DETC NEWS Fall 2006
DETC Accredits Two New Schools
In this issue: DETCâ€™s 81st Annual Conference Set for TTucson ucson Report from the Accrediting Commission Inspired by Distance Education Technology and the Militar Militaryy
DETC NEWS -
Contents DETC’s 81st Annual Conference Set for Tucson ...........................................
Message from the Executive Director .............................................................
Important Dates ................................................................................................
Report from the Accrediting Commission ........................................................
DETC Accreditation Seminar Held in October ................................................
Newly Accredited Institutions ..........................................................................
Inspired by Distance Education ........................................................................ by Jamie Gauthier Technology and the Military ............................................................................. by Dr. Jeffrey P. Cropsey
Distance Education and the Military .................................................................
DETC Distance Education Workshop a Success ............................................
On the Cover From Left: Chuck Delaney, Director of New York Institute of Photography (NYI) and Sheffield School of Interior Design, Queen Esther Lyons, Registrar of NYI, and Mike Lambert, DETC’s Executive Director.
DETC NEWS—Published by the Distance Education and Training Council, 1601 18th Street, NW, Suite 2, Washington, D.C. 20009 (202-234-5100). The Distance Education and Training Council (DETC) a nonprofit, voluntary association of accredited distance study institutions, was founded in 1926 to promote sound educational standards and ethical business practices within the distance study field. The independent DETC Accrediting Commission is listed by the United States Department of Education as a “nationally recognized accrediting agency.” The Accrediting Commission is also a charter member of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).
DETC Staff: Executive Director: Michael P. Lambert Assistant Director and News Editor: Sally R. Welch Director of Accreditation: Nan M. Bayster Director of Meetings and Publications: Robert S. Chalifoux Assistant to the Accrediting Coordinator: Adriene L. Crossland Information Specialist and Bookkeeper: Rachel A. Scheer Legal Counsellor: Joseph C. Luman
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DETC's 81st Annual Conference Set for Tucson
Omni Tucson National Golf Resort and Spa
The Omni Tucson National Golf Resort will host the DETC and its 81st Annual Conference on April 15-17, 2007. The Conference starts on Sunday, April 15, 2007 with a reception and dinner, and ends on Tuesday, April 17th with the DETC’s Annual Banquet. DETC also will hold a Workshop on Title IV Federal Student Aid on April 13th, 2007 at the same location. The Workshop will start Friday morning and last most of the day, so plan on arriving in Tucson by Thursday, April 12th. On Saturday, April 14th, DETC will host a Golf Tournment at the Omni’s magnificent course. The Financial Aid Workshop will be presented by Dr. Sharon Bob, Special Consultant to DETC. It will cover the fundamentals of applying for Federal Student Aid, key federal regulations and how they will likely be applied to DETC institutions, tips on best practices, and a question and answer session on all aspect of federal student aid participation. The Workshop is intended for DETC institutions now participating in federal aid programs, as well as those contemplating applying to the
program.In addition, a “case study of best practices and lessons learned” from a DETC institution with experience in participating in the Title IV will be included. The Conference Program, Conference Registration Form, and Hotel Reservation Form will be available in early January. Keep checking DETC’s Web site! The Omni Tucson National Golf Resort has it all—from its picturesque setting in the foothills of Tucson’s Santa Catalina Mountains to the lush fairways of its 36hole championship and desert-style golf courses. This 650-acre desert hotel is one of Tucson’s finest spa and golf resorts. It boasts championship golf, a world-class spa, lighted tennis courts, two sparkling pools, three restaurants and fourdiamond accommodations and suites. The Omni Tucson Resort was recently selected as one of the “75 Best Golf Resorts in North America” by Golf Digest. It is conveniently located approximately 30 minutes from Tucson International Airport and 90 minutes from Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport. DETC NEWS • FALL
Message from the Executive Director
Distance Education: Equal Partner, Mainstream Option
by Michael P. Lambert This past July, a retired professor from a small, state-owned college penned a guest essay in a Florida newspaper in which he compared the online and distance offerings of for-profit institutions to nothing more than courses offered by “diploma mills.” The professor wrote: This [the 50% rule of 1992] was enacted to block some for-profit schools from becoming little more than diploma mills intended to harvest federal student loans.The purpose was obvious: to limit taxpayer money for legitimate colleges’ federal student aid programs, and to prevent exploitative for-profit degree mills not worthy of federal taxpayer assistance. He continued unabashedly: The new rules now enhance opportunities for expansion of “corporation 2
