AIR. DYLAN MORGAN 587256 STUDIO JOURNAL 2014
/ / INDEX PART A 3
PART B 15
A.1 Past Projects Piezo-scape
B.1 Research Fields B.2 Case Study 1.0- Voltadom
A.1 Design Technologies Kinetic Energy
B.3 Case Study 2.0- Airspace
B.4 Technique: Development
A.2 Design Computation Museo Soumaya
B.5 Technique: Prototypes
B.6 Technique: Proposal
A.3 Composition / Generation Seoul â€œSpaceship
B.7 Learning Outcomes
3 Electree 4
5 Hydroelectric energy 6 7 SOFTlab: (n)arcissus 8 9
Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre 10
A.4 Conclusion 11 A.5 Learning Outcomes
PART C 41 C.1 Design Concept C.2 Tectonic Elements
C.3 Final Model
C.4 LAGI Requirements
C.5 Learning Outcomes
/ / PART A CONCEPTUALISATION
/ / A.1 PAST PROJECT Piezo-scape
Like the Virtual Tapestry proposel, the Piezoscape proposal relates strongly to the engagement of itâ€™s visitors. Most significantly though, this engagement is central to the energy output of the proposal, and not secondary. Specifically the proposal creates energy using piezoelectricy, which is the conversion of mechanical movement into electricity. Energy from wind, sound vibration, and human movement can collectively be harvested form the same generating source of naturally-occuring, renewable or recycled piezoelectric materials.
Surfaces are deformed by foot traffic for example, creating mechanical movement, thereby generating energy. The proposal calls for the site to be used for large scale events, with a sound stage and many other features. This large scale interraction occuring concurrently with energy production results in an effective outcome. As opposed to lining a running track with solar panels for example, here the various structures allow for energy production, and fascilitate that production through their function
/ / A.1 PAST PROJECT Elec-tree
The ‘Human Electree Park’ uses two forms of energy generation, using both human involvement and solar energy. The Human aspect is through piezoelectricity in the ‘Energy Promenade’. This involves tiles that harness the kinetic energy produced through foot traffic, via compression and vibration (as is the case with the ‘Piezo-scape’). Energy produced through this method is then transferred via cables through the structure of the trees. Notably, all energy flowing from the ‘energy promenade’ is used to illuminate the trees. Critically speaking this is unsuccessful. The resultant energy production is void, and offers only a superficial outcome.
The other form of energy production is solar energy. This is harnessed through photovoltaic cells wrapping the exterior. Similarly, the energy created by this technology is transferred to underground batteries, where it stays until it is needed to power any onsite fascilities, include lights and a kiosk. When comparing this to the Piezoscape, I contend that the Electree project is unsuccessful in it’s primary endeavour. Where the Piezoscape offers a reason for large scale human involvement as it can house events, festivals etc, producing large quantities of electricity, whereas Electree similarly sites human involvement as a key objective, yet offers no outlet for this.
“Conceived as a System where Energy is generated by the people; the more visitors, more energy generates, thus, it will be reflected with increased intensity in its elements” This combined with energy production that superficially negates itself, leads me to appretiate only it’s technology, not it’s application.
/ / A.1 DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES Kinetic Energy
There are many different ways that kinetic energy (natural or man-made) can be harvested and converted to electrical energy. A piezoelectric generator converts mechanical strain into electrical energy. They are commonly used in wristwatches that do not require batteries or winding. And they can be inserted into shoes or in walkways to harvest the energy of walking or jumping. Ambient radiation from radio transmitters could potentially be collected and converted into useable electricity. The pyroelectric effect converts temperature change into electric current. Thermoelectrics was discussed in the Solar section as it referred to the use of the
device to harness heat energy that is generated by the sun. But other applications of the technology could be used to harvest heat energy from human activities that is otherwise lost (effectively increasing efficiencies of systems). Electrostatic devices can harvest vibration energy and convert it into electricity. One example is the regenerative shock absorber that is planned for use in electric vehicles. Microharvesting: there are various technologies that are in use that harvest energy from blood sugar and tree sugars for conversion into electricity to power very small biological devices and monitoring equipment. Other advanced technologies include electroactive polymers, nanogenerators, and noise harvesting devices
/ / WINDSTALK CONCEPT This utilizes a series of 1203 kinetic energy-generating â€œstalksâ€? to harness power. Designed for Abu Dhabiâ€™s Masdar city, the project takes its inspiration from the way wheat fields blow in the wind. LED lights on the tips of the stalks glow at various levels depending on the presense of wind / movement
/ / A.1 DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES Hydroelectric Energy
Generating approximately 20% of the world’s electrical energy, hydroelectricity is by far the most established form of renewable energy. It accounts for more than 80% of all renewable energy installed capacity. Conventional hydroelectricity uses dam structures to limit the flow of existing rivers. By selectively releasing water through turbines in the dam, the tremendous pressure of the water is converted to electrical energy. There are many ecological side effects of interrupting the flow of existing rivers which has led to the deconstruction of many hydroelectric dams and has resulted in a decrease in construction of new hydroelectric facilities. The damming of a river causes the upstream side to flood large areas of land, disrupts fish spawning activities, and changes the characteristics (temperature, oxygen content, and silt content) of the downstream water. Dams also come with the risk of structural failure and the resulting severe downstream flooding.
