Leadership in Coastal Water Environments

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This brochure and the Content herein is provided on an ’as is’ basis and for informational purposes only. DHI does not make any representation or warranty or accept any liability as to the correctness, completeness or fitness for any purpose of the Content, including the noninfringement of any third party rights relating to the Content. DHI shall be free, but not obligated, to provide any additional information or to update any Content, or to correct any inaccuracy or error in the Content that may become known to it. The Brochure and the Content does not constitute advice and does not create any form of client relationship with our firm.

© DHI 2016 | Photos: © DHI, Shutterstock.com, iStockphoto.com, Matthew Richmond, PolFoto, Wiki CC0, FlyingFocus, Jan Kofod Winther, Chevron Australia Pty Ltd, Maersk Oil, ESA. Version 2.9, November 2016


Introduction Knowledge in coastal engineering was what launched DHI more than 50 years ago. Today, coastal and environmental engineering are still key topics in DHI's growing portfolio of water-related disciplines and are focus areas in our research and development (R&D) activities. DHI is a research-based institute providing specialist consultancy services to our customers around the world. Our MIKE Powered by DHI software encapsulates our knowledge and is continuously enhanced with new features based on our current R&D efforts and experience gained from our varied and challenging projects. ‘Working with Nature’ is our vision and strategy for marine projects to achieve sustainability and adaptability to climate changes. This vision requires deep understanding of natural processes as well as creativity to form new coastal elements such as beaches, harbours and lagoon environments in harmony with nature. The understanding of natural processes can only be achieved through analysis of detailed and accurate data – from remote sensing to detailed measurements of hydrography, water quality and biology – combined with numerical modelling of processes at all scales. In the coastal zone, advanced forecasts assist many marine and coastal activities from navigation and coastal flooding to planning. Information, operations and planning systems including online data, databases and modelling are key offerings at DHI. This brochure gives a brief insight into on-going R&D activities and provides a glimpse of signature projects on which DHI experts have made a great difference.


DHI in the Project Life Cycle DHI is a specialist consultant adding value in all phases of the project cycle. Being a research-based institute with a passion for working with nature, we help our clients develop robust concepts for their coastal and marine projects We support our clients to secure environmental approvals and provide data and facts that cannot be refuted by third parties. When we deliver our input to the feasibility, design and construction of a project, and when we provide services during the operational phase before decommissioning, we use our deep and comprehensive knowledge to secure cost-efficient outcomes. Throughout the entire project cycle, we apply combined coastal marine science and best engineering practices.


The Ă˜resund Fixed Link connecting Denmark and Sweden opened in 2000. DHI was involved in this project from the early planning stage to the final construction of one of the largest infrastructure projects ever built in Scandinavia. Today, the Link is an example of how innovative coastal and hydraulic engineering improved the development and construction of a challenging project that was completed on schedule and on budget with negligible impact on the water environment.


As a specialist consultant, we helped the developer to secure the necessary environmental approval. We also contributed to the innovative design of the Link, which constitutes a bridge, an artificial island and a tunnel, and we carried out marine environmental monitoring before and during the construction phase, meeting all regulatory requirements.

New challenges Research and development DHI is based on 50 years of research and knowledge development in water environments. With this as our cornerstone, we are able to provide solutions to today’s water environments as well as to develop new marine competencies for the future. Each year, about 20% of our activities aim to develop new methods for future challenges. DHI's R&D efforts focus on developing localised solutions based on our global knowledge. Our marine R&D activities are carried out in cooperation with national and international funding agencies, universities and knowledge institutions and in partnership with our clients. We present our partners with new knowledge through our innovative solutions and our MIKE Powered by DHI software.


Sediment spill from dredging operations Dredging of seabed material can cause serious environmental problems To prevent environmental problems, it is of utmost importance to be able to accurately predict how much sediment will be spilt during dredging operations, how it spreads in the environment – and to estimate the downstream consequences of the spill. We develop reliable methods to support and improve environmentally safe marine dredging. This includes advanced methods for field observations, new computer models using detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods and mapping and modelling of the interaction between sediment spill and natural habitats.

Computer model of the sediment plume from a trailing suction dredger

Coastal dynamics Natural forces are continuously reshaping the coastline This is a major challenge for all projects in the coastal zone. The movement of the sand, the changes in shoreline position and the erosion of the beach are quantified by skilled engineers and the application of specialised modelling tools. DHI experts develop advanced models to support coastal projects. These include models that can describe both the details and the gross effects of longshore and cross-shore transport, erosion over long time spans and during extreme events. DHI develops a wide range of different engineering tools to cover the spectrum from quick up-front analyses to very advanced and accurate models describing the complex processes in more detail.

Model prediction of coastal evolution around two different types of man-made coastal structures



Coastal flooding and climate change adaptation Extreme weather conditions and rising sea level challenge coastal regions to mitigate, adapt and prepare for coastal floods At DHI, a broad spectrum of tools is being developed to meet the increasing demand for climate adaptation and flood preparedness in the coastal regions around the world. Tools for designing coastal protection schemes and predicting consequences of storms on the coastal society are being developed – e.g. wave-by-wave models for overtopping and breaching of coastal barriers – along with operational systems for on-line early warning of inundation and for climate adaptation planning tailored to the local community’s needs.

An early warning map of coastal inundation compared to actual flooded houses (dark red dots = flood damages reported to insurance companies)

Sea grasses and coastal constructions Marine construction works at harbours, fixed links, and offshore wind farms lead to the disturbance of the seabed, which subsequently impacts sensitive habitats such as sea grasses, mangroves and corals At DHI, we intelligently integrate our current knowledge and simulate the effects of sediment on the biological components in our advanced numerical MIKE Powered by DHI threedimensional models. To expand the efficiency of our present state-of-the-art modelling technology, DHI is investigating key processes such as feedback between hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics and biological processes, for example resuspension in sea grasses. The aim is to optimise our impact prediction in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and to develop new tools to quantify the potential effect on sea grasses used as soft coastal protection.


Marine aquaculture – today’s necessity for tomorrow’s food Aquacultures produce millions of tonnes of food each year The industry is expanding as the world population increases and natural fish stocks have been depleted. Environmental concerns, competition for location with other business sectors, and administrative constraints in the licencing procedures are amongst the challenges in the growth of the aquaculture business. By developing new and flexible approaches to aquaculture planning, DHI supports sustainable growth in the vital marine aquaculture sector. This can be in the form of targeted decision support systems which integrate, monitor and model data into near real-time decision-making tools to aid site selection and production optimisation.

On the quest to understand the world’s most complex ecosystems Our challenge is to understand the complexity of the world’s ecosystems. Our tool is advanced ecological modelling We develop modelling tools for ecosystem management that integrate fine-scale modelling of hydrodynamics and water quality, modelling of sensitive habitats such as sea grasses, macro algae and mussels as well as agent-based modelling of protected birds and marine mammals. With the new and integrated modelling tools, we can quantify changes at the relevant scale for coastal ecosystems, and we can predict consequences of impacts, the efficiency of existing and new management measures as well as long-term climate change predictions at several levels of the marine food chain.