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schools,” which should raise serious questions about the commercialization of education for profit in Florida (and America) and taxpayers’ funding for their “clients.” While we reserve the right of the author of this essay to have an opinion on such matters as online education and federal student aid, we take vigorous exception to his implication that online instruction—or any instruction and learning— can only be legitimate if it is dispensed by a non-profit institution. And in a document by an anonymous author called “Federalizing Transfer of Academic Credit” that appears on the Web site of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), this incendiary statement was printed: (continued)
(Message from the Executive Director, continued) The root of the current debate [about credit transfer] is the desire of some of these for-profits to obscure the difference between their lax academic criteria for accreditation and the higher standards of established colleges and universities. In their battle to keep the Federal government out of the business of credit acceptance in higher education, the lobbyists for the status quo in formulating transfer credit policies overstated their case. In the normal give-and-take of negotiating with Federal lawmakers, there have been casualties over the issue of credit transfer and the government’s role in it: the truth, the credibility of those who misrepresented the impact of the proposed legislation, and equality of treatment for students from nationally accredited institutions who deserve fair play in credit transfer. It is this kind of reactionary thinking that has blinded some traditional educators to the real potential for “win-win” partnerships with for-profit entities and to entering into coalitions with well-managed, student-centric, for-profit colleges. It is this narrow-minded viewpoint that will not permit institutions from accepting academic credits in transfer from for-profit institutions, to the detriment of taxpayers who must then subsidize a redundant student loan for the same subject from a properly accredited institution.
Denying transfer credit based solely on the source of the accreditation of the sending institution is still a widespread practice in the nation’s colleges and universities, and for the past three years Congress has been proposing Federal legislation that will ban this predatory economic practice. The proposed federal legislation will not—as its vocal critics have falsely alleged—force colleges to accept anyone’s credits. The proposed language only says that an institution may not refuse to consider credits in transfer based solely on the accrediting association of the sending institution. From my viewpoint, refusing to review a transfer student’s transcripts with credits that are not from a regionally accredited institution is shortsighted, unfair to students and a very poor business decision. It reveals a prejudice that is unworthy of highly educated academics. And as the available pool of students in the 18 to 25 year old range continues to contract for the rest of this decade, traditional colleges and universities wishing to survive will want to become more inclusive of students from other sectors of the educational spectrum. The fact is, for-profit, nationally accredited institutions are now using the precisely same textbooks, the same learning management platforms, and often the same faculty as their regionally accredited competition. I am hard pressed to see how one institution is legitimate and the other somehow is not. While textbook publishers, media broadcasters and iPod and DVD-recorded lecturers (some of them are even tenured (continued) DETC NEWS • FALL
(Message from the Executive Director, continued) professors cashing in on their personal store of knowledge) are allowed to make a profit in our society—that is, we do not think twice about them making “profits” from dispensing knowledge—for-profit institutions somehow are not worthy. Having distance education institutions being compared to a “diploma mills” is nothing new for those of us who have followed the history of the 14-year saga of eliminating the “50% rule” from the legislation authorizing federal student aid. One longtime Member of Congress, now deceased, was in the habit of publishing broadsides that declared that before the enactment of the “50% rule” in 1992, diploma mills were the recipients of large amounts of Title IV federal student aid. Another Member of Congress apparently believes that online learning is simply inferior to classroom learning. A former classroom professor himself, his belief is rooted in a worldview that does not accept the concept that you can learn equally as well regardless of the medium of instruction. To have been eligible for federal student aid pre-1992, an institution had to have been accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency. In those days, only DETC and the regional associations accredited distance study. If a degree mill had been somehow able to attain DETC or other agency accreditation, the media outcry would still be ringing in our ears. Nothing ever remotely approaching a diploma mill was ever accredited by DETC— or by any regional accrediting agency— in
