Weaving the twisted strips together also hold the strips in place, preventing them from pulling apart and failing. Technique of weaving reflects the spirit of Wyndham as a growing city.
Digital iteration of twisting strips of veneer
Testing the degree of bending and twisting in Grasshopper and testing it with the actual material.
Varying the sizes of the panels creates concentrated and dispersed panels. This reflects the changes occurring in the emerging city as a new commercial hub
Feasible degree of bend with actual material concluded, followed by the arrangement of strips.
What is unique/innovative about the panels ? The panels of the installation focuses on the twisting and bending of timber veneer strips. In comparison with the precedent studies and reverse engineering diagrams, the method of twisting these veneers are different and do not utilize any machines or tools to bend the veneers in shape. Instead, by using our hands as forces to hold the twist in shape and securing it, allows the veneer to naturally conform into the shapes it is bounded by. Thus, each panel and strip is unique on its own. Additionally, majority of the precedents that has been reviewed focused on structurally sound materials like timber or ply. Veneer is almost like paper, does not possess any structural strength. However, we have created a system forces the strips to act in tension and compression, causing the panel to posses some degree of structural stability on its own.
Attempt to create a continuous strips that join together.
Altering the shape of the panel and spacing between each panel to enhance the visibility of the twisted strips.
Final design of panel after changing the distance of each gap and degree of twist. It also looks at the jointing method at each end.
C. 1.5.5 Gateway Project
Design Analysis Final Design Analysis
The elements mentioned before (in C.1.4.2/3/4) where all factors that had to be vividly expressed in the final design. Thus, the final design chosen to be fabricated, C4, was one that had an overall balance and displayed the key concepts. Scale Users would be put into a transition of scale and spaces when inhabiting the design. The wide entrance is about 3m high. As users walk in about 1.5m, the ceiling panels are dipped low at about 2m to create a feeling of being enclosed within this space. This effect would allow them to have a closer look at the formation of the panels and glimpses of the surrounding areas leading to Wyndham. Users are also able to touch and understand the purpose of the design. As he/she move towards the end, the ceiling height increases to about 7m. This is create an overwhelming sensation while inside.
Shape/form of wind tunnel is adjusted to accommodate the panels. However, users must be able to occupy the space within.
Panels must show twist and bend in a concentrated and dispersed arrangement. At different angles, the panels should appear different.
Should reflect the spirit and culture of Wyndham as an emerging City. It should attract people and be remembered as an icon of Wyndham and Victoria.
Panels draped across initial form (from B3)
Reducing diameter and width of form, while increasing the number of panels on the Y-axis. This looked too crowded and would not be easy to assemble in a short period of time.
Attempt to get a more elegant â€˜wind tunnelâ€™ shape by offsetting the chimney away from the bottom frame. This made it appear structurally unstable. The number of panels spread across was also altered. This balanced the gaps for visibility and coverage.
This design was selected among the others because it is a combination and balance of all the form and panel trials that had been done. The chimney is positioned slighted off from the bottom frame, creating a smooth axis for the continuous panel strips to run along. Project Proposal | 100
C. 1.5.6 Gateway Project
Shou Sugi Ban
Through the various experiments conducted, we discovers a traditional Japanese technique of preserving and sustaining wood call Shou Sugi Ban. This involves the burning of the top layer of wood to preserve the inside layers and grains, creating a protective layer from environmental factors. This method brings out the wood grains on veneer to make them more prominent. Apart from the sustaining qualities of this method, it also adds to the aesthetics
of the design. By burning only one side, it creates a variation of colours and wood grain patterns when the strips are twisted. This effect plays with the illusion of the viewer by creating interesting shadow/ lighting effects and double skin effects on the design. Using this technique would add depth to the design and potentially increase the interest levels of passersby or visitors.