/ / OCEAN, TIDAL, DYNAMIC TIDAL POWER (DTP) A more relevant application of hydroelectric technology would be through tidal variations, as the more conventional forms of hydro require large damns or waves (neither of these are present on the proposed site). Using the tide is an untested technology that could theoretically produce large amounts of power in the range of 10,000MW capacity by creating extremely large artificial jetties into the ocean that would be shaped like a “T” as viewed from the sky. The top of the “T” would serve to separate tidal action on either side of the long leg that connects to the land. Computer simulation models have shown that the length of the system would have to be in the area of 30km to be viable, which would require an extremely large capital expense. There may be negative impacts to marine habitat by building such a extensive structure out into the ocean.
/ / SMALLER SCALE- MICRO AND PICO On a smaller scale than harnessing ocean tides we could look to Micro and Pico Hydroelectricity. Classified as hydroelectric installations of less than 100KW capacity for Micro and less than 5KW capacity for Pico, these are installations in smaller rivers and streams. These can be either Dammed Reservoir type or Run of the River type but are usually the latter, especially for Pico installations. These types of installations are an excellent method of providing energy to small communities in developing countries that do not have access to grid source power. Because the required output is small, the elevation drop of the water can be small, in some cases as little as one meter.
/ / A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION Museo Soumaya
â€œThe Museo Soumaya was conceived as an iconic structure with two missions: to host one of the largest private art collections in the world, and to reshape an old industrial area of Mexico City. A structure of this complexity had never been attempted in Mexico, which presented various risks for the client, design and construction teams. One of the challenges was how to realise this ambitious project without precedent or local expertise. The management and coordination of the various teams was critical to its success, as were the new techniques that were developed using laser scanning, parametric modelling and other algorithmic techniques to design and model the project in three dimensions.â€?
/ / A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION SOFTlab: (n)arcissus
Computation has had a direct and significant role in the evolution design processes. This has occured seemingly through increased possibilities for material manipulation, but more significantly through a shift in the fundamental approach to a design. In other words, the capacity for bottomup design, rather then the traditional top-down approach. “(N)arcissus” is a site-specific spatial intervention in the stairwell of the Frankfurter Kunstverein, an artificial skin that drops down through the vertical space using gravity as a principle. By designing the form as a parametric model SOFTlab are able to manipulate the formal qualities of the final output while simultaneously optimizing it for physical construction. Their script breaks the surface down into individual surfaces for laser cutting, producing the unique modules needed to produce the larger structure. Using this as precedent, we can look at how computing affects the design process. In this case, the form narcissus takes is not dictated by one specific desired final outcome. In this way, computation allows for a more elastic approach to the process, which is more responsive to change.
Computation impacts on the range of conceivable and achievable geometries. This is significant in the evolution of design processes as it leads to increases possibilities, allowing for further evolution of form and design. This installation is, to an extent, a performance-orientated design. This is a result of it’s capacity to be altered depending on a specific function it must serve. In this case, function refers to form, as that is it’s primary purpose. Computation presents unique opportunities and innovations. Specifically, narcissus provides precedence for an evolving form, which can be manipulated and altered to suit a particular site or area. In relation to preceding architectural history this differs in both process and outcome. Previously, as mentioned above, the bottom-up design approach made available by computation was not necesarily practicle. Narcissus, developed in 2010, is not groundbreaking in terms of computation, however it does provide precedence to discuss the evolution of computation in design, and how it alters both process and outcome.