the 1980s to our knowledge, yet an urban legend grew out of this falsehood that “diploma mills” received federal student aid. It is simply not true! The professor’s misguided opinion piece in the Florida newspaper mentioned above resurrects the ghost of the “urban legend” of diploma mills getting federal student aid. Sadly, it represents the often unstated but still held antipathy toward for-profit education that apparently remains a burr under higher education’s saddle. Such beliefs in the superiority of the traditional fixed facility, viva voce lecturebased system over the upstart technologybased newcomers die hard. They persist because people are comfortable with their own personal experiences in their education, their own carefully crafted mythos, and are not anxious to admit any new information that will force them to re-think what they have long believed. It is just oldfashioned human nature to hold to what you have always believed, since it is uncomfortable to change a set of beliefs. The day will come when many of our lawmakers and oversight regulators will be products of the for-profit, online education schooling system. The day is nearly here when just about every college graduate will have completed a part of their studies using online learning. They will go out into the world without fear of mediabased learning, without prejudice against one type of educational provider over another. For those of us willing to accept new information and new reality, for those open-minded enough to re-examine what is happening in the external education and (continued)
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(Message from the Executive Director, continued) training landscape today and let go of the past’s stranglehold on our cherished personal belief system, a new world of future opportunity opens up. Here is my short list of poorly supported generalizations, old wives’ tales, anecdotally-grounded beliefs, indefensible myths and shakily-premised urban legends in higher education that will, sooner rather than later, evaporate in the bright light of a new reality of “true facts:” • Classroom learning is, and always will, be superior in terms of learner outcomes to online and distance learning. • Opening up federal student aid to fully online learning institutions will lead to a proliferation of diploma mills. • For-profit institutions are, by definition, inferior in academic quality to not-forprofit institutions. • Academic credits from nationally accredited institutions will never be generally transferable to regionally accredited colleges. (Some 70% of DETC graduates are able to transfer their credits today.) • Academic excellence will be destroyed in traditional colleges if they are no longer permitted to refuse transfer credits based solely on the source of the accreditation of the sending institution. • Regional accreditation is —and always will be— the “gold standard” in accreditation.
• Students cannot learn as well from an independent study/correspondence course as they can from a highly interactive online course. • For there to be excellence in online learning, there must be a high level of student-to-student and student-to-instructor electronic interactivity. • It is acceptable for state licensing bodies, specialized accrediting associations and certifying groups to refuse to accept national accreditation as a qualification to sit for an examination or apply for their accreditation or approval. I have long been amazed that in the world of higher education, the alleged guardians of unfettered truth-seeking and liberal thinking in our society, there persists some of the narrowest, most closeminded and most myopic thinking around when it comes to acknowledging that there may more than one way to learn or more than one particular organizational structure to offer learning to people. It is almost as if tradition trumps progress when it comes to ensuring academic quality. This kind of thinking— which, if it were not so anti-competitive it might be laughable—would not take you too far in the world of business. And therein lies the vexing flashpoint: can the business model ever be fully integrated to the academic model? Can the tenured “sage on the stage” ever walk hand in hand across the quickly disappearing oak grove with the iPod wearing Internet marketing genius? (continued)
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(Message from the Executive Director, continued) These myths and legends will be given their proper internment in the “Hall of Former Truths” as we watch millions upon millions of future students enroll in forprofit online courses in the years ahead. We will see that progressive higher education officials will view it as good business to accept appropriate credit from nationally accredited schools. We will watch approvingly, perhaps under the prodding of Federal attorneys charged with rooting out anti-competitive behavior, as licensing bodies, national associations and programmatic accrediting groups drop their indefensible “red-lining” of national accreditation. And we will witness the awesome and inexorable power of the free marketplace in learning, as students will vote with their keyboard clicks as they opt to enroll and become lifelong learners with distance institutions. Tomorrow’s learners of all ages will want to drink from a fire hose of information. They will be less interested in the sources of the dispensers of knowledge, and more interested in accessing it, processing it, applying it to their lives or jobs and moving on. The keys to success in the education business in the future will be: who is offering the best, most skill-producing program quality, the best student services at the greatest perceived value with the most learner convenience? And the myths about how people must be taught and how they should learn, which some of our colleagues living behind the ivy walls of academe once ascribed as
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being immutably infallible, will give way to a brave new reality, where the way we learn and where we happen to learn will no longer be the determinants of what is acceptable. What remains is, “Did you learn?”
