Page 1

No 4/2013

The DEVELOPER NDC LONDON SPECIAL EDITION

Getting Serious with JavaScript Martin Beeby Page 56

Mocking explained Dror Helper Page 28

Designing with types in F# Scott Wlaschin Page 4

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in don o J on L C ND

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The DEVELOPER NDC Oslo has always been a very special conference for me. It's not about the accommodation (which is lovely) or the city (which is beautiful) or the venue (which is awesome). It's not even about the speakers and sessions, even though they're diverse and fascinating. It's about the people you meet, the ideas sparking off each other in the hallways, and the real community feeling. That doesn't happen by chance - there's some special magic about the way the conference is organized which encourages all of this to happen, celebrating what each and every attendee has to offer. That's why I'm so excited about NDC London: the same magic, right on my doorstep. I can't wait - roll on December! Jonathan Skeet

Join NDC London The first NDC London will be on the 2-6 December and is expanding on the success of the Norwegian Developers Conference in Oslo. The venue is already booked and both pre-conference and conference will be at the ICC suites at the ExCel venue.


N 4 2013 o

NDC London Edition

Contents ARTICLES

Adding Animations as the final gloss

Designing with types in F#. ............................................................................ p. 4

for your Windows Phone app

Implementing (the original) L isp in Python.......................... p. 8

Getting Serious with JavaScript

Understanding the world with F# . ................................................. p. 20

Modular databases with LevelDB and Node.js........... p. 60

Mocking explained .................................................................................................. p. 28

Feedback for software development . ..................................... p. 64

OWASP Top Ten ............................................................................................................ p. 34

Queue centric workflow and windows azure . ............... p. 68

Developers Baking in Security ............................................................ p. 36

Project Design A Call for Action ....................................................... p. 72

Hello JavaScript

COURSES

........................................................................................................

p. 38

................................................................ .....................................................

p. 46 p. 56

Powerful questions ................................................................................................ p. 42

Course overview Oslo.......................................................................................... p. 78

London

Course overview London................................................................................ p. 80

......................................................................................................................................

p. 44

NDC LONDON Agenda. ...................................................................................... p. 84

Marketing Manager: Charlotte Lyng

Publisher: Norwegian Developers Conference AS By Programutvikling AS and DeveloperFocus Ltd Organisation no.: 996 162 060

Print run: 13,000 Print: Merkur Trykk AS

FOR DEVELOPERS AND LEADERS

Fredrik Vraalsen Page 4

Configuring Laptops is

PLaying with drones and streams

HARD Page 18

byalvaro videla Page 10

Pitfalls of grid computing

contributors:

Trond Arve Wasskog

NORWEGIAN DEVELOPERS CONFERENCE 2013 John Zablocki

mark Seemann

torstein nicolaysen

vidar Kongsli

helge grenager Solheim

Jørgen vinne iversen

russ miles

Jon mccoy

dominick baier

alvaro videla

Jon Skeet

giovanni asproni

alan Smith

michael heydt

bryan hunter

Stuart lodge,

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oslo Spektrum, oslo June12-14 Pre-workshops, 10-11 June

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For more information about advertisement, please contact Charlotte Lyng at +47 93 41 03 57 or charlotte@programutvikling.no

Tim Berglund

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Power rabbit

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Java 8 to the rescue!?

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Designing with types in F

#


In F#, designing data types is a very important part of the development process. The thoughtful use of types can not only make a design clearer, but also ensure that all code conforms to the domain rules. This article will demonstrate a few examples of this. By Scott Wlaschin

UNDERSTANDING F# TYPES In F#, there are two primary types used for modelling domains: “record” types and “discriminated union” types. A record type stores a number of fields in a familiar way, like this: type Customer = {CustomerId: int; Name: string }

A discriminated union type represents a set of distinct choices, like this: type ContactInfo = | Email of string | PhoneNumber of int

A value of this type must be either an email with an associated string value, or a phone number with an associated int value, but not both. As we’ll see in the following examples, choice types are extremely useful in creating a clear design. THE USEFULNESS OF CHOICE TYPES Consider a structure for storing information about a payment method: type PaymentMethodType = Cash | Card // an enum type PaymentMethodInfo = { PaymentMethod: PaymentMethodType; CardNumber: string; CardExpiryDate: string }

The problem with this design is that it is not clear when the CardNumber and CardExpiryDate values are required. If the payment method is “Cash” neither field is required, but if the payment method is “Card” then both fields are required. The design above does not make these requirements clear. We can refactor the design by making a special type for the card info, and then change the main type to be a choice

between Cash (with no additional required information) and Card, with the additional required information being described in the new mini-structure. type CardInfo = { CardNumber: string; ExpiryDate: string } type PaymentMethodInfo = | Cash | Card of CardInfo

OPTIONAL VALUES Another important use of a choice type is to explicitly document optional values. In F#, values are not allowed to be null, which implies that all values are always required. But what if a value is genuinely optional? How can we model that? The answer is to create a special type with two choices. One choice represents “value present” and the other choice represents “value missing”. For example, to model an optional int, we might define a choice type like this: type OptionalInt = | SomeInt of int | Nothing

This is such a common requirement that this type is built into F# and is called the Option type. With the option type available, we can now clearly indicate which fields are not required. For example, if the card info needed to be extended to include an optional “valid from” field, we could define it like this: type CardInfo = { CardNumber: string; ExpiryDate: string; ValidFrom: string option}

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STATES Another common scenario is when an object can be in different states, with different information needed for each state. Consider information about an order than might or might not be shipped yet: type ShippingStatus = { IsShipped: bool; ShippedDate: DateTime; TrackingNumber: string }

Again, the definition leaves room for ambiguity. Can IsShipped be true without specifying a ShippedDate? Is it OK to set the TrackingNumber to something even if the IsShipped flag is false? Refactoring to a choice type eliminates these ambiguities completely: type ShippingInfo = { ShippedDate: DateTime; TrackingNumber: string option} type ShippingStatus = | Unshipped | Shipped of ShippingInfo

The new design makes it clear that ShippedDate and TrackingNumber can only be set when the status is “shipped”. And then ShippedDate is required and TrackingNumber is optional. WRAPPING PRIMITIVE TYPES Finally, let’s look at a common problem: domain types that have the same representation but which must never be confused. For example, you might have an OrderId and a CustomerId, both of which are stored as ints. But they are not really ints. You cannot add 42 to a CustomerId. More subtly, CustomerId(42) is not equal to OrderId(42). In fact, they should not even be allowed to be compared at all. In F#, you can model this by wrapping the primitive type, like this: type CustomerId = CustomerId of int type OrderId = OrderId of int

We now have completely distinct types. This not only makes the design clear but also enables the type-checker to prevent any mix-ups in assignment or parameter passing. CONCLUSION I hope this has whetted your appetite for using F# as a design tool. To learn more about this topic, search the internet for “designing with F# types”.

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Scott Wlaschin is a .NET developer, architect and author with over 20 years experience. He blogs about F# at fsharpforfunandprofit.com.


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Implementing (the original) By Kjetil Valle

As programmers we take great pride in keeping up with new developments in libraries, languages and tools (and usually have a lot of fun doing it as well). If we stop learning, we know we'll soon end up like the Cobolprogrammers of today. And this is of course a good thing — there's always something new and exciting to learn, something on which to sharpen our skills. 8


But sometimes I also find that it pays off to take a look at the old, rather than the new. It's good to go back to the roots, to see where it all comes from, and to have look at the fundemental ideas. Today we'll take a trip back to 1960, to the origins of Lisp as described by John McCarthy in his paper Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part 1 [1].

before moving on to an implementation of the language itself in Python.

There is really nothing novel in this article. The ideas all belonged to McCarthy, but sometimes it's good to just study the masters. Lets explore the origins of one of our most powerful (family of) programming languages. We'll start by briefly covering the Lisp syntax and semantics,

I have tried to keep this section brief. If you would like something a bit more elaborate, I really recommend The Roots of Lisp [2] by Paul Graham, where he essentially describes McCarthy's Lisp by example and then show an implementation in Common Lisp.

Š Asmus/ Shutterstock

isp in Python A SHORT LISP 101 Lets start out by explaining the basics of Lisp. If you're already familiar with this, I urge you to move on to the next section instead.

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A wee bit of syntax Lisp programs consists of something called s-expressions, which stands for symbolic expressions. S-expressions are defined recursively, and consists of either a single atom or a list, which contains other s-expressions. An atom is akin to what many modern languages would call an identifier. It consists of a series of letters or symbols — anything other than parentheses, single quote and whitespace, basically. Examples of atoms would be a, foo/bar! or +. (Note that we simplify a bit here, compared to McCarthys original description. By limiting atoms to not contain spaces, we eliminating the need for commas separating atoms within lists. In the original Lisp, atoms were also limited to upper case letters, a restriction I don't see the need to enforce here.) Lists use the parenthesis syntax that have become so iconic to Lisp. A list is expressed by a pair of parentheses enclosing a number of elements. Each element is another s-expression, which might be either an atom or a list. Here are a copule of examples: (list of only atoms) (another list (with some ((nested)) (lists inside)))

In addition, although it's actually not in the original Lisp, we include a shorthand syntax 'x which is evaluated as (quote x), where x is any s-expression. This way, '(a b c) is interpreted as (quote (a b c)) and similarly, 'foo as (quote foo). We will later see why this turns out to be useful. The basic semantics When evaluating an s-expression e, the following rules apply. • If e is an atom its value is looked up in the environment. • Otherwise, the expression is a list like (<e0> <e1> … <en>), which is evaluated as a function application. How this is handled depends on the first element of the list, e0. ° If e0 is the name of one of the builtin (axiomatic) forms, it is evaluated as described below. ° If e0 is any other atom, its value is looked up. A new list, with the value of e0 replacing the first element is then evaluated. ° If e0 is not an atom, but a list of the form (lambda (<a1> … <an>) <body>), then e1 through en is first evaluated. Then body is evaluated in an environment where each of a1 through an points to the value of the corresponding en. This constitutes a call to an anonymous function (i.e. a lambda function). ° If e0 is of form (label <name> <lambda>) where lambda is a lambda expression like the one above, then a new list with e0 replaced by just the lambda is constructed. This list is then evaluated in an environ ment where name points to e. The label notation is how we solve the problem of defining recursive functions.

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The axiomatic forms The axiomatic forms are the basis on which the rest of the language rests. They behave as follows: • (quote e) returns e without evaluating it first. • (atom e) evaluates e and returns the atom t if the resulting value is an atom, otherwise f is returned. (Since we have no boolean type in our language, these two atoms are treated as true and false, respectively.) • (eq e1 e2) evaluates to t if both e1 and e2 evaluates to the same atom, otherwise f. • (car e) evaluates e, which is expected to give a list, and returns the first element of this list. • (cdr e) is the opposite of car. It returns all but the first element of the list gotten by evaluating e. If the list only holds only one element, cdr instead returns the atom nil. • (cons e1 e2) evaluates both e1 and e2, and returns a list constructed with the value of e1 as the first element and the value of e2 as the rest. If e2 evaluates to the atom nil, the list (e1) is returned. • (cond (p1 e1) … (pn en)) is the conditional operator. It will evaluate predicates p1 to pn in order, until one of them evaluates to t, at which time it will evaluate the corresponding en and return its value. The evaluation rules above are, surprisingly, all we need to implement Lisp. In addition, however, I'd like to include another form that isn't explicitly described by McCarthy, but which is included in Graham's article. It could strictly speaking be replaced by doing a lot of nested labels but, but this would make things a lot less readable. • (defun name (a1 … an) <body>) is a way to define functions and then later use them outside of the define expression. It does this by adding a new binding to the environment it is itself evluated in: name ≥ (lambda (a1 … an) <body>). IMPLEMENTATION IN PYTHON Now, with the syntax and core semantics of the language outlined, lets look at how to make this happen in Python. The parser The first step when implementing a language is usually the parser. We need some way to go from programs as strings to some datastructure we can interpret. Such a datastructure is usually called the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) of the program. Since Lisp is a language largely without syntax, with parentheses and atoms used for everything, writing the parser is relatively easy and uninteresting. This is not what I want to focus on in this article, so we'll skip over the details here. Feel free to have a look at the code for the parser [3] before we move on, if you like.


The parser works like this: >>> from rootlisp.parser import parse >>> program = "(lambda (x) (cons x (cons x '())))" >>> ast = parse(program) >>> ast ['lambda', ['x'], ['cons', 'x', ['cons', 'x', ['quote', []]]]]

The parse function takes one argument, the program string, and returns the corresponding AST. There is also an opposite function unparse which converts ASTs back into Lisp source strings. >>> from rootlisp.parser import unparse >>> unparse(ast) "(lambda (x) (cons x (cons x '())))"

Interpreting Before we move on to evaluating the ASTs, let's define another useful function, interpret, which we'll be using to test our language as we go: def interpret(program, env=None): ast = parse(program) result = eval(ast, env if env is not None else []) return unparse(result)

The function combines the power of parse and eval . interpret takes a Lisp program as a string, parses it, and finally evaluates the parsed expression. Since the evaluated expression might be a Lisp data structure (and even valid Lisp code) we "unparse" it back to it's corresponding source string. This is done to hide our internal ASTs from the user of the Lisp. The Evaluator With parsing out of the way, and armed with the interpret function to test our code, it's time to have a look at the core of the langage, the eval function. It looks like this: def is_atom(exp): """Atomes are represented by strings in our ASTs""" return isinstance(exp, str) def eval(exp, env): """Function for evaluating the basic axioms""" if is_atom(exp): return lookup(exp, env) elif is_atom(exp[0]): if exp[0] == "quote": return quote(exp) elif exp[0] == "atom": return atom(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "eq": return eq(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "car": return car(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "cdr": return cdr(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "cons": return cons(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "cond": return cond(exp, env) elif exp[0] == "defun": return defun(exp, env) else: return call_named_fn(exp, env) elif exp[0][0] == "lambda": return apply(exp, env) elif exp[0][0] == "label": return label(exp, env)

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As you can see, eval takes two arguments exp and env. exp is one of the ASTs returned by parse, env holds a list of associations which represent bindings from atoms to values in the environment. We have now covered all the cases we need in order to implement the Lisp. Lets look at the implementation of each in turn. Keep the structure of eval in mind when we go through each case. Evaluating atoms The first case we need to cover is when the evaluated expression is an atom. The value of an atom is whatever it is bound to in the environment, so we do a lookup of the atom in env. def lookup(atom, env): for x, value in env: if x == atom: return value

Lets have a look at how this works in the REPL: >>> from rootlisp.lisp import interpret >>> >>> env = [('foo', 'bar')] >>> interpret('foo', env) 'bar'

Evaluating quote The next form is quote, which is incredibly easy to implement: all we need to do is simply to return whatever the argument was, without evaluating it first. def quote(exp): # (quote e1) return exp[1]

And it works as expected: >>> 'a' >>> 'a' >>> '(a

interpret('(quote a)') interpret("'a") interpret("'(a (b (c) d))") (b (c) d))'

Evaluating atom The next case, atom determines whether the value of exp is atomic or not. def atom(exp, env): # (atom e1) val = eval(exp[1], env) return 't' if is_atom(val) else 'f'

Our Lisp does not have any boolean datatypes, so we simply return the atoms t or f depending on whether exp is an atom or not.