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The design is strategically placed on site B. The relationship of the site to the service stations causes it to have the highest potential to promote interaction among the three sites. Locating it here would give hints of the design to passersby and drivers to draw their attention to approach the design. This site would provide space for cars to stop and it is within walking distance from the service station. The back of design, the chimney, would face the road and be the first element that drivers and passengers would see from a distance. Portions of the design would hint at the driver/passengers and as the car is approaching closer to the site, they would be confronted by the entire back (chimney) that appears to have been erected from the landscape. The amount of experiments and thought placed on developing the panels is to create a 3-dimensional effect when viewed from a distance, and to engage to the users. Hence, the panels are positioned at an angle along the frame to create an illusion of layering effect of the twisted strips when view from the side and shuttering effect of the surrounding landscape as cars go past it. This is intensified by introducing a traditional Japanese technique call Shou Sugi Ban (explained in C. 1. 4. ) to accentuate the aesthetics and desired effect.
C. 2. 1
Final Model Location
C. 3.1 Gateway Project
Tectonic Elements The tectonic elements of the structure are critical points in the design that will affect and determine the ability of construction and structural support by the proposed methods. The elements are proposed are designed to be prefabricated to ensure efficiency in labour, time and cost, during assembly. Consequently, the jointing systems and components are composed by a script in Grasshopper. It precisely allocates connection points of each strip, as the position of each point differs accordingly. This scripting made the assembly a lot easier, because it would mean that less time would be vested to locating the position of each hole on hundred of strips. We constructed a model that is of a 1:5 scale using veneer, umbrella pins, and top and bottom plates. The intention for this connection was to use interscrews, instead of umbrella screws. However, there was some errors in setting the diameter of the pre-fabricated holes on the strips. The diameter set was too small to fit the interscrews. We attempted to force the screws through, but because of the delicate nature of the material, it started to tear. 105
We did not want to do the detail model in another material because it was important to show how the veneer behaves in relation to the screws. It focuses on the method of aligning the pre-cut holes on each strip (Fig. 11 ) . Screws hold the strips in itâ€™s precise position that affects the twisting, bending and gaps between each strip. As the screws did not fit, we substituted the screws with umbrella screws. It was not the best solution for the joints, however it was the only pin that would fit through the holes. The umbrella pins held the layers of strips together, but it failed to hold the strips in itâ€™s exact placement (Fig. 12). This caused some of the twist to be deformed and irregular. Top and bottom plates are added to provide another layer of support to sandwich the strips together and hold them in their exact position (Fig. 15). Another tectonic element is the joint of the panels and frame. This uses a T-frame where the screws are bolted through the plywood frame and the veneer.
C. 3.2 Gateway Project
Tectonic Elements Scale 1:5
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Final Model Intended
The final model was intended to look like these renderings.
In these renderings, the aims and intentions of the design are captured. Fig. 24 show the relationship of scale that would attract visitors to approach the design. It also illustrates the shuttering effect/hints of the surrounding through the gaps between the strips.
The shadows cast within and around the design also plays an effect on the experience. Through the filtering and channelling of light sources, it creates dimly lit spaces and well lit spaces in the design.
Fig. 25 and 26 illustrates the experience of being inside the wind tunnel design. It creates an almost shell like effect over the space and takes the users to a different environment. Fig.24
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C. 4.2 Gateway Project
Final Model Reality
A number of problems were encountered during the assembly of the model. We had not realize that the scale we had fabricated our model in would pose as a problem. In our paper and veneer prototype, scaled bigger then 1:20, the strips behaved as desired. What we realized is the ratio scale to width of the strips were out of proportion. The width of the strips had to be small. However, this would cause the strips to break when twisted and bent, because it is too thin. Additionally, the pre-fabricated holes would increase the chances of the strips breaking because it breaks the bonds of the wood grains.
Another problem we faced was the how the veneer, when twisted, became very tensed and rigid. The panels resist the formation of the wind tunnel shape. We suspect that this was a cause of the scale because, on a bigger scale the strips and panels did not have any resistance when formed.