Important Dates Mark your calendars now for the following DETC activities for 2007: Accrediting Commission Meeting January 12-13 Workshop on Title IV Federal Student Aid April 13th Omni Tucson National Golf Resort Tucson, AZ 81st Annual Conference April 15-17 (Sunday-Tuesday) Omni Tucson National Golf Resort Tucson, AZ Accrediting Commission Meeting June 8-9, 2007 DETC Fall Workshop October 14-16 Rancho Bernardo Inn San Diego, CA Accreditation Seminar October 17 Rancho Bernardo Inn San Diego, CA
Report from the Accrediting Commission The DETC Accrediting Commission, the nationally recognized accreditation association for distance learning institutions, met June 2-3, 2006 and took the following actions:
Doctorate Degrees Accredited and Satisfaction Rate Increased The Commission accredited two doctorate degrees and increased the required “student satisfaction” rate to 75%. As part of a Pilot Program, the Commission accredited two new doctorate degrees: Columbia Southern University’s Doctor in Business Administration (DBA), and College of the Humanities and Sciences, Harrison Middleton University’s Doctor in Education (Ed.D.). Please note, these two degrees were approved under a pilot program, and currently the Commission’s scope of recognition by the U.S. Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation is for associates through the first professional degree level only.
Two Institutions Gain Accreditation The following institutions were accredited as of June 3, 2006: New York Institute of Photography 211 East 43rd Street, Suite 2402 New York, NY 10017 (Phone: 212-867-8260; Fax: 212-867-8122; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Web Site: http:// www.nyip.com)
Founded 1910 (2006/2012). A division of Professional Career Development Institute. Courses in professional photography and digital photography.
Sheffield School of Interior Design 211 East 43rd Street New York, NY 10017 (Phone: 212-661-7270; Fax: 800-822-0023; E-mail: email@example.com; Web Site: http://www.sheffeld.edu) Founded 1985 (2006/2012). A division of Professional Career Development Institute. Course in interior design.
Four Institutions Reaccredited The following DETC institutions were reaccredited:
• Cardean University, Chicago, IL • Columbia Southern University, Orange Beach, AL
• Grantham University, Kansas City, MO • Sessions, Online School of Design, New York, NY
Resigned Accreditation The following institution resigned accreditation as of March 31, 2006: Futures International High School, 2204 El Camino Real, Suite 310, Oceanside, CA 92054 (continued) DETC NEWS • FALL
(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued) Changes of Location The following changes of location were approved by the Commission:
American Graduate School of Management, 385 Inverness Parkway, Suite 310, Englewood, CO 80112 was consolidated with the American College of Computer and Information Sciences (see below) and both names were changed to American Sentinel University.
Applied Professional Training moved to 5731 Palmer Way, Suite F, Carlsbad, CA 92010 (P.O. Box 131717, Carlsbad, CA 92013 (use for mailing). Phone: 800431-8488; Fax: 888-431-8588
Education Direct Center for Degree Studies, Scranton, PA, changed its name to Penn Foster College (see above)
International Import-Export Institute moved to 11225 N. 28th Drive, Suite B201, Phoenix, AZ 85029, Phone: 602-648-5750 or 800-474-8013; Fax: 602-648-5755
The Commission approved the following new and revised courses/programs:
Penn Foster College (formerly Education Direct Center for Degree Studies in Scranton, PA) moved to 14624 N. Scottsdale Road, Scottsdale, AZ 85254. Phone: 480-315-4950; Fax: 480-315-4955.
New or Revised Courses/Programs
Allied Business Schools, Inc. Florida Real Estate Principles, Practices, and Law Real Estate Math: What you need to know
Brighton College Pharmacy Technician Child Daycare Management
Change of Ownership The American College of Computer and Information Sciences, 2101 Magnolia Avenue, Suite 200, Birmingham, AL 35205 was acquired by the American Sentinel University, 385 Inverness Parkway, Suite 310, Englewood, CO. The new name of ACCIS is now the American Sentinel University (see below).
