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City, country, future By Hans-JĂśrg Bullinger

The world’s population is growing at a breathtaking pace. Many people are moving to cities, which hold the promise of jobs, better educational opportunities, and improved living possibilities. This tendency is borne out by statistics: since 2007, more people have lived in urban areas than rural ones. According to United Nations experts, up to 70 per cent of the global population will live in cities by 2050.(1) German and its neighbours in Europe are facing the enormous task of not only making urban environments, but also shaping them intelligently and sustainably.(2)

Ideas for the City: a competition provides impetus

raw materials are becoming more important due to rising raw material prices. The potential is considerable, as so far only 14 per cent of the raw materials consumed by

What should the city of tomorrow be like? What roads can lead us successfully into the future? Under the annual theme “Ideas for the City”, the expert jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition searched for trailblazing impulses for urban areas of the future. In the following pages, the City Trend Report discusses ideas and concepts that will or already have changed urban centres in Germany and around the world. The report is based on the trend study conducted by the Fraunhofer IAO for Deutsche Bank which analyses the “Landmarks” for 2013/2014.(3) It has become apparent that science, business, politics, municipal authorities, and citi-

German business are obtained from waste.(6) The aspect of ecological sustainability is inextricably tied to the search for greater resource efficiency. New mobility concepts and low-emission vehicles, for instance, play a key role in reducing CO2 emissions. In the field of mobility, road traffic accounts for around 95 per cent of the direct CO2 emissions in Germany.(7) Thirty per cent arise in cities.(8)

Intelligent integration of green energy

zens have to develop solutions for the city of the future in close cooperation.(4) The innovation network “Morgenstadt: City Insights” shows how this can work in an exem-

The expansion and realignment of urban infrastructures is not only the key to sustainab-

plary way. The networks consists of Fraunhofer researchers and developers who, toge-

le mobility with higher quality of life. These also form the basis for the successful e-

ther with numerous partners in different projects and cities, are investigating viable con-

nergy turnaround that cities and communities are currently working on. By 2020, the

cepts for the future that are likely to catch on in Germany and abroad. At the same

German Federal Government seeks to reduce electricity consumption in Germany by

time, the initiative shows that urban areas are very suitable as testing laboratories for

10 per cent compared to 2008, and by 25 per cent by 2050.(9) This can be achie-

innovative ideas. They are perfect places to reach many people simply and quickly

ved if centralized and decentralized energy supplies in cities are combined.

and to try out new things. It is here that models such as electric car-sharing fleets first become practicable. Due to this volume effect, urbanites are in a better position to lower their per-capita CO2 consumption than rural inhabitants. As a result, urbanisation is an important pillar for sustainable development.(5)

The maxim for the sustainable city is: use energy efficiently, produce it regeneratively, and distribute it intelligently. Another task cities and communities will face will be to see the growing diversity of their communities as a strength and to exploit this asset. The increasing average age

Resource efficiency will be essential for cities’ survival

of German citizens deserves particular attention. In 2030, around a third of Germans will be 65 or older.(10) Innovative supply concepts and new services – especially in

So what can be done to make German cities fit for the future? How can we protect

the field of health care – are essential. In the future, the motto will be share rather

our urban centres from gridlock? And how can urban communities tap the potential of

than own. Already today many citizens under 30 in large German cities do not own

their residents, regardless of age, cultural background, or social affiliation? The cata-

a car. Instead, they choose to ride bicycles or to use public transport.(11)

logue of challenges is long. At the top of urban planners’ and developers’ agenda is careful resource use. Finally, innovative recycling models and the use of secondary


On the way to the smart city Also of interest to local decision-makers is the fact that more and more urban residents want to have a say and take part in decision-making. New models of citizen participation in urban decisions and processes are on the way. In this area, too, modern information and communications technologies will ensure a good quality of life. They have high development potential and will pave the way for the smart cities of the future. At the same time, this transformation will pose great challenges to policymakers, business, science, and society and will become an important driver of innovations that will ensure that cities and regions remain lively and liveable. Prof. Hans-JĂśrg Bullingers is a member of the Senate of the Fraunhofer Society and a member of the jury in the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideasâ€? competition.


The city as a driver of innovation By Steffen Braun

Germany possesses a wealth of good ideas. This is demonstrated by the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition, with which the “Germany Land of Ideas” initiative and Deutsche Bank intend to promote German innovation success stories both nationally and internationally. And this is also proven by the study conducted by the Fraunhofer IAO accompanying the competition, which has identified different trends as fields of innovation for the city of the future. This trend report sums up the most important tendencies. They will be presented on the following pages and illustrated based on the winning projects.

Top trend for German centres: resource efficiency

citizens are becoming environmentally aware mobility managers. Finally, the analysis of the “Landmarks” enables conclusions to be drawn about factors contributing to the

With a quarter of the winning projects, resource efficiency is the driver of innovation.

success of new ideas and concepts. In what kinds of environments do creative minds

According to the analysis, it is the most important trend for the city of the future. An-

in Germany develop ideas and concepts? Are there regional differences? Which so-

other quarter of the “Landmarks” uses modern information and communications tech-

cial groups are pushing innovations forward? These questions were another focus of

nology to create added value – for example, to upgrade a region. The study found

the study.

that new solutions in this area will play a key role in the future. In addition, an increasing number of urban residents are discovering a passion for the city they live in and becoming involved in local projects. Citizens can organise their daily lives effortlessly with the help of modern technologies and participate in municipal tasks and decisionmaking. Also, there is a trend towards more sustainability in urban road traffic, and

Where innovations take place One objective of the study was to find out which urban living spaces are a particularly good breeding ground for innovations. The study shows that a large share of the projects were launched in big German cities, i.e. cities with more than 100,000 in-


habitants. In addition to the entire metropolitan area, city districts as urban units are

All relevant players working together

being considered increasingly in innovation projects for the city of the future. Small and medium-sized cities as well as sparsely populated regions play only a secondary

Differences were also found in the driving forces behind the projects. When it comes

role at present. Another remarkable fact: most of the winners come from central urban

to innovations, companies are particularly committed. They comprise a total of 73 per

areas as opposed to peripheral urban areas.(12) One task for the future, therefore,

cent of the project partners, providing know-how and funding to young start-ups, in

will be to heighten awareness of innovations and new solutions developed in districts

particular. As sponsors, they receive first-hand information about new projects and so-

on the periphery.

lutions. The start-ups, in turn, reduce their financial risk. Such support could be a reason why, among the winning projects, companies are most frequently represented, with 43 per cent. Above all city and municipal organisations (24 per cent) and private individuals (22 per cent) benefit from this year’s contributions to the competition. Associations and municipal institutes also submitted a considerable share of the projects. From the region for the region – this trend will help make Germany’s cities attractive.

The city as experimental environment The city of the future will differ fundamentally from today’s urban principle. But this will occur so slowly, over the next decades, that we will hardly notice it as contemporary witnesses. New developments such as electric mobility, Industry 4.0, sharing economy, and the energy turnaround will successively change our society. The city itself is the central living space of our society, or put scientifically, the most widespread experimental environment of our time. Here people, organisation, space, and technology come together and develop independently of one another. The only difference to a laboratory is that we cannot simply close the doors after work, but are ourselves part of the whole. Research approaches such as “living labs” – living urban laboratories – where cities become an experimental field for innovations, showing new perspectives and need for action.