Waves Are the highest waves the strongest in the North Sea? Continuing a long tradition for focussing on high fidelity metocean data, DHI, together with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and other partners, is developing new standards aimed at reducing the risk and cost of offshore structures. Our R&D projects bring together new hydrodynamic models, physical experiments and advanced statistical methods to support future insights into extreme waves and loads. DHI’s R&D efforts on offshore metocean conditions take place in close cooperation with leading partners from the offshore wind industry, oil and gas developers and universities.

Physical model testing Physical model experiments are a crucial part of developing new technologies and methods A fundamental understanding of the basic physical processes and relevant accurate ground truth observations are the key ingredients in developing new knowledge of the marine environment. DHI operates a range of renowned in-house wave and current basin and flume facilities, agile and attractive for R&D and commercial purposes. DHI’s R&D efforts are directed towards developing new innovative methods where instrumentation, equipment and advanced numerical models are combined to give new detailed insights.

Physical model at DHI's laboratory


Navigation In order to navigate a vessel, an ocean of data is needed DHI develops the newest tools for safe navigation. These tools comprise innovative risk mapping tools and models for better port operations. An example is the Dynamic Vessel Response System that enables the coupling of the-state-of-the art timedomain wave models with an advanced vessel response modelling system. This system gives a description of passing vessels’ effect on mooring and an efficient and safe planning of port operations. Drifting vessels is a risk for the marine environment and for safe navigation. Combining DHI’s reliable marine models with an advanced description of drift help clients perform high-precision vessel response assessments. Simulation of waves and vessel response in DHI's numerical laboratory

THE ACADEMY by DHI THE ACADEMY by DHI is all about knowledge building and sharing. Our capacity building activities, we ensure that you are equipped to find and apply the appropriate solutions to your unique challenges related to coastal and marine environments. Our global knowledge of water environments is gained from our projects and research activities. We share our knowledge and experience through our :     

Training courses and packages Seminars Workshops and user group meetings Publications Tech Talks series elaborating on our research activities

Learn more and discover all our training courses and events on www.theacademybydhi.com.


Three MEGA connections Three MEGA fixed links connecting Danish islands and Denmark with Sweden and Germany. Denmark is a small country surrounded by water and consists of peninsulas and numerous islands. For centuries, there have been visions of connecting the two main islands, Zealand and Funen, but it was not until 1998 that a combined 18 km long bridge and tunnel fixed link was put into place. Two years later, the 18km long fixed link between Zealand and Sweden was opened. The EIA for a third mega connection, another 18km long tunnel between the Danish island of Lolland and the German island of Femern has been presented for approval. DHI played a central role in all three projects.


Environmental optimisation and the ‘zero solution’ The three connections all span the narrow straits that connect the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The brackish water in the Baltic Sea meets saline water from the North Sea in the Danish waters and straits resulting in stratified flow with a brackish surface water outflow and a saline bottom water inflow with periods where the flow is well mixed. However, various sills in the straits restrict the inflow of the bottom water to the Baltic Sea. The sills are critical for the supply of salt and oxygen to the bottom of the Baltic Sea. The inflow of the saline bottom water occurs only in rare cases under extreme westerly storms. This means that meteorological conditions and the presence of the sills dominate the important supply of salt and oxygen to the bottom waters of the Baltic Sea. An overall international requirement for the projects has been that the sensitive environment in the Baltic Sea must not be changed. This led to the development of the ‘zero solution’ concept: exchange of water including salt and oxygen balance must not be changed. This resulted in a hydrographic optimisation process for the fixed link projects where the impacts were neutralised by the minimisation of blocking caused by the structural elements combined with compensation dredging. These optimisations required detailed 3D numerical modelling and this has in fact been one of the driving forces behind today’s MIKE 3 models.

Information system and “feedback monitoring” Large marine infrastructure projects require very reliable data on meteorological and hydrographical conditions in order to make the work during the pre-construction and construction phases cost-effective. For the construction of the Øresund connection and to support the EIA for the Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link, real-time marine water forecasts were in operation 72 hours ahead of time. In both cases, the numerical models were supplemented with online monitoring stations. The measurements were integrated and assimilated into the hydrographic forecast modelling system. DHI developed the feedback monitoring system to accommodate strict requirements to dredging in low turbidity waters with sensitive sea grass beds and water fowl areas in Øresund. The tool consists of a combination of monitoring and forecasting by modelling the impact of the sediment plumes on the seagrass. This makes it possible to manage dredging operations according to their impact on the environment. This optimisation of the major dredging operations contributes to project tasks being completed on time as well as being environment-friendly and cost-effective. Our feedback monitoring system has become the standard for dredging projects in sensitive areas.


Expanding Singapore For the last 20 years, DHI has carried out specialist environmental studies on all of the major marine infrastructure projects in Singapore, and has become a trusted advisor in the sustainable expansion of Singapore with new land reclamations, port developments and related projects As a small state with limited land and resources, Singapore has many challenges; reclamation is seen as a necessary method to accommodate development needs. The total land area of Singapore has increased by 23% since the 1960s. The following section provides an overview of some of our key projects in Singapore.

Challenges in optimisation and EIA Singapore is surrounded by diverse marine habitats and is one of the world’s busiest ports and petrochemical hubs. These important marine habitats and industries are highly sensitive to changes in currents, turbidity or sedimentation. Thus, strict environmental targets are imposed on all new projects. Using DHI’s global experience, we perform detailed environmental baseline, feasibility, optimisation and EIA studies to confirm that environmental targets are met. Climate change adaptation and resilience have also become critical aspects of these studies. Key to these studies is the MIKE Powered by DHI suite of numerical models. Using our models, DHI works closely with the client to optimise the project design and construction methodology, avoiding or minimising impacts, and quantifying any residual impacts in the EIA. DHI also develops compensation measures for impacts that cannot be avoided. This is typically the direct loss of habitat within the project footprint, including major coral translocation projects and large-scale mangrove restoration.


Best practice feedback Environmental Monitoring and Management Programme (EMMP) A quantitative EIA is of no use without a proactive and adaptive EMMP to ensure compliance with strict environmental targets during construction. DHI has pioneered the feedback EMMP approach that has proven effective in mitigating the impacts of a wide range of marine infrastructure projects. The core of our EMMP approach is to monitor the source of the impact such as the dredging or reclamation activity as well as the more traditional receptor monitoring. Using the source monitoring data, our MIKE Powered by DHI models are used to develop spill budgets and to provide accurate assessment of daily suspended sediment and sedimentation loads. Receptor monitoring is used to validate the model predictions and to update spill budgets and tolerance limits as part of a continual feedback loop. This feedback EMMP methodology has been recognised as an international best practice. It is a key feature of the PIANC 108 guideline ‘Dredging and Port Construction around Coral Reefs’ and the PIANC 157 guideline ‘Environmental Aspects of Dredging, Port and Waterway Construction around Coastal Plant Habitats’.