Name Changes The following name changes were approved by the Commission:
California National University of Advanced Studies Master of Engineering Management
Columbia Southern University Doctor in Business Administration (DBA) (Pilot Program)*
College of the Humanities and Sciences Harrison Middleton University Doctor in Education (Ed.D.) (Pilot Program)*
Global University New Testament Greek I
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(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued) Lansbridge University Bachelor of Business Administration
Professional Career Development Institute Computer Network Technician General Online High School
University of Management and Technology New degrees: General Studies degree which includes an Associate of Science in General Studies and a Bachelor of Science in General Studies * DETC’s scope of recognition from the U.S. Secretary of Education and CHEA is for the associates through the first professional degrees.
Sessions, Online School of Design Color Correction
Sonoran Desert Institute Healthcare Sciences: Medical Billing and Coding
Southwest University Associate of Science in Business Administration Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with six majors – Human Resource Management, International Business, Leadership and Management, Management, Management and Marketing, Organizational Management New Certificate programs at the undergraduate level: Human Resource Management; International Business; Leadership and Management; Management; Marketing; Organizational Management; Criminal Justice – Introductory; Criminal Justice Advanced New Certificate programs at the graduate level: Business Administration; Leadership and Management; Management; Organization Management Criminal Justice
Universidad FLET The Book of Acts and New Testament Survey
Applications for Accreditation The following institutions have applied for DETC initial accreditation or five-year reaccreditation: Applicants for Initial Accreditation: American Central University, Laramie, WY American City University, Cheyenne, WY American Global University, Cheyenne, WY Anaheim University, Anaheim, CA California University of Protection and Intelligence Management, San Jose, CA Florida Virtual University, Weston, FL Halifax University, Casper, WY Institute of Theology by Extension, Des Moines, IA Lambert University, Irvine, CA Lion Investigation Academy, Bethlehem, PA Mount Summit University, Elk Mills, MD Northern California Bible College, Pleasanton, CA The Optimal Performance Institute, Sunnyvale, CA Pacific Western University, San Diego, CA Paramount University of Technology, Cheyenne, WY Perelandra College, LaMesa, CA Preston University, Cheyenne, WY Teacher Education University, Winter Park, FL
(continued) DETC NEWS • FALL
(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued) University of Atlanta, Mobile, AL University of Philosophical Research, Los Angeles, CA Yorktown University, Inc., Denver, CO
Applicants for Five-Year Reaccreditation: Allied Business Schools, Laguana Hills, CA Babel University, Japan Brighton College, Hudson, OH Independence University (formerly CCHS), Murray, UT Institute of Logistical Management, Burlington, NJ Westlawn Institute of Marine Technology, Mystic, CT
If you have any comments concerning any of these institutions, please notify the Executive Director (firstname.lastname@example.org) by no later than December 1, 2006. The Commission will review all comments at its January 12-13, 2007 meeting.
Policies and Standards Adopted and Proposed The DETC Accrediting Commission gave final approval to the following (These changes take effect immediately): - Terms of Contracts: To be included under Section II: Student Enrollment, A. Enrollment Agreements (Contracts) a new number 5: If the institution elects to use a contract termination or expiration date on its enrollment agreements, the termination 10
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or expiration date must be, at a minimum, one and one half (1.5) the projected time for students to complete the course or program, or the projected time to complete, plus 12 months, whichever is less. - Internet Search Engines: To be included under Section I: Institute and Course Promotion, A. Advertising and Promotion, 4 (in italics). The institution’s address must appear in catalogs, enrollment agreements, promotional literature, Internet Web sites, and official DETC listings. For this purpose, a Post Office Box number will not be considered an address. For common media advertisements the institution’s city and state must be provided as a minimum. Institutions may not provide the names of other institutions as triggers for their own sponsored links on Internet search engines. - Clarification: Section III: Tuition, Cancellation, and Collection, B. Tuition Refund Policies, number 2 is reworded to read (changes in boldface): To offset its administrative costs, the institution may designate a percentage of the course/program tuition as a non-refundable fee (often termed registration or similar name) that it may retain if the student cancels after five days but before submitting a completed lesson assignment. This fee may be either $75 or 20% of the tuition charge, not to exceed $200. A student enrolling in a number of (continued)
(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued) courses at the same time, as when enrolling in a MBA program, may only be assessed a total of 20% of the tuition charged, not to exceed $200. - Time-Based Refund Policy: Section III: Tuition, Cancellation, and Collection, B. Tuition Refund Policies (under 3 where “Optional Refund Policy” begins). Purpose of change is to clarify the new timebased refund policy. Institutions offering academic degree courses and programs, which have a published duration stating specific dates for student starting and completion, have the option of using the refund tables below. To qualify for use of this refund table, the credit-bearing course must require a fixed period of study that is disclosed—prior to enrollment—to prospective students, e.g., eight weeks from April __, 2006. Courses cannot exceed 16 weeks in duration. The time-based refund policy also applies to certificate courses that are accepted for academic credit into a degree program. The table on page 11 sets out the percentage of tuition that will be refunded to students who complete only part of a course, normally defined as an academic learning unit ranging from one to four semester credit hours, as defined in DETC Policy C.9. If the student contracts for a program of study, defined as a learning unit that includes two or more courses, each course must be treated separately
for the purposes of calculating any refund to the student. For example, a student who contracts with an institution for three distinct three credit courses, but completes only part of one course, is entitled to a full refund on the remaining two, uncompleted courses.