Learning from the past In the past, ground-breaking urban innovations were not always successful immediately. This is illustrated by the following examples: As early as 1662, the world’s first local public passenger transport system was launched in Paris, with horse-drawn omnibuses. It was only 150 years later that this concept was implemented in another city. When the first gaslights went on in German cities in 1820, newspapers criticised the innovation as being morally and medically reproachable.(13) Around 1870, citizens in a few European cities protested against urban sewage systems, for fear of their lives, although they knew better from earlier epidemics. In a nutshell: on the one hand, we want to keep what has been tried and tested. On the other, however, there have always been innovations and technologies that have changed society fundamentally in just a few years. A current example is the smartphone. The city as innovation driver is our playfield. And instruments that simulate innovation and new knowledge enable us to get an overview of current development processes and reward those who boldly take unconventional approaches as we head into the future.

Steffen Braun is head of the Competence Team Urban Systems Engineering at the Fraunhofer IAO. He oversaw the trend study accompanying the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas� competition 2013/14 commissioned by Deutsche Bank


Trend map: winning projects in the innovation radar

TREND RADAR FOR THE REPORT: THE FRAUNHOFER STUDY ON THE COMPETITION In the analysis of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” 2013/14, the accompanying trend report of the Fraunhofer IAO is based on the institute’s expertise and on information submitted by those responsible for the 100 rewarded projects. On the basis of quantitative questions, the scientists initially arranged the projects according to interdependencies. In a second step, the analysts concentrated on the content of the winning contributions, thus identifying different trends. They compared these trends with the results of a Tag Cloud analysis, a type of study that examines the frequency of certain keywords in the project documents and puts the content of the projects into thematic clusters. In this way, the main themes of the competition could be identified. A trend map positions the projects based on the trends, potential, and fields of research identified and provides an overview of the themes of the competition. The three radar zones reflect the degree of innovation. The inner zone contains thematic areas that are already important for urban requirements today, many of which can be transferred to the current state of development (black spots). The middle zone includes fields with a high degree of innovation which so far have played a role as demonstrators and prototypes (grey spots). The white spots in the outer ring stand for innovation clusters and research fields that will be relevant for German cities in the future and that currently have strong international role model character (14), e.g. intelligent networks that link and manage urban supply and disposal networks, or “living labs”.


Careful resource management will be a matter of course for urbanites

Germany is living on a high horse. In terms of raw material consumption, the Federal Republic is close to the top.(15) The Fraunhofer researchers therefore expect in their study on the competition that sustainable living and management in urban spaces will become more and more important. The “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas� 2013/14 competition shows ideas that cities and regions are developing to conserve raw materials. Things that at first glance seem to be no longer needed should be reused, from tin cans to old buildings. Instead of using fossil raw materials, citizens are banking on renewable energies.

Citizens, companies, and researchers discover the city as a raw 
 material mine

RECYLING TREASURES IN THE CITY Cities and municipalities are giant raw material mines, from tin cans to

Plastic bags, computers, paper cups, jeans, bricks, or steel girders: cities devour gigantic amounts of consumer goods and materials. 9.7 billon tons of mineral building materials such as concrete and ceramic, 106 million tons of metal, and 7.6 million tons of plastic are used in German residential and commercial areas.(16) Therefore the motto for the city of the future is: recycle rather than throw away. According to experts from the Fraunhofer IAO, this trend is already becoming apparent and will be even more pronounced in the future – all the way to a vision of a city that at some

steel girders used for buildings. Thousands of tons of valuable materials are slumbering in urban areas. With lectures, seminars, and congresses, Urban Mining e.V., a competition winner from Essen, intends to foster awareness that it is worth recycling resources used in municipalities. To do so, building passes are needed that record which raw materials are used where in the city. Storage sites have to be found and cost-effective recovery technologies developed.

point will no longer produce any waste at all. Many citizens develop creative ideas to breathe new life into used things and materials. Urban initiatives such as the winning project KUNST-STOFFE pass on recycling materials to users. Researchers are working on ever-new technologies that can be used to recover raw materials in the city of the future. For example, the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) has developed a method of recycling concrete completely. And companies such as the Hamburg Water Cycle, which also received an award, are successfully relying on green technologies – e.g. on a system that generates energy from sewage.

 „Industry is still leaving a lot of cost-cutting potential untapped. But more and more companies are realising that they will have to develop suitable strategies to minimize their raw material use in the future, e.g. with modern recycling systems.”
 Eric Heymann, Senior Economist, Deutsche Bank Research


The city of the future will supply itself with green energy ALGAE BUILDING PRODUCES ENERGY FOR RESIDENTS There cannot be an energy turnaround without Germany’s cities: the competition winners show how the turn to decentralized heat and power supply systems can be brought about step for step in the future. They tell success stories – about the algae house, that produces its energy itself, right through to entire cities and municipalities that are on the way to becoming self-sufficient energy providers. The winning project 100ee regions, sponsored by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conversation, Building and Nuclear Safety, counts more than 130 cities, municipalities, rural districts, and regional associations that in the long term intend to exclusively use green energy from the sun, wind, or renewable raw materials.(17) And the

In the Wilhelmsburg district of Hamburg, visitors can see what living will be like in the future. In 2013, the first apartment building using a bioreactor façade was completed there. Its glass walls offer microalgae ideal living conditions. Sunlight and carbon dioxide transform the algae into biomass and heat. As a result, the living façade is a heating source for the whole building. The algae building, which is ascribed a Bio Intelligence Quotient (BIQ), shows how sustainable residential construction can work.

number is growing. Furthermore, since 2007 municipalities across Germany have bought back more than 200 energy networks in Germany from large groups of companies.(18) Aside from cutting costs, advocates expect this to provide more impetus for the energy turnaround.(19) Last but not least, more and more private households are becoming independent. Six per cent (20) already produce some of their electrical power themselves. Around 1.3 million photovoltaic units (21) have been installed in Germany and nearly every second kilowatt-hour of green electricity comes from photovoltaic units

Old buildings offer new flexibility for urban living

owned by citizens.(22) Churches in which priests or pastors no longer hold masses; railway stations in which no one is sitting at the counter any more; flats that no one wants to move into – nume-

“Many German cities and municipalities are making concerted efforts

rous public administrative buildings , churches, railway stations, industrial buildings,

to provide themselves with green electricity and green heat in the

and barracks are up for sale today or will not be needed any more in the future. Due

future. But it is essential that local structures are integrated into a

to the reform of the Bundeswehr (the Germany Army), in the next few years 55 bar-

superordinate grid for a supply that is based exclusively on renewable

racks complexes, 12 depots, and 58 service buildings will be available for other


uses.(23) Examples include the artist city Kalbe, which is transforming vacant buildings

Boris Palmer, Mayor of the university town Tübingen and member of the

into artist studios and exhibition venues, to the Saxon city of Flöha, which has made

advisory body “Ideas for the City”

an old cotton spinning mill into its centre, to abandoned churches and administrative


buildings into which new residents are moving. The competition winners show that old buildings do not have to fall victim to the wrecking ball, but can serve as creative spaces for urban living in the future.