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>>> interpret("(atom 'a)") 't' >>> interpret("(atom '(a b c))") 'f' >>> interpret("(atom (atom 'a))") 't'

Evaluating eq The eq function is defined as t if the value of its two arguments evaluates to the same atom. def eq(exp, env): # (eq e1 e2) v1 = eval(exp[1], env) v2 = eval(exp[2], env) return 't' if v1 == v2 and is_atom(v1) else 'f'

>>> interpret("(eq 'a 'a)") 't' >>> interpret("(eq 'a 'b)") 'f' >>> interpret("(eq '(a) '(a))") 'f'

Evaluating car and cdr The car and cdr forms both evaluate the argument, expecting the resulting value to be a list. car returns the first item of the list; cdr returns the rest of the list, i.e. everything but the first element. def car(exp, env): # (car e1) return eval(exp[1], env)[0] def cdr(exp, env): # (cdr e1) lst = eval(exp[1], env) return 'nil' if len(lst) == 1 else lst[1:]

Notice that if the list contains only one element, cdr return the atom nil which represents the empty list. >>> interpret("(car '(a b c))") 'a' >>> interpret("(cdr '(a b c))") '(b c)' >>> interpret("(cdr '(a))") 'nil'

Evaluating cons cons, short for construct, returns a list constructed with the value of the first argument as the first element, and the value of the second argument as the rest of the list. def cons(exp, env): # (cons e1 e2) rest = eval(exp[2], env) if rest == 'nil': rest = [] return [eval(exp[1], env)] + rest


Once again, we treat nil as the empty list. >>> interpret("(cons 'a '(b c))") '(a b c)' >>> interpret("(cons 'a 'nil)") '(a)'

Evaluating cond The expressions passed as arguments to cond are all lists of two elements. We evaluate the first element of each of the sublists in turn, until one evaluates to t. When the first t is found, the second element of that list is evaluated and returned. def cond(exp, env): # (cond (p1 e1) (p2 e2) â&#x20AC;Ś) for p, e in exp[1:]: if eval(p, env) == 't': return eval(e, env)

Like in McCarthy's original Lisp, our cond is also undefined for cases where no p expressions evaluate to t. >>> program = """ ... (cond ((eq 'a 'b) 'first) ... ((atom 'a) 'second)) ... """ >>> interpret(program) 'second'

Evaluating defun As noted above, the defun form isn't one of those specified by McCarthy, but we include it anyway to make the language easier to use. Evaluating a defun expression simply extends the environment where it is called with a label structure containing a lambda. The evaluation of lambdas and labels is described below. def defun(exp, env): # (defun my-fun (a1 â&#x20AC;Ś) body) name, params, body = exp[1], exp[2], exp[3] label = ["label", name, ["lambda", params, body]] env.insert(0, (name, label)) return name

To see what's happening, lets look at the environment after evaluating a defun form.

>>> env = [] >>> interpret(""" ... (defun pair (x y) ... (cons x (cons y 'nil))) ... """, env) 'pair' >>> env [('pair', ['label', 'pair', ['lambda', ['x', 'y'], ['cons', 'x', ['cons', 'y', ['quote', 'nil']]]]])]

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Evaluating function calls To round of the case when the first element in exp in eval is an atom, we simply look this atom up in the environment, expecting to find a function. A new list with this function as the first element is then evaluated instead. def call_named_fn(exp, env): # (my-fun e1 …) fn = lookup(exp[0], env) return eval([fn] + exp[1:], env)

Lets try testing this by calling the pair function we defined with defun above. >>> env [('pair', ['label', 'pair', ['lambda', ['x', 'y'], ['cons', 'x', ['cons', 'y', ['quote', 'nil']]]]])] >>> interpret("(pair 'a 'b)", env) '(a b)'

Evaluating lambda application In the example above, pair is looked up in the environment and a new s-expression is evaluated. This new expression holds a function rather than an atom as the first element. (Actually, it holds a label with a function, but the label is stripped away in an intermediate step as explained bellow.) Thus, we end up evaluating an expression where the first element looks something like (lambda (list of parameters) body). The rest of the elements in exp are the arguments to the function. The apply function evaluates such expressions.

((label name lambda-expression) arguments).

def label(e, a): # ((label name (lambda (p1 …) body)) arg1 …) _, f, fn = e[0] args = e[1:] return eval([fn] + args, [(f, e[0])] + a)

def apply(exp, env): # ((lambda (a1 …) body) e1 …) fn, args = exp[0], exp[1:] _, params, body = fn evaluated_args = map(lambda e: eval(e, env), args) new_env = zip(params, evaluated_args) + env return eval(body, new_env)

We handle this by extending the environment such that name points to the first element of e, i.e. the label expression. The lambda function is then applied to the rest of the elements of e (the arguments) in this environment, and the value returned.

The first line separates the lambda-expression fn and the arguments. The function fn is then split further into its list of parameters and the body. The arguments are then each evaluated, before they are merged with the corresponding parameters and put into the environment. Finally, the body of the function is evaluated in this new environment.

>>> program = """ ... ((label greet (lambda (x) ... (cond ((atom x) ... (cons 'hello (cons x 'nil))) ... ('t (greet (car x)))))) ... '(world)) ... """ >>> interpret(program) '(hello world)'

>>> ... ... ... ... >>> '(z

program = """ ((lambda (x y) (cons x (cdr y))) 'z '(a b c)) """ interpret(program) b c)'

Evaluating label application The lambda syntax above is fine for defining normal nonrecursive functions. It is also expressive enough to make recursive functions using a technique called the Y-combinator, but for this McCarthy instead introduces the label notation (which arguably is a lot easier to understand).

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This evaluation case considers expressions on the form

Lets se an example:

TAKING THE LISP FOR A TEST RUN And with that, we have enough of Lisp implemented to be able to start using it. Lets define a few functions. We start with something simple, a function for checking whether lists are empty or not. (defun null (x) (eq x 'nil))


null returns t for any list that is without elements, and f

otherwise.

> (null '(foo bar)) f > (null (cdr '(a))) t

We might also define the common logical operators. (defun and (x y) (cond (x (cond (y 't) ('t 'f))) ('t 'f))) (defun or (x y) (cond (x 't) ('t (cond (y 't) ('t 'f))))) (defun not (x) (cond (x 'f) ('t 't)))

Both and, or and not works as one would expect. > (not 'f) t > (not (and 't (or 't 'f))) f

Further we can define some functions working on lists. First append, which takes two lists as arguments, returning their concatination. (defun append (x y) (cond ((null x) y) ('t (cons (car x) (append (cdr x) y)))))

A couple of tests shows that it works: > (append '(1 2 3) '(a b c)) (1 2 3 a b c) > (append 'nil '(a b)) (a b)

COMPLETING THE LANGUAGE These functions are all nice and well, but one thing is still lacking. One of the central concepts in Lisp is that code is data, and vice versa. We already have quote which enables us to convert code into lists, but we still need some way to evaluate lists as if they were Lisp code again. Our Lisp cannot do this yet. But, fortunately, we have enough pieces to be able to implement it within the Lisp itself! Before we go on, lets just define a few shorthand notations for working with combinations of car and cdr. These will help keep the code a bit more concise and readable as we move on. (defun (defun (defun (defun (defun (defun (defun

caar (lst) (car (car lst))) cddr (lst) (cdr (cdr lst))) cadr (lst) (car (cdr lst))) cdar (lst) (cdr (car lst))) cadar (lst) (car (cdr (car lst)))) caddr (lst) (car (cdr (cdr lst)))) caddar (lst) (car (cdr (cdr (car lst)))))

Next, we need a function to help us look up values from an environment. (defun assoc (var lst) (cond ((eq (caar lst) var) (cadar lst)) ('t (assoc var (cdr lst))))) assoc takes two arguments: the variable we wish to look up, var, and a list of bindings, lst. The bindings in lst are lists of two elements, and assoc simply returns the second element of the first pair where the first element is the same as var. > (assoc 'x '((x a) (y b))) a > (assoc 'y '((x a) (y b))) b

Another useful function is zip, which takes two lists as arguments, returning a list of pairs where each pair consists of the corresponding elements from each of the argument lists. (defun pair (x y) (cons x (cons y 'nil))) (defun zip (x y) (cond ((and (null x) (null y)) 'nil) ((and (not (atom x)) (not (atom y))) (cons (pair (car x) (car y)) (zip (cdr x) (cdr y))))))

The helper function pair is simply used as a convenience for creating lists of two elements. > (zip '(a b c) '(1 2 3)) ((a 1) (b 2) (c 3))

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With this, we are ready to implement the eval function:

(defun eval (exp env) (cond ((atom exp) (assoc exp env)) ((atom (car exp)) (cond ((eq (car exp) 'quote) (cadr exp)) ((eq (car exp) 'atom) (atom (eval (cadr exp) env))) ((eq (car exp) 'eq) (eq (eval (cadr exp) env) (eval (caddr exp) env))) ((eq (car exp) 'car) (car (eval (cadr exp) env))) ((eq (car exp) 'cdr) (cdr (eval (cadr exp) env))) ((eq (car exp) 'cons) (cons (eval (cadr exp) env) (eval (caddr exp) env))) ((eq (car exp) 'cond) (evcon (cdr exp) env)) ('t (eval (cons (assoc (car exp) env) (cdr exp)) env)))) ((eq (caar exp) 'label) (eval (cons (caddar exp) (cdr exp)) (cons (pair (cadar exp) (car exp)) env))) ((eq (caar exp) 'lambda) (eval (caddar exp) (append (zip (cadar exp) (evlis (cdr exp) env)) env))))) (defun evcon (c env) (cond ((eval (caar c) env) (eval (cadar c) env)) ('t (evcon (cdr c) env)))) (defun evlis (m env) (cond ((null m) 'nil) ('t (cons (eval (car m) env) (evlis (cdr m) env)))))

As you see, the Lisp version of eval is very similar to the one we implemented in Python, both in structure and how it works. Lets see a couple of examples. > (eval '(cons x '(b c)) '((x a) (y b))) (a b c) > (eval '(f '(bar baz)) '((f (lambda (x) (cons 'foo x))))) (foo bar baz)

We have the Lisp implemented in terms of the Lisp itself.

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SUMMARY We have now seen a full implementation of the original Lisp. The final result is, of course, available on github [4]. The core of the language is pretty small. Given only a handful of axiomatic forms, implemented in Python, we were actually able to implement the rest of the language in itself. This implementation even included an eval function, able to interpret any new Lisp code. Of course, while being a neat little language, our Lisp is missing a lot of features we expect in programming languages today. For example, it has no side effects (no IO), no types other than atoms (e.g. no numbers, strings, etc), no error handling, and it has dynamic rather than lexical scoping. The behaviour is also undefined for incorrect programs, and as an effect of this the error messages (which would bubble up from Python) can be rather strange and uninformative at times. Most of this could easily be rectified, though. Either from within the Lisp itself, or by changing the Python implementation. To learn about some of the improvements that could be made, notably lexical scoping and mutable state, I reccomend to have a look at The Art of the Interpreter [5] by Steele and Sussman. I hope this article have peaked your interest in how programming languages work, and that you find the implementation of Lisp as delightful as I do. REFERENCES [1] McCarthy, John. "Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine, Part I." Communications of the ACM 3.4 (1960): 184-195. [2] http://www.paulgraham.com/rootsoflisp.html [3] https://github.com/kvalle/root-lisp/blob/ master/rootlisp/parser.py [4] https://github.com/kvalle/root-lisp [5] Steele Jr, Guy Lewis, and Gerald Jay Sussman. "The Art of the Interpreter of the Modularity Complex (Parts Zero, One, and Two)." (1978).

During the day, Kjetil Valle writes code for BEKK. At night, the programming languages nerd emerges. Then, you'll find him somewhere playing around with a new language, trying to understand some concept. He really believes that learning a new paradigm will change the way you think, no matter what language you happen to be using.


Understanding the world with

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Š Sergey Nivens/ Shutterstock

F#


These days, you can get access to data about almost anything you like. But to turn the raw data into useful information is a challenge. You need to link data from different sources (that are rarely polished), understand the data set and build useful visualizations that help explaining the data. This is becoming an important task for increasing number of companies, but for the purpose of this article, we'll work for the public good and become data journalists. Our aim is to understand US government debt during the 20th century and see how different presidents contributed to the debt. By Tomas Petricek

F# FOR DATA SCIENCE Why are we choosing F# for working with data? Firstly, F# is succinct and has a great interactive programming mode, so we can easily run our analysis as we write it. Secondly, F# has great data science libraries. After creating a new "F# Tutorial" project, you can import all of them by installing NuGet package FsLab. We'll write our code interactively, so let's open Tutorial.fsx and load the FsLab package: #load "packages/FsLab.0.0.1-beta/lib/FsLab.fsx" open System open FSharp.Charting open FSharp.Data open Deedle open RProvider

You'll need to update the number in the #load command. The next lines open the namespaces of four F# projects that we'll use in this article: • F# Charting is a simple library for visualization and charting based on .NET charting API • Deedle is a data frame and time series manipulation library that we'll need to combine data from different sources and to get basic idea about the data structure • F# Data is a library of type providers that we'll use to get information about US presidents and to read US debt data from a CSV file • R type provider makes it possible to interoperate with statistical system named R, which implements advanced statistical and visualization tools used by professional statisticians READING GOVERNMENT DEBT DATA To plot the US government debts during different presidencies, we need to combine two data sources. The easy part is getting historical debt data - we use a CSV file downloaded from usgovernmentspending.com. The F# Data library also

makes it easy to get data from the World Bank, but sadly, World Bank does not have historical US data. Reading CSV file is equally easy though: type UsDebt = CsvProvider<"C:\Data\us-debt.csv"> let csv = UsDebt.Load("C:\Data\us-debt.csv") let debtSeries = series [ for row in csv.Data -> row.Year, row.``Debt (percent GDP)`` ]

The snippet uses CSV type provider to read the file. The type provider looks at a sample CSV file (specified on the first line) and generates a type UsDebt that can be used to read CSV files with the same structure. This means that when loading the data on the second line, we could use a live URL for the CSV file rather than a local copy. The next line shows the benefit of the type provider - when iterating over rows, the row value has properties based on the names of columns in the sample CSV file. This means that ``Debt (percent GDP)`` is statically checked. The compiler would warn us if we typed the column name incorrectly (and IntelliSense shows it as an ordinary property). The double-backtick notation is just an F# way of wrapping arbitrary characters (like spaces) in a property name. Finally, the notation series [ .. ] turns tha data into a Deedle time series that we can turn into a data frame and plot: let debt = Frame.ofColumns [ "Debt" => debtSeries ] Chart.Line(debt?Debt)

The first line creates a data frame with single column named "Debt". A data frame is a bit like database table - a 2D data structure with index (here years) and multiple columns. We started with just a single column, but will add more later. Once we have data in a data frame, we can use debt?Debt to get a specified column. By passing the series to Chart.Line we get a chart that looks like this:

21


The code uses F# sequence expressions, which are quite similar to C# iterators. When we have a president and a position, we can get the years of From and To values. The only difficulty is that To is null for the current president - so we simply return 2013. Now we have the data as an ordinary F# list, but we need to turn it into a Deedle data frame, so that we can combine it with the debt numbers: let presidents = presidentTerms |> Frame.ofRecords |> Frame.indexColsWith ["President"; "Start"; "End"]

LISTING US PRESIDENTS To get information about US presidents, you could go to Wikipedia and spend the next 5 minutes typing the data. Not a big deal, but it does not scale! Instead, we'll use another type provider and get the data from Freebase. Freebase is a collaboratively created knowledge base - a bit like Wikipedia, but with well-defined data schema. The F# type provider for Freebase exposes the data as F# types with properties, so we can start at the root and look at Society, Government and US Presidents:

The function Frame.ofRecords takes a collection of any .NET objects and creates data frame with columns based on the properties of the type. We get a data frame with Item1, Item2 and Item3. The last line renames the columns to more useful names. Here, we also use the pipelining operator |>, which is used to apply multiple operations in a sequence. If you now type presidents in F# Interactive, you'll see a nicely formatted table with the last 20 US presidents and their start and end years.

let fb = FreebaseData.GetDataContext() let presidentInfos = query { for p in fb.Society.Government.``US Presidents`` do sortBy (Seq.max p.``President number``) skip 23 }

The code uses F# implementation of LINQ to order the presidents by their number and skip the first 23. This gives us William McKinley whose presidency started in 1897 as the first one. As usual in LINQ, the query is executed on the servere-side (by Freebase). The next step is to find the start and end year of the terms in the office. Each object in the presidentInfos has a type representing US politician, which has the Government Position Held property. This means that we can iterate over all their official positions, find the one titled "President" and then get the From and To values:

22

let [

presidentTerms = for pres in presidentInfos do for pos in pres.``Government Positions Held`` do if string pos.``Basic title`` = "President" then // Get start and end year of the position let starty = DateTime.Parse(pos.From).Year let endy = if pos.To = null then 2013 else DateTime.Parse(pos.To).Year // Return three element tuple with the info yield (pres.Name, starty, endy) ]

ANALYSING DEBT CHANGE Before going furter, let's do a quick analysis to find out how the government debt changed during the terms of different presidents. To do the calculation, we take the data frame presidents and add debt at the end of the term.