Daily Measurement of Sediment Spill Desktop spill calculation based on dredging information and dredged sediment properties

Daily Spill Monitoring Calculated sediment spill compared to final spill budget for daily compliance check

Sediment Flux Measurement Regular monitoring and validating of realised sediment spill from all dredging works via ADCP sediment flux measurements

Daily Hindcast Modelling Numerical sediment plume hindcast modelling based upon realised production schedules and tidal conditions

TSS Online Monitoring Installed to monitor transient changes in sediment concentration near the sensitive environmental receptors and sediment concentation in the immediate work area vicinity

Quarterly Habitat Monitoring Undertaken to confirm the EQOs are achieved and provide feedback information to update tolerance limit

Production method / rates updated Spill Limits updated Tolerance Limits updated Response Limits updated


Shoreline management and waterfront developments Sustainable shoreline management and well-functioning waterfront development schemes require an in-depth understanding of coastal processes as well as the ability to quantify them. Our more than 50 years of R&D activities and experience from numerous coastal projects worldwide make it possible for our coastal experts to create solutions in harmony with nature. The increasing developmental pressure on all coastal areas and the call for re-development of worn-out industrial coastal and port areas, as well as the need for recreational environments ,has prompted high demands for sustainable schemes.

Our offerings:  Waterfront planning and design based on coastal hydraulics principles  Identification of causes for erosion and coastal degradation  Development of stabilising measures and artificial beaches of high quality  Shoreline evolution studies  Guidelines for best shoreline management and climate adaptation measures


A coastal development hub for Greater Copenhagen Amager Beach Park is a popular recreational attraction with thousands of visitors daily The Park has been a tremendous boost to the area, which 20 years ago was a worn-out industrial suburb of Copenhagen that looked out onto a shallow, muddy coastal area. Using our in-depth coastal engineering expertise, we developed the concept that led to a better beach environment: 

Two sections of equilibrium-quality-beaches were constructed on an artificial island off the original coast where sufficient wave exposure sustains good beach quality  The two beach sections are separated by a pier  Multi-functional terminal structures limit the sandy stretches  Storm drains have been diverted and a recreational lagoon with good flushing and water quality was dredged between the island and the mainland Amager Beach faced many of the same problems that other city beaches around the world are also facing. We succeeded in designing a unique solution that goes hand-in-hand with nature.

Palm Beach, Gold Coast, Australia The beach and the beach front properties are currently at risk of loss and damage due to beach erosion. The need for the implementation of an effective coastal protection strategy is evident The complexity of the nearshore processes resulting from the introduced mitigation options, including an artificial reef, was quantified by detailed wave modelling (MIKE 21 BW) and shoreline evolution modelling (MIKE Shoreline Morphology). The modelling provided the client and its stakeholders, who included the local surf community with an unsurpassed detailed quantification of the integrated shoreline response. This made it possible for them to choose a solution involving 750,000m3 capital nourishment, seawall upgrades and a submerged control structure.

Simulated waves along Palm Beach, with a surf reef in place



Securing a seawall by building a beach Nourriguel Beach in Brittany, France Decades of chronic erosion of the sandy shoreface in front of an approximately 500m long vertical seawall in the coastal city of Larmor-Plage is endangering the structural stability of the 6m high seawall Increasingly frequent wave slamming and overtopping of the seawall during stormy conditions has spurred the municipality to take action to protect its waterfront. Rather than strengthening the old masonry wall, DHI proposed creating an artificial beach in front of it. The nearby availability of coarse white kaolin sand from quarries provided optimal beach fill material, both in terms of wave energy dissipation and in creating a new recreational beach. The concave shape of the waterfront required two plunging groynes as lateral support for the beach fill. Today, the new beautiful white Nourriguel beach is located on the left bank of the access channel to Lorient port.

Tanjung Aru Eco development Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia The new 290ha project is an integrated, mixed-use development that incorporates recreational, touristic, commercial, residential and cultural open space with institutional uses that include a superyacht marina and a fisherman’s wharf In recognition of the socio-cultural identity and heritage value of the Tanjung Aru beachfront to the people of Sabah, the key element of the beach front was preserved, and amenities for the public were created. The present, much smaller beach front suffered from erosion, deteriorating water quality and flood risks. DHI has played a leading role in enhancing the master plan with regard to: 

Beach stability and quality Water quality  Marine operations  Swimmers’ safety Furthermore, DHI has undertaken: 

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Special Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Offshore sand source prospecting survey

DHI has supported the consulting engineers in the detailed design stage with the final optimisations.


Existing coastline and the master plan for the new multi-purpose development based on DHI's coastal engineering expertise

Management Guidelines for Dubai Coast The mega offshore development schemes, the Palms and The World Islands, have dramatically changed the stability of the original coastline of Dubai, United Arab Emirates Following the construction of the well-known mega offshore developments in Dubai, DHI provided the technical input to Dubai Municipality's guidelines for Dubai's future coastal development. The shoreline management guidelines include:   

Coastal classification and vulnerability analysis based on modelling of littoral drift, equilibrium orientations and exposure to waves

DHI's coastal classification system classifies shorelines into five orientation classes and three exposure classes. The classes are illustrated in the diagram which shows the longshore transport capacity versus the orientation of the shoreline relative to the equilibrium and the wave exposure.


Detailed nearshore waves Littoral drift rates and equilibrium orientations Vulnerability and risk classification with respect to:  Coastal erosion  Coastal flooding  Concepts for new developments in harmony with the drastically changed coastal conditions

Climate adaptation and Integrated Coastal Zone Management Climate changes and increasing development pressure in the coastal zone result in great challenges for sustainable development. DHI has developed advanced numerical tools for forecasting storm surges for future climate scenarios, shoreline evolution, flooding processes and design procedures. All these tools, combined with our great experience within integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), make DHI well-equipped to deal with these challenges. The climate is indeed changing. This is resulting in rise in sea level, harsher winds and waves, changes of the dominant wave directions, bleaching and death of coral reefs and changes in nearshore vegetation, to mention but a few. Further, reductions in the supply of sediment to the coastal zone from the hinterland due to urbanisation and regulations and land subsidence in the great deltas add to the changes of the basis for planning in the coastal zone. Integrated, robust and adaptive solutions are needed.

Our offerings:  Mapping of threats to coastal livelihoods and ecosystems  Risk assessment for long term and acute erosion  Flood risk and erosion risk maps  Set-back lines for planning purposes  Suitable solutions involving sediment transport and coastal structures  Investment prioritisation


Climate adaptation in a rapidly changing coastal system, Limfjord, Denmark The 180km long Limfjord system connects the North Sea in the west and Kattegat in the east. The western inlet was formed 150 years ago when the barrier was breached during a storm and has been opened ever since Towns in the Limfjord system are continuously flooded after severe storms partly due to the inflow of water from the North Sea during storms and partly due to the wind set-up in the fjord system. The cross-section of the inlet is constantly increasing due to ongoing morphological evolution. Combined with a rise in sea level and increased storm intensity, duration and strength, it is projected that these flooding problems will intensify in the future. The future extreme storm surge levels are determined by simulating a large number of storm events, taking into account the predicted 50 years of erosion in the inlet. The future 100 year event will be up to 0.6m + Sea Level Rise (SLR) higher than today in the fjord system. The modelling complex is used to quantify the effects of narrowing the entrance. The use of DHI’s advanced modelling system is a prerequisite for obtaining the necessary insight into the complicated hydraulics of the fjord system.