 Mayor of Tübingen, member of the advisory board of “Ideas for the City”, +49(0)7071/204-1300

THREE BEDROOMS, A CHURCH, AND A BATHROOM Grey stone outside, bright colours inside: tenants have found an unusual home inside Herz-Jesus Church in Mönchengladbach-Pesch. After two

Eric Heymann
 Senior Economist, Deutsche Bank Research, +49(0)69/910 - 31730

parishes in the district were merged in 2007, the religious building initially stood empty. Schleiff Denkmalentwicklung built 23 barrier-free flats in the church sponsored by the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Students and pensioners moved into the building due to the low rents in an inner-city area. The outside of the historic landmark was preserved. Inside, the church-cum-residential building is fit for the future thanks to sustainable concepts.

 Ole Braukmann, press officer Group communications, 
 HAMBURG WASSER, +49(0)40/788888-126 KUNST-STOFFE – Central Office for Recyclable Materials 
 Judith Jacob, +49(0)30/34089840 “Recycling Old Concrete” Research Project
 Prof. Dr. Klaus Sedlbauer,
 Director of the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP), +49(0)8024/643203 Urban Mining – cities as raw material mines 

Norbert Reidick, board member Urban Mining e.V., +49(0)201/72004- 0


100ee regions: independent energy supply
 Stefanie Roth, Marketing IdE Institut dezentrale, 
 Energietechnologien gGmbH, +49(0)561/ 788096-261 BIQ – the algae building
 Stefan Wulff, Managing Director Otto Wulff Bauunternehmung GmbH, +49(0)40/736240 Kalbe artists’ city
 Corinna Köbele, First Chair Künstlerstadt Kalbe e. V., +49(0)39080/2959 Old cotton: new city centre for Flöha 
 Friedrich Schlosser, Mayor, +49(0)3726/791101 Revitalisation of the Essen-Bredeney water tower 
 Michael Dahms and Arnim Koch 
 Managing Directors of MADAKO GmbH & Co. KG,, +49(0)208/468420 Modern living in Herz-Jesu Church
 Georg Wilms, Managing Director 
 Schleiff Denkmalentwicklung GmbH & Co. KG, +49(0)2431/9641- 22


Citizens and municipalities cultivate a love for their city

In the face of globalization and the financial and debt crisis, more and more German citizens are turning their attention to their home country. Magazines extolling the virtues of Germany’s cities and villages are selling record numbers of copies. Local fruit, milk, and meat are enjoying increasing popularity. (24) And many Germans are now spending their holidays in Germany. (25) In 2012, 37.4 per cent vacationed at home. In addition to the study on the competition, a survey conducted by TNS Infratest on behalf of Deutsche Bank found that Germans are more interested in Germany.(26) 86 per cent of Germans like the place they live in, three-quarters (76 per cent) would choose to live in their city or community again.

Local patriotism experiencing a renaissance in German 

the competition winner from Andernach. Public parks and green areas are being tur-

cities and regions

ned into gardens for residents there. The Jena welcome service is making potential employees curious about the municipality, and the city of Wilhelmshaven launched the

The competition shows that the trend in the city of the future will be more involvement in one’s own city or region. Many residents are discovering a love for their home city or region and are getting involved in activities to promote it. Municipalities are realizing that they have do more than just manage their cities – that in the future they will have to come up with creative ideas to attract citizens, companies, tourists, and people involved in the cultural sector to their cities. The Fraunhofer study shows that many

International Street Art Festival, which now lures 3D artists from across the globe.

“More and more cities are realizing that in the future they cannot concentrate solely on hard location factors such as low taxation rates. The winners of the competition show how original ideas can help municipalities become more attractive and push forward brand building.”

citizens are helping to make their place of residence fit for the future. For example,

Prof Dr. Michael Hüther, Director of the Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft

residents of the town of Leutkirch contributed one million Euros to buy their closed-

in Cologne and chairman of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of

down railway station, turn it into it a seat for regional companies, and install a visitors’

Ideas” competition

centre and a restaurant there. A Hamburg foundation is sponsoring light installations that turn drab railway underpasses into safe art spaces. And in Bremen students are helping needy people to design their street newspaper in an appealing way and to market it. The spectrum ranges from ideas intended to make their place of residence safer and more liveable, to social projects, to Internet platforms on which citizens can co-decide about traffic planning in their city.

Cities and regions arouse a desire for their region

MY CITY AND ME At the children’s biennial, young residents of Esslingen become acquainted with their home city in a very special way. Every other year, a new event series is staged for first to sixth graders, who work on different projects devoted to an annual theme. So far, children have found

Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Leipzig: many big cities are magnets that can’t complain a-

out how green their city is, have given Esslingen a mosaic as a gift, and

bout a lack of growth. (27) The situation is different in many other regions, where the

have embellished sculptures with knit scarves and hats as an exercise in

population will dwindle until 2030. (28) To attract old and new citizens, tourists, and

guerrilla knitting.

companies, they will have to come up with some good ideas. According to a survey of municipalities conducted by the German Institute of Urban Affairs, back in 2004 80 per cent of German cities implemented urban marketing measures or had experience in this area.(29) Urban marketing expert Dr. Sebastian Zenker from Erasmus University Rotterdam confirms that German municipalities are becoming increasingly open to the topic. (30) An example of how such measures are drawing people to cities is


other projects, including the Berlin Rainbow Centre, SAMOCCA integrative care, and ZUCCHINI FROM A CITY PARK In Andernach, the motto is “picking allowed” rather than “no trespassing”. Whether it’s strawberries, lettuce, or onions – the municipal administration lets people plant fruit, vegetables, and herbs everywhere, and

the Forum – Young Migrant Talents, are also promoting cohabitation. The number of German residents who are now doing community work has increased. Today, 17.5 million citizens are involved in 600,000 voluntary associations and organisations, more institutions than ever before. (33)

everyone can pick them. As a result, public parks and green areas are becoming gardens for citizens. The public campaign shows residents how to eat healthily and boosts their appreciation for regional food. Whether planting or harvesting, everyone can join in.

“The diversity of cities in the wake of demographic change presents both a challenge and an opportunity. The competition shows how a sense of community can be promoted and highlights the importance of civic involvement.”
 Birgit Quien, President of the association denkwerk-stadt Saarbrücken and member of the advisory board of “Ideas for the City”


Citizens and municipalities get involved to promote a greater sense of

A thinking-exercise-play trail with dexterity exercises, board games, fit-

community in their hometown

ness equipment, and cosy corners where people can rest and talk has made parts of the Wulsdorf section of Bremerhaven more attractive. It

Germany’s cities and regions are becoming more and more colourful. Today, more

offers a variety of leisure activities to people of all ages and back-

than 10.7 million immigrants from 194 nations live in Germany. (31) In the last few

grounds, with or without disabilities. Residents helped develop the exer-

decades, the diversity of religions and forms of living has also increased. (32) Such

cise trail. The Raumwerkerei, a local company, initiated the project and

variety requires new kinds of community building. To enhance cohesion in their ho-

subsequently built the different parts of the trail.

metown, an increasing number of citizens, municipalities, and institutions are getting involved in activities around intercultural dialogue, as examples from the competition show. The Augsburg Grandhotel Cosmopolis accommodates asylum-seekers and travelers under one roof. In the House of Religions in Hannover, Christians, Jews, Moslems, Bahais, Hindus, and Buddhists exchange ideas on a regular basis. A slew of