The data frame provides a powereful "joining" operation that can align data from different data frames. To use it, we need to create a data frame like presidents which has the end of the office year as the index (the index of the frame created previously is just the number of the row): let byEnd = presidents |> Frame.indexRowsInt "End" let endDebt = byEnd.Join(debt, JoinKind.Left)

The data frame byEnd is indexed by years and so we can now use Join to add debt data to the frame. The JoinKind. Left parameter specifies that we want to find a debt value for each key (presidency end year) in the left data frame. The result endDebt is a data frame containing all presidents (column President) together with the debt at the end of their presidency (column Debt). Now we add one more column that represents the difference between the debt at the of the presidency and the debt at the beginning. This is done by getting the endDebt?Debt series and using an operation that calls a specified function for each pair of consecutive values:


endDebt?Difference < endDebt?Debt |> Series.pairwiseWith (fun _ (prev, curr) -> curr - prev)

The data frame structure is mostly immutable, with the only exception - it is possible to add and remove columns. The above line adds a column Difference that is calculated by subtracting the previous debt value from the current debt value. If you now evaluate endDebt in F# interactive (select it and hit Alt+Enter or type endDebt;; in the console) you will see the following table: Year

President

Start

End

Debt

Difference

1901

William McKinley

1897

1901

18.60

<missing>

1909

Theodore Roosevelt

1901

1909

18.65

0.050

1913

William Howard Taft

1909

1913

18.73

0.080

1921

Woodrow Wilson

1913

1921

45.10

26.37

1923

Warren G. Harding

1921

1923

38.95

-6.15

1929

Calvin Coolidge

1923

1929

32.25

-6.7

1933

Herbert Hoover

1929

1933

73.77

41.52

1945

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933

1945

124.1

50.39

1953

Harry S. Truman

1945

1953

79.03

-45.1

1961

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953

1961

67.49

-11.5

1963

John F. Kennedy

1961

1963

64.00

-3.49

1969

Lyndon B. Johnson

1963

1969

50.72

-13.2

1974

Richard Nixon

1969

1974

46.01

-4.71

1977

Gerald Ford

1974

1977

47.55

1.54

1981

Jimmy Carter

1977

1981

43.46

-4.09

1989

Ronald Reagan

1981

1989

66.89

23.43

1993

George H. W. Bush

1989

1993

80.52

13.63

2001

Bill Clinton

1993

2001

71.17

-9.35

2009

George W. Bush

2001

2009

104.47

33.3

2013

Barack Obama

2009

2013

124.84

20.37

One of the main benefits of using the Doodle library is that we do not explicitly align the data. This is done automatically based on the index. For example, the library knows that Difference column starts from the second value (because we do not have the previous debt for McKinley).

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PLOTTING DEBT BY PRESIDENT Our next step is to visualize the combined data. We want to draw a chart similar to the one earlier, but with differently coloured areas, depending on who was the president during the term. We'll also add a label, showing the president's name and election year. To do this, we build a data frame that contains the debt for each year, but adds the name of the current president in a separate column. This means that we want to repeat the president's name for each year in the office. Once we have this, we can group the data and create a chart for each group. First, we need to use Join again. This time, we use the Start column as the index for each president and then use left join on the debt data frame. This means that we want to find the current president for every year since 1900: let byStart = presidents |> Frame.indexRowsInt "Start" let aligned = debt.Join(byStart, JoinKind.Left, Lookup.NearestSmaller)

The data frame byStart only contains values for years when the president was elected. By specifying Lookup.NearestSmaller, we tell the Join operation that it should find the president at the exact year, or at the nearest smaller year (when we have debt for a given year, the president is the most recently elected president). This means that aligned now has debt and a current president (together with his or her start and end years) for each year. To build a nicer chart, we make one more step - we create a series that contains the name of the president together with their start year (as a string) to make the chart labels more useful: let infos = aligned.Rows |> Series.map (fun _ row -> sprintf "%s (%d)" (row.GetAs "President") (row.GetAs "Start"))

The snippet uses aligned.Rows to get all the rows from the data frame as a series (containing individual rows as nested series). Then it formats each row into a string containing the name and the start. The GetAs method is used to get column of a specified type and cast it to an appropriate type (here, the type is determined by the format strings %s and %d, because sprintf is fully type checked). The last step is to turn the aligned data frame into chunks (or groups) based on the current president and then draw a chart for each chunk. Because the data is ordered, we can use Series.chunkWhile which creates consecutive chunks of a time series. The chunks are determined by a predicate on keys (years): let chunked = aligned?Debt |> Series.chunkWhile(fun y1 y2 -> infos.[y1] = infos.[y2])

In our example, the predicate checks that the president for the first year of the chunk (y1) is the same as the president for the last year of the chunk (y2). This means that we group the debt values (obtained using aligned?Debt) into chunks that have the same president. For each chunk, we get a series with debts during the presidency. Now we have everything we need to plot the data: chunked |> Series.observations |> Seq.map (fun (startYear, chunkDebts) -> Chart.Area(chunkDebts, Name=infos.[startYear])) |> Chart.Combine

The snippet takes all observations from the chunked series as tuples and iterates over them using standard Seq.map function. Each observation has startYear of the chunk

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together with a series chunkDebts. We turn each chunk into an area chart with the corresponding president's name as a label. Finally, all charts are combined into a single one (using Chart.Combine), which gives us the following result:

VISUALIZING DATA USING R Aside from using great F# and .NET libraries, we can also interoperate with a wide range of other non-.NET systems. In our last example, we have a quick look at the statistical system R. This is an environment used by many professional data scientists - thanks to the R type provider, we can easily call it from F# and get access to the powerful libraries and visualization tools available in R. The installed R packages are automatically mapped to F# namespaces, so we start by opening the base and ggplot2 packages: open RProvider.``base`` open RProvider.ggplot2

The ggplot2 package is a popular visualization and data exploration library. We can use it to quickly build a chart similar to the one from the previous section. To do this, we need to construct a dictionary with parameters and then call R.qplot (to build the chart) followed by R.print (to display it): namedParams [ "x", box aligned.RowKeys "y", box (Series.values aligned?Debt) "colour", box (Series.values infos) "geom", box [| "line"; "point" |] ] |> R.qplot |> R.print

The namedParams function is used to build a dictionary of arguments for functions with variable number of parameters. Here, we specify x and y data series (years and corresponding debts, respectively) and we set colour parameter to the series with president

25


names (so that the colour is determined by the president). We also instruct the function to plot the data as a combination of "line" and "point" geometries, which gives us the following result:

SUMMARY With a bit of more work, we could turn our analysis into a newspaper article. The only missing piece is breaking the data down by the political parties. If you play with the Freebase type provider, you'll soon discover that there is a Party property on the object representing presidents, so you can get the complete source code from fssnip.net/kv and continue experimenting! We used a number of interesting technologies throughout the process. F# type providers (for Freebase and CSV) make external data first-class citizens in the programming language and we were able to explore the data sources from code. Next, we used Deedle (Dotnet Exploratory Data Library) to align and analyse the data and F# Charting to visualize the results and we also looked at interoperating with the R system. The range of available libraries and tools, together with the succinctness of the language makes F# the perfect data science toolset.

Tomas is a long-time F# enthusiast, Microsoft MVP and author of a book Real-World Functional Programming. He leads functional programming and F# courses in London and New York and contributed to the development of F# as an intern and contractor at Microsoft Research in Cambridge. He is finishing PhD at University of Cambridge, working on functional programming languages.

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MOCKING EXPLAINED There's a problem that every developer who ever wrote a unit test knows about – real code has external dependencies. Writing real unit tests is hard because real code might need a fully populated database, or perhaps calls a remote server; or maybe there is a need to instantiate a complex class created by someone else. By Dror Helper

All these dependencies hinder the ability to write unit tests. When a complex setup is needed in order for the test to run, the end result is fragile tests that tend to break, even if the code under test works perfectly. But don't despair - there is a solution for test authors - and it’s called Mocking (or Isolation). BEFORE WE START - A UNIT TEST Unit tests are short, atomic and automatic tests that have a clear pass/fail criteria. When writing a test in one of .NET's unit testing frameworks - we write a function decorated by a test attribute. That test is run using a test runner. By writing unit tests, developers can make sure their code works, before passing it to QA for further testing. Let’s say we want to write a test for a class that handles user operations. And let’s pretend our class needs to verify a user’s password. Writing a unit test for that method would look something like this: [Test] public void CheckPassword_ValidUserAndPassword_ReturnTrue() { UserService classUnderTest = new UserService(); bool result = classUnderTest.CheckPassword("President Skroob", "12345");

}

Assert.IsTrue(result);

© Mopic/ Shutterstock

By writing additional tests to check other aspects of the CheckPassword method we can make sure it works as required by our specification. The problem starts when we need to run code that needs to do more than just get two values and return one value - in other words the problem starts we need to test in the real world.

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PROBLEMS IN UNIT TESTS PARADISE What happens when the method we're testing requires access to a database in order to check if a user entry exists? Let’s revise the code under test from the example above - this time with data access. public class UserService { private IDataAccess _dataAccess; public UserService(IDataAccess dataAccess) { _dataAccess = dataAccess; } public bool CheckPassword(string userName, string password) { User user = _dataAccess.GetUser(userName); if (user != null) { if (user.VerifyPassword(password)) { return true; } }

}

}

return false;

Now we need to create a new database, populate it with "real" data, run the test, and then clean/restore the database. For each test run - a time consuming endeavor. Another problem is that external dependency makes the test more "fragile" and soon become a maintenance headache if not handled correctly. If a test is dependent on specific environment on a specific PC it could fail when some factor of that environment change. The test would fail "some of the time" - these tests cannot be trusted, they fail to find real bugs and after a while the developer learn to ignore their failures - completely defeating the objectives writing unit tests. HAND ROLLED MOCKS - AND WHY YOU SHOLD AVOID THEM Usually when faced with such a problem developers tends to solve it by writing more code. In this case it’s quite simple to replace the “real” data access with dummy class that would look something like this: public class DummyDataAccess : IDataAccess { private User _returnedUser; public DummyDataAccess(User user) { _returnedUser = user; }

}

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public User GetUser(string userName) { return _returnedUser; }


Now we have a new class we can use in the “new and improved” unit test which calls our dummy database: public void CheckPassword_ValidUserAndPassword_ReturnTrue() { User userForTest = new User("President Skroob", "12345"); IDataAccess fakeDataAccess = new DummyDataAccess(userForTest); UserService classUnderTest = new UserService(fakeDataAccess); bool result = classUnderTest.CheckPassword("President Skroob", "12345");

}

Assert.IsTrue(result);

At first this looks like cheating - it seems that the test does not use the production code fully, and therefore does not really test the system properly. But keep in mind that we're not interested in the working of the data access in this particular unit test; all we want to test is the business logic of the UserService class. In order to test the actual data access we should write additional tests; these ones test that we read and write data correctly into our database. These are called integration tests. Using the DummyDataAccess class achieves these goals: • The test does not need external dependencies (i.e. a database) to run. • The test will execute faster because we do not perform an actual query. The problem with this approach is that we’ve created more code in the form of a new class we need to maintain. In my experience the simple fake class created yesterday, becomes a maintenance nightmare of tomorrow – due to the following: 1. Adding new methods to an existing interface lets go back to the example from the beginning of this article. What happens when we add a new method to the IDataAccess interface? We need to also implement the new method in the fake object (usually we’ll have more than one, so we’ll need to implement in the other fakes too). As the interface grows, the fake object is forced to add more and more methods that are not really needed for a particular test just so the code will compile. That’s usually necessary work, with almost no value. 2. Adding new functionality to a base class one way around the method limitation is to create a real class and derive the fake object from it, only faking the methods needed for the tests to pass. Sometimes it can prove risky, though. The problem is that once derived, our fake objects have fields and methods that perform real actions and could cause problems in our tests. An example I encountered in the past showed this exact scenario: A hand rolled fake was inherited from a production

class: it had an internal object opening a TCP connection upon creation. This caused very strange failures in my unit tests. In this case, the team wasted time because of the way the fake object was created. 3. Adding new functionality to our fake object as the number of tests increases, we’ll be adding more functionality to our fake object. For some tests method X returns null, while for other tests it returns a specific object. As the needs of the tests grow and become distinct, our fake object adds more and more functionality until it becomes so complicated that it may need unit testing of its own. All of these problems require us to look for a more robust, industry grade solution - namely a mocking framework. MOCKING FRAMEWORKS A mocking framework (or isolation framework) is a 3rd party library, which is a time saver. In fact, comparing the saving in code lines between using a mocking framework and writing hand rolled mocks, for the same code, can go up to 90%! Instead of creating our fake objects by hand, we can use the framework to create them, with a few API calls. Each mocking framework has a set of APIs for creating and using fake objects, without the user needing to maintain details that are irrelevant to the test - in other words, if a fake is created for a specific class, when that class adds a new method nothing needs to change in the test. One final remark: a mocking framework is just like any other piece of code and does not "care" which unit testing framework is used to write the test it's in. There are many such mocking frameworks in the .NET world open source and commercial - some create a fake object at run-time, others generate the needed code during compilation, and yet others use method interception to catch calls to real objects and replace these with calls to a fake object. Obviously the framework’s technology dictates its functionality.

31


For example: if a specific framework works by creating new objects at run-time using inheritance, then that framework cannot fake static methods and objects that cannot be derived. It's important to understand the differences between frameworks, prior to committing to one. Once you build a large amount of tests, replacing a mocking framework can be expensive.

SUMMARY Unit testing has many benefits when used as part of the development process. The early feedback you receive from your tests help you avoid bugs and increase confidence in your code. By writing and running unit tests you can make sure that new bugs weren't introduced, and that you gave QA actual working code.

WHAT TO EXPECT FROM YOUR MOCKING FRAMEWORK Any mocking framework should support at least the following three capabilities:

Mocking frameworks are essential tools for writing unit tests. In fact, without a tool like this, you’re bound to fail in your effort - either you won’t have unit tests that give early feedback, or no tests at all.

1. Create fake object A mocking framework creates a fake object to be used in a test. Usually a default behavior can be set in this stage. In order to configure more detailed function behavior additional code is required.

This is why deciding on a mocking framework or some other similar solution is as important as deciding the unit testing framework used. Once you pick a framework, master it. It helps make your unit testing experience easy and successful.

2. Set behavior on fake objects After we’ve created the fake object more often than not we will need to set specific behavior on some of its methods. 3. Verify methods were called Also known as interaction testing. The mocking framework gives us the power to test that a specific method was called (or not called), in which order, how many times and with which arguments. Some mocking frameworks have additional functionality, such as the ability to invoke events on the fake object or cause the creation of a specific fake object inside the product code. However these three basic capabilities are the core functionality expected from every mocking framework. Additional features should be compared and checked when deciding which mocking framework to use.

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Dror Helper is a senior consultant working at CodeValue. In his previous jobs as software developer and an architect he has designed and written software in various fields including video streaming, eCommerce, performance optimization and unit testing tools. Dror speaks in local and international venues about software development, agile methodologies, unit testing and test-driven design. In his blog Dror writes about programming languages, development tools, and anything else he finds interesting.


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The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) [1] is a non-forprofit organization of volunteers that provide guidance, best practices, tools and more on various topics of web application security. Probably the best-known information OWASP provides is the Top Ten List [2] that is released in a new version every three years. This article lists the security vulnerabilities identified in the 2013 edition and what that means for ASP.NET developers.