Proposed Change to Business Standards The Accrediting Commission gave approval to the following addition to the DETC Business Standards: - Transfer of Credit Statement: To be added to Section I: Institution and Course Promotion, Section A. Advertising and Promotion, a new number 10:An institution that offers academic degrees or academic credit-bearing courses must disclose on its web site and in its catalog that the acceptance for transfer of its credits is determined by the receiving institution. The Commission invites the public to comment on this proposal. Comments should be sent to the Executive Director, Michael P. Lambert (email@example.com) no later than December 1, 2006. The Commission will review all comments at its January 1213, 2007 meeting.
Adopted New or Revised Policies In addition to the changes above, the Commission gave final approval to the following documents (these may be viewed on DETC’s web site under “Meetings and (continued) DETC NEWS • FALL
(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued)
• C.10. Policy on Non-U.S. Institutions
Reports” and “Call for Comments”). These changes take effect immediately:
• C.14. Policy on Student Achievement
• B.3 Guide on Change of Location or Name (revised)
and Satisfaction (Revised) (satisfaction rate for 3 question increased to 75%)
• C.18. Policy on Annual Reports (New)
• B.10. Guide to Student Achievement and Satisfaction (Revised) (satisfaction rate for 3 question increased to 75%)
• C.2. Policy on Change of Mission, Objectives or Marketing Approach (Revised)
• C.3. Policy on Change of Ownership/ Management (Revised)
• C.4. Policy on Change of Location or
• C.19. Policy on Substantive Change and Notification (New)
Request for Comments If you have comments concerning changes to DETC standards, policies, or procedures, or applicants for accreditation, please notify the Executive Director, Michael P. Lambert, (firstname.lastname@example.org), no later than December 1, 2006.
Name (Revised) (continued)
Published Length of Course
*Refundable Tutiion Due After—
1st week = 70% 2nd week = 40% 3rd week = 20% 4th week = 0% 1st week = 80% 2nd week = 60% 3rd week = 40% 4th week = 20% 5th week = 0%
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Published Length of Course
*Refundable Tutiion Due After—
1st week = 80% 2nd week = 70% 3rd week = 60% 4th week = 50% 5th week = 40% 6th week = 30% 7th week = 20% 8th week = 10% 9th week = 0%
(Report from the Accrediting Commission, continued) DETC Directory Goes Electronic
Due to the public’s demand for accurate and up-to-date information, DETC will no longer be publishing a printed version of the DETC 2006-2007 Directory of Accredited Institutions. It is now available in a pdf file from DETC’s Web site.
The next meeting of the DETC Accrediting Commission will be January 12-13, 2007. All matters to be considered by the Commission should be brought to the attention of the Executive Director by no later than December 1, 2006.
DETC Accreditation Seminar Held in October The DETC Accreditation Seminar was held October 16, 2006 at the Center for Continuing Education, Universityof Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, in conjuction with (
DETC’s Distance Education Workshop. Thiry-nine people attended the Seminar, including seven speakers. Here are some photos of the speakers from the Seminar.