/ / A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION Seoul Spaceship- ZHA
Zaha Hadid Architects embraced computation early on, thereby challenging traditional ways of making architecture. Through parametric design Hadid has explored the possibilities of architecture and construction, creating unique forms. This can be seen in the proposed Seoul “Spaceship”. The Dongdaemun Design Park is intended to be one of the city’s key cultural hubs and a place for rolling art and design exhibitions, as well as a plethora of events for new technologies and media. Zaha Hadid’s approach to design very much represents the notion that the move towards computation denotes not only a shift in practice, but more importantly a shift in theory. Brady Peters, in ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, discusses the confronting notion that computation has the potential to exceed the designers intellect. This is where the exploration of computation and generation rather than a
compositional approach gets most interesting. “We are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software” Architectural theory is rooted in the representational, when approaching design generation. In this regard computation marks a natural progreeion in representational mediums. However, it is in this generation, where computation exceeds it’s designer, where this progression is considered most innovative. This innovation can be seen in the application of parametric modelling. Parametric modelling, as utilised in Hadid’s practice, has developed a new form of design logic. This focuses on a logic of associative and dependency relationships with objects. Oxman denotes the opportunities presented by this approach in ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’. Altering a shema of
relationships, such as geometric relationships, by manipulating it’s parameters results in the creation of a multiplicity of variable instances. The new logic in design thinking is therefore created by parametric design as it enables the writing of algorithmic procedures, for the creation of variations. The most significant discourse in approaches to architectural generation is in scripting, as in procedural design, and away from representational theorising. The works of Zaha Hadid Architects demostrate the capacity of scripting as a medium for experimentation. Oxam recognises this scripting culture, acknowledging the tendancy for emerging generations of architects to rely on scripting for experimentation. It can therefore be said that, to an extent, scripting culture redefines architecture in practice, but more importantly in theory.
/ / A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre
Jyväskylä is a town located in central Finland’s lake-district. It is internationally renowned for its art and music scene and festivals, as well as for its higher educational institutions particularly in Music, the Arts and Cultural Research. Even more so it is famous for having been the hometown of Alvar Aalto. This makes the Music and Art Center project a great challenge for architects that search for alternative spatial, formal, material and programmatic agendas. This design for the centre by Ocean Earth is therefore an interesting precedent in relation to architectural generation through algorithmic thinking. Most significantly The design evolves from an iterative morphogenetic process alongside with extensive physical modelling. Morphogenesis in design refers to selforganising systems with the capacity for adaptation in the presence of change. Change can be anticipated and facilitated right up to the manufacturing stage. From the standpoint of morphogenesis, the ap-
plication of computation in architecture creates opportunities previously unrealised in design process, fabrication and construction.
Distribution of seed and definition points for the struts of the primary lattice system
“Morphogenesis is a concept used in a number of disciplines including biology, geology, crystallography, engifirst growth step neering, urban studies, art and architecof the primary ture.This variety of usages reflects multiple lattice system understandings ranging from strictly formal to poetic.” (Stanislav Roudavski ‘Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture’)
Significant parallels between architecgrowth step ture and nature are drawn through this defining the approach, most notably the conepts of secondary growth and adaptation. The characterlattice system istics of the Music and Art Center reflect in accordance these parallels. Ocean North deployed an with the primary iterative growth process, beginning with system the definition and distribution of virtual volumes. This concept and precedent suggests interesting directions for the development of procedural techniques in the architectural domain.
model view of the same location
/ / A.4 CONCLUSION A.1- Design Futuring: Using past Land Art Generator projects as precedents and an investigation of energy technologies provided direction for my design approach. This was done through a critical approach to the precedents, thereby indentifying the superficial nature of some of them, and the need to avoid this. A.2- Design Computation: discussing the evolving role of computation in architecture introduced the array of possibilities presented through this medium. A.3- Composition and Generation: building on the ideas introduced in the computation investigation in A.2, this discussion created direction for my project through the capabilities of paramtric modelling. Generation was found to be a significant development in architectural approaches, explored through scripting cultures. Similarly the discussion of morphogenesis broadened my approach through the significance of evolution and adaptation. The design approach I have therefore developed in the wake of the computational shift in architectural theory is to utilise parametric modelling to create an adaptive design. This is an innovative and significant way to design in terms of architectural theory.