PROJECT CONTACTS Leutkircher Bürgerbahnhof – paving the way for the future
 Christian Skrodzki, volunteer chairman
 Leutkircher Bürgerbahnhof eG, +49(0)7561/909912 Illumination of railway underpasses
 Dr. Andreas Mattner, Chairman of the Board of the 
 “Lebendige Stadt” foundation, +49(0)40/60876160 STREET NEWSPAPER
 Prof. Michael Vogel, initiator of the Street Newspaper, 
 Hochschule Bremerhaven, +49(0)179/ 7003131 Children’s Biennial


Margit Bäurle, project manager Kinder-Biennale e. V., +49(0)711/375859

Prof. Dr. Michael Hüther

Grandhotel Cosmopolis

Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft 

Sebastian Kochs, Chairman of Grandhotel

Chairman of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition

Cosmopolis e. V., +49(0)2214981-601 (Simone Schüttler), +49(0)821/450820

Birgit Quien

Promoting tolerance: Haus der Religionen

Denkwerk-stadt association

Prof. Wolfgang Reinbold, First Chairman of the

Member of the advisory board of “Ideas for the City”

sponsoring organisation Haus der Religionen Hannover, +49(0)681/501-2077, +49(0)511/1241972


Forum – Young Migrant Talents
 Barbara Seibert, Director FORUM – Young Migrant Talents e. V., +49(0)40/38086802 SAMOCCA – integrative café
 Sabine Eberhard, SAMOCCA-Produktmanagement Samariterstiftung, +49(0)7361/37025-13 Thinking-exercise-play trail: active inclusion
 Günther Kerchner, Managing Director Raumwerkerei Bremerhaven gGmbH, +49(0)471/9322111 Andernach – the edible city
 Christoph Maurer, press spokesman, +49(0)2632/922120 International Street Art Festival Wilhelmshaven
 Michael Diers, Managing Director, +49(0)4421/927912 Jena welcome service
 Wilfried Röpke, Managing Director Wirtschaftsförderungsgesellschaft Jena mbH, +49(0)3641/8730030,
 Angelika Stenzel, project manager, +49(0)3641/8730036

Do-it-yourself is the motto of the city of the future

From energy supply to traffic management, from educational policy to climate protection, ever-more citizens are demanding the right to help shape municipal activities. (34) Back in 1979, the Club of Rome recognized the potential of civic involvement: “Participation. Only a few words reflect people’s demands to influence decisions on a local and a global level” (35) Thirty-five years later, no elected municipal officers or local authorities can afford to ignore citizens’ desire and will to take part in decision-making. The Fraunhofer study on the competition confirms a renewed desire for urban participation.

Citizens are shaping city life more than ever before

on of representative democracy. In the long run, they say, it will change the current political process. (37) An advantage: when the public is directly included in the

People get involved when they feel that something is missing or experience an instan-

search for solutions sought by different interests, processes become more transparent.

ce of maladministration. A growing number of citizens’ initiatives, self-help groups, and

(38) A concrete example of e-participation is participatory budgeting. By taking part

representatives of affected groups are engendering new networks of civic involve-

in budgeting, residents can have a say. Another digital solution for authorities is the

ment, as an alternative to membership in political parties, unions, churches, or other

BuergerCloud, which was honoured as a “Landmark”. With the help of this “citizens’

traditional organisations. (36) New technology systems are supporting the citizens’

cloud”, interested people will be able to take part in municipal citizens’ initiatives with

self-organisation. The solutions rewarded in the competition range from an online plat-

the click of the mouse, provided they have a new personal ID with electronic proof of

form for parking space sharing to a crowd-funding Internet platform for energy-efficient

their identity, which gives them access to the protected online database.

projects. In the field of education, too, innovative concepts are in greater demand than ever before. There is a big need for childcare offers in Germany; the waiting lists are long. The former SAP manager Anke Odrig showed initiative and creativity. She developed the software LITTLE BIRD, with which the complete childcare offer of a city can be managed. It gives cities a better overview of the care places that are available. LITTLE BIRD is already used by eight German municipalities and is a “Landmark” 2013/14.

“Lived democracy is indispensable for Germany. The commitment of our country’s citizens is impressive. The many initiatives show us what is important for Germany and what is being done here. The “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition makes this dedication visible.”
 Cornelia Quennet-Thielen, State Secretary in the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and a member of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” 2013/14 competition. Citizens are getting involved in municipal tasks and decision-making

“Civic participation is a powerful movement. It is an important part of modern society and in the future will make a decisive contribution towards the continuous advancement of democracy.”

Basic democratic forms of participation are the order of the day. Here, too, the Inter-

Thomas Krüger, President of the German Federal Centre for Political

net is playing an increasingly important role. Electronic participation is considered a

Education and a member of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of

new kind of knowledge transfer between state and citizens. Experts call it an extensi-

Ideas” 2013/14 competition 21

When there are disasters, civic help is more important than ever before KEEPING DISTRICTS CLEAN BY MEANS OF A SMARTPHONE Whether it’s broken glass on the pavement or a smeared park bench: with a special app citizens can report sullied objects, things in need of repair or sources of danger directly to the municipal authorities round the clock. The technology not only supports the city during its work, but also promotes a sense of solidarity: everyone

Germany fights the flood of the century. Numerous rivers across Germany burst their banks at the beginning of June 2013. Help is provided by local fire departments, the Bundeswehr (German Army), the technical aid organisation – and by citizens, who carry sandbags, supply homeless people with the bare essentials, and set up informa-

can do something for his or her neighbourhood. Pictures, short descriptions, and the

tion centres. According to the reinsurance company Munich Re, natural events world-

coordinates of the location can be sent by app. The apps already exist for many

wide caused economic damages of around 35 billion Euros in the first half of 2013.

German cities.

(39) To be able to coordinate supplies and react quickly in cases of disasters, a private initiative in Dresden developed a digital flood map. The initiative was one of the winners of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition for 2013/14. The flood map makes important information visible and freely accessible. It gives helpers a quick overview of endangered dam sections, roadblocks, and sandbag filling stations. All of the data can be accessed locally via smartphone or tablet and facilitate communication between local authorities and citizens. In the future, they will be able to join professional aid workers in a more targeted way. And social networks and Short Mes-


sage Services will also be helpful during heat waves, fires, or flood disasters, say ex-

While in the past sirens wailed in emergencies, today modern warning methods

perts from the Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FOKUS). They

exploit the benefits of the Internet and mobile phones. An example is the system de-

quickly convey where what kind of assistance is needed.

veloped by the Fraunhofer FOKUS institute and public insurance companies. With KATWARN, the fire department and emergency response authorities inform citizens about accidents such as large-scale fires, blackouts, and bomb finds via SMS, email, or smartphone app. Registered users find out what needs to be done in their postal code area, enabling them and others to get to safety quickly and coordinate assistance.   