Due to these unforeseen circumstances, we decided to settle with this model. It still showed the main features of the initial design. We tired the one end of the panels back to create a flared opening, similar to the initial design. The opening was meant to be held in place by the frame, On this 1:30 model, only two strips which was fabricated. However, due are used for one panel. The original to the nature and reaction of the madesign consisted of three. Because terial at this scale, we were unable to of the tension, lack of flexibility and attach the frame on without causing scale issue, the qualities we intended rupture. to show were only visible in this form. If we had used the initial six strips, there would not gaps between the strips and the strips were likely to
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C. 4.2.1 Gateway Project
In Site Context
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C. 5.1 Gateway Project
Learning Objectives And Outcomes The main points that were picked up in the feedback were received centered around the comparison of the initial model (rendered) and the actual model we built. It was brought up that the actual model was more engaging and interactive than the wind tunnel. It was also brought up that the initial design seems to look like a gravity-free structure that did not engage with the context of the site. We could have changed the driving form of the design, which was a rigid frame, to use the flexible material This could form a more fluid structure that connection and ties in with the site. When I compared the two models, it is somewhat obvious which appears more aesthetically pleasing. The initial wind tunnel was too defined and did not blend well in the Wyndham environment. In comparison, the built model had a softer, toned-down shape that related to the context.
design, such as material, context, joints and scale. Despite our experiments, we were unable to predict the behavior of the material because we had not thoroughly picked the ore ideal choice of joints and dimensions/scale.
This method only worked on a bigger scale, as seen in our detail model. Thus, what we should change are scale of the design and the smaller jointing systems that would connect the panels without damaging the veneer.
Better approach? We thought about a better approach or solution to the problem we were facing. We should have design the system to be comprise of individual strips that make one panel. These panels would then be attached to the next panel by overlapping the ends and screwing them in place. This method of connection would allow for more flexible joints to create bends or angles in the structure. Another approach that we could have used was to use just one continuous strip, instead of all. The continuous strip will act as a skeleton, and the remaining individual strips will attach on to it.
Joining method for the final model. For the final model, we used interscrews and glue. We were unable to resolve the connection points to form the model because of the material technicality. The scale that we were working was a challenge because it made the strips very fragile. If we had cut holes, instead of using glue, it would cause tear and rupture. In the detail model of 1:5, these connections worked well. In real life application, these joints would work better and stronger with the material to form the structure.
Why the final design is different from what was scripted? What we realized is that there are a lot of factors to take into consideration to obtain what we have scripted. We placed a lot of focus on the features we aim to exhibit and overlooked the practicality of assembling the design. There are a lot of there factors that had to be reconsidered to realize this
What would you change? Essentially, the accidental design obtained from the built model, was generated by capabilities of wood. What should change is the application and approach we took. Based on the material technicality, it posed greater challenges for us. We initially thought that by having all continuous strips, it would allow us to assembly faster.
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C. 5.1 Gateway Project
Learning Objectives And Outcomes One of the important things that i have learnt from this project is that having a clear understanding of materials would substantially benefit the design. The shape of the model (Fig. 36) was accidental and we formed it based on its reaction to the forces applied. The outcome of it showed a more elegant design solution that illustrated the features we focused on. Having a clear knowledge about the material would have allowed us to obtain our intended design, and make better decisions regarding the design problems. Apart from getting a level of understanding of veneer, or other materials, it is equally important that the design responds to the site context, and the brief.
Using Rhino/Grasshopper has opened up endless possibilities of design that could be made possible. We just need to explore itâ€™s possibilities and look at every detail and aspect that involves the design. In addition, this project taught me two important things, how to work and communicate in a group. Collaborating and learning from others in this field is crucial to help me grow as an architect. Absorbing feedbacks, critics and opinions, was one aspect of this project that our group relied upon to achieve our intentions.
Lastly, I learnt that a design is never really complete. We need to do as much as we can in the time frame given. It is clear that for this project, we had not allocate our time wisely Reflecting on what we have done and to resolve any unpredictable probaccomplished for this semester, I am lems. proud of what we have achieved with the experiments, on Grasshopper and the model. Despite the fact that our final design did not turn out the way we had planned, I have learnt a lot from all the stages of design we undertook. Having to work with tools that I am not fluent in, where we have taken the design to at the end was rather amazing to me. It is important for us to keep up with ever changing technology, especially in this line of profession.
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Thank You Lastly, I would like to thank my awesome group mate for the work we have produced this semester. Also, not forgetting our fantastic tutors, Finn , Adam and Dave for guiding us and teaching us! I am truly grateful for all of you!