/ / PART B CRITERIA DESIGN
/ / B.1 RESEARCH FIELD- BIOMIMICRY
Biomimicry refers to the imitation of systems and models occuring in nature, from the basis that these systems have become the most efficient solutions over natural selection over geolocial time. At itâ€™s base biomimicry therefore offers solutions to complex human problems, but more broadly speaking it is an extensive avenue for design exploration. Specifically it relates to this project in that we are exploring energy harnessing technologies, and attempting to convert sources of energy present into usable forms. This endeavor reflects many processes within nature, most apparantly
photosynthesis (being the process by which plants and other organisms convert light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy which can be later released to fuel the organisms activities). This demonstrates the intrinsic relationship between biomimicry and energy technologies.
ses found in nature provides a strong basis for generative design. In its essense, the process over time resulting in the most appropriate systems within all nature reflects generative computational design. Biomimicry therefore provides a meaniful route for discussion throughout this subject.
With this in mind it can be stated that biomimicry most appropriately applies to any conceptual exploration in regards to energy technologies and our task.
Summarily, the conceptual design implications of biomimicry are vast, and are therefore worth investigating.
In addition, thinking more broadly about this subject, the idea of imitating proces-
2.1 Modern Primitives design explorationAranda Lasch.
/ / B.1 RESEARCH FIELD- BIOMIMICRY
Canopy by United Visual Architects This installation spans 90 metres along the facade of the building and was derived from the experience of walking through a forest. Specifally the goal was to imitate the filtration of light through a tree canopy above you. It has thousands of identical modules created by looking at a leaf structure, arranged in a non-repeating organic pattern. Most significantly apertures in the modules filter natural light during the day, while at night atrificial light creates the same effect. The atrifical light particles are born, and then move through the structure and die, with their survival depending on regions of energy sweeping through the grid. As a whole the installation reflects the filtering of light by a tree canopy, but more impresively the processes that occur within a leaf at a cellular level.
2.2 Canopy- United Visual Architects
This communicates the potential for biomimicry through our design, specifally in both form and function. Both are key in considering the application of energy technologies within an aesthetically appropriate design. At a more basic level we can look to forms derived from natural structures for design expression: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion Located at the university of Stutgart, this pavilion was the result of the exploration of biological principles, specifically the plate skeleton morphology of a sea urchin. The design was an excercise in the exploration of the performative capacity of natural structures. This is where biomimicry is useful in design, and solving human problems. More efficient structures can be incorporated into building systems, as they exist in nature at their most streamlined and suitable
form. That being said, the application of such systems is rarely as suitable as it is in nature. Nevertheless it is an important indeavor. Through the Research Pavilion more than just the aesthetic style offered by biomimicry is explored, the need to learn from nature is demonstrated structurally, no matter how impractical it may be The application of biomicry in generative form making, such as the Research Pavilion, is vast, but it is in the area of environmental processes, evident in the Canopy Project by VUA, that we are most interested, providing more fertile grounds for exploration. This is where simple form making derived from structures within nature is insufficient for design direction.
2.3 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion
/ / B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0- VOLTADOM
Voltadom by Skyler Tibbits is an installation spanning the MIT hallway betweeen building 56 and 66. For our purposes it was an excercise in architectural surface panelling, representing an extensive knowledge of parametric design. For this reason aiming to replicate the Voltadom is not the desired outcome. This is a basis for surface panelling exploration. The process began with a two dimensional plane on which cones are distributed randomly, with identical cones in the same locations to determine the location of the oculus. This is apprarent below. At this point small investigations took place, such as varying the size of the oculus, and the number of geometries present. Prblems were encountered were parts of the mesh wouldnt
trim, creating failures evident on the next page. From here the challenge was set to transfer this to a three dimensional geometry. To do this, the surface was divided evenly and the vaults were distributed onto these origin points. However the cones were still grounded on the XY plane. Resolving this required changing the plane of each origin point to reflect its position on the surface, which initially resluted in the geometries being placed on the underside of the surface, as demonstrated over the page. Notably, the vaults I achieved were evenly distributed, which differs from Tibbitsâ€™ Voltadom. This is were my definition has room for improvement.