OWASP Top Ten By Christian Wenz

1. INJECTION “Injection” is a common term for several kinds of vulnerabilities. In general, untrusted data is sent to a kind of interpreter. The most commonly found kind of injection is SQL Injection, where user input is injected into a SQL query. Although this vulnerability is at the top spot, it is quite rare in ASP.NET applications, since not only does the technology supports prepared statements, but because Microsoft pushes hard their own OR/M solution, Entity Framework. This separates data form commands, so actually developers have to try really hard to allow SQL injection. 2. BROKEN AUTHENTICATION AND SESSION MANAGEMENT HTTP does not support any kind of decent session management, so the programming frameworks need to help out. ASP.NET’s session management is solid, as long as you do not activate cookie-less sessions. ASP. NET also uses security enhancement for the session cookies, including the HttpOnly flag, which is baked into the SessionIDManager class and cannot be changed, which is a good thing.

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3. CROSS-SITE SCRIPTING (XSS) This security vulnerability is probably the most well-known: user input is sent back to the client and will then be interpreted as, for instance, JavaScript code. When using ASP. NET Web Forms, a typical example is setting the Text property of a Label, or using the <%= short form. In the former case, escaping the output with HttpUtility.HtmlEncode() helps, and in the latter case <%: does practically the same. For ASP.NET MVC, the Razor syntax uses @ for output, for similar results. Note, though, that you need additional escaping when outputting user data in CSS or JavaScript markup. 4. INSECURE DIRECT OBJECT REFERENCES In some applications, changing a parameter value grants access to something the current user is not allowed to see. This is however independent on the technology use, so you have to fix this at the application level. 5. SECURITY MISCONFIGURATION It is mandatory to keep the operating

system and also the framework itself up-to-date, and not to install superfluous components on the server: Also, ASP.NET configuration options that are considered insecure (plain text passwords for the Membership API, the aforementioned cookieless sessions, and so on) should be avoided. 6. SENSITIVE DATA EXPOSURE Sensitive data is called that way because it should not be made available to the wrong entities. In order to help this effort, a proper encryption is mandatory, both on the transport level (SSL is a must) and wherever the data is stored (strong algorithms are required). 7. MISSING FUNCTION LEVEL CONTROL There are several ways to protect server functionality from being accessed by the wrong users. You could keep the URLs secret, or you could control the access on function (or, if applicable, on controller) level. Obviously, only the latter of these two approaches is advisable.


8. CROSS-SITE REQUEST FORGERY (CSRF) Surprisingly late in the top ten list we find the common vulnerability most often exploited by letting unsuspecting users run HTTP queries against another server. The target server automatically receives the user’s cookies for that server, thus identifies him or her, and executes the action for this request, without the user actually knowing (or wanting). The web application may help mitigate this risk, if GET requests are never used for state-changing actions. For POST and other HTTP verbs, security mechanisms such as random tokens within each form may be used. ASP.NET MVC, for instance, provides the Html.AntiForgeryToken() helper and the corresponding [ValidateAntiForgeryToken] attribute for the associated action.

ability (an issue that was exploited before there was a patch) the ASP. NET project suffered from in late 2011, when an issue in the framework could allow a denial of service attack. [3] A patch followed shortly afterwards, outside the usual “second Tuesday of the month” patch cycle.

9. USING COMPONENTS WITH KNOWN VULNERABILITIES As mentioned in top ten list item 5, the system needs to be up-to-date, especially if there are known security vulnerabilities. One good reason for this is the “zero-day” security vulner-

More on these vulnerabilities, more in-depth details and some additional attacks will be featured in my OWASP Top Ten 2013 talk at NDC London. Looking forward to seeing you there!

10. UNVALIDATED REDIRECTS AND FORWARDS When uses click on a link, many of them usually only look at the domain name, not the URL following. If a website provides open URLs in the form of http://server. tld/redirect?url=http://otherserver. tld, this may be used for phishing attacks or worse. If your application has a redirection mechanism, always verify (white-list, if possible) the target URL.

REFERENCES [1] https://www.owasp.org/index. php/Main_Page [2] https://www.owasp.org/index.php/ Category:OWASP_Top_Ten_Project [3] http://technet.microsoft.com/ en-us/security/advisory/2659883

Christian Wenz started working almost exclusively with web technologies in 1993 and has not looked back since. As a developer and project manager he was responsible for websites from medium– sized companies up to large, international enterprises. As an author, he wrote or co– wrote over 100 books that have been translated into ten languages. Christian frequently writes for various IT magazines, is a sought–after speaker at developer conferences around the world, and is always keen on sharing technologies he is excited about with others.

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Developers

Baking in Security In the first moments of a project’s planning, basic choices are maid that impact the security of the final product. Critical choices of what data is accessed and the day-to-day work flow are key to the security stance of the end deliverable. By Jon McCoy

I propose the Security of an application can be done with more efficiency (lower cost and/or more impact) if baked in from the start. If Security is baked in from the start key-design choices can be done to avoid wasted time and/ or select correct key components that are fundamentally advantageous to Security. Security Should • Support and speed up dev/testing/release process • Increase the overall reliability of the system • Increase the overall confidence in the system • Reduce the attack surface

Security Should NOT • Slow the development cycle • Halt production • Revert progress • Destroy momentum The difference between an insecure and secure application is sometimes as little as use Crypto “A” not Crypto “B”, have your communications system run to central nodes, locate critical logic behind protected servers, build detection points, build security unit tests, build disaster

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plans, properly defend critical keys/data……………….. All of this is fairly simple to design in at the start of the planning process but can be nearly impossible to change post-deployment. Key points of the system, such as what systems talk to each other, can make it easy to defend/detect attackers or near impossible to distinguish normal User traffic from MalUser traffic. A good security expert will get to know your product, user base, development team, management style, code base, system dependencies, network…… This will allow for recommendations to be put in a proper context with clear development paths. Some security fixes should be done in a very specific way or cannot be done or some are hard or some should be done at a later time/context. Lastly - Having a clear implementation plan for a security fix is critical. A security expert can perform an evaluation finding security weak spots, but unless you have an expert on staff focused on how to implement a fix the solution could be worse than the original problem. A common problem example is: Your passwords should be over 7 or 14 char long, they should have */Y/z chars and be changed every 20-100 days. This is nice to have and it does increase security.


A BAD WAY TO HARDEN PASSWORDS: • Have IT set the enforcement of strong passwords. • Then people write down the password and don’t lock computers. • Then you fight back, against your users, by enforcement of computer auto time locks. This descends into a fight between IT-&-Security and your users. Security should always make security that works in the real world if users fight against it, I believe, the security/system should change. A GOOD WAY TO HARDEN PASSWORDS: -----A Yubikey(www.Yubico.com) is a tiny fake-keyboard that can remember a password ----• Buy Yubikeys in bulk and give them out like/with badges • The Yubikey should sit on our keychain or badge • The Yubikey should be changed AutoMagicly every X-Days • Then people start to lose their key, you respond with a policy: If you lose your key it is a “good event” call-in and we will cancel your key and you can pick one up at the X-desk • After a week or month you send a note out about the keys: “We request you use a few characters with your key/password (Example: “Jon”+PressKey+”Doe32” or PressKey+”god32”+Presskey) this will create Namejy45xwg8f87e9kw8gw87wcLast43 as your

password and next week it will auto rotate to be Name#ky1d&8t@w^0etLast43 • TODO: Always test EVERYTHING on IT then technology-savvy (opt-in users) users then roll it out to the enterprise This problem of password management and authentication is faced by most everyone today; literally 10’s of thousands of solutions have been crafted and used. The knowledge in this area is common place and constantly evolving, if you live in the security world.

Jon McCoy is a .NET Software Engineer that focuses on security and forensics. He has worked on a number of Open Source projects ranging from hacking tools to software for paralyzed people.

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Hello

JavaScript

By Richard Astbury

By Rob Ashton

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JavaScript's time has come, and with that coming there is are big movements happening in the enterprise away from platforms such as Silverlight and WPF to more web-oriented environments. Prompted by this mass exodus there has been an influx of interesting frameworks released into the browser platform, Backbone, Angular, Ember amongst some of the favourites - they seek to bring to the browser a lot of what we have been used to in the desktop and mobile development environments. They purport to offer a lot of functionality out of the box; separation of presentation from logic via various model/ view patterns, client-side routing, two-way binding via a model, automatic binding to web services - the list goes on. Very often because this is seen as desirable, the first question a new JS developer will ask is "which framework should I be using?". As a long time enterprise developer and consultant, I have seen first-hand the devastation caused by questions like "Which ORM should I use? Which HTTP Framework should I use? Which workflow framework should be use?" and while this activity has led to the creation of plenty of jobs for those cleaning up on these projects only recently have the voices started being heard asking the question "Why should we be using a framework at all?". This growing dissent has led to the strong ethos behind the NodeJS eco-system, a strong set of minimal core modules surrounded by a plethora of community provided modules with single responsibility at their core and a powerful means of delivery in the form of NPM - the package manager that could. While the opinion is not universal, there is a strong consensus in the NodeJS community that • Modules should only try to solve a single problem • Modules should be small enough to be understood by most developers • Frameworks should be avoided unless the short term wins can be offset by the long-term pain Often this is seen as a cry to re-invent the wheel, but the appropriate metaphorical desire is actually that of wishing to pick the components that make up that wheel instead of trying to simply attach a monster truck tire to our Fiat Punto.

STARTING A CLIENT-SIDE APPLICATION WITH NO FRAMEWORKS How does this relate to the world of client side frameworks? Well - NPM is not just for server-side modules! Using a client-side packaging utility such as Browserify, creating a new client-side application is as simple as the following instructions, assuming that NodeJS is installed. First we'll need to install Browserify itself, which can be done with NPM like so npm install -g browserify

This gives us a command line utility which can be used to compile a JS app into something consumable by the client. If we're in a directory where we want to write some client-side code, we should kick-start our development by creating a package.json, which tells browserify and NPM about our client application's dependencies. This can be achieved with the command npm init, or by manually creating a file called package.json like so: {

}

"name": "our-amazing-application", "version": "0.0.0"

We create an application file called "app.js" next to the package.json and leave it empty, because we need to go onto the NPM website (http://npmjs.org/) and look for our first library. The first thing we want to do is know when the DOM is ready, so we search for this and come up with a library that does just this. "domready" npm install domready --save

That save directive ensures that our package.json is updated with the relevant dependencies automatically, so it now looks like this: {

}

"name": "our-amazing-application", "version": "0.0.0", "dependencies": { "domready": "~0.2.13" }

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Going into our "app.js" file, we can now use this module like so: var domReady = require('domready') function index() { this.innerHTML = "<p>Welcome to the machine</p>" } domReady(function() { var container = document. getElementById('content') index.call(container) })

Now, this is fabulous, but we obviously want to do a bit more than that - perhaps some templating with a library like Mustache. Just like before can go onto NPM and install this in the same manner: npm install mustache --save

And now rather than directly playing with HTML we can instead utilise our favourite templating library in our code the same way we used domready. var domReady = require('domready') , mustache = require('mustache') function index() { var template = "<p>Hello {{Name}}" this.innerHTML = mustache.render(template, { name: "Bob" }) } domReady(function() { var container = document. getElementById('content') index.call(container) })

Maybe we want to get that data from a web server so we can greet the current user by name, well NPM has the answer for this as well! npm install request --save

Now we can make a very simple web request to the server and ask for the data we need before rendering the content:

var domReady = require('domready') , mustache = require('mustache') , request = require('request') function index(model) { var template = document. getElementById('template').innerText this.innerHTML = mustache.render(template, model) } domReady(function() { var container = document. getElementById('content') request('/currentuser', function(model) { index.call(container, model) })

})

And we can repeat this process for every feature our application might need. We can find libraries on NPM for routing, HTML5 history, web request, testing, streaming, and parsing alongside much more and build our application organically out of just the bits we need as we need them. THIS IS A PLEASURE This is a very sensible way of building applications, and one which reduces the dependency of the software being built on the author of a single black-box framework and the immediate overhead to understanding that this involves. It makes it far easier to contribute back to the module system, as modules are provided in neat self-contained that can often be read in their entirety in a few minutes and patched to solve a problem in just a few minutes more. Rather than spending time searching the internet on how to deal with edge cases in a framework, we instead are able to easily build a module to fill the gaps ourselves, or download one somebody has written before. So, next time somebody asks "which framework should we use", we should respond to that question with another question, "Why do you want a framework?" - and avoid the pitfall of bad habits from the very beginning of the project.

Rob splits his time between free contracts that will teach him new things, and paid work for his own consultancy where he helps companies with RavenDB, C#, JS and software practices in general. When not learning or working, he can be found building awful games in JavaScript for the sheer joy of it. At weekends you'll not find him because he is buried deep in a world of Clojure.

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POWERFUL QUESTIONS

â&#x20AC;&#x153;If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the proper question, I could solve the problem in less than five minutes.â&#x20AC;? ALBERT EINSTEIN

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WHAT IS A POWERFUL QUESTION? It's often really hard to define which is frustrating because it's such a useful, nay integral, part of a coach's (and ScrumMaster's) toolbox. A coach will spend a lot of time asking questions rather than giving solutions and so wouldn't it be useful if we could define what a powerful question was and then practice the art of asking them? It would not only make us better coaches but also be of more benefit to our coachees, and our teams. By Geoff Watts

In Co-Active Coaching, powerful questions are defined as "provocative queries that put a halt to evasion and confusion. By asking the powerful question, the coach invites the client to clarity, action, and discovery at a whole new level." Vogt et al define a powerful question as thought-provoking, generating curiosity in the listener, surfacing underlying assumptions, touching a deep meaning and inviting creativity and new possibilities.

One person (person A) gets to talk about something that they are finding difficult to make progress on for around 60 seconds while everyone else listens. At the end of the 60 seconds the listeners get the chance to ask one question that is designed to help person A. Person A does NOT answer these questions but rather notices how the questions affect them.

I call it "hot-seat questioning" and was introduced to it on a coaching course with Barefoot Coaching a couple of years ago. As most of the best techniques are, it is very simple yet regularly profoundly effective and it works in groups of 3-7 although 4-5 is generally optimum.

How did you find talking about something knowing that you wouldn't have to answer any follow up questions? How did the fact that you knew your question wouldn't get answered affect your question? How did it feel knowing you couldn't answer the questions you were asked? What patterns did you notice about the questions that had the biggest effect?

This is good and helpful but still leaves us with a certain amount of ambiguity. Another difficulty is that a question that has a powerful impact on one person at one particular time may be less powerful, or not powerful at all, at a different time or with a different person. HOW CAN WE GET GOOD AT SOMETHING SO ABSTRACT? I have a technique that I like to use in order to practice my skill of asking powerful questions. I have found that, as well as being great practice for me, it is also a useful coaching technique in its own right and can even be used by teams themselves to help get past a tricky challenge.

SOME POWERFUL QUESTIONS FOR YOU Once you have given this technique a try, consider one or two of the questions below:

Why was (or wasn't) this technique powerful for you? How could you use something similar to this technique with your teams?

Once everyone has asked person A a question, person A then provides feedback to the questioners on how their questions affected them and/ or how they might have made their questions more powerful. Optionally, you may then allow everyone to ask another question each (again with no answers being provided by person A) After the feedback on the powerful questions, another person gets the chance to talk about their topicâ&#x20AC;Ś

Geoff Watts is a UK-based Scrum and leadership coach, author of Scrum Mastery: From Good to Great Servant-Leadership and will be delivering the opening keynote talk at this year's Scrum Gathering in Cape Town

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London is a diverse and exciting city with some of the world’s best sights and attractions. The city attracts more than 30 million visitors from all over the world every year.