Geoplex solar roof cadastre
 Frederik Hilling, Managing Director

Thomas Krüger
 German Federal Centre for Political Education and member of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition (Daniel Kraft) Cornelia Quennet-Thielen
 Federal Ministry of Education and Research and member of the jury of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition, +49(0)30/1857-5027 (Markus Fels)

PROJECT CONTACTS: Ampido – share your parking place
 Adalbert Rajca, Managing Director of ampido GmbH, +49(0)541/35731830 Voicing complaints – citizens for their city
 Dr. Robert Lokaiczyk, Managing Director of wer denkt was GmbH, +49(0)6151/6274914 KATWARN – the municipal warning and information system
 Niklas Reinhardt, Head of Communications Innovation Centre for Public Safety, Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FOKUS), +49(0)30/3463-7594 BuergerCloud
 Dr. Detlef Hühnlein, Managing Director of ecsec GmbH, +49(0)9571/896479, +49(0)221/6776911 bettervest – investing in a better city together
 Patrick Mijnals, Managing Director, +49(0)163/6953823 Dresden flood map
 Sven Mildner, IT Systems Administrator, +49(0)351/30909073 LITTLE BIRD
 Sonja Bechtold, Head of Public Relations, +49(0)30/47372213


Information and communications technologies enhance the smart city of the future

Thanks to GPS, cars roll down the street without drivers. Sensors check to see if patients have made progress in their recovery. An online platform enables citizens to aid flood victims. The analysis of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas� 2013/14 shows that the city of the future is unthinkable without intelligent information and communications technologies (ICT). German Internet users exchange ideas and form networks – even in their city or region, which benefits from the tremendous dynamism of the ICT industry. This industry has long overtaken the automotive sector and the media industry as the main job engine. According to the German industry association BITKOM 2013, more than 900,000 people work in this area, above all in urban centres. (40)

will be particularly striking in nursing homes. (42) Technical assistance systems and robots will therefore become more and more important in the healthcare industry – especially since innovative information and communications technologies can increase people’s quality of life, safety, and independence. The winning project of ALPHA gGmbH from Duisburg aids people with dementia. With the help of so-called ambient assisted living systems (AAL), the oven turns off automatically or the room temperature is self-regulating.

THROUGH THE CITY IN THREE COURSES Those who take part in rudirockt not only become acquainted with new culinary delicacies but also meet new people from their city. After registering on the free online platform, participants are e-mailed a dinner route. Each person cooks one course at home and serves it to guests they don’t know. Subsequently the guests go to another guest’s home for the next course. All of the participants finish off the evening together at an after dinner party. With the help of modern communications technologies, the idea promotes contact and exchange in urban centres.

New communications and information channels are revolutionizing healthcare When the patient looks into the bathroom mirror, he is reminded that he has to take his pills. With telemonitoring, chronic heart patients can be monitored. Such technological know-how is already being applied in health care in urban and rural areas. In the future, there will be no alternative to these so-called intelligent systems. New approaches have to be developed above all for assistance and care of ill or elderly people, but also for disease prevention, because the need for care in Germany will increase by 50 per cent by 2030. (41) The healthcare gap will take on terrifying proportions. The healthcare sector will lack around 500,000 full-time staff. The shortage

New local communications platforms promote exchange Seventy-seven per cent of Internet users are online every day or almost every day, and 92 per cent among 16- to 24-year-olds. (43) People use the Internet primarily to obtain information, among other things about the region they live in and local initiatives, in which more and more citizens are participating. In the last 50 years, the num-


ber of associations, cooperatives, and foundations in Germany has increased seven-

How important will ICT solutions be in cities in the future?

fold. (44) An example is the Mundraub initiative launched by Terra Concordia gUG. 

An interactive map and an online portal inform people where they can pick organic

They will play a key role. ICT solutions allow for interdisciplinary coordination of diffe-

fruit, wild fruit, and herbs in their region legally and free of charge. In this way, urbani-

rent systems in one city. Huge streams of information arise that can only be coped

tes’ attention is drawn to the natural treasures in their area. creates access

with using ICT solutions. Today, we are already developing an understanding that the-

to cultural programs in the border area between Germany, France, and Switzerland.

re is not just one communications infrastructure – for example, telecommunications,

An online platform and an app deliver the highlights of the region’s theatre program-

mobile communications, or broadband communications – but also a public informati-

me right to people’s living rooms – an attractive offer particularly for those on a tight

on infrastructure. Today, ICT networks are indispensable, say, for energy and water

budget or for people with restricted mobility.

supplies and for public transport, for example.

Urban futurology is inconceivable without new technologies

Which ICT trends will be dominant in everyday city life in 30 years?

Futurologists agree that in the future cities will be centres of business and knowledge

For ICT, which has developed since the 1950s, 30 years is a gigantic time period. I

to a greater extent than ever before. (45) Their innovative power and creativity make

see a need for comprehensive provision of life data and their fast preparation, for e-

them engines of social development. Urban futurology needs technological progress

xample information on individual sites in one city. Examples include recognition of pub-

and at the same time helps steer it. Ina Schieferdecker, ICT Coordinator for Smart Ci-

lic transport usage patterns, determining the current occupancy rate of vehicles, or

ties at the Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FOKUS), explains

vehicles’ environmental index. Thus, for instance, public transport options can be gea-

the trends.

red to individual requirements and needs. If an especially high number of people use busses or trains in a certain city district, the transport operator can add more stops ba-

Why are information and communications technologies so important for the development of urban concepts?

sed on the life data. Important challenges include massive provision of detailed data in real time and linking this data with other data streams and information, protection of

this data, and protection of personal information. To this end, we need new ways of The key objective in the city of the future is to improve living and work quality. To a-

transmitting information, robust communications and integration possibilities, and de-

chieve this goal, municipal officers need up-to-date information that provides them with

monstrably correct analyses and evaluations of the data.

bases for decision-making. But information can only be recorded, processed, and made available if citizens, companies, organisations, and administrations can use mo-

Where does Germany stand in an international comparison?

dern information and communications technologies. For most cities and municipalities,

this is still a long way away. Digitalisation towards the Smart City will accompany us

As we formulated in the acatech recommendations for action for so-called Smart Ci-

for decades.

ties (46), Germany – like other high-tech nations – faces the challenge of integrating new ICT technologies into urban infrastructures and in this way optimizing, say, city


traffic or the energy supply. Germany is making headway here. The first prototypes and pilots already exist in Frankfurt, Berlin, and other cities.

EXPERT CONTACTS: Prof. Ina Schieferdecker
 Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FOKUS)


What might the city of the future look like? Fraunhofer researchers investigated this question in the Morgenstadt (City of the Future) initiative. In the researchers’ future scenarios, residents will generate their electricity them-


selves and feed surplus energy into the public grid. Building facades will

Innovative assistance for people with dementia

clean the air and reduce traffic noise. Roof surfaces will be used for large

Heike Perszewksi, Managing Director

gardens and for agricultural purposes to decrease transport distances and, +49(0)2066/9938915

emissions from freight traffic, thus improving the quality of urban life. The researchers are looking for inspiration in metropolises around the globe and are jointly putting innovative solutions into practice.
 Kai Gildhorn, founder and Managing Director, +49(0)30/54821101 Rudirockt
 Florian Schwanse, Managing Director, +49(0)176/66234539 Urban scenarios for the future: Project “Morgenstadt”
 Dr. Ing. Eckhart Hertzsch, head of the office “Nationale Platform Zukunfsstadt” and head of the IBP business field Morgenstadt, +49(0)30/68837596200
 Manfred Hammes, Managing Director, +49(0)781/9686731


Citizens are becoming environmentally aware mobility managers

Mobility is decisive for urban spaces to function. From an ecological point of view, a transformation in urban transport usage is urgently necessary. A fifth of all CO2 emissions of the EU countries are produced by road traffic. (47) There is a consensus among futurologists that the reduction of emissions called for by the EU can only be achieved if the transport policy measures are coupled with a technological transformation and a fundamental change of mobility habits. (48) That means road users will increasingly become private mobility managers who will reach their destination fast and ecologically with the help of new technologies.