/ / B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0- VOLTADOM
Overall I was unable to replicate Tibbitsâ€™ Voltadom, however My outcome does provide grounds for further surface tesselation consideration. The most succesful aspect of this task was the variation of individual planes, allowing for a more appropriate recreation. Where this fell short was in my ability to vary the vaults to create a more overall dynamic form as is the case with the Voltadom.
Further potential for this design lies within this realisation. If the points were randomly distributed, and each vault varied dramatically, a very different outcome would have resulted. Similarly, surface paneling provides significant potential for fabrication. Tibbits created his form using two dimensional pieces, which formed the vaults. This will be useful when attempting to realise a complex geometry
/ / B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0- AIRSPACE Airspace Tokyo- Faulders Studio 2007 The Airspace building facade was designed to reflect the exterior of the building previously on the site, which was enveloped extensivley by a layer of dense vegetation. Artificially the skin acts to perform the same qualities as the trees previously inhabiting the site. Sunlight is refracted along the metal surface, rainwater is carried away through a capilary action, and the views are distorted and filtered through the celss created by the layered skin.
Our task is to recreate the airspace building as accuratley as possible, which will then act as the basis for further design exploration.
The Airspace building represents a simple and succesful case of biomimicry, providing both an aesthetic and functionally appropriate solution to a problem.
By reverse engineering this project in grasshopper we hope to accurately interpret the implied process in creating the Airspace building.
2.4 Airspace TokyoFaulders Studio
After initially creating unsuccesful definitions, for example by trying to navigate lines through a field, it became overlly apparent to me that the form was derived from voronoi patterning. Firstly the populate 2D function was used to generate a random array of voronoi cells, as shown above. These were then internally offset, and the offset cells were filleted to round them out. Eventually a surface was created. By varying the number of points, separate panels were created, however the result was not
organic enough, as the cells were distributed too evenly, and often lined up with one another (above). Therefore, points were layed out manually to create a less uniform array (below) for the three individual layers. In addition the offset distance was decreased dramatically, and the fillet radius increased. As a result, surfaces closer to those of the actual airspace building were created (below).
/ / B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0- AIRSPACE From here the panels were layered to represent those in the actual building, and layed out around a simple box (shows alongside).
In terms of design potential this chosen definition could be criticised as being simplistic, but in the same sense it is therefore not limiting.
Overall this excercise was succesful in that the process rationally reflected what we have deduced was the approach taken by Faulders Studio. Aesthetically, it very closely mirrors the form of the Airspace building.
From here we can explore the voronoi form through ranging geometries and expressions. An interesting area identified is the manipulation of point distribution to vary form.
/ / B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT
My initial exploration was born from the simple voronoi form, derived from the Airspace facade pattern. The pattern was advanced with the incorporation of three dimensional voronoi cells. Notably, the distribution of these cells was with the basic populate function. At this point the brief was considered, and the incorporation of environmental processes through energy production. Initailly we had settled on hydroelectric energy harnessing, due to itâ€™s varying forms of harnessing technologies, in conjunction with possible kinetic exploration through the movement of water. This lead to the incorporation of piping around the perimeter of 3D voronoi cells, as demonstrated alongide The potential of cells was exciting in regards to a modular and organic design. For example they could
perform different functions, possibly move, or utilise varying energy production methods. At this stage this concept was explored by simply removing cells to form undulating surfaces or even canopies. However this process was not generative, and wasnâ€™t innovative in terms of form making. We then chose to progress a canopy concept using varying definitions, in addition to an undulating surface. For example, the curves of a canopy were graphed, to then create a surface to project or map a voronoi pattern onto. While the definition derived from the Airspace project was evolving, it was not evolving in an innovative and progressive manner.
/ / B.4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT Originally from Fauldersâ€™ Airspace facade I derived a simple voronoi pattern, and evolved it insignificantly without a generative standpoint. For this reason we can look to Aranda Lasch to inform these definitions. Their designs involve organically distributed geometries, such as the Rules of Six installation shown in figure 2.5, but more importantly there is an underlying logic, as there is in nature. A set of rules defines the distribution of form, apparant forthrightly in Rules of Six. This installation involves a live algorithm to create the final form, incorporating strict parameters in relation to the six sided elements. From this we set out to create a system to dictate the distribution of the aspects of our iterations. To do so
we incorporated fields, and point attractors through a grasshopper plug-in called Nudibranch. Since the relevant aspect of biomimicry is itâ€™s association with generative design, a generative approach to our form is necessary. Firstly, voronoi patterns were varied via the point attractors, and the potential of these two dimensional cells were explored through piping, lofting, and other commands Field lines were used to vary the diameter of circles originating at the centre of each voronoi cell. Each layer had varying fields applied to them, at which point the corresponding circles were lofted to create an array of varying pipes.