By Mari Myhre

With a population of more than 8 million people, London is the most populous region, urban zone and metropolitan city in the United Kingdom. The city has a diverse range of people and cultures, with more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries. The city is filled with a thrilling atmosphere and definitely has something to offer for everyone, whether you’re interested in arts, culture, shopping food or entertainment. Here’s a little guide of London’s most famous attractions: BUCKINGHAM PALACE & THE RIVER THAMES Buckingham Palace is by far the most popular tourist destination attracting more than 15 million people every year. People from all over the world come to see the famous “guard change” that takes place outside the palace every day at 11.30am. Many of the city’s other attractions are situated along the banks of the River Thames. Here you will find the Tower of London where tourists can get to see the remarkable Crowns of England. The Houses of Parliament followed by the fabulous clock tower, Big Ben are also in same area. A few blocks away you will find the London Eye, Europe’s tallest Ferris wheel. It’s the most popular paid tourist attraction in the UK visited by more than 3,5 million people every year, where you can get to see the city from above. 44

London THE BOROUGH MARKET London is also well known for its different markets, such as the Borough market, - a wholesale retail and food market based in Southwark, central London. It is one of the largest and oldest food markets in the city and offers a variety of foods from all over the world. The market gives you a different taste of the city and has become a fashionable place to buy fresh food in London. Amongst the products on sale are fresh fruit, vegetables, cheese, meat and freshly baked breads. There is also a wide variety of cooked food and snacks for the many people who flock to the market. Borough Market has also been used as film locations for several movies including the Harry Potter series and Bridget Jones. HYDE PARK Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in the capital, most known for the Speakers Corners. The park has become a traditional location for mass demonstrations, and the venue of several concerts. Hyde Park also hosts the popular Christmas fair Winter Wonderland every year, featuring UK’s largest ice rink, a charming Christmas market and a huge observation wheel. Winter Wonderland is definitely London’s most magical Christmas destination and absolutely worth a visit if you’re in town later this year.

WINE & DINE The city is also packed with exclusive restaurants, which offers you tastes from all over the world. Whether you fancy British, Indian, Italian or Scandinavian, London has it all. The most authentic American restaurant, Big Easy is located in the heart of Chelsea. The founder and owner, Paul Corrett was a lover for all American things and had a desire to open a place that could offer “Good Food, Served Right”. Big Easy brings you back to a simpler time. With its lovely atmosphere it’s the perfect place to sit back, relax and enjoy a home cooked meal. The restaurant offers everything from American steaks to freshly Canadian lobster. Big Easy attracts movie stars, journalists, politicians, the British royal family and of course its regulars. Charming bars and pubs are also located around each corner in London. Princess Louise, a pub based in Holborn is the place to be for beers fanatics. However, if you’re looking for the town’s best cocktails, stop by Callooh Callay in Shoreditch. London is unique compared to other cities and definitely has something new to offer no matter how many times you have visited the city. It’s the perfect destination whether you are in town for business or pleasure. And it’s probably true what the famous English author Samuel Jackson once said, “When you’re tired of London, you’re tired of life”.


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Adding Animations as the final gloss for your Windows Phone app 46


Appropriate use of animations are a key part of any successful Windows app, whether on Windows 8.x or on Windows Phone. For Windows Phone apps, there are six essential animations that every developer and designer needs to know how to implement: two kinds of page transition animations, the ‘tilt effect’ to apply to pressed items such as a button, and animations to represent the loading or unloading of an item and the deletion of an item. This article shows you how. By Andy Wigley

There has been plenty of praise from reviewers for the “buttery smooth” animations that characterise the user experience on Windows 8 and Windows Phone. They are built right into the platform, from the way the tiles animate onto the Start screen when you start the app, and of course are a fundamental feature of the ‘modern UI’ apps that you launch from there. In fact, if you build a Windows 8.x Store app in Visual Studio and create a couple of XAML pages in it, the basic animations a user would expect to see in an app are built right into the framework, so you have to do very little as a developer to create a well behaved app – nice! It’s a similar story with the built-in controls such as the GridView and ListView, all the standard animations are built-in so the designer can concentrate their efforts not on re-implementing these standard animations in every app, but instead on creating beautiful experiences elsewhere in the app.

ANIMATIONS IN WINDOWS PHONE APPS For Windows Phone app developers, unfortunately the process is a little more manual. Certainly, built-in controls such as the LongListSelector, Pivot and Panorama have beautiful animations built-in and while the user is interacting directly with those controls, it’s all beautiful and fluid, as the user would expect. But as soon as you navigate away from those controls, perhaps to another page, or if you build an app out of simpler controls such as the standard <Page>, then things go a bit awry. There’s quite a lot of the animations you would expect to see – well – missing. A great example of this is exhibited by the standard Windows Phone Databound App new project template in Visual Studio. Create yourself one of these and run it: what is the user experience like? It’s really not good enough. The main page navigates nicely into view using the pleasing turnstile page transition navigation and then shows a list of items, but when you tap on an entry in the list, it navigates to another page that shows the detail of the selected item without applying any navigations at all. It’s just ‘tap’ and – bang! – the target page simply replaces the source page. No turnstyle animations as exhibited by the built-in first party apps such as the Contacts app, just a straight ‘hide one page, show the next’ experience – really not good enough.

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IMPLEMENTING PAGE TRANSITION ANIMATIONS Happily, this shortcoming is easily rectified. For this, you need to add a reference to the Windows Phone Toolkit which is a collection of ‘extra’ bits and pieces provided by the Windows Phone developer platform engineering team. It is distributed on NuGet which is the package manager for the Microsoft development platform. To install the Windows Phone Toolkit, first make sure you have got the most up to date NuGet Client installed. To check this, open Visual Studio and click on the Tools menu, then click Extensions and Updates. In the Extensions and Updates window, click on the Updates section shown in the menu on the left hand side – if an update is listed for the NuGet Package Manager for Visual Studio, click to install it.

If you click on this link for the Windows Phone Toolkit, it takes you to http://phone.codeplex.com which is where you can find out more about the toolkit and indeed, download the entire source code for the package. Documentation is still a little bit hard to find on the project webpage, and in fact the ‘documentation’ for the Windows Phone Toolkit is provided in the form of a sample app that is included in the source code download for this project. So download it, build it in Visual Studio 2012 and run the sample app and examine the source code to figure out how to use the different features offered within it.

Back in Solution Explorer, right-click on your project file and on the context menu, click Manage NuGet Packages… which launches the NuGet client wizard. In the Search box, type Windows Phone Toolkit to locate the correct package in the NuGet online library. When it finds it, click the Install button to download the assembly and add it to your project references. Although all the answers are revealed by studying the sample app, it still takes some time to figure out which animation you want and how to apply it – which is where articles like this one comes in. We’ve figured it out, so you don’t have to!

OK, so what happens next? Well, at this point you need a bit of insider knowledge (or an article such as this one!) and with NuGet packages that can be a bit hard to find sometimes. There is no requirement for publishers of NuGet packages to provide any detailed documentation that is directly discoverable from Visual Studio or from MSDN. In fact, there is no standard way of providing documentation. NuGet package publishers are required to provide a webpage of information about their package, and a link to that called Project Information is displayed in the NuGet Package Manager information pane, which displays on the right when you select a package (as shown in the image above).

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The one you want for most page transitions is the Turnstile. Turnstile Forward In needs to be applied to the page we are navigating to, and Turnstile Forward Out needs to be applied to the page we are navigating from. When the user presses the Back button, then the animations are subtly different: Turnstile Backward Out on the page we are leaving, and Turnstile Backward In on the page we are navigating back to. Sounds complicated? Fortunately, it’s easy to implement. 1. First open your App.Xaml.cs file in the code editor and scroll down to the bottom to the collapsed region called Phone application initialization. Expand this region and locate the InitializePhoneApplication method and the sixth line where it sets RootFrame to be a new instance of PhoneApplicationFrame. 2. Change this to a TransitionFrame, which is a specialised version of PhoneApplicationFrame that comes in the Windows Phone Toolkit and which adds in support for page transition animations:


private void InitializePhoneApplication() { if (phoneApplicationInitialized) return; // Create the frame but don't set it as RootVisual yet; this allows the… // screen to remain active until the application is ready to render. RootFrame = new TransitionFrame(); RootFrame.Navigated += CompleteInitializePhoneApplication;

3. Now, in every page where you want to support Page transitions (so, actually that’s *every* page), add the xmlns:toolkit namespace declaration to the top <Page…> element: <phone:PhoneApplicationPage x:Class="DataBoundAppWithPageTransitions.MainPage" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" xmlns:phone="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone" xmlns:shell="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Shell;assembly=Microsoft.Phone" xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008" xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006" xmlns:toolkit= "clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone.Controls.Toolkit" mc:Ignorable="d"

4. Now go to the code for the Windows Phone Toolkit sample app that you downloaded before, and open Samples\NavigationTransitionSample1. xaml in the PhoneToolkitSample.WP8 project. Copy the block of XAML that defines the <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationInTransition> and the <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationOutTransition> that is in there, after the opening <Page> element: <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Backward> <toolkit:TurnstileTransition Mode="BackwardIn"/> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Backward> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Forward> <toolkit:TurnstileTransition Mode="ForwardIn"/> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Forward> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition> </toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationOutTransition> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Backward> <toolkit:TurnstileTransition Mode="BackwardOut"/> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Backward> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Forward> <toolkit:TurnstileTransition Mode="ForwardOut"/> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Forward> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition> </toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationOutTransition>

5. Paste that XAML into each of your pages. 6. Run, and enjoy your beautiful page navigation transition animations!

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The image above shows the turnstile effect as applied to the Databound App project. In fact, this is *not* the ideal animation to use in this case. You should use a ‘regular’ turnstile animation such as this when navigating from a page that displays a ‘menu’ of options so that the destination page signifies a ‘new task’. When the source page is a list and you are navigating to another page that is a drill-down detail, then the appropriate animation is the feathered turnstile (see later in this article). FURTHER ESSENTIAL ANIMATIONS Page transition animations can be considered the bare minimum acceptable, but those alone are nowhere near enough. There is another animation included in the Toolkit which is extremely easy to apply. This is called Tilt Effect and is a subtle 3D animation that provides the effect of movement into the screen when the user taps on a button or a list item or other controls that inherit from button. Tilteffect is one of those subtle effects that the user may not even notice, but somehow increases their pleasure while interacting with your app. In this frame capture, the runtime three list item is pressed, causing it to appear to depress into the screen.

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To turn this on across the page, simply declare the toolkit namespace as we did with page animations. Then turn on tilteffect by setting the following attribute in the <Page> element XAML tag: <phone:PhoneApplicationPage … xmlns:toolkit= "clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone.Controls.Toolkit" … shell:SystemTray.IsVisible="True" toolkit:TiltEffect.IsTiltEnabled="True">

There’s much more you can do with Tilt Effect such as apply it on a per control basis rather than across the page, but for basic usage that’s all you need to know.

BUT I WANT A 5 STAR APP… Many developers will leave it at that. Page turnstile transition animations and tilt effect are good additions, but they really have to be considered the bare minimum acceptable. And if you want a 5 star app in reviews, then you need to go further – to ‘sweat the details’ as we say. Feathered Turnstile Animation This is a variant of the basic Turnstile page animation. Instead of simply ‘folding’ the page in or out rotating around the vertical edge of the screen, this one gives more of a ‘page turn’ visual effect. As mentioned before, you should use this when navigating from a list of items and the destination page is a drill-down detail page for an item selected on the source page. This is also included in the Toolkit – see the featheredtransitions sample in the sample app. To implement this, implement the Turnstiles animation in the same way as described before, but there are some subtle changes in the XAML you use to declare the animations on the page with the List control, and the addition of a FeatheringIndex attribute on the principal controls displayed on the page:

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<phone:PhoneApplicationPage x:Class="DataBoundAppWithPageTransitions.MainPage" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" xmlns:phone="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone" xmlns:shell="clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Shell;assembly=Microsoft.Phone" xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008" xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006" xmlns:toolkit= "clr-namespace:Microsoft.Phone.Controls;assembly=Microsoft.Phone.Controls.Toolkit" mc:Ignorable="d" d:DataContext="{d:DesignData SampleData/MainViewModelSampleData.xaml}" FontFamily="{StaticResource PhoneFontFamilyNormal}" FontSize="{StaticResource PhoneFontSizeNormal}" Foreground="{StaticResource PhoneForegroundBrush}" SupportedOrientations="Portrait" Orientation="Portrait" shell:SystemTray.IsVisible="True" toolkit:TiltEffect.IsTiltEnabled="True"> <!--Transitions--> <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Backward> <toolkit:TurnstileFeatherTransition Mode="BackwardIn"/> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Backward> <toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Forward> <toolkit:TurnstileFeatherTransition Mode="ForwardIn"/> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition.Forward> </toolkit:NavigationInTransition> </toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationInTransition> <toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationOutTransition> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Backward> <toolkit:TurnstileFeatherTransition Mode="BackwardOut"/> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Backward> <toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Forward> <toolkit:TurnstileFeatherTransition Mode="ForwardOut"/> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition.Forward> </toolkit:NavigationOutTransition> </toolkit:TransitionService.NavigationOutTransition> <Grid x:Name="LayoutRoot" Background="Transparent"> <Grid.RowDefinitions> <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/> <RowDefinition Height="*"/> </Grid.RowDefinitions>

<!--TitlePanel contains the name of the application and page title--> <StackPanel Grid.Row="0" Margin="12,17,0,28"> <TextBlock Text="MY APPLICATION" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextNormalStyle}" toolkit:TurnstileFeatherEffect.FeatheringIndex="0"/> <TextBlock Text="page name" Margin="9,-7,0,0" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextTitle1Style}" toolkit:TurnstileFeatherEffect.FeatheringIndex="1"/> </StackPanel>

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<Grid x:Name="ContentPanel" Grid.Row="1" Margin="12,0,12,0"> <phone:LongListSelector x:Name="MainLongListSelector" Margin="0,0,-12,0" ItemsSource="{Binding Items}" SelectionChanged="MainLongListSelector_SelectionChanged" toolkit:TiltEffect.IsTiltEnabled="True" toolkit:TurnstileFeatherEffect.FeatheringIndex="2"> <phone:LongListSelector.ItemTemplate> <DataTemplate> <StackPanel Margin="0,0,0,17"> <TextBlock Text="{Binding LineOne}" TextWrapping="Wrap" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextExtraLargeStyle}"/> <TextBlock Text="{Binding LineTwo}" TextWrapping="Wrap" Margin="12,-6,12,0" Style="{StaticResource PhoneTextSubtleStyle}"/> </StackPanel> </DataTemplate> </phone:LongListSelector.ItemTemplate> </phone:LongListSelector> </Grid> </Grid>

</phone:PhoneApplicationPage>

As you can see above in the highlighted XAML, the page transitions are defined using the TurnstileFeatherTransition, and you must also set the TurnstileFeatherEffect.FeatheringIndex attached property on the controls to define the order in which the page should animate the controls as the page transition takes place. So in the XAML shown above, the two TextBlock controls in the header StackPanel animate first (FeatheringIndex ‘0’ and ‘1’), while the LongListSelector control containing the list animates last: <phone:LongListSelector x:Name="MainLongListSelector" Margin="0,0,-12,0" ... toolkit:TurnstileFeatherEffect.FeatheringIndex="2">

The result is very pleasing:

Notice that the target page, the drill-down detail page, just uses a regular turnstile animation, as before. ITEM LOADING, UNLOADING AND DELETION ANIMATIONS There are many other animations a skilled designer can employ to convey meaning and emphasis to the user experience, but the three others that I consider to be essential are when your app loads an item and when it deletes an item. These animations are taken from quite an old blog post by my Microsoft colleague, Jerry Nixon, who is a Technical Evangelist based in Colorado. A few years ago, back when we could still call our design language ‘metro’, he wrote an excellent series of blog posts on must-have animations for Windows Phone apps: http://blog.jerrynixon. com/2012/01/mango-sample-5-must-have-animations_4508.html . In it he describes five animations, the implementation of two of which, the turnstile and ‘Select Item’ (a.k.a. tilt effect) have been superseded by the capabilities in the Windows Phone Toolkit as already described

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in this article. The other three, ‘Load item’, ‘Unload item’ and ‘Delete Item’ that he describes are still part of my essential tools though. As Jerry describes it so well, the Load Item animation is “so simple and so pleasant. Instead of popping a new page’s content, content is gently raised and revealed. … The whole storyboard duration is .75 seconds. It gives the user that the content is “being brought in”.”