Simulated storm surge in Limfjord, Denmark


Example of present high water protection structure during storm surge (designed by Hasløv & Kjærsgaard)


Sustainable coastal land development in Bangladesh Bangladesh ranks first as the nation most vulnerable to climate changes. The global climate change as well as management of the big rivers flowing through Bangladesh, which are also the source of sediment to the huge delta, have put coastal areas of Bangladesh at risk The government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh runs the Coastal Embankment Improvement Project. Its objective is to design and construct hundreds of kilometres of embankment to protect coastal polders and their inhabitants and their livelihoods from natural disasters and climate change. DHI supports the Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) in Bangladesh in studying the following topics:     

estuarine morphological evolution storm surge inundation extreme waves and water levels during cyclones polder design and polder drainage systems assessments of effects of climate change

DHI has been active in Bangladesh since 1986 when UNDP/WB funded the first Surface Water Simulation Modelling Programme, which led to the formation of the Surface Water Modelling Centre. Today the Centre, IWM, is a self-sustainable institution and is an example of successful knowledge transfer.


Investment prioritisation for climate-resilient livelihoods and ecosystems in the coastal zones of Tanzania Priorities for Tanzania’s coastal zone over the next ten years (2016 – 2025) A rapidly growing population and intensive economic development have placed enormous pressure on the coastal areas of Tanzania and Zanzibar. Environmental degradation and declining biodiversity are evidenced by decreasing yields of fish, deteriorating conditions of coral reefs, and a continuing reduction of mangroves and coastal forests. Climate change is an additional challenge. DHI has assisted government institutions in prioritising actions to promote sustainable coastal livelihoods. Based on a comprehensive and holistic baseline, current threats were identified and their sensitivity to climate change hazards assessed. Measures to mitigate the most significant threats were identified and translated into 93 prioritised actions including: broad, cross-cutting actions such as integrated coastal zone management, shoreline management, spatial planning and improvements in awareness and education, specific actions targeting improvements in fisheries, protecting natural resources, addressing freshwater resources and coastal pollution from sewage and solid waste.


Ports, Terminals and Navigation Adapting to growing demands for transportation through optimal marine design and maritime operations. The combined effect of globalisation, the growing demand for energy and increasing wealth requires the transportation of goods over longer distances. Today, about 90% of the global trade is carried by the sea. To accommodate more and larger vessels, new ports and terminals are being built, and existing facilities and navigation channels are being expanded. Uncertainty about the impacts of climate change and the occurrence of extreme events means that solutions to these issues have to be flexible and adaptable to work in harmony with nature – not against it. This philosophy and proven business acumen have been the backbone of DHI’s solutions since our inauguration and our first port project more than 50 years ago.

Our offerings:  Metocean data and analyses for design, construction and operation (hindcast, nowcast

and forecast)  Port layout and channel capacity planning and vessel berthing optimisation  Hydrographical survey and online monitoring  Environmental and coastal impact and assessment  Environmental Monitoring and Management (EMMP) for greenfield and expanding ports  Dredging requirements and spill management  Conceptual design and optimisation of port infrastructures using in-house model testing facilities


Building a harbour in harmony with nature Hvide Sande is a harbour on the very dynamic North Sea coast of Denmark Every year, 1 million m3 sand pass the entrance to Hvide Sande harbour, transported by the waves and the littoral current. To maintain a navigation depth of 4.5m, a yearly maintenance dredging of 200,000m3 is required. The harbour has now been expanded. The new layout, designed by DHI and tested extensively using our morphological models, ensures a navigation depth of 6m with the same dredging effort as before. The actual dredging during the years after construction has confirmed the predictions.

3D view of the modelled formation of sand bars with the old and new port

Layout of the expanded harbour at Hvide Sande, Denmark



A novel channel optimisation simulation framework Port of Brisbane is one of Australia’s fastest growing container ports and Queensland’s largest general cargo port The Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd (PBPL) is responsible for the maintenance and development of the port facilities and for maintaining navigable access to the port for commercial shipping. A potential optimisation of the main navigation channel of 90km in length to allow access for larger container vessels was investigated. It was identified as one of several proactive planning initiatives that PBPL wishes to pre-empt as an option for accommodating the ever-increasing demands of the commercial shipping industry. The new software package, Non-linear Channel Optimisation Simulator (NCOS), was developed in collaboration between DHI and FORCE Technology. It was used to complete a comprehensive channel capacity optimisation assessment. The study included hundreds of thousands of time-domain simulations of detailed vessel hydrodynamics in response to several years of vessel traffic subject to historical varying tide, wind and wave conditions.

Domain of high-resolution metocean models used to drive the Non-linear Channel Optimisation Simulator, NCOS

Using the novel numerical approach, it was possible to identify key bottlenecks in navigation channels more accurately and to propose a more cost efficient solution, without comprising safety and taking into account future capital dredging costs compared to established and more conventional methods.

Modelling the dynamic impact of a passing vessel on a moored vessel


Being a trusted advisor for one of Europe’s leading container ports For decades, DHI has provided expert solutions, modelling software technologies and operational forecast services that enable Hamburg Port Authority to maintain their status as one of the leading port operators in Europe Examples of present activities are: 

Improvement of water quality, enhancing oxygen content  Sediment management  New method for the design of embankments due to propeller wash impact  Safe mooring of ultra large container vessels  Set-up and maintenance of operational real-time current forecast systems Our services improve ship manoeuvrability, allow the optimisation of port operations, and help to reduce maintenance costs. Due to the wide range of services provided and with assurance of compatibility, these services not only fulfil their individual purposes but they also complement each other. This leads to synergies such as that between current forecasts, ship manoeuvring operations and safe mooring.

Calculation of propeller jet impact on a revetment

Supporting a deep draught, all weather, multi-purpose port The Dhamra Port in Orissa, India, is capable of handling vessels greater than 160,000 DWT The 700m long jetty can berth two Capesize vessels. Located in the Dhamra Estuary, the port is exposed to high sediment loads and tidal currents. Hence, the port is subjected to significant siltation and occasional berthing issues. Dhamra Port Company has engaged DHI to support the port with sustainable solutions. Based on a major field data collection programme and extensive modelling studies, DHI was able firstly to identify the cause of berthing problems as hydrodynamic stand-off forces and to provide suggestions for remedial actions. Secondly, DHI was able to reproduce the observed siltation rates in the berthing area and along the access channel and to propose remedial measures to reduce the high siltation rates.


Power plants, desalination and industrial facilities Since 1970, we have conducted more than 120 studies for cooling water systems. Our field data collection, modelling capabilities and laboratory facilities secure timely and complete services within all water-related fields. Thermal and nuclear power plants must have safe and secure access to water for cooling purposes. The same applies for desalination and industrial facilities. Cooling water systems must be optimised in order to ensure safety, cost-efficiency and mitigation of impacts on the ambient water environment. At DHI, we can help you to achieve a cost-efficient solution aided by our experience, global knowledge and our unique ability to integrate services. We aim to provide valuable engineering solutions with regard to cooling water systems. Based on our global experience, databases and numerical models, we can prepare feasibility studies at tender stages or apply detailed numerical and hydraulic scale models, and participate in the design stage.