Urbanites can shape mobility more flexibly GREEN LIGHT FOR BUSSES AND AMBULANCES In the future, those who want to go from point A to point B will be able to take advantage of a broad mobility offer. Ideally, busses, trains, bicycles, cars, and electric scooters will be available everywhere and at all times. There are many reasons not to have a car in the city, ranging from rush-hour traffic and a shortage of parking spaces to rising fuel prices. Almost one in four Germans (24 per cent) want to have flexible mobility options. (49) According to the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), an increasing number of city dwellers are opting for an intelligent mobility mix to reach their destination as quickly and inexpensively as possible. (50) Car-sharing is particularly

STREAM enables passengers to reach their destination faster, thus making public transport more attractive. A few seconds before a bus approaches a red traffic light, it reports its position to a computer via a GPS receiver and a mobile phone network. A short time later, the traffic light signals to the vehicle that it has “clear sailing”. The technology also helps ambulances and fire trucks to arrive at their destination as quickly as possible accident-free. The radio-based system was developed by Siemens and partners.

popular right now. In 2012, more than 453,000 German drivers shared a vehicle. (51) Technological innovations such as the car-sharing platform carzapp, which makes it easier for people to lend and borrow cars, and the parking space sharing platform ampido, provide for more flexibility. The bicycle is also experiencing a renaissance as a means of transportation. In 2013, 430,000 of the somewhat more comfortable Pedelec variants were sold, while in 2009 it was only 150,000. (52) The RVM regional transport company in Muensterland has made life easier for its users since 2012: people with a public transportation pass can combine bus, train, and electric bicycle usage as they wish by opting for one of these means of transport at stops. As a result, they can reach their destination in the shortest possible time.

ELECTRIC TRUCKS DRIVE THROUGH THE CITY QUIETLY AND EMISSION-FREE The zemisec (Zero Emission Silent Electric Carriage) project is investigating how transports in urban areas can be emission free in the future. Together with partners from research and business, the Institute for Post-fossil Logistics in Münster is working on an electric articulated lorry and an appropriate logistics concept. In addition, small electric transporters will undergo practical tests in Cologne.


In the future, every citizen will be mobile in all phases of life In the future, the age structure in Germany will change radically. The number of older people will increase significantly, while the number of young people will decrease. Cities and municipalities have to prepare for the demographic change – not only regarding health care, but also in terms of the mobility offer. For older people, it is very difficult or impossible to use public transport. Lifts at underground or commuter rail stations are the exception, and ticket machines are complicated to use. The new German Public Transport Act, which came into force at the beginning of 2013, stipulates that public transport has to be accessible to everyone, without any barriers, by 2022. (53) The transport operator Saarbahn has launched the “Mobia – Mobile Into Old Age” project in Saarbrücken. Staff provide assistance at the respective location when the barriers seem insurmountable. The helpers can be contacted via a smartphone app. In the future, handicapped people will also benefit from innovations. An example is a sophisticated echo tracking technique for the blind developed by Anderes Sehen e.V., which helps physically challenged people move through the city easily.

Ms. Auffermann, why will the city of the future need new logistics systems? We have to develop solutions to make urban supply systems more efficient and ecological. In the search for such solutions, road pricing and fine dust zones are already a big issue. In the future, only fully loaded lorries should deliver goods. But transport will also change in terms of the supply structure. For example, there will be a growing need for outpatient care due to the demographic changes. How will future logistics work? What trends are becoming apparent? On the one hand, transport vehicles will be more environmentally friendly and incorporate new technologies, such as hybrid technology. On the other, goods transport will be more efficient, more flexible, and more economical. For the logistics industry, this means the electrical and electronic goods sector and the food sector will be supplied cooperatively. In addition, deliveries of branch-related orders of competitors will be pooled via so-called City Hubs, or jointly used transshipment centres. This requires new kinds of cooperation between everyone involved. Furthermore, customers will be able to pick up online orders in goods transfer stations at the desired time and place.

Traffic streams will be smoother and more ecological

What challenges await us until the first City Hubs begin operation?

The growing number of inhabitants in German big cities is coupled with growing

Before City Hubs and new logistics systems can function smoothly, people have to be

goods transport. More and more individual deliveries are leaving warehouses, a-

convinced of the merits. After all, we are talking about extreme changes and comple-

mong other places, because online orders are booming. Scientists see the need for

tely new business models for the sector. The first pilots were launched in 2014; in five

radical changes in logistics. (54) An example: In the EffizienzCluster RheinRuhr, 170

years, more far-reaching steps will be possible. So far, the implementation has not fai-

partners from science and business are developing new logistics concepts for the city

led due to technical obstacles, but due to the reluctance of dealers and logistics com-

of the future. The joint project was honoured as a “Landmark” in 2013. Christiane Auf-

panies to cooperate. In Germany, there is a great deal of good ideas, but there are

fermann is in charge of developing urban supply systems for the EffizienzCluster and

too many reservations and it takes a long time before a project is realized. More cou-

is Group Head for Trade Logistics at the Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Log-

rage to try out new things would do us good.

istics (IMI).


EXPERT CONTACTS: Christiane Auffermann
 Fraunhofer Insitute for Material Flow and Logistics (IML), +49(0)231/9743 - 309

PROJECT CONTACTS: ST mobil – flexibly on the move in Westphalia
 Werner Linnenbrink, Deputy Managing Director, +49(0)2591/939 - 400 STREAM – green light for busses and ambulances
 Stefan Eckert, Head of Division GER IC MOL SDMT, +49(0)621/4561042 Mobia – mobile into old age
 Manfred Backes, Authorized Representative Transport, +49(0)681/5003170 Seeing differently
 Promoting the mobility of blind children, 
 Steffen Zimmermann, First Executive, +49(0)30/23459978 EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr 
 Kirsten Verbeek, +49(0)231/9743 - 613 zemi-sec – eletromobile goods traffic 
 Alexander Zarle, Managing Director, +49 (0)251/13302910


Ideas for the City - Landmarks in the Land of Ideas

Every day, projects are developed in Germany that deserve a stage on which they can be appreciated. By honouring these ideas, the “Germany – Land of Ideas” initiative and Deutsche Bank, the national sponsors of the “Landmarks in the Land of Ideas” competition, put the innovations of creative minds in Germany and abroad in the public eye. In 2013, the competition reflected an annual theme for the first time: “Ideas for the City”. Impetus was sought for urban centres of the future. Around 1,000 projects were nominated in six categories: business, culture, science, environment, education, and society.