The Unload Item animation is simply the reverse of this. The Delete Item animation, Jerry describes as “dramatic, but communicative and fast. It is also consistent. We see this animation used in Email when a message is deleted. Without a doubt, this is my favorite of them all – because it is so visually communicative.”

As to how to implement these, there is no point in me simply repeating what Jerry has described so well, so go over and read how to implement them at his blog: http:// blog.jerrynixon.com/2012/01/mango-sample-5-musthave-animations.html . The animations are implemented in code instead of XAML but that doesn’t make them any less appropriate. The only slight disadvantage of the Load/Unload animations is that they require you to set the initial state of your LayoutRoot element in XAML to Visibility.Collapsed which can be a slight annoyance when you want to work on the page design in the Visual Studio designer – you just have to remember to toggle the visibility before and after each design session. The results for the user experience make it worth it though!

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Andy Wigley works as a Technical Evangelist for Microsoft UK, working to support the developer community to create mobile apps on Microsoft platforms. Andy is well-known for the popular Windows Phone JumpStart videos which are available on http:// channel9.msdn.com. He has written a number of books for developers published by Microsoft Press and is a regular speaker at major conferences such as Tech Ed.


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By Richard Astbury

Getting Serious with

JavaScript

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TypeScript is a new language that makes writing JavaScript applications 89% less ridiculous (This statistic is 99.9% plucked out of the air). If you have a large JavaScript project you'll know that it can become unwieldy really fast. There is nothing elegant about the Syntactical sugar we apply to JavaScript to make it behave like it were an Object Orientated Language, TypeScript changes that, we write our code in TypeScript and when we compile it to get 100% pure JavaScript as an output. By Martin Beeby

STATIC TYPING The current version of JavaScript ECMAScript 5 and the future version ECMAScript 6 are not and will not be statically typed. There are sometimes advantages to this, however, with large code bases lack of Type safety can often cause problems. Take for example the following: var number1 = 10; var number2 = 15; number2 = number1 + 'some string';

It's perfectly valid JavaScript. However, it's unlikely that the developer intended to create an integer and then save over it with a string. Type safety would save us from this problem since it will not allow you to implicitly cast any object type to another. In TypeScript our code above might look more like this: var number1 = 10; var number2: number; // TypeScript alerts us there is a problem! number2 = number1 + 'some string';

In the example above I'm explicitly setting number2 as a number. Types can also be used when we define parameters of a function. The getArray function, below, accepts a parameter x and types it as a string array. So if we try to pass in a number or a string, TypeScript will alert us right at development time in the editor. function getArray(x: string[]) { var len = x[0].length; }

Adding types changes none of the emitted JavaScript, once it's been compiled it will look like plain old JavaScript. function getArray(x) { var len = x[0].length; }

Behold the beauty of TypeScript: it helps you write less error prone JavaScript at design time, but you still get plain old school JavaScript as a result, so your code will work everywhere JavaScript works. CODE COMPLETION AND REFACTORING Now because TypeScript is Type-safe (the hints in the name) the tools we use can help us out a bit more with our code. Now traditionally if an IDE wants to give you code completion it needs to understand the object type that you are working with, IDE's and text editors use rather sophisticated static code analysis to do this on vanilla JavaScript but there are limits as to how much type information can be inferred and therefore limits to the capabilities of the code analysis approach. In the 1st example I showed, static code analysis would be able to figure out the types, but as functions and objects become more complex, static code analysis will become less accurate: it's making educated guesses. Because TypeScript is Type-safe, an IDE knows for certain what object types are and so can provide full code hinting and refactoring tools like you would expect to see in languages such as C# or Java. CLASSES When you want to organize your code into logical units, classes make a lot of sense. The JavaScript language, however, doesn't support them out of the box. With some clever syntactical sugar we can make JavaScript look like it has class but the syntax is slightly messy. Here, for example, is how you could create a class traditionally in JavaScript: var Greeter = (function () { function Greeter(message) { this.greeting = message; } Greeter.prototype.greet = function () { return "Hello, " + this.greeting; }; return Greeter; })(); var greeter = new Greeter("world");

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This is a very simple class, however, it's already very complicated to read. It's also very difficult to remember the syntax and far too easy to make a mistake. Declaring a class in TypeScript looks very similar to the proposals for class definitions in ECMAScript 6 (the next version of JavaScript). That's not a coincidence, but rather a design goal of TypeScript. TypeScript compliments JavaScript and when ECMAScript 6 is released and prevalent your TypeScript code will look very similar. In fact we may not need TypeScript at that stage. Here is that same class written in TypeScript: class Greeter { greeting: string; constructor(message: string) { this.greeting = message; } greet() { return "Hello, " + this.greeting; } } var greeter = new Greeter("world");

As you can see it has more structure, is clearer and more readable. The IDE is also able to understand that this is a class and so you can refactor property names safe in the knowledge it will be updated wherever the class is being used in the project. MODULES Looking at a JavaScript application that you didn't write or perhaps one you wrote a long time ago can be daunting. Especially so when the code is poorly organised. Modules allow you to group together code in a sensible way and reuse it throughout your project. Patterns such as the Revealing Module Pattern in JavaScript achieve this goal, however, TypeScript modules become even easier with the module keyword again this keyword has been borrowed from the ECMAScript 6 specification. Constructing a module looks like this: module Sayings { export class Greeter { greeting: string; constructor(message: string) { this.greeting = message; } greet() { return "Hello, " + this.greeting; } } } var greeter = new Sayings.Greeter("world");

You will notice that we used the export Keyword on line 2 this allows us to mark internal classes inside a module and Make them public so that people using the Module will have access to them.

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As I come from a C# background I find it helpful to think of Modules as Namespaces. It allows you to group together common classes in a logical way and like namespaces you can use them in numerous projects. INHERITANCE If you thought writing a class in JavaScript was like syntactical Gymnastics, then doing inheritance is the Olympic standard. This is where the power of TypeScript really starts to shine as the syntax is beautifully simple. class Animal { constructor(public name: string) { } move(meters: number) { alert(this.name + " moved " + meters + "m."); } } class Horse extends Animal { constructor(name: string) { super(name); } move() { alert("Galloping..."); super.move(45); } }

You simply use the keyword extends and then in your class you can access the inherited classes properties and functions. TYPESCRIPT IS YOUR FRIEND If you are familiar with Object Oriented Programming and want to impose some structure on your JavaScript applications then TypeScript is probably the best option out there. It will help you write robust , readable code and will encourage you to refactor and improve your code without the fear that you are going to accidently break something. There is so much more I haven't covered in this article including Generics and Interfaces but the good news is there is a fantastic community already built up around TypeScript and if you want to get deeper into the subject then the answers are only a search engine away.

Martin Beeby works for Microsoft where he talks to developers about HTML5, Windows 8 and the web. Martin has been developing since he was 16 and over the past 15 years has worked on projects with many Major brands in the UK.


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Modular databases with LevelDB and Node.js By Richard Astbury

By Richard Astbury

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LevelDB is a sorted key-value store written by Google fellows Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat. You've probably already used it, as it underpins the IndexedDB features of the Chrome web browser. Like SQLite it’s an in-process database, so your application hosts the database itself, and calls the database API directly. LevelDB stores its data as files on the disk with an in-memory cache. There is good support for LevelDB in Node.js, thanks to the work of Rod Vagg, author of several modules to make it really easy to use the database. Like Node, Level has a small core written in C++ which offers basic functionality and good performance. This core is surrounded with a rich ecosystem of JavaScript modules which extend the capabilities of the database. Using Node and Level together makes it possible to build your own database system, by plugging together the modules you need, to get the functionality your system demands. Rather than the traditional approach of selecting a complete database system, with the design decisions and trade-offs that come with it, you make your own choices around replication, consistency and functionality. BASICS OF LEVELDB IN NODE The easiest way to get started, is with the ‘level’ package on the NPM registry. This combines ‘leveldown’, a low level binding to the LevelDB code, and ‘levelup’, a higher level and more idiomatic JavaScript API. To get started, install the package using NPM on the command prompt: > npm install level

In your node application, you can now get a reference to the package using require: var level = require(‘level’);

The data is stored in a number of files, all held in a single directory. To create an instance of a database, pass the directory name into the level function (‘database’ in this case): var db = level(‘database’);

That’s the database set up, you’re ready to start using it. Level supports five simple operations, these are: Put - write a key-value pair to the database: db.put(‘key’, ‘value’, function(err){ if (err) console.log(‘there was an error’); });

Get - reads a value from the database: db.get(‘key’, function(err, value){ if (err) console.log(‘there was an error’); console.log(value); });

Del – delete a key-value pair from the database. db.del(‘key’, function(err){ if (err) console.log(‘there was an error’); });

They’re the simple operations, but next comes the real power of level. CreateReadStream - The keys are sorted alphabetically, and you can read a range of keys out using a stream: var stream = db.createReadStream({start:’a’, end:’a~’}); stream.on(‘data’, function(data){ console.log(data.key + ‘=’ + data.value); }); stream.on(‘end’, function(){ console.log(‘done!’); });

The code snippet above will return all key-value pairs that have a key starting with ‘a’. The ‘~’ character is the last Unicode character on the keyboard, and ensures that everything from ‘aa’ to ‘az’ will be returned by the stream. Batch - A batch function allows you to perform a number of put/del operations atomically: var operations = { { type: ‘put’, key: ‘foo’, value: ‘bar’ }, { type: ‘del’, key: ‘baz’ } } db.batch(operations, function(err){ if (err) console.log(‘there was an error’); });

That’s the basics so you’re ready to start storing data internally in your application, the fun however, is only just beginning.

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NEXT STEPS The obvious next step is to enable other applications, or parts of your application to start using this database. Let’s create a basic web server using the popular ‘express’ framework to allow clients to connect using HTTP: Use NPM again on the command prompt to install express: > npm install express

A more complete list is available here: https://github. com/rvagg/node-levelup/wiki/Modules Go ahead and try some of these modules out, write your own or just play with Level directly. Playing with a database like this gives you an appreciation for the design decisions people take when they create database systems, and enables you to make those decisions your own.

You can now create a web server in node, and provide a couple of routes for getting and putting key-values.

var app = require('express')(); var db = require('level')('database'); app.get('/:key', function(req, res){ db.get(req.params.key, funciton(err, data){ res.json(data); }); }); app.put('/:key/:value', function(req, res){ db.put(req.params.key, req.params.value, function(err){ res.json({}); }); }); app.listen(8080);

We now have a web server running on port 8080, which supports get and put operations. I’ll leave you to fill in the blanks for the rest of the operations, in fact you can design any interface you like. You could support websockets, add extra indexes, support JSON documents, whatever you need. More Modules A large module ecosystem has built up around level. The list is far too long for this article but to give you a flavour of some of the possibilities out there, here are a few examples: Level-sublevel – makes it easy to partition your keys into sub-ranges, and hold different data types in the same database. Level-master – master slave replication, allowing you to create a cluster of databases in various configurations. Levelgraph – a module for storing subject, predicate object triples. Multilevel – exposes level API remotely over a network. Level-geospatial – Stores key values against a geospatial index using latitude and longitude coordinates.

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Richard Astbury is a senior consultant at two 10degrees, where he helps software businesses around Europe migrate their applications to the cloud. Richard is a Microsoft MVP for Windows Azure, and is speaking at NDC London on actor based programming with Orleans. He is often found developing open source software in C# and Node.js, and lives in rural Suffolk, UK with his wife and two children.


Feedback

for software development â&#x20AC;&#x153;No fixed direction remains valid for long; whether we are talking about the details of software development, the requirements of the system, or the architecture of the system. Directions set in advance of experience have an especially short half-life. Change is inevitable, but change creates the need for feedback.â&#x20AC;? Extreme Programming Explained By Marcin Floryan

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In today’s fast-paced, volatile, high stakes software development world we need to employ all tools available at our disposal to maximise the chances of success. I’d like to draw your attention to one such tool, particularly dear to the creators of XP (eXtreme Programming), namely feedback. It’s most likely already a cornerstone or your software development approach and I believe it may warrant a bit more attention to get the most out of it. WHAT IS FEEDBACK What better way to introduce the concept of systemic feedback than with a non-inverting amplifier circuit?

[Source: Wikipedia]

For this is exactly where the word and the concept of feedback originate. In their quest for stable, reliable and repeatable amplification engineers discovered that feeding part of the output signal back into the system yields significant improvements. This principle has since been applied to many amplifiers and control systems and permeated through to cybernetics and eventually also into software development. We can think of feedback as “the modification or control of a process or system by its results or effects” or simply as an effective tool for learning and improvements. Writing software is not a manufacturing process but much more a design process and as such primarily a learning activity. Kent Beck suggests that if there is any measure of an effective day for a developer it’s the number of completed learning cycles. In the case of a circuit board the feedback signal simply gets connected and the system benefits from the closed loop. In human systems and in design of IT systems we have to explicitly create these connections and take steps to ensure that effective learning occurs. There are many models out there to suggest how this can be done like the Deming-Shewhart PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle or Boyd’s OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act) loop. These

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have made it explicitly into software development, the former into the Scrum Framework and the latter into The Lean Startup approach. You can distil this into a simple five-step formula: make your assumptions explicit, set a clear objective, create a careful design, learn from results, rinse and repeat. FEEDBACK LOOPS IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT A typical software development process may be full of feedback loops, some of them obvious and evident, some implicitly embedded in our approach. There are a few common ones, which you will no doubt recognise so let’s briefly consider how feedback works for each of them. Exploration Even before we write a single line of code our ideas can be validated in a quick and easy way. Building lo-fi prototypes or storyboards and presenting them to a sample of potential customers or a product owner can provide valuable insights that can be translated into tangible improvements of the idea. On the technical level we can walk through whiteboard modelling sessions and reason about merits of a proposed design. This can and should be done even for small pieces of functionality, maybe a story or a feature, as at this stage the cost of change is at its lowest. Don’t deprive yourself of this opportunity for feedback. Coding Long gone are the times when we had to wait days to find out if our code, punched in on a paper card, had the right syntax or would even run, never mind the logical correct-

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ness. With modern IDEs this feedback loop shrank to seconds. It’s possibly the area of some of the biggest improvements in programming and there is more to come. On the .NET platform, for example, the Roslyn project [http:// msdn.microsoft.com/en-gb/roslyn] promises to bring direct, real-time access to the internals of the compiler for better information about the code we’re typing in. Tools like ReSharper [http://www.jetbrains.com/resharper/], CodeRush [https://www.devexpress.com/Products/ CodeRush/] or JustCode [http://www.telerik.com/products/justcode.aspx] are also very helpful in shortening and improving the value of this feedback loop. Unit testing Once the code correctly follows the rules of the language we want to make sure that it actually does what we intended it to do. While the “run it to test it” approach might have worked in the past for most software solutions this is no longer a viable approach. That’s why we write Unit Tests (we do, right?), which provide specific feedback on the particular bit of code we’re writing in isolation. The value of this loop can be improved if we decide to follow TDD (Test Driven Development) and write our tests before production code. Here too we can reach for tools that may streamline the process. The ruby community commonly uses tools like guard [https://github.com/guard/guard], autotest [https://github.com/grosser/autotest] or watchr [https://github.com/mynyml/watchr] and in the .Net space we can now use Mighty Moose [http://continuoustests. com/index.html] to have continuous feedback about the state of our unit tests as we code.