Nan Bayster Walt Miller Mary Adams
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Newly Accredited Institutions The New York Institute of Photography New York, NY
The New York Institute of Photography (NYI) is America’s oldest and largest photography school. It was founded in 1910 as a residential school, and started a home study correspondence division in the 1920s. From its inception, NYI’s goal has been to train photographers to take better photographs and to master the business and technical skills necessary to pursue photography either as a vocation or an artistic endeavor. In the mid-1970s, the residential program was closed and a new owner completely redesigned the home study program, taking advantage of a recent technical innovation—the audio cassette recorder. In addition to printed lessons written by the school staff, NYI students received prerecorded audiotapes that explained and expanded upon the material in the texts. In the 1980s, video programming was also introduced, making NYI’s training program a genuine multi-media experience. The cassette tape recorder enabled one other important component to bridge the gap between the school and its students—personalized teacher evaluations 14
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of student work. Six times during their training, students submit photographs to the school that are personally evaluated on audio for the student by a working professional photographer/teacher.Many students find this one-to-one evaluation of their work the most important component of their study at NYI. In the mid-1990s, NYI became an Internet pioneer, launching www.nyip.com as a destination for students and everyone interested in photography, providing a monthly online magazine with tips about how to take photographs of various subjects along with news and profiles of students and graduates. NYI is licensed by the New York State Education Department and offers two separate programs—the Complete Course in Professional Photography (shown above) and the Complete Course in Digital Photography. In 2004, NYI and its sister school, the Sheffield School of Interior Design, were purchased by Professional Career Development Institute (PCDI). For more information, visit www.nyip.com.
The Sheffield School of Interior Design New York, NY
From Left: Chuck Delaney, Director of NYI and Sheffield School of Interior Design, Queen Esther Lyons, Registrar of NYI, and Mike Lambert, DETC's Executive Director.
The Sheffield School of Interior Design was launched in 1985 as the sister school of the New York Institute of Photography. The program offers multi-media instruction in interior design and decoration, using its own printed lessons, audio CDs and video training on DVD. The school also offers a free online magazine, Designer Monthly, at its Web site, www.sheffield.edu. In Sheffield’s Complete Course in Interior Design, each student completes six Design Projects, that result in a portfolio the includes a finished design, as well as presentation boards and a budget for a living room, bedroom and dining room. The students choose a living room and bedroom for the projects, using either their own home or that of a family member or friend’s home. The dining room that is to be designed is supplied by the school to test the student’s skill by presenting certain problems that must be solved to complete the design. The process begins by making
a rough sketch of the room and noting its condition and the clients requirements, followed by making a finish scale drawing of the room, inserting a furniture plan and lighting design, and then preparing the final presentation. Students are supplied with all the design and drafting materials they need to complete their assignments as part of the course. While enrolled, each student has one teacher who evaluates every step in the design process and sends personalized recorded comments to the student about the work. In addition, each student has a personal advisor assigned to them who is a professional interior designer who works at the school and is available to answer student questions via telephone or e-mail. Sheffield is proud to have many successful graduates who are working as interior designers and decorators in the United States, Canada, and dozens of different countries around the world. Thomas Saxon is the Dean of Sheffield, and Chuck Delaney is the Director. Sheffield is licensed by the New York State Education Department and in 2004 was purchased by Professional Career Development Institute (PCDI) and is now a wholly owned subsidiary of PCDI. For more information, visit www.sheffield.edu. Congratulations to The New York Institute of Photography and The Sheffield School of Interior Design on achieving accreditation. # # #
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Inspired by Distance Learning
One Person’s Journey from Student to Teacher
by Jamie Gauthier
(Editor's Note: Mr. Jamie Gauthier worked for eight years as a Senior Loss Prevention Manager for JCPenney Company, Inc. from 1994 to 2003. Mr. Gauthier graduated from the Reserve Police Academy at Cabrillo College in 1998. A year later, he was hired as a Reserve Police Officer for the City of Scotts Valley, CA. In 2003, Mr. Gauthier became a full-time Police Officer in Scotts Valley, CA and graduated from the Evergreen Valley College Police Academy in San Jose, CA. He’s held positions in the patrol division and is a member of the Special Response Team (S.R.T.). Mr. Gauthier completed his Columbia Southern University B.S. in Business Administration in 2003, graduating with honors. He completed his MBA at CSU in 2005.) With the evolution of correspondence education, the online environment has