Point attractor iterations
2.5 Aranda\Lasch: Rules of Six, Installation at MoMA, New York, United States, 2008
/ / B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES
/ / B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL Outline Our part B proposal evolved from the realisations outlined through this document. Most significantly it relates a generative process, as the established link between biomimicry and generative design dictated. The main concept involves voronoi cells being layed
out accross an undulating landscape. Point attractors determine both the size of the voronoi cells and the topography of the landscape. Put simply, higher ground levels correspond with larger voronoi cells.
Energy Technology The incorporation of hydroelectric energy is beneficial in that water is the most available resource from the site. While our application still needs to be explored there is potential for the combination of hydroelectric energy and kinetic energy. This is most appropriate considering the lack of waterflow around the site, therefore requiring third party involvement. For this reason I propose that each cell moves indipendantly
of one another, and as pressure is applied to it, it moves down, disturbing the resting water filling the cavities created by the divided surface. As the water moves it triggers a system of kinetic components, thereby generating energy. In addition the point attractors determine the magnitude of each cells movement (as it does their size and height.
/ / B.7 LEARNING OUTCOMES Interim presentation feedback regarding our proposal centred mainly on the application and practicality of hydoelectric energy production. While water has potential as an expressive device, all agreed that the incorporation of harnessing this water movement as energy was questionable. As a result I am still determined to succesfully incorporate this form of energy production, as it has so many benefits both in availablity and aesthetics. Its ability to produce sufficient energy is the concern. I agree that the use of tidal systems, or the flow of water between damns is not obviously applicable, however I believe there is potential for the use of kinetic components, in conjunction with the manipulation of water movement to generate enough energy. I think optimising the technology within this site needs attention before dismissing its use. The piece of feedback I am excited to explore is the resultant architectural outcome following the optimisation of an energy
technology. Thinks links well to the idea of biomimicry, and natures design through the optimisation of its processes. In terms of learning outcomes I have enjoyed the vast progression I made between submissions. Specifically my approach to computational design as part of the design process has certainly shifted. Initially I saw generative design as an easy way out, whereas I have come to realise this is not case. Algorithmic design broadens possible outcomes. It progresses design potential. More than anything the propects of what I can produce in the remainder of the subect are enthusing, now that I have begun to surface from the deep end of parametric modelling that I found myself in.
/ / PART C DETAILED DESIGN
/ / DESIGN CONCEPT
Following the interim presentation my design concept evolved significantly. The feedback we received included the legitimacy of hydroelectric energy production. While i was exited by the potential application of water due to its relation to the site, in terms of energy production via itâ€™s movement was questionable and ultimately insignificant. In addition it was suggested that through our exploration of potential energies, we use the optimisation of energy production to inform the design. In terms of biomimicry (our chosen research field) this was particularly exiting, as it centres on the idea that systems in nature have evolved to become as efficient as possible, thereby dictating itâ€™s form and function. As a result the concept shifted to incorporate water as an expressive device for energy production via solar technology. The form this took was an emotive canopy housing a micro-climate or garden, where the structure evolved from both technological and aesthetic requirements. Water is pumed up to each peak once sufficient energy is produced by the clear solar panels. The water then flows over the canopy, visible from inside through both glass and the clear cells, depending on the location of each individual segment. We bgan by selecting our cell design, shown alongside. 1, my eventual choice, allows for an even flow of water, which aesthetically addresses most appropriately the need to create an expressive manipulation of the water. 3 directs the flow of water, thereby decreasing its expressive quality. Similarly, 2 is the middle ground, and is not optimal. From here I moved to slect the overal form, with both aesthetic and technological criteria
ENCLOSED The aesthetic requirement informing all form explorations was the desire to create an emotive structure via scale and experience. The structure extends from the landscape and uses a large portion of the site. Firstly, I created an enclosed structure. The climate within could therefore be controlled to a degree. The large space fulfilled the scale requirement, although it isnâ€™t overly emotive in that itâ€™s form is relativley simple. I therefore moved to more dynamic forms.