Integration Writing features that pass unit tests is a good start but we also need to know that our code works well in its wider ecosystem. This is where the integration feedback loop shines. We put all the assemblies together and deploy them to a machine where we can run higher level tests, ideally automated. The more frequently we can do this the better we learn if what we wrote didn’t break the system. That’s why many teams apply the practice of CI (Continuous Integration) and build, run and test their entire application stack every time a piece of code is changed. Remember to make the most of this feedback loop and include all dependencies in your integration tests. If some external dependencies are too difficult to continually test against have an environment where this can still be done on a regular basis. Acceptance testing One of the crucial skills when writing software is knowing when to stop. Having a feedback loop at the acceptance level provides exactly this information. This can be done using acceptance criteria written on a story card or automated acceptance tests running as part of our CI pipeline. You can make improvements in this feedback loop by considering ATDD (Acceptance Test-Driver Development) or Specification by Example; both topics worth investigating.

learn about your product. If you can indeed go through the full cycle more quickly that the competition you’re increasing your chances of success. But remaining solely on this path requires discipline and speed and acceptance that you will be making discoveries (and mistakes) you could’ve caught earlier. On the other hand, large organisations, with more elaborate inner feedback loops, tend to miss out on this most crucial cycle. How often do you measure the real value delivered by new features released to production? After all, “only code that you can actually release to customers can provide real feedback on how well you’re providing value to your customers” . MAKE THE MOST OF IT I hope these thoughts have encouraged you to look at systemic feedback as a practical tool that you can use to your advantage to improve the success of your software development efforts. Remember however that using feedback effectively requires deliberate action and repetition – incremental and iterative development. And if you need more inspiration to make feedback work consider this final thought from Kent Beck: “Optimism is an occupational hazard of programming, feedback is the treatment.“

Demonstrated I was in a presentation the other week and heard of one development team who put up a banner reminding them “you are not your users”. I think most development teams would benefit from such a reminder (unless you work on a development tool for developers). This is why it’s so valuable to demonstrate your completed features or stories to your real users and get direct feedback if they meet their expectations. After all “Nothing speaks more clearly to stakeholders than working, usable software.” as James Shore reminds us. Production readiness Naturally our software is just useless inventory until we put it in front of users in our production systems so it’s worth knowing if the release of a new piece of functionality will work in production. That’s why a production readiness feedback loop can help us validate that that’s really the case. A practice of Continuous Delivery [http:// continuousdelivery.com/] is how can shorten and use this feedback loop effectively. Monitoring Finally our code makes it into production and is subjected to real traffic. From patterns of user behaviour, load and throughput profiles to memory and CPU usage statistics there is an abundance of information which, when taken back into the development of new parts of the system, can help us significantly improve it. It’s worth exploring the full potential of this feedback loop. Concept to cash If all of the above feedback loops feel like a burden that your small start-up simply cannot support, this one, final, all encompassing loop is probably your primary tool to

Marcin Floryan is a Lead Software Engineer at comparethemarket.com where he helps build scalable distributed systems applying DDD and CQRS. He continually learns to develop better software and to develop software better, to help others do it and to share that knowledge. He enjoys working with people and working with code, always striving to see the whole. He embraces the values of eXtreme programming and aims to delight customers by delivering value. Marcin likes to share his passion and enthusiasm by speaking publicly to communities small and large and occasionally scribbling some thoughts at http://marcin.floryan.pl/ You can find him on twitter as @mfloryan

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Whenever people talk about design and architecture, they talk about two key words – coupling and cohesion. For a good architecture, you need to have loose coupling and high cohesion. One pattern for loose coupling that is becoming more and more common, particularly when you are writing cloud applications, is Queue Centric Workflow.

Queue Centric Workflow and Windows Azure By John Azariah and Mahesh Krishnan

So, what is it and how does it work? Assume you have a typical web application, and you’ve layered the design nicely – with the web layer talking to a service layer, which in turn talks to other layers below - maybe a domain layer, and a data layer. Typically, when a user performs an action from the website, the UI layer makes a call to the service layer and then waits for it to complete the action. If this takes a long time to complete, there are several things that happen – unresponsive UI, waiting threads, and above all, impatient and unhappy users. Perhaps a more desirable scenario might be that when the user performed an action from the website, the UI layer issued a command to the service layer and returned immediately, allowing the service layer to process the command asynchronously at its own sweet pace. The Queue Centric Workflow pattern can be used to do this kind of asynchronous decoupling. When the UI makes a call to the service layer to perform a long running operation, the service layer posts a message to a queue with the request and returns straight away. Other threads or worker roles can then monitor the queue and process the posted items.

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This approach has a number of advantages: • If the worker role is slow (or has been killed), the UI is still responsive, as all it does is add items to the queue. This decouples the UI and the processing completely. The application continues to run for as long as the queue is available. • If the queue is getting filled up fast, you can spin up more instances of the worker role to do more processing, scaling out only those queues that are being backed up. • Azure allows auto-scaling based on queue length, which makes it easier to have a dynamically responsive system which reacts appropriately to transient load patterns.

Queue Centric Workflow (QCW) is especially useful when complementing the Command Query Repository Segregation (CQRS) pattern. The CQRS pattern separates the Read (Query) operations provided by a system from the Write (Command) operations, and allows for the writes and reads to operate on separate, optimally chosen, data stores which can be kept consistent. QCW helps to process the commands asynchronously, and to keep the read and write stores consistent. To make an implementation of QCW feasible, you need a reliable queuing mechanism like the one Windows Azure provides. Azure Queues are what are known as at-least-once-delivery queues.


SERVICE BUS QUEUES Do you want to use Service Bus Queues instead of Windows Azure Queues? No problem. Query Centric Workflows can be implemented with that tooâ&#x20AC;Ś

QCW

MONEY LEAK When you are polling the queue continuously you need to be aware that each call counts towards your bill. 1 cent for 100,000 transactions may not sound like much, but if you have a dozen worker roles querying the queue 100 times a second even while messages are not present, this can quickly add up. Typically, an exponential back-off strategy on an empty queue is a good idea.

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Once a message is posted to an Azure Queue, it stays there forever until deleted. A worker role may poll the queue for messages and dequeue the next one for processing. When a message has been dequeued, it becomes invisible to any other worker roles polling the queue. If the message has been successfully processed, the worker role must delete the message from the queue – typically within a few seconds of dequeueing it. If a message hasn’t been deleted because, for example, the worker role died in the midst of processing it, then the queue makes the message available for polling again. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Designing your commands: When designing a QCW for your application, it is important to chunk the work up appropriately. Making the units of work as small as possible is a good way to go, because it makes it easier to make the command idempotent. However, the unit of work must include all the operations that need to be transactionally consistent – so finding that fine balance between getting as much work done atomically while keeping the operation idempotent will take the most time in your design. Why is Idempotency important? Imagine that the command being executed represented a bank transfer from one account to another, and that something catastrophic happened after money was deducted from one account but before it was added into the other account. When the queue replays the command, the next worker role that picked up the command would then deduct the money from the source account again! This is obviously undesirable! To prevent this from happening, we need to model the command as effecting the operations in such a way that replaying the command multiple times would have exactly the same effect as playing it once. Poison messages: There is a possibility that a bug in execution of a command caused the worker to die before deleting the command from the queue. When this happens, the queue will replay the command to another role, which will also die. If

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you get a few of these poisoned messages in your queue, your entire workforce may spend all its time choking on these messages and cycling up and down. To prevent this from happening, a good strategy is to keep track of the number of times a command has been dequeued, and remove the message from the queue once it is apparent that the repeated failures stem from the command, and not from a transient infrastructure failure.

Mahesh and John will be talking about Queue Centric Workflows and other patterns in their talk at NDC London

Windows Azure queues support this by providing a Dequeue Count for each message, allowing you to classify poison messages and react appropriately. A good strategy for poison messages is to queue them up into a “Dead Letter” queue and have a mechanism for recognizing trends and problems in your design. TL;DR In summary, QCW or Queue Centric Workflow is a pattern that allows you to isolate units of work and execute them asynchronously using queues. Commands are queued up in a reliable queue, and worker roles poll the queues to process the commands. This allows the various layers in the system to continue without blocking on long running commands, decouples those layers more effectively, and allows for those layers to scale independently and run even when others are down.

John Azariah is a senior Architect at MYOB in Australia and has been working on one of the largest SQL Azure projects in the world. He is an alumnus of companies such as Oracle and Microsoft and has worked on products like Excel, Project and Sharepoint. He is passionate about technology, and is active in the .NET community in Melbourne and presents frequently in conferences such as Tech Ed.

Mahesh Krishnan works as a Principal Consultant at Readify in Melbourne, Australia. He is also a Windows Azure MVP, and has written a couple of books. He is active in the local .NET community, and also runs the conference Developer Developer Developer Melbourne. He is a regular speaker at conferences such as Tech Ed.


Project Design A Call for Action By Juval LĂśwy

There are several misconceptions regarding project design. The first is that it is part of project management. In fact, project design is not project management. The correct relationship between project design and project management is what architecture is to programming. Furthermore, devising a good project design stems from your system architecture and doing it properly is a hard-core engineering task â&#x20AC;&#x201C; designing the project. This design task requires both the project manager and the architect to work closely together to determine the best overall plan. 72


The software development industry has grown to accept architecture and system design as a required part of every software effort. Even approaches that formally eschewed any amount of initial design now acknowledge the need to invest up-front in architecture. There are proven methodologies of accomplishing architecture even in the face of unknown and shifting requirements. We learned how to encapsulate change and design a robust system, without knowing the last detail of the design or the code itself.

are specific to software projects, but in the abstract there is nothing new - these are the same ideas that engineers have been using in classic engineering projects since the 1950's. To use an analogy, if I ask you to design a system that is maintainable, reusable, extensible, secure (or safe), and of high quality, you cannot tell if I am taking about a mechanical system or a software system. In fact, the approach, the Zen of achieving these goals is the same in software as it is in traditional engineering.

Much as you to design the software system, you must design the project to build the system: from accurately calculating the planned duration and cost, to devising several good execution options, scheduling resources, and even validating your plan, to ensure it is sensible and feasible, and that your team can deliver with acceptable risk, on the schedule and budget.

Much the same way, if I ask you to design a project that will comply with a set budget and deadline, within acceptable risk, be traceable and manageable, you cannot tell if I am talking about a bridge or an ERP system. And not surprisingly, in the abstract, the techniques for designing both types of projects are identical.

IT'S ABOUT TIME As software engineering is coming of age, there is a natural convergence with other more traditional engineering disciplines. Some 20 years ago software architects were practically non-existing, yet today they are commonplace. But software architects are nothing more than the traditional system engineer in other domains. Even Agile as a methodology has strong correlation to lean manufacturing and even TQM. It should not be a surprise to see project design making a dĂŠbut in the software world - after all, the other engineering disciplines have been designing their projects for decades. The techniques of software project design

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS There are several misconceptions regarding project design. The first is that it is part of project management. In fact, project design is not project management. The correct relationship between project design and project management is what architecture is to programming. Furthermore, devising a good project design stems from your system architecture and doing it properly is a hard-core engineering task â&#x20AC;&#x201C; designing the project. This design task requires both the project manager and the architect to work closely together to determine the best overall plan.

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The second misconception is that project design contradicts Agile-like development processes. Nothing could be further from the truth. Project design, like architecture, is not mutually-exclusive with Agile. We know that you can design a system in a preliminary sprint focused on architecture, even though you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know exactly what you are going to build. You can do the same with project design. Note that both architecture and project design are activities, while Agile is a development process. The third misconception is that project design is waterfall-like. In reality, project design is the opposite of the waterfall - it forces you to face head-on the realities of interleaving all the various activities in the project, across developers, completion phases, iterations and milestones, and design the project as you are going to build it, as opposed to a fictional waterfall. The last misconception is that project design is time consuming, and under an aggressive deadline you can't afford it. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be concerned. A seasoned architect can design the project in a matter of a few days for each given set of planning assumptions. PROJECT DESIGN AND PROJECT SANITY Project design allows you to shed light on dark corners, and have up-front visibility on the true scope of the project. Project design forces managers to think through work before it begins, to recognize unsuspected relationships and limits, to represent all activities, and to recognize several options for building the system. It allows the organization to determine whether it even wants to get the project done. After all, if the true cost and duration will exceed the

HW

acceptable limits, why start the work in the first place, only to have the project canceled once you run out of money or time. As such, once project design is in place, you eliminate the commonplace gambling, death marches, the wishful thinking and the horrendously expensive trial and errors. A well-designed project also lays the foundation for enabling managers to evaluate and think through impact of a change once work commences, and then to assess the impact of the change request on the schedule and the budget. This enables the project manger and the architect to keep the project on time, all the time. ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS Yet there is much more to project design than proper decision making. The project design also serves as the system assembly instructions. To use an analogy, would you buy a well-designed IKEA set without the assembly instructions? Regardless of how comfortable or convenient the furniture is, you will recoil at the mere though of trying to guess where each of the hundreds of pins, bolts, screws, and plates go, and in which order. Your software system is significantly more complex, and yet architects presume developers and projects managers can just go about assembling the system, figuring it out as they go along, without mistakes. While that is possible, it is clearly not the most efficient way of assembling the system. What project design produces is the project plan, much as the system design activity produces the architecture. If the architecture is the "what", the project plan is the "how" - your system assembly instructions. The very nature of producing the assembly instructions is yet another reason why project design is an engineering task rather than a project management one.

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A SYSTEM OF OPTIONS What may not be obvious from the discussion so far is that a given project design is not a single pair of schedule and cost. It is a very different project if you only have one developer or six, if you are allowed to engage subcontractors at key phases, if you try to build the system as fast as you can or with the least possible cost, or if you try to avoid risks and maximize the probability for success. When you design a project you must provide management with several options trading cost, schedule and risk, allowing management and decision makers to choose up-front the solution that best fits their needs and expectations. Providing options in project design is in fact the key to success. Clearly, if time is of no consequence then you should build project at lowest cost. If cost is of no consequence then you must build the project in the fastest way possible. But in reality, cost and schedule always matter, and the best solution is found between these two extremes. Finding a balanced solution and even an optimal solution is a highly engineered design task. I say it is engineered because engineering is all about tradeoffs and accommodating reality. With project design, there is no single correct solution even for the same constraints, much as there are several possible design approaches for any system. It is the task of the project manager and the architect to narrow this spectrum to several good options for management to choose from. Specifically, when you design a project you must provide with reasonable certainty design options such as:

and decoupling you can do wonders. On the other hand, the body of knowledge of project design is as wide and deep as that of system architecture. It also takes a commensurable amount of time and experience to do well and fast, just as with system architecture. Consequently I frequently witness a cognitive bias in our industry: most people assume that because they can't do project design or even worse, because they have never seen it done properly, then it can't be done. Let me assert here and now that is nonsense. The same could have been said about distributed systems architecture twenty years ago. There are plenty of well-designed software projects. I have personally spent comparable time over the years with the IDesign customers on their system architecture and the project design supporting it. I have educated and mentored hundreds of architects and project leads on project design as well as my own techniques and breakthroughs. The results speak for themselves, with success story after success story. Don't be fooled by the common cognitive bias. Remember, that the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Do invest in learning more and then mastering the crucial act of project design. It will set your career on a different trajectory, restore confidence between managers, developers and customers, improve communication all around, reduce overall tension, and greatly increase your chance of success.

• A normal solution not subjected to constraints • The most economical way to meet the deadline • The fastest way to deliver on set cost • A constrained solution with limited resources • How these options vary with regard to quantified risk Often you will have to even recommend the best overall plan across possible architectures, schedules, cost, resources and risk. If you don't provide these options, you will have none to blame but yourself. How common it is for the architect to labor on the design of the system, present it to management, only to have them ordain "You have a year and four developers". Any correlation between that year and the four developers and what it really takes to deliver the system is accidental, and so are your chances of success. But if the same architect were to present the same architecture, accompanied by 3-4 project design options, all of them doable, but reflecting different trade of cost, schedule and risk? Now the discussion revolves around which of these options to choose out of the menu. I call this strategy "Cake or Pie". Failure however, is not on the menu. CALL FOR ACTION I wrote three pages so far extolling the virtues of project design, and yet I have said nothing about how to go about doing it. That is deliberate - there is no way I can do project design justice in three pages. But it takes only a few days to learn some basic skills of project design, enough to make a huge difference. The same is true with software architecture - armed with basic understanding of encapsulation

Juval Löwy is the founder of IDesign and a master software architect specializing in system and project design. Juval has mentored hundreds of architects across the globe, sharing his insights, techniques, and breakthroughs, in architecture, project design, development process, and technology. Juval is Microsoft’s Regional Director for the Silicon Valley and had participated in the Microsoft internal strategic design reviews for C#, WCF and related technologies. Juval is a frequent speaker at the major international software development conferences. Juval published several bestsellers, and his latest book is the third edition of Programming WCF Services (O'Reilly 2010). Juval published numerous articles, regarding almost every aspect of modern software development and architecture. Microsoft recognized Juval as a Software Legend as one of the world's top experts and industry leaders.