Our offerings:  Measurements of oceanographic and biological field data with in-house staff and

equipment  Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal modelling (MIKE 3) to minimise risk of re-circulation and delineate thermal plume  Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and development of measures to reduce or avoid impacts  Assessment of intrusion of sediment, seaweed, fish and debris in intake and proposals for mitigation measures  Establishment of metocean design data statistics based on global meteorological, wave and ocean data bases  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or hydraulic laboratory-based detailed descriptions of flow velocity, pressure fields and loads, diffuser analysis and transient flow calculations


Ras Djinet Power Plant, Algeria The Ras Djinet Power Plant (RDPP), with a planned capacity of 1200 MW, is located at the premises of the existing power plant at Ras Djinet, around 50km east of Algier DAEWOO E&C (DEC), South Korea, was commissioned to construct RDPP for CEEG (Sonelgas Group) in Algeria. DEC appointed DHI to conduct all studies for the intakeoutfall system. The scope of work covered: 

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Oceanographic field survey (in collaboration with Laboratoire d’Etudes Maritimes, Algiers) Thermal impact and recirculation study Establishment of design waves, coastal impact assessment and sediment intrusion Review of hydraulic design of intake and outfall systems Physical scale model of seawater intake of discharge system CFD model of intake structure

The CFD model was applied to the intake structure and pump station to ascertain optimal flow conditions. The advanced three-dimensional CFD model covered part of the intake pipes, screening areas, forebay and pump chamber entrances. The analysis of the flow dynamics was based on both contour and streamline plots extracted from the model runs.

A heat capacity plan enabling sustainable development along the River Elbe, Germany Just downstream of the city of Hamburg, the part of the River Elbe influenced by tide has witnessed low oxygen conditions with negative impacts on the fragile ecosystem With new power plants planned along the river, several concerns were raised in relation to the cooling water discharge from the power plants into the river and the consequent impact on the aquatic environment. To address these concerns, the adjacent federal states decided to develop a heat capacity plan. To help with this, we developed a hydraulic ecological response model using our MIKE Powered by DHI software, which served as a potent instrument supporting authorities during the licensing procedures. With our modelling studies, it was possible for authorities and operators of power plants to outline optimal dimensions for the usage of cooling water from the River Elbe with respect to ecological resilience. This in turn helped them to sustainably plan new power plants and other developments along the River Elbe, without causing further negative impact to the aquatic environment.


Marine oil and gas Achieving safe, sustainable and cost-effective operations in harsh marine water environments Although the world is transitioning from the use of fossil fuels to sustainable renewable energy sources, it is still foreseen that oil and gas will maintain their dominant role in the world’s energy mix for decades to come. Driven by the demands of the market, new offshore explorations and production will likely take place in harsher and environmentally fragile marine environments than we have seen in the past decades. This calls for a recognised expert in water environments to develop future innovative and sustainable solutions. Built on our vast independent expert knowledge, modelling technologies and our commitment to develop effective solutions to tough challenges, DHI has successfully supported marine oil and gas development projects in nearly all the world’s seas since our establishment more than 50 years ago.

Our offerings:  Highly accurate and reliable metocean data and analyses (hindcast, nowcast and forecast)  Hydrographical survey and on-line monitoring  Environmental Monitoring and Management (EMMP) for greenfield and decommissioning

projects  Environmental impact and risk assessment with particular focus on wildlife and marine

mammals  Ecotoxicological testing of produced water  Spill modelling and mitigation strategies  Hydrodynamic loads and response analyses on structures (fixed or floating) in harsh water

environments  Conceptual design of cost-efficient scour projection systems for foundations, pipelines and cables


Supporting the construction of Wheatstone LNG The Wheatstone LNG Project, led by Chevron, is located in Western Australia’s Pilbara region, one of Australia’s largest resource projects The project required the dredging of about 40 million m3 for navigation access and pipeline installation. We provided extensive advice and modelling support to the environmental team throughout the project. This started at the EIA stage continued during contractor selection and finally at the implementation and environmental auditing stages. As part of the project, Chevron needed to transport their prefabricated 36,000 tonnes steel gravity structure (SGS) from South Korea to Australia using a heavy lift vessel. To confirm the integrity of the chosen transport method, sea-keeping characteristics were determined by physical modelling tests in DHI’s ocean basin. The tests ensured a satisfactory margin of safety against SGS overturning, wave slam, and loads experienced by the SGS and the vessel during their long journey through the Pacific Ocean.

Artist’s impression of the Wheatstone Project at Ashburton North — © Chevron Australia Pty Ltd

©Chevron Australia Pty Ltd and ©DHI



Lifetime extension of aging offshore platforms A rapidly increasing number of facilities and part of the infrastructure of offshore oil and gas fields worldwide are approaching or have exceeded their original design life Many platforms are still producing substantial amounts of hydrocarbons at a profitable level beyond their originally planned design life. However, focusing on safety issues, the facilities may not be acceptable for extended operations without ensuring their technical and operational integrity. Many facilities were built in the 1970s, and many of these are at present undergoing extensive structural reliability checks using the latest technology, newest knowledge and decades of experience. DHI has played a very active part in this effort for a number of operators.

New dynamic risk assessment model applied in Chukchi Sea We help oil and gas developers ensure that noise from their construction work does not harm marine mammals Current noise risk assessment models assume that marine mammals are stationary. However, marine mammals move around in their environment. Together with Statoil ASA, we have developed new models, which account for the movements of whales and seals before, during and after underwater noise exposure. The generic development has been applied in the Chukchi Sea, located between Alaska and Russia. The results increased the information level for exploration campaign planning and decision-making. It also enabled Statoil ASA to convey environmental awareness to the local communities in the area. Our new tool can be used for large-scale risk assessments anywhere in the world and provides a variety of scenarios using a number of sound sources. Disturbances can be modelled to identify risky periods in particular and/or areas where impacts may be high. Our dynamic risk assessment tool shows how marine mammals respond to underwater noise


Modelling of oil spill and oil spill clean-up operations Oil spills pose serious threats to the marine environment and place great demands on operators and authorities responsible for the response and clean-up operations DHI has participated in multiple oil spill and clean-up studies worldwide. Our modelling capabilities cover both oil spills on the sea surface as well as blowouts in deep water. The models are used extensively for contingency planning, risk assessments and modelling of actual spills. The oil spill models can be combined with simulations of the potential effects on habitats, wildlife and the pelagic environment. At present, we are further expanding our recognised modelling services to assess the effectiveness of oil recovery equipment, the ecotoxicity of dissolved oil components and the impact of spills directly on migrating mammals and birds. The latter combines spill drift modelling with habitat modelling and innovative agent-based modelling (ABM) techniques.

Modelling of blow out (MIKE 3)


Offshore renewables The success of sustainable, risk-reduced and cost-effective offshore renewable power generation depends on an accurate knowledge of water environments Offshore renewable energy such as tidal, wind and wave power, has attracted an increased interest from industry and governments as a way to cope with climate change. The primary challenge for this type of renewable energy is to reduce the cost of energy in a sustainable way. Here, the offshore wind industry has progressed faster than wave and tidal energy exploration business. DHI continuously strives to lead, innovate and support the industry to be cost-efficient through our provision of integrated specialist services and extensive R&D.