DENSE Evolving from the enclosed structure is this dense exploration of form. Here smaller individual canopies are spread throughout the site. The steep enclosures are certainly dynamic, and as evident in the alongside render, it is emotive in that it is dissorientating. However developing the entire site has its limitations. The density doesnâ€™t necessarily express its scale, and having fewer structures may address this problem
SEMI-DENSE The dense and large enlosed explorations where contrasting, and so I explored an intermediate form. This semi dense example incorporates both the previous concepts, but critically it doesnâ€™t carry the benefits of each. The whole site is developed, which like the dense variation does not appropriatley express the scale found in the enclosed variatione. In addition it isnâ€™t as dissorientating as the dense exploration. As a result I moved to develop a smaller part of the site, but with a more dynamic form than that found in the enclosed exploration.
OVER WATER Following the conclusions drawn from previous variations I created this open form which is emotive in both its scale and shape. Notably it extends over the water. The focus and orientation towards the water ties in well with puping water for expressive purposes. However its positioning on the water is not ideal, it limits the usable area under the canopy, thereby impacting on the emotiveness of the interior scale. As a result I maintained the dynamic form on a smaller part of the site, which is open and and orientated towards the water, but did not position it over the water. From here I encorporated energy technology optimisation to refine the structure
5444.6 square metres 4083.5 kwh of energy sufficient to power 136 houses
ENERGY OPTIMISATION As discussed, optimising the energy producing capabilites of the canopy is beneficial and can inform the design. We will be using clear photovoltaic cells across the structure, in segments that fulfill optimisation criteria. Assuming a relatively conservative level of sun exposure for the Copenhagen area, 5kwh of sunlight would produce 0.75kwh of energy per square metre, with 15% efficient cells.
4260.4 square metres 3195 kwh of energy sufficient to power 106 houses
5074.6 square metres 3805.95 kwh of energy sufficient to power 126 houses
With this information in tow I moved to explore forms and their potential energy output. 3 criteria for cell slection were derived from the optimal use of solar panels. Firstly, only cells above a relavent height were chosen, therefore they were not placed in any valleys or shaded areas. In addition, only cells larger than a certain area were chosen, as they could therefore produce more energy, and as the form is higher were cells are larger this also prevents them throm beign shaded. Finaly, cells orientated towards the north were ignored, and those facing the path of the sun (south) were chosen. From this I developed a low and simple form (1), which allowed for a large surface area of cells. However this did not fulfill the aesthetic requirements of scale, and didnâ€™t allow for trees underneath. So I moved to create a tall structure orientated towards the south (2), which produced a small amount of energy due to the surface area. I therefore opted for a form inbetween the two (3), which functionally allowed for trees, was aesthetically dynamic, and produced a sufficient level of output.
WATER FLOW TESTING Testing water flow over varying topographies to determine and alter the path taken by water, emminating from the peaks
FINAL DESIGN The result of this optimisation, through aesthetics, funtional requrements and energy optimisation, is a form that fulfills all our needs. In review I am pleased with this final form. The scale is epic and emotive, allowed for by only developing part of the site, and leaving a simplistic relationship to the site. Internally it is similarly impressive with its greenhouse - like function. Carapace, named for itâ€™s turtle shell appearance, produces sufficent energy to justify using water to express this output, contributing to the experience of the design. From this point we moved to refine the tectonic elements of the structure.