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launched its popularity to unprecedented heights. Education has taken a major turn for the 21st century. You can now attend lectures from anywhere in the world, whether it be online or on an iPod. You can submit assignments and tests online and receive a grade instantaneously.Your professor can be anywhere in the world and teach students on a national and international level. Online education has become a popular and well received medium for students who have busy lives, careers and family obligations. Prior to the attainment of my Bachelor’s and Master’s in Business Administration through Columbia Southern University, I had never really given any thought to teaching. I had spent nearly five years attending my virtual classroom and pursued my education for advancement within my respective career field, which was law enforcement. (continued)
nationally accredited institutions, with little to no response. I finally threw in the flag and gave in to the pressure of needing a After graduating, I became so intrigued terminal degree. I enrolled and was acwith distance education that it turned me cepted into a regionally accredited Ph.D. into a true lifelong learner. I intensely program. My reason for this was not to be studied accreditation and its differences, called “Dr.,” but it was to someday have took online classes at traditional state uni- an opportunity to teach online classes. versities and researched online education Just as I enrolled and was about to as a whole. I learned about the different begin my doctoral studies, I received an emethodologies, techmail from California niques, interactivity University of Protecand delivery of distion and Intelligence tance learning. Management, for I enrolled and was Upon researchwhich I had applied. accepted into a ing opportunities for The President of the regionally accredited teaching positions, I university offered me PhD program...not to found the majority of an opportunity to teach be called "Dr.," but the posted positions an online class. required a degree to someday have an CUPIM is currently from a regionally acopportunity to teach an applicant with the credited college or DETC. online classes. university. I quesI was informed by tioned and chalthe university Presilenged this mindset dent that the landing to no avail. My argument was naturally of this teaching position went well beyond that I had a Master’s degree from an the fact of my academic degree(s). They accredited institution for which I worked were also very interested in my diversified long and diligently. The Distance Educa- professional background and my pursuit of tion and Training Council (DETC) is con- continual education (i.e., specialized certisidered the global leader in accrediting fications and licensing). distance educational institutions of higher I thought about why I had finally landed learning, so why was a graduate from a such an opportunity. I came up with the nationally accredited institution not af- following reasons for my success: forded the opportunity to teach online or • Persistence traditional classes? • Professionalism I’m not one to sit idle regarding a • Educational Background controversial topic, so I continued on my • Professional Background journey of applying for teaching positions • Networking and challenging any denials based only on • Research the fact that my degree was nationally accredited. I applied at regionally and (continued)
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(Inspired by Distance Learning, continued) I was most definitely persistent, tenacious and even perhaps stubborn, in my goal to someday teach online classes. Every denial or non-response from schools only fueled my fire to press on and to never give up. In the words of Albert Einstein, “In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” Professionalism is imperative in any job that you apply for, regardless if it’s a position in academia, government or the private sector.You can have all the Ivy League degree(s) in the world, but if you’re not professional, consider yourself doomed. Your professionalism must be portrayed in every e-mail, cover letter, resume, phone conversation and face-toface interview you encounter. Don’t burn any bridges because you never know if you’ll have to cross that same bridge again later in life. Educational background is the base foundation for landing an academic position. Many teaching positions require a graduate degree or even a doctorate. You should work diligently to get high grades. It may seem like a minor issue now, but it could pay off later on down the road. There are many individuals that now have college degree(s). This equates to more competition in the job market. Work diligently and stay focused in getting good grades. You can add to your resume that you had a high overall grade point average (GPA). Get involved with you alumni association and volunteer your time. If you’re eligible, become a member of your school’s honor society. One such honor society that’s been established with the DETC is 18
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the Delta Epsilon Tau International Honor Society. Bottom line, make yourself as competitive as possible and stand out among the crowd. Your professional background can be very important in obtaining a job in academia. No longer are the days of employees staying and retiring at the same company. Make sure every position you accept is a stepping stone to your future goals. Become a substitute teacher at your local high school or junior college. Consider each career move as a strategic chess game. Plan your moves in advance to meet your goals for the future. Networking with your colleagues, peers and mentors can be hugely beneficial. Develop professional contacts within the academia field and maintain those contacts. The best information to get is to talk with professionals in the academia career field. These individuals are