Our offerings:  Highly accurate and reliable metocean data and analyses (hindcast, nowcast and forecast)  Hydrographical survey and on-line monitoring  Environmental impact assessment with particular focus on wildlife, marine mammals and

sea birds  Hydrodynamic loads and response analyses on structures in harsh water environments  Conceptual design of cost-efficient scour projection systems for foundations and cables


DHI is the pioneer in offshore wind technology DHI has been the pioneer in offshore wind technology since 1991 when the world’s first offshore wind farm was constructed in Denmark Since then, DHI has been involved in hundreds of developments worldwide. More than 85% of the commissioned European offshore wind farms have had DHI input. The innovative and efficient methodologies and tools we use to support the offshore renewable industry are at the forefront of our field. Our specialised scientists will continue to assist our customers in finding and developing fast, safe, robust and costefficient solutions.

Sites in Europe where DHI has supported developers of offshore renewables

Offshore wind farms at Horns Rev, Denmark The windy and shallow water area Horns Rev (also known as Horns Reef) has been an important large-scale development site for almost two decades When the new 400 MW Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm becomes operational in 2020, a total capacity of 770 MW of the relatively shallow (10-20m depth) and close to land (20km) Horns Rev area in the North Sea, will supply more than ½ million houses with renewable power. DHI has been heavily engaged in all three wind farms—HR1, HR2 and HR3—during the past couple of decades and provided developers, consultants, contractors and regulators with all our key offerings. In addition, the Horns Rev location has served as an ideal test-site for a number of R&D activities.

Tune to the tides The emerging tidal energy sector is moving ahead and the vision of commercial farms with multiple tidal stream generators is getting closer to reality The success of sustainable, financially risk-reduced and cost-effective tidal power generation depends on an accurate knowledge of the tidal energy flow at specific sites. DHI has empowered one of the world’s leading developers, Atlantis Resources Corporations, with that information globally. One of the outcomes is the construction of the world’s first multi-turbine tidal stream project in the Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth, UK, which is being developed by MeyGen Ltd. This is one of the most energetic sites in Europe with tidal currents of up to 12 knots. DHI has provided MeyGen with metocean design criteria for extreme and fatigue loads as well as operational conditions.


Aquaculture Fish farming can contribute to the global blue growth adventure by taking aquatic production to the next level, but it is necessary to respect people, nature and the carrying capacity of the environment. DHI can assist you with innovative and sustainable aquaculture solutions, based on our expertise and experience. Our approach ensures cost-effective aquaculture production that meets the requirements from national and international standards and ensures environmental compliance and smooth project approval.

Our offerings:  Farming strategy and decision support systems (DSS)  Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for environmental clearance and licensing  Forecasting – current, wave conditions and water quality  Carrying capacity models, farm design optimisation and recirculation  Worldwide disease prevention and disease control


Monitoring and Environmental Impact Assessment, Malaysia Increased aquaculture production in Malaysia has been identified as a crucial growth activity to ensure food security and export earnings DHI was engaged to ensure a sustainable production of 18,000 tonnes of lobsters per year. DHI has delivered a Special Environmental Impact Assessment to Sabah Environmental Protection Department. DHI undertook an assessment of Environmental Risks to farm production for the client, and drafted a Spatial Area Management Plan for the Department of Fisheries. To achieve a commercially viable but socially acceptable and environmentally benign development, intensive field measurements of physical, biological and geochemical processes were undertaken, and extensive consultations with stakeholders were carried out. Our models predicted nutrient and suspended sediments distributions from cages to ensure compliance with farm productivity and environmental impacts.

Carrying capacity in Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania, Australia The expansion of aquaculture in Macquarie Harbour is set to meet the growing regional and global demand for marine salmon and trout production DHI was called in by a major aquaculture operator to conduct a due diligence study for expanding production and to lead discussions with the involved stakeholders — the three fish farms currently situated in the harbour as well as the local authorities. Our thorough study — using a combination of hydrodynamic, depository and ecological models — enabled us to identify a scenario that met both the needs for increased fish production and environmental preservation. It has resulted in the approval of a 64% increase in leasable water space expansion. This is expected to lead to a local production growth from 6,000 tonnes up to 30,000 tonnes, which is equivalent to AUD$ 379 million yearly farm gate value. Our modelling approach can help identify scenarios that meet the needs for both increased production and a sustainable environment

Sustainable growth of European aquaculture The Danish marine aquaculture sector is expected to more than double its production of rainbow trout within the coming years In order to meet the goals set by the government, DHI was called in to conduct a full EIA for the establishment of four new fish farms in the inner Danish waters and to lead the dialogue with national authorities and stakeholders. Based on a thorough analysis of monitoring data combined with DHI’s hydrodynamic, depository and ecological models, DHI has documented and secured compliance with the European Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directives. This makes it feasible to increase fish production without putting environmental preservation at risk. Approval of the four projects alone represents a production growth from 13,000 tonnes to 22,000 tonnes in the Danish waters.


Marine information, planning and operation systems Mapping of parameters, on-line data, numerical modelling and analysis tools are key elements in today’s decision-making process in connection with operations or projects in the marine environment. These disciplines have all been refined over the past 50 years of DHI activities. Today, we meet our client’s individual needs by combining these elements into tailor-made systems. Examples of marine information, planning and operational systems are databases of survey data needed for design or as a baseline for the Environmental Impact Assessments. A combination of on-line turbidity and current measurements, information on dredging operations and modelling provide feedback to the management of critical dredging operations. Warning systems for coastal flooding or for poor bathing water quality, oil spill modelling for planning or for detection are other examples of operational systems.

Our offerings:  Operational regional and local metocean and ecology modelling  Operational remote sensing products  Online monitoring systems  Quality control and post-processing  User-friendly interfaces (web, mobile, APPs)


Bjørnafjord, Norway - Hydrographic measurements at 600m water depth Accurate knowledge of metocean conditions is essential for large-scale infrastructure projects On behalf of the Norwegian Road Directorate (Stavanger), DHI has been measuring currents, waves and other metocean parameters at five locations across the 600m deep Bjørnafjorden for more than two years. A special mooring system has been developed limiting horizontal movements to less than 10% of the water depth. Data is sent in real time to DHI for control and then presented to the client on the web. The data is used to select the optimal design for the crossing of the Fjord.

A marine forecast service for the Port of Gothenburg , Sweden In order for ships to safely enter the Port of Gothenburg, ship captains and pilots need to know about the currents in the harbour To sustain safe navigation, DHI has developed the Gothenburg Marine Forecast Service for the Port Authority. The service delivers forecasts of the currents in and around the fairways leading into the port. These include forecasts of water densities, which are important as fresh water from a large river runs on top of the salt water from the sea for some distance before the two water bodies mix. Information on currents and winds is provided for the ship traffic, which includes the Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) class. Applying a geographic information system (GIS), web interface ensures easy access to data on the Port of Gothenburg’s website. Now, pilots, ship’s officers and others can safely navigate between the open sea and the harbour.

An on-line web portal provides forecasts of the 3D hydrodynamic conditions



Early warning of bathing water quality The ability to forecast the quality of recreational waters is important for the tourism industry and for citizens In order to safeguard the users of recreational waters, DHI runs an operational early warning information system that predicts the hygienic water quality as well as the weather and water conditions such as temperature, rain and current. Predictions are made four days ahead for a large number of Danish marine beaches. The subscribers are municipalities and water treatment plants. Driving the information system are computer simulations, which take bacterial degradation due to sun light, currents, water mixing and weather conditions into consideration. The results are disseminated via public websites and smartphone apps.