Trailblazing ideas for the metropolises of the future Companies, research institutes, art and cultural institutions, universities, social organisations, as well as private and public initiatives submitted projects to the jury of experts and an advisory council. The 100 winning projects impressed due to their creativity, role model character, and sustainability. “The “Landmarks” take responsibility and develop trailblazing ideas for the metropolises of the future,” says Jürgen Fitschen, Co-Chairman of the Management Board of Deutsche Bank AG and a member of the steering committee of Deutschland – Land der Ideen e.V. Since 2006, the “Germany – Land of Ideas” initiative and Deutsche bank have rewarded more than 2,500 “Landmarks” throughout Germany. In 2013/14, most of the winning projects came from the German states of Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia. Ulrich Grillo, President of the Federation of German Industries and President of Deutschland – Land der Ideen e.v., said: “The projects submitted reflect movements that will become more important nationally and internationally. They show that Germany is on the right track towards mastering the challenges of the urban future.” Further information on the competition and the winners can be found at and at

Award recipients 2013/2014 100ee regions: independent energy supply, Kassel 180° turn – multiplier network, Cologne ampido, parking space sharing, Cologne Anderes Sehen – promoting the mobility of blind children Andernach – the edible city, Andernach “Art for democracy”, Schönhausen Artistic illumination of railway underpasses, Hamburg Auditive architecture, Berlin


Aufbau Haus am Moritzplatz, Berlin

Domberg - museums around Bamberg Cathedral, Bamberg

AxiTop® diffuser for noise control

ebee charging points for electric vehicles, Berlin

Bebelallee Tree Houses, Hamburg

Efficient design for photovoltaics

"Berlin for the Blind" internet portal

EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr, Mülheim an der Ruhr

bettervest – investing in a better city together, Frankfurt

“Exchanging education for living”, Duisburg-Marxloh

Bioplastic facade, Stuttgart

Flood map Dresden, Dresden

BIQ – the algae house, Hamburg

Forum – Young Migrant Talents, Hamburg, Bremen

Geoplex solar roof cadastre, Osnabrück

BronxBerlinConnection – trans-Atlantic youth exchange

Germany is humming!, Berlin

BuergerCloud – democracy from the cloud

Grandhotel Cosmopolis, Augsburg

Building material from bulrush, Schönau

Green + Hospitals, Berlin

carzapp – carsharing platform, Berlin

HAMBURG WATER Cycle® in the Jenfelder Au, Hamburg

Cemetery gardens in Cologne, Cologne

“Home work”, Oderaue

Child care in companies, Munich

Hotel Wilhelmsburg – a lesson in urban development, Hamburg

Children's biennial – experiencing home, Esslingen am Neckar

InnovationCity Ruhr – model city Bottrop, Bottrop

CITYFÖRSTER – networked urban development, Berlin

Innovation centre (InnoZ): Living Lab for networked energy and mobility, Berlin

Climate-friendly fuel from biowaste, Berlin

Innovative assistance for people with dementia, Duisburg

Creativhof Grenzalle, Darmstadt

Intelligent glass, Gießen

“Death at the Wall” – history lessons via app, Hattingen

International StreetArt Festival, Wilhelmshaven, Wilhelmshaven


"Iphigenie auf Praxis" - Youth education for refugees and scouts, Witzenhausen

Rainbow family centre, Berlin

Jena welcome service, Jena

"Recycling old concrete" research project, Valley

Johanniter home for children and youth Munich-Ramersdorf, Munich

Remote-controlled quadrocopter with sensors, Regensburg

Kalbe artists’ city, Kalbe (Milde)

Renaturing – new riverbed for Arnsberg, Arnsberg

KATWARN - the municipal warning and information system, Berlin

Renewable Wilhelmsburg climate protection concept, Hamburg

KLUB DIALOG – an evening by creative people for creative people, Bremen

Research factory for resource-efficient production, Chemnitz

KUNST-STOFFE – Central Office for Recyclable Materials, Berlin

Revitalisation of the Essen-Bredeney water tower, Oberhausen

LEGO Bridge Wuppertal, Wuppertal

roofTUBgarden – the edible roof garden, Berlin

Leutkircher Bürgerbahnhof – paving the way for the future, Leutkirch

rudirockt – cooking and socializing, Aachen

LITTLE BIRD - software for transparent allocation of day-care places, Berlin

Ruhr Region Pixel Project, Gelsenkirchen

Living Lab “Fraunhofer electromobility”, Stuttgart

SAMOCCA – integrative café, Aalen

Mo.Ki – Monheim for children, Monheim am Rhein

Scuddy electric scooter, Kiel

Mobia – staying mobile in old age, Saarbrücken

Siegen – heading for new shores, Siegen

Mobile therapy control for chronic heart failure, Berlin

ST mobil – flexibly on the move in Westphalia, Münster

Modern living in Herz-Jesu Church, Erkelenz

Stralsund 2052, Stralsund – online forum for free fruit picking, Berlin

STREAM – green light for busses and ambulances, Mannheim

Old cotton: new city centre for Flöha, Flöha – Internet portal for stagecraft, Offenburg

People with dementia who live alone – training in municipalities, Berlin

“Talking Places” virtual sightseeing walk, Kaiserslautern

Promoting tolerance – Haus der Religionen, Hannover

TheaBib & Bar – a theatre as a place to study, Karlsruhe


Thermal battery that stores heat, Lüneburg Thinking-exercise-play trail: active inclusion, Bremerhaven Tomato Fish – ASTAF-PRO aquaponic system, Berlin “TOMORROW IN MY CITY” workshop for the future, Hamburg UR:BAN – user-friendly assistance systems and network management, Kircheim/Teck Urban mining – cities as raw material mines, Essen Urban production of the future, Igersheim-Harthausen Urban scenarios for the future: Project “Morgenstadt”, Stuttgart Voicing complaints – citizens for their city, Darmstadt Woodcube Hamburg, Hamburg Vodyanoy – the Water Spirit: Sorbian culture on the rise, Bautzen ZAwheel – clean and quiet electric busses, Künzelsau ZEITSCHRIFT DER STRASSE, Bremen Zemi-sec – electromobile goods traffic, Münster ZZZ – ZwischenZeitZentrale, Bremen



1 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division,

9 German Federal Government: Energiewende, URL: http://



energieeffizienz.html, as of 2/12/2013.

2 Bullinger, H.-J., Röthlein, B.: Morgenstadt. Wie wir morgen leben: Lösungen für das

10 German Federal Statistics Office: Ältere Menschen in Deutschland und in der EU,

urbane Leben der Zukunft, 2012, p.18.

2011. URL:

3 Fraunhofer IAO: Trend study. Ideas for the City, a competition of the “Germany Land of Ideas” competition, 2013. 4 Ibid. 5 Städte sind grüner, reference to International Institute for Environment and Development, 2009, URL: 200903271621/stadtplanung-bauen/hintergrund/staedte-sind-gruener , as of: 9/1/2014. 6 German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety: Abfallwirtschaft in Deutschland 2013. Fakten, Daten, Grafiken, URL: http:// %20wirtschaft_2013_bf.pdf 7 German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety: information on traffic, URL: laerm-verkehr/ verkehr/kurzinfo/, as of 1/10/2010. 8 German Federal Ministry for the Environment: Kurzbericht über die Fachtagung „Klimaschutz im Stadtverkehr – 40 Prozent weniger CO2: Städte am Start, 2008, URL:

Bevoelkerungs%20stand/BlickpunktAeltereMenschen102122%201119004.pdf? __blob=publicationFile 11 German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (ed.): Mobilität in Deutschland 2008: Ergebnisbericht, Struktur – Aufkommen – Emissionen – Trends, URL: 12 Cf. German Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development: Raumtypen 2010: Lage, URL: Raumbeobachtung/Raumabgrenzungen/Raumtypen2010_vbg/KarteLage2010.gif %3F__blob%3Dnormal%26v%3D1, as of 9/1/2014. 13, as of 12/2/2013. 14 Fraunhofer IAO: Trend study. Ideas for the City, a competition of the “Germany Land of Ideas” competition, 2013. 15 Greenpeace: Footprint. Der ökologische Fußabdruck Deutschlands, URL: http:// Footprint_Deutschland_2008.pdf

16 Keßler, H./Knappe, F.: Anthropogenic Stock as a Source of Raw Materials:


Optimized Utilization of Recycled Building Materials to Conserve Resources, in Factor X, 2013, pp. 187–202.