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CERTIFIED SCRUMMASTER - CSM – MIKE COHN This two day course—taught by author and popular Scrum and agile trainer Mike Cohn—not only provides the fundamental principles of Scrum, it also gives participants hands–on experience using Scrum, and closes with Certification as a recognized ScrumMaster. DESCRIPTION During the ScrumMaster class, attendees will learn why such a seemingly simple process as Scrum can have such profound effects on an organization. Participants gain practical experience working with Scrum tools and activities such as the product backlog, sprint backlog, daily Scrum meetings, sprint planning meeting, and burndown charts. Participants leave knowing how to apply Scrum to all sizes of projects,

from a single collocated team to a large, highly distributed team. YOU WILL LEARN Practical, project–proven practices The essentials of getting a project off on the right foot How to write user stories for the product backlog Why there is more to leading a self–organizing team than buying pizza and getting out of the way

How to help both new and experienced teams be more successful How to successfully scale Scrum to large, multi–continent projects with team sizes in the hundreds Tips and tricks from the instructors ten–plus years of using Scrum in a wide variety of environments COURSE DATE Oslo: 9 December, 10 March London: 3 December

CERTIFIED SCRUM PRODUCT OWNER - CSPO – MIKE COHN Certified Scrum Product Owner Training teaches you, the product owner, how to use the product backlog as a tool for success. As you watch the product take shape, iteration after iteration, you can restructure the Product Backlog to incorporate your insights or respond to changes in business conditions. You can also identify and cancel unsuccessful projects early, often within the first several months. The Certified Scrum Product Owner; course equips you with what you need to achieve success with Scrum. Intuitive and lightweight, the Scrum process delivers completed increments of the product at rapid, regular intervals, usually from every two weeks to a month. Rather than the traditional system of turning a

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project over to a project manager while you then wait and hope for the best, Scrum offers an effective alternative, made even more attractive when considering the statistics of traditional product approaches in which over 50% of all projects fail and those that succeed deliver products in which 64% of the functionality is rarely or never used. Let us help you avoid becoming one of these statistics. YOU WILL LEARN Practical, project–proven practices How to write user stories for the product backlog

Proven techniques for prioritizing the product backlog How to predict the delivery date of a project (or the features that will be complete by a given date) using velocity Tips for managing the key variables influencing project success Tips and tricks from the instructors fifteen years of using Scrum in a wide variety of environments COURSE DATE Oslo: 11 December, 12 March

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COURSE OVERVIEW OSLO COURSETITLE AGILE Kanban Software Development - Allan Kelly

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17

27

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70-513 - WCF 4.5 with Visual Studio 2012 - Sahil Malik

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Anchor Webcamp - Jon Galloway

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24900

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ASP.NET Web API & SignalR - Christian Weyer

2

09

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14900

Claims-based Identity & Access Control for .NET 4.5 Applications - Dominick Baier

2

22

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Creating Windows 8 Apps using C# and XAML - Gill Cleeren

3

Oslo

18900

Creating Windows 8 Apps using HTML5 and JavaScript - Christian Wenz

3

Oslo

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Web Development in .NET - ASP.NET MVC , HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript - Arjan Einbu

5

Oslo

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WPF/XAML - 70-511 / 10262A Windows Presentation Foundation/XAML - Arne Laugstøl

3

Oslo

21900

Developing Windows Azure and Web Services - Magnus Mårtensson

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13

Oslo

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SHAREPOINT SharePoint 2013 and Office 365: End to End for Developers - Sahil Malik JAVA

11

09

16

27

19

03

Days Nov Dec 5 Days Nov Dec

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Core Spring - Mårten Haglind

4

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Programming Java Standard Edition - Peet Denny

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HTML5 - JavaScript - CSS3

78

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COURSE OVERVIEW LONDON COURSETITLE AGILE & SCRUM

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Agile Estimating and Planning Training - Mike Cohn

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Certified Scrum Product Owner - CSPO - Geoff Watts

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Effective User Stories for Agile Requirements Training - Mike Cohn

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Succeeding with Agile - Mike Cohn

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Working on a Scrum Team with Kenny Rubin

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Project Design Master Class with Juval Löwy

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C++ Advanced C++ Programming - Hubert Matthews MICROSOFT .NET

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Web Development in .NET - ASP.NET MVC, HTML5, WebAPI and SPA - Scott Allen

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ASP.NET Web API & SignalR - Lightweight web-based architectures for you! With Christian Weyer

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Fundamentals of iOSProgramming with Wei-Meng Lee

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SHAREPOINT SharePoint 2013 and Office 365: End to End for Technical Audience - Sahil Malik

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Pre-conference workshops SAHIL MAILK

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SharePoint 2013 App Development

ASP.NET Web API & SignalR: Lightweight

2 Dec

web-based architectures for you - 2-3 Dec

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DOMINICK BAIER

BROCK ALLEN

Claims-based Identity & Access Control for .NET 2-3 Dec

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Accelerated Agile: from months to minutes

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JEZ HUMBLE

JavaScript: Getting your feet wet

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SCOTT ALLEN

How to approach Refactoring

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PROGRAM – Wednesday Agile Mobile Design

Timeslots

Cloud Programming Languages Fun

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Database Security

Architecture Tools

Devops UX

Miscellaneous Web

Microsoft Testing

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What’s wrong with my site? Lean DevOps for Azure Michele Leroux Bustamante

Why Agile doesn’t scale - and what you can do about it Dan North

Straight-Up Design Jen Myers

Async in C# 5 Jon Skeet

EventStore an introduction to a DSD for event sourcing and notifications Liam Westley

Data-Bind everything! Stuart Lodge

Simple.Web 101 Mark Rendle

I want to develop for SharePoint, but I don’t know where to start Sahil Malik

Rx and the TPL: Cats and Dogs Living Together?? Paul Betts

Making Magic: Combining Data, Information, Services and Programming, at InternetScale Don Syme

The Development Landscape Is Moving Extremely Fast! Here’s How To Move Faster. Jon Galloway

ECMAScript 6: what’s next for JavaScript? Axel Rauschmayer

Doing data science with F# Tomas Petricek

Programming Clojure Venkat Subramaniam

Adopting Continuous Delivery Jez Humble

Introduction to Windows Azure Part Scott Guthrie

CQRS with Erlang Bryan Hunter

Callable entities in ECMAScript 6 Axel Rauschmayer

Windows Azure Essentials Michele Leroux Bustamante

To Estimate or Not to Estimate – is that the question? Marit Rossnes

The Lean Enterprise Jez Humble

Introduction to Windows Azure Part II Scott Guthrie

The tale about tiles Gill Cleeren

Semantics matter Jon Skeet

Learning from Noda Time: a case study in API design and open source (good, bad and ugly) Jon Skeet

Testing of Mobile Apps with Calabash and Xamarin Test Cloud Karl Krukow

Asynchrony in Node.js, let me count the Glenn Block

You Thought You Understood Multithreading Gael Fraiteur

Herding Code Live Herding Code Live

ASP.NET MVC, you’re doing it wrong. An Introduction to Nancy Mathew McLoughlin

A good SharePoint development machine Sahil Malik

Jackstones: the Journey to Mastery Dan North

NDC Cage Match: Dynamic vs. Static with Gary Bernhardt and Jon Skeet. Gary Bernhardt, Jon Skeet and Rob Conery

Throw away those training wheels, JavaScript without the frameworks Rob Ashton

Democratizing event processing at all scales and platforms with Reactive Extensions (Rx) Matthew Podwysocki

Advanced techniques to implement, customize and manage a Nancy application Damian Hickey

Workshops

09:00 - 10:00

84

10:00 - 10:20

Break

10:20 - 11:20

ASP.NET Web API 2: HTTP Services for the Modern Web and Mobile Applications Daniel Roth

11:20 - 11:40

Break

11:40 - 12:40

Scripting your web API development using scriptcs Glenn Block

12:40 - 13:40

Break

13:40 - 14:40

The missing link – hypermedia in Web API. Darrel Miller

14:40 - 15:00

Break

15:00 - 16:00

API Client library V2 Darrel Miller

16:00 - 16:20

Break

16:20 - 17:20

ASP.NET and OWIN - Better Together Daniel Roth

17:20 - 17:40

Break

17:40 - 18:40

Hidden Complexity: Inside the Simple code Mark Rendle

Agile Team Interactions Workshop Jessie Shternshus


PROGRAM – Thursday Agile Mobile Design

Cloud Programming Languages Fun

Database Security

Architecture Tools

Devops UX

Miscellaneous Web

Microsoft Testing

Timeslots

Room 1

Room 2

Room 3

Room 4

Room 5

Room 6

Room 7

09:00 - 10:00

A deep dive into the ASP.NET Web API runtime architecture Pedro Félix

Modern Architecture patterns for the cloud John S Azariah and Mahesh Krishnan

Build Real World Cloud Apps using Windows Azure Part I Scott Guthrie

Full Text Searching & Ranking with ElasticSearch and C# JP Toto

The Hitchhikers guide to Object Orientated JavaScript Martin Beeby

Windows Phone 8 Networking: HTTP, Bluetooth and NFC Andy Wigley

jQuery Mobile and ASP.NET MVC Scott Allen

10:00 - 10:20

Break

10:20 - 11:20

Pragmatic ASP. NET Web API Solutions - beyond ValuesController Christian Weyer

OWASP Top Ten 2013 Christian Wenz

Build Real World Cloud Apps using Windows Azure Part II Scott Guthrie

Poka-yoke code: APIs for stupid programmers Mark Seemann

How WebGL lets you write massively parallel GPU code for the browser Steve Sanderson

Building for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8 with .NET and MVVM Mike Taulty

Secrets of Awesome JavaScript API Design Brandon Satrom

Battle of the Mocking Frameworks Dror Helper

AngularJS – an Introduction for Windows developers Ingo Rammer

The Reasonable Expectations of your new CTO Robert C. Martin

Automating Testing in the big, bad Enterprise World Jeremy D. Miller

Reactive meta-programming with drones Jonas Winje, Einar W. Høst and Bjørn Einar Bjartnes

Stop Hiring Devops Experts (And Start Growing Them) Jez Humble

Scala for C# Developers James Hughes

Hybrid & powerful mobile apps with PhoneGap & AngularJS Christian Weyer

Software Project Design Juval Lowy

Teaching Our CSS To Play Nice Jen Myers

ZeroMQ - A Whole Bunch of Awesome [C# Edition] Ashic Mahtab

Creating Killer Windows Phone Apps Andy Wigley

Internals of security in ASP.NET Brock Allen

Windows 8.1 Apps with JavaScript 101 Christian Wenz

A Functional architecture with F# Mark Seemann

Architecting, designing and coding for change: Applying the Life Preserver to build adaptable software Russ Miles

Functional Programming: What? Why? When? Robert C. Martin

C++ style Hubert Matthews

Identity management in ASP.NET Brock Allen

AngularJS talk I Pete Bacon Darwin

Yes, you can! Tooling and Debugging for JavaScript Ingo Rammer

How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Flexible Scope Christian Hassa and Gojko Adzic

Programming Diversity Ashe Dryden

Domain driven design with the F# type system Scott Wlaschin

From audience member to speaker.. Managing technical presentations Niall Merrigan

Putting the Microsoft Design Language to work Laurent Bugnion

TBA Don Syme

Defending .NET/C# Applications - Layered Security Jon McCoy

Zen of Architecture Juval Lowy

Test Your Javascript... with the Help of D&D Tim G. Thomas

11:20 - 11:40

Break

11:40 - 12:40

Securing ASP. NET Web API (v2) Dominick Baier

12:40 - 13:40

Break

13:40 - 14:40

A technical Introduction to OAuth2, OpenID Connect and JSON Web Tokens: The Security Stack for modern Applications Dominick Baier

14:40 - 15:00

Break

15:00 - 16:00

AngularJS DIrectives And The Computer Science Of JavaScript Burke Holland

16:00 - 16:20

Break

16:20 - 17:20

Actor based programming using Orleans Richard Astbury

17:20 - 17:40

Break

17:40 - 18:40

WEB API Panel Debate .NET Rocks!

Workshops

Rapid Problem Solving Workshop Jessie Shternshus

85


PROGRAM – Friday Agile Mobile Design

86

Cloud Programming Languages Fun

Database Security

Architecture Tools

Devops UX

Miscellaneous Web

Microsoft Testing

Timeslots

Room 1

Room 2

Room 3

Room 4

Room 5

Room 6

Room 7

09:00 - 10:00

The C Word-Continuous Brian A. Randell

Knocking it out of the park, with Knockout.JS Miguel A. Castro

Agile software architecture sketches Simon Brown

Securing a modern Java-Script based single page web application Erlend Oftedal

PreCrime The Future of Policing in the Era of Austerity Gary Short

TBA Geoff Watts

Hunting ASP. NET Performance Bugs Tiberiu Covaci

10:00 - 10:20

Break

10:20 - 11:20

ASP.NET SignalR 2.0 (and beyond) Damian Edwards and David Fowler

Native Cross Platform Mobile Development with Xamarin 1 Xamarin

BDD for financial calculations: Excel vs. Given-WhenThen, or both? Gáspár Nagy

The Future of C# Mads Torgersen

TBA TBA

Getting Agile with Scrum Mike Cohn

File -> new project to deploy in 10 minutes with TeamCity and Octopus Deploy Tomas Jansson

Nuts and bolts of writing OWIN middleware Louis Dejardin

It’s a Kind of Magic Andy Clymer

NDC Cage Match: Testing! NodeJS vs. C# and .NET with Rob Ashton and Jeremy Miller Jeremy D. Miller, Rob Ashton and Rob Conery

The Birth & Death of JavaScript Gary Bernhardt

Agile Estimating Mike Cohn

Build It So You Can Ship It! Brian A. Randell

Authentication Middleware for OWIN Louis Dejardin

Kinect Carl Franklin

Object Oriented Design in the Wild Jessica Kerr

Making 3D games with Monogame Richard Garside

User Stories for Agile Requirements Mike Cohn

MongoDB for the C# developer Simon Elliston Ball

Native Cross Platform Mobile Development with Xamarin 2 Xamarin

Vagrant, the ability to think about production deployments from day 1 of development Paul Stack

Where is the work hiding? Marcin Floryan

SAY ‘GO AHEAD’ ONE MORE TIME! I DARE YOU Rob Conery

Advanced Topics in Agile Planning Mike Cohn

TBA TBA

BDD all the way down Enrico Campidoglio

Exploring the C# scripting experience with scriptcs Justin Rusbatch

Demystifying the Reactive Extensions Matt Ellis

Bitcoin and The Future of Cryptocurrency Ben Hall

Scaling Agile to Work with a Distributed Team Mike Cohn

TBA TBA

11:20 - 11:40

Break

11:40 - 12:40

Doing SPA with MVC & Knockout.JS Miguel A. Castro

12:40 - 13:40

Break

13:40 - 14:40

People, Process, Tools – The Essence of DevOps Richard Campbell

14:40 - 15:00

Break

15:00 - 16:00

Using ASP.NET SignalR... in anger Damian Edwards and David Fowler

16:00 - 16:20

Break

16:20 - 17:20

Cleaning up Code Smell Venkat Subramaniam

Workshops


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NDC London special Edition.

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