Decision support system for Lake Mälaren, Sweden Lake Mälaren provides drinking water for around 2 million people in Sweden To ensure safe drinking water quality, it is of vital importance for water utilities to know the potential threats and risks to the raw water intakes such as oil spill, viruses, pathogens, etc. Therefore, DHI was commissioned to develop a user-friendly decision support system enabling testing and evaluating the risks of different spills (e.g. oil and faecal bacteria). The decision support system is used for emergency situations as well as for contingency planning purposes, training and assessments of risks and vulnerability. The system consists of a coupled hydrodynamic, oil spill and advection-dispersion model.


Fast, reliable and accurate metocean data information DONG Energy is today the global leader in offshore wind development. DHI supports DONG Energy in reaching its 2020 goals to achieve 6.5GW of offshore wind capacity and to reduce the cost of energy to less than 100euros/MWh In order to reduce costs, increase competiveness and execute excellence, one of DONG Energy’s targets is to have a certified metocean design basis ready in less than four months. To reach this goal, DHI has developed a comprehensive information system using modern MIKE Powered by DHI configurable components and database technology. The database, which has more than 10 TB of data, includes meteorological, oceanographic and wave data for a 35-year period with hourly values supplemented with on-demand tools and pre-calculated statistics relevant for planning, design and operation. Similar information systems have been provided to many other developers working in marine environments.

DHI is continuously developing up-to-date metocean databases for different seas worldwide A recent database that DHI has embarked on covers the entire Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean Sea is characterised by large variability and complexity of wind and wave conditions at relatively small temporal and spatial scales requiring in-depth knowledge of local physical phenomena. DHI, together with HyMOLab (University of Trieste, Italy), has developed a comprehensive database of wind and wave conditions at a very high temporal and spatial resolution (about 0.03°). The data set covers more than 35 years of data and has been validated extensively against observations and satellite data. In addition to the historical hindcast database, high-resolution forecast services are also available.

The coverage of DHI's new high-resolution Mediterranean Sea metocean database


Mapping the coastal and marine environments from Space Using satellite images and advanced image analysis techniques, it is possible to derive up-to-date and dynamic information about the coastal zone At DHI, we use satellite images to assess shallow water depths, quantify water quality parameters, document historical coastal dynamics and map the health status of marine habitats.

Our offerings:  Cost-efficient coverage of large areas  Worldwide coverage  Access to historical global archives back to the 1960s  Operational delivery within near-real-time  Data provided in ready-to-use formats


Monitoring of suspended sediment Management of sediment spill in the aquatic environment due to dredging and handling of materials The sediment released during excavation, dredging, and transport or disposal of sediment is visible as plumes or clouds of sediment in the water column. The use of satellites allows for an assessment of both the spatial extent and the sources of suspended matter. Baseline conditions can be assessed 15 years back in time and are compared to daily up-to-date images.

Example of a large sediment plume originating from a river due to heavy rainfall the day before. Satellite images are also used for model calibration and validation

Health status of marine habitat Knowledge of marine habitats along the world's coastlines is often very limited, but satellite images can be used to generate habitat maps The use of satellites can supplement traditional diver and boat-based observations by covering large areas quickly and cost-efficiently, with no health, safety or environmental risk involved. As an additional layer of information, bathymetry can be derived from the satellite imagery used for habitat mapping. We have effectively used satellite imagery in combination with diver observations to map and identify the health conditions of coral reefs and mangroves in tropical waters. We have also used the technique to map benthic habitats in Northern Europe and sea grass in the Middle East. Coastal habitats can be mapped using satellite images

Historical coastal dynamics The use of satellite images is a vital tool for tracking the long-term developments of coastlines With extensive archives of satellite images, it is possible to follow the changes of the coastline position from the 1960s. In addition to archived data, the satellites can be programmed to collect new images covering specific areas of interest.

Global archives of satellite images can be sourced to map the coastline position back to the 1960s


Selected guidelines and publications


The third edition of DHI’s Shoreline Management Guidelines (coming soon) The Shoreline Management Guidelines is a basic handbook on coastal processes and shoreline management providing basic understanding for shoreline management issues. Key words:      

Shoreline management Coastal morphology Coast protection Shore protection Sea defence Climate adaptation

Download the 2012 edition here: https://goo.gl/QhzFA0

DHI’s Marine Climate Change Guidelines This document will guide you through some of the very different climate change issues ranging from life‐time analyses, design parameters, climate scenario and/or climate models. Download the guideline here: http://goo.gl/y1TwzM

PIANC - The World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure - guidelines with a DHI footprint      

Anti-sedimentation systems for Marinas and Yacht Harbours (2015) Countries in Transition: Coastal Erosion Mitigation Guidelines (2014) Criteria for the (Un)loading of Container Vessels (2012) Dredging and Port Construction around Coral Reefs (2010) Minimising Harbour Siltation (2008) Guidelines for Managing Wake Wash from High-Speed Vessels (2003)

Other guidelines 

Users Guide to Physical Modelling and Experimentation: Experience of the HYDRALAB Network. IAHR Design Manuel, 2011, CRC Press, ISBM 9781439870518


Selected scientific publications, past 3 years  Feola, A., Lisi, I., Salmeri, A., Venti, F., Pedroncini, A., Gabelini, M., Romano, E.