17 German Institute for Decentralised Energy Technologies: BMU project „100ee-

25 BAT Foundation of Futurology: Deutschland boomt – Ostsee und Bayern gleich-

Regionen“, URL:, as of

auf, URL:


urlaub-reisen/2013/reiseziele-inland.html, as of 2/12/2013.

18 German Association of Local Utilities: Rekommunalisierung, URL: http://

26 TNS Infratest: Survey of 500 respondents 14 or older in Germany for Deutsche

Bank, February 2013.

rekommunalisierung.html?p=1, as of 2/12/2013.

27 Hamburgisches Weltwirtschaftsinstitut: HWWI Berenberg Städteranking 2013, p.

19 Cf. Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy: Stadtwerke-

31, URL:



und Rekommunalisierung, URL: http://

28 IW Köln: Städteboom & Landflucht, URL:



20 Federation of German Consumer Associations: press release of 14/8/2013, URL: 21 German Federal Solar Industry Association: press release of 1/1/2013, URL: pressemeldungen-im-detail/news/rekordjahr-2012-deutschland-erzeugt-solarstromfuer-8-millionen-haushalte-1.html, as of 9/1/2014.

highlight=leerstand%2520st%25C3%25A4dteboom, as of 2/12/2013. 29 German Institute for Urban Studies: Difu-Berichte1–2/2005 – Stadtmarketing: Bestandsaufnahme und Entwicklungstrends, URL:, as of 2/12/2013. 30 fischerAppelt: telephone interview on 5/12/2013. 31 German Federal Statistics Office: press release from 18/12/2012, URL: http://

22 Marktforschungsinstitut trend: research/ Leuphana Universität Lüneburg: Definition

und Marktanalyse von Bürgerenergie in Deutschland, 2013, p.46, URL: http://

laendern-leben-in-deutschland, as of 9/1/2014. 23 Answer to enquiry to German Federal Agency for Public Property, Katharina Zysk, 30/9/2013. 24 A. T. Kearney: Lebensmittel: Regional ist gefragter als bio, URL:http:// +Lebensmittel.pdf.

32 Pollack, D./Müller, O.: Religionsmonitor, p. 34, URL: http:// 33 Bertelsmann Stiftung, Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, Fritz Thyssen Foundation (ed.): Zivilgesellschaft in Zahlen (ZiviZ)-SURVEY 2012. Zivilgesellschaft verstehen, 2012, URL:, as of 2/12/2013. 34 German Federal Agency for Political Education: Handbuch Bürgerbeteiligung, 2012, p. 9.


35 Club of Rome: Das menschliche Dilemma. Zukunft und Lernen, 1979. 36 Stiftung Mitarbeit: Bürgerbeteiligung als Teil der lokalen Demokratie, URL: http://
 buergerbeteiligung/warum-und-wozu-buergerbeteiligung/buergerbeteiligung-als-teilder-lokalen-demokratie/103438, as of 2/12/2013. 37 gestalten: Was ist elektronische Partizipation?,, as of 2/12/2013. 38 Ibid. 39 Munich Re: press release from 9/7/2013, URL: media_%20relations/press_releases/2013/2013_07_%2009_press_release.aspx

46 acatech – German Academy of Science and Engineering (ed.): acatech BEZIEHT POSITION – Nr. 10. Smart Cities. Deutsche Hochtechnologie für die Stadt der Zukunft, 2011, URL: Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Publikationen/Stellungnahmen/ acatech_bezieht_Position_Nr10_Smart-Cities_WEB.pdf. 47 Mühlhoff, R./Creutzig, F.: Der Weg zu einem nachhaltigen städtischen Transportwesen. In: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung: Urban Futures 2050 – Szenarien und Lösungen für das Jahrhundert der Städte, volume 18 of the series Ökologie, 2011, p. 105. 48 Ibid. 49 Münchner Kreis e. V.: Zukunftsstudie MÜNCHNER KREIS volume V – Innovationsfelder der digitalen Welt. Bedürfnisse von übermorgen, 2013, URL: http://

40 Ibid. and BITKOM: press release from 28/2/2013, URL: http://, as of 9/1/2014.


41 Bertelsmann Stiftung (ed.): Themenreport „Pflege 2030“, 2012.

50 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: Studie zum Mobilitätsverhalten in Deutschland,

42 Ibid. 43 German Federal Statistics Office: Wirtschaftsrechnungen – Private Haushalte in der Informations-gesellschaft – Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien, 2012. 44 Bertelsmann Stiftung, Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, Fritz Thyssen Stiftung (ed.): Zivilgesellschaft in Zahlen, (ZiviZ)-SURVEY 2012. Instrument und erste Ergebnisse, 2012, URL: #/1, as of 9/1/2014. 45 Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung (ed.): Urban Futures 2050. Szenarien und Lösungen für das Jahrhundert der Städte, volume 18 of the series Ökologie, 2011, p. 62.

2013, URL:, as of 9/1/2014. 51 Statista (ed.): Anzahl der Carsharing- Nutzer in Deutschland in den Jahren 2006 bis 2013, URL: entwicklung-der-carsharing-nutzer-in-deutschland, as of 9/1/2014. 52 Statista (ed.): Absatz von E-Bikes in Deutschland von 2009 bis 2013, URL:, as of 9/1/2014. 53 Personenbeförderungsgesetz (PBefG) § 8a, URL:


54 Deutsche Post AG: Delivering Tomorrow. Zukunftstrend Nachhaltige Logistik, 2010, p.19, URL: StudieSustainableLogistics/dpdhl_delivering_tomorrow_studie.pdf.

a Fraunhofer IAO: Trend study. Ideas for the City, a competition of the “Germany Land of Ideas” competition, 2013, p. 20. b Ibid., p. 13. c Ibid., p. 15. d Ibid., p. 40. e Eurostat (ed.): Umwelt in der EU27, press release 4/3/2013, URL: http:// f

Association of Binational Families and Partnerships: Zahlen und Fakten, http:// g Institute for Public Information Management ipima, Initiative D21 e. V. (ed.): eGovernment MONITOR, 2013,, as of 20/1/2014. h Cf. German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (ed.): MonitoringReport Digitale Wirtschaft 2012, 2012, p. 14, URL: Redaktion/PDF/Publikationen/it-gipfel-2012-monitoring-report-digitale-wirtschaft-2012langfassung,property=pdf,bereich=bmwi2012,sprache=de,rwb=true.pdf. i

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Transport Studies (ed.): Das

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City trend report  

The CITY TREND REPORT elucidates the key insights of a trend study conducted by the Fraunhofer IAO for Deutsche Bank. The study brings toget...

City trend report  

The CITY TREND REPORT elucidates the key insights of a trend study conducted by the Fraunhofer IAO for Deutsche Bank. The study brings toget...