/ / TECTONIC ELEMENTS
TECTONIC REFINEMENT Firstly we explored the structural elements and connections, shown on the previous page. Connections between the panels and structure and simple and not overly expressive aesthetically. This maintains the simplicity of the overall form. In addition we went about refining the incorporation of water as an expressive device. Water is pumped from the immediate body of water, up hollow members underneath each peak in the form. The water would then flow evenly down from there before moving along the optimal path to travel. With this in mind we could move to prototype elements of the design. Firstly we explored mate-
rial selection, with the possibility of incorporating solid cells into the existing clear solar panels and glass panels. Opting for naturally expressive materials (stone and timber), it was discussed that they would be dense in certain areas, and then decrease in number as they moved across the canopy. We then looked at how visually effective water would be over the top of the clear cells, before exploring our connection designs. While the clear cells were effective, the solid variations detracted from the relatively simple aesthetic of the overall form, thereby distracting from the emotiveness of the scale
/ / FINAL MODEL
/ / LAGI REQUIREMENTS Carapace (the dorsal section of the shell of a turtle), named for itâ€™s appearance, is an emotive canopy housing a micro-climate or garden, producing energy via solar technology which is expressed with the incorporation of water. Water is pumped over the optimised structure, emminating from each peak, once sufficient energy is produced. Primarily this is an emotive expression of clean energy production. We will be using clear photovoltaic cells across the structure, in segments that fulfill our optimisation criteria. Assuming a relatively conservative level of sun exposure for the Copenhagen area, 5kwh of sunlight would produce 0.75kwh of energy per square meter of solar cells, with 15% efficient cells. The area of panels over Carapace is 5074.6 square meters, which under the above research produces 380595 kwh of energy, sufficient to power 126 houses. Once the site is operating at a level that would power 100 houses, water is pumped up the members under each of the peaks of the structure. It then visibly flows over the topography of the canopy before pouring through designated perferations in the canopy, and over the sides. Along with the expansive scale of the design, this creates an emotive experience for the siteâ€™s visitors, and makes them concious of the output being created. With a simplistic relationship to the site, Carapace is impressive both internally and externally.
/ / LEARNING OUTCOMES Thinking critically about the result of taking part in this subject, I would summarily say that to an extent my approach to design has changed fundamentally. As I have descussed previously, prior to being involved in the themes of this studio I was unaware of the potential and relevance of generative design through parametric modelling. The applications are extensive, and while I better understand the benefits of computational design, I have also experienced the limitations, or more accurately my own limitations. In the area of design I feel least comfortable in, my understanding and ability evolved to produce our group’s proposals. Up until now I hadn’t acknowledged any limitations I have, and in light of that I am extremely happy with what I produced in the end.
While I have benn disheartened in terms of group work as a result of the semester’s struggles, the themes of this studio have informed my understanding of contemporary design, and undoubtedly my future approaches to design tasks. In terms of the studio’s outcomes, I wholeheartedly believe that I have realised them, which is significant knowing how I struggled to grasp the techniques through the early stages
1. “Piezoscape LAGI Submission”, Alexandra Barker, Adrien Allred, Marcus Ziemke, Umberto Plaja, Molly Hare, Land Art Generator Initiative 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/67HK92ZM/ 2. “Elec-tree LAGI Submission”, David Gonzalez Jimenez, Karen Gaxiola Castro, Oscar Mayagoitia Nisino, Jessica Lau, Arjan Van Der Hout, Land Art Generator Initiative 2012, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ECCMJG12/ 3. “Windstalk Project”, Masdar, Collaborative Design Laboratory 2010, http://atelierdna.com/ masdarwindstalk/ 4. “Museo Soumaya”, Fernando Romero, Mauricio Ceballos / Fernando Romero Enterprises 2010, Archdaily last modified 28 November 2013, http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museosoumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/ 5. “SOFTlab (n)arcissus”, Softlab, http://softlabnyc.com/narcissus/ 6. “Seoul Spaceship”, Zaha Hadid Architects / ZHA, Archinect News, http://archinect.com/ news/tag/110/zaha-hadid 7. Peters, Brady. “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought.” Architectural Design 83, no. 2 (2013): 8-15. 8. Roudavski, Stanislav. “Towards morphogenesis in architecture.” International journal of architectural computing 7, no. 3 (2009): 345-374. 9. “Modern Primitives”, Aranda Lasch, Dezeen.com, http://www.dezeen.com/2010/08/30/modern-primitives-by-arandalasch/ 10. “Canopy”, United Visual Artists, Designplaygrounds, http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/canopy-by-by-united-visual-artists/ 11. “ICDITKE Research Pavilion”, University of Stuttgart, http://www.dezeen.com/2011/10/31/ icditke-research-pavilion-at-the-university-of-stuttgart/ 12. “Voltadom” Skyler Tibbits, MIT, http-_www.formakers.eu_media_23.299.1334097137.5397_1 13. “Surfaces and Parametricism- Aranda Lasch”, David Kaplan, Archinect, http://archinect. com/features/article/29553480/safavid-surfaces-and-parametricism