2016. Platform of integrated tools to support environmental studies and management of dredging activities. Journal of Environmental Management 2016:166:357-373. Kristensen, S.E., Drønen, N., Deigaard, R., Fredsoe, J. 2016. Impact of groyne fields on the littoral drift: A hybrid morphological modelling study. Coastal Engineering 2016:111:13-22. Browne, N.K., Tay, J.K.L., Low, J., Larsen, O., Todd, P.A. 2015. Fluctuations in coral health of four common inshore reef corals in response to seasonal and anthropogenic changes in water quality. Marine Environment Research 2015:105:39-52. Browne, N.K., Tay, J., Todd, P.A. 2015. Recreating pulsed turbidity events to determine coral-sediment thresholds for active management. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2015:466:98-109. Dabbi, E.P., Haigh, I.D., Lambkin, D., Hernon, J., Williams, J.J., Nicholls, R.J. 2015. Beyond significant wave height: A new approach for validating spectral wave models. Coastal Engineering 2015:100:11-25. Hansen, F.T., Potthoff, M., Uhrenholdt, T., Vo, H.D., Linden, O., Andersen, J.H. 2015. Development of a prototype tool for a ballast water risk management using a combination of hydrodynamic models and agent-based modeling. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 2015:14:219-245. Jensen, J.H., Saremi, S., Jimenez, C., Hadjioannou, L. 2015. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2015:101:6168. Marinho; G.S., Holdt, S.L., Birkeland, M.J., Angelidaki, I. 2015. Commercial cultivation and bioremediation potential of sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima, in Danish waters. Journal of Applied Phycology 2015: 27:1963-1973. Nielsen, A.W., Probst, T., Petersen, T.U., Sumer, B.M. 2015. Sinking of armour layer around a vertical cylinder exposed to waves and current. Coastal Engineering 2015:100:58-66. Pan, Z., Liu, H. 2015. Numerical study of typhoon-induced storm surge in the Yangtze Estuary of China using a coupled 3D model. Procedia Engineering 2015:116:849-854. Petersen, T.U., Sumer, B.M., Bøgelund, J., Yazici, A., Fredsøe, J., Meyer, K.E. 2015. Flow and Edge Scour in Current Adjacent to Stone Covers. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 2015:141(4). Petersen, T.U., Sumer, B.M., Fredsøe, J., Raaijmakers, T.C., Schouten, J.-J. 2015. Edge scour at scour protections around piles in the marine environment – Laboratory and field investigation. Coastal Engineering 2015:106:42-72. Socolofsky, S.A., Adams, E.E., Boufadel, M.C., Aman, Z.M., Johansen, Ø., Konkel, W.J., Lindo, D., Madsen, M.N., North, W.W., Paris, C.B., Rasmussen , D., Reed, M., Rønningen, P., Sim, L.H., Uhrenholdt, T., Anderson, K.G., Cooper, C., Nedwed, T.J. 2015. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2015:96(1-2):110-126. Wisz, M.S., Broennimann, O., Grønkjær, P., Møller, P.R., Olsen, S.M., Swingedouw, D., Hedeholm, R.B., Nielsen, E.E., Guisan, A., Pellissier, L. 2015. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange. Nature Climate Change 2015:5:261-265. Wisz, M.S., Broennimann, O., Grønkjær, P., Møller, P.R., Olsen, S.M., Swingedouw, D., Hedeholm, R.B., Nielsen, E.E., Guisan, A., Pellissier, L. 2015. Reply to ‘Sources of uncertainties in cod distribution models’. Nature Climate Change 2015:5:790-791. Bhautoo, P., Mortensen, S.B., Hibberd, W., Harkin, A., Kirkegaard, J., Morley, B. 2015. Moored vessel interaction induced by passing ships at the Port of Brisbane. Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, 15-18 September 2015. Droenen, N., Kaergaard, K., Saremi, S., Deigaard, R. 2015. Wave-phase Resolving Sediment Transport due to Wave Groups and Irregular Waves: Comparison of Full and Integrated Approaches. Coastal Sediments ‘15, San Diego, USA, 11-15 May 2015. Golestani, M., Jensen, P.M., Kofoed-Hansen, H. 2015. On the influence of atmospheric stability on the wave climate in a warm and saline water body. Proceedings of the ASME 2015 34th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE 2015: 41766, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, 31 May – 5 June 2015. Jensen, B., Hansen, H.F., Kirkegaard, J. 2015. Estimating quadratic transfer functions for floating structures using model test data from irregular sea

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states. Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference ISOPE 2015. Kona, Hawaii, USA, 21-26 June 2015. Kaergaard, K., Droenen, N. 2015. A hybrid Shoreline Model for the Sand Engine: Comparison with Observations and Long Term Predictions. Coastal Sediments ‘15, San Diego, USA, 11-15 May 2015. Mortensen, S.B., Hibberd, W.J., Kaergaard, K., Kristensen, S.E., Deigaard, E., Hunt, S. 2015. Concept Design of a Multipurpose Submerged Control Structure for Palm Beach, Gold Coast, Australia. Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, 15-18 September 2015. Schlütter, F. Petersen, O.S., Nyborg, L. 2015. Resource Mapping of Wave Energy Production in Europe. Proceedings of EWTEC the 11th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, Nantes, France, 6-11 September 2015. Zyserman, J.A., Saleh, R. 2015. Multi-purpose redesign of Alameda Creek. Coastal Sediments'15 Conference, San Diego, USA, 11-15 May 2015. Alomar, M., Sánchez-Arcilla, A., Bolaños, R., Sairouni, A. 2014. Wave growth and forecasting in variable, semi-enclosed domains. Continental Shelf Research 2014:87:28-40. Bedri, Z., Corkery, A., O’Sullivan, J., Alvarez, M.X., Erichsen, A.C. et al. 2014. An integrated catchment-coastal modelling system for real-time water quality forecasts. Environmental Modelling & Software 2014:61:458-476 Bolaños, R., Brown, J.M., Souza, A.J. 2014. Wave-current interactions in a tide dominated estuary. Continental Shelf Research 2014:87:109-123. Bolaños, R., Sørensen, J.V.T., Benetazzo, A., Carniel, S., Sclava, M. 2014. Modelling ocean currents in the northern Adriatic Sea. Continental Shelf Research 2014:87:54-72. Casella, E., Rovere, A., Pedroncini, A., Mucerino, L., Casella, M., Cusati, L.A., Vacchi, M., Ferrari, M., Firpo, M. 2014. Study of wave runup using numerical models and low-altitude aerial photogrammetry: A tool for coastal management. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2014:149:160-167. Drillet, G., Chan, N., Drillet, Z., Foulsham, A.J., Ducheyne, A., Eikaas, H.S., Schmoker, C., Winding Hansen, B., Lybæk, R. 2014. Opinions on the Sustainable Development of Aquaculture. Journal of Fisheries & Livestock Production 2014:2(2):118. Drillet, G., Dutz, J. 2014. Dealing with the presence of the ciliate Euplotes sp. in cultures of the copepod Acartua tonsa. Aquaculture International 2014:22: 391-398. Drillet, G., Hay, S., Hansen, B.W., O’Neill, F.G. 2014. Effects of Demersal Otter Trawls on the Re-suspension of Copepod Resting Eggs and its Potential Effects on Recruitment. Journal of Fisheries & Livestock production 2014:2(1): DX.DOI.ORG/10.4172/2332-2608.1000114. Drillet, G., Maguet, R., Mahjoub, M.-S., Roullier, F., Fielding, M.J. 2014. Egg cannibalism in Acartia tonsa: effects of stocking density, algal concentration, and egg variability. Aquaculture International 2014:22(4):1295-1306 . Hammrich, A., Schuster, D. 2014. Fundamentals on Ecological Modelling in Coastal Waters Including an Example from the River Elbe. Die Küste 2014:81:107-118. Leschka, S., Oumeraci, H., Larsen, O. 2014. Hydrodynamic forces on a group of three emerged cylinders by solitary waves and bores: effect of cylinder arrangements and distances. Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami 2014:8 (3):1440005. Lewison, R.L., Crowder, L.B., Wallace, B.P., Moore, J.E., Cox, T., Zydelis, R. et al. 2014. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots.. PNAS 2014:111 (14):5271.5276. Rengstorf, A.M., Mohn, C., Brown, C., Wisz, M.S., Grehan, A.J. 2014. Predicting the distribution of deep-sea vulnerable marine ecosystems using highresolution data: Considerations and novel approaches. Deep-Sea Research I 2014:93:72-82. Schlüter, L., Møhlenberg, F., Kaas, H. 2014. Temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton monitored by a combination of monitoring buoys, pigment analysis and fast screening microscopy in the Fehmarn Belt Estuary. Environmental Monitoring Assessment 2014:186(8):5167-84. Schmoker, C., Mahjoub, M.-S., Calbet, A., Hsiao, S.-H., Russo, F., Larsen, O., Trottet, A., Drillet, G. 2014. A review of the zooplankton in Singapore waters. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2014:62:726-749. Tarnowiski, T., Svitak, Z., Engels, R. 2014. Online Model for Hydraulic and Water Quality Analysis in ”Hangzone Sonnenberg”, Zurich. Procedia Engineering 2014:89:126-134.


 Thomsen, F. 2014. Sound effects: the impact of marine renewables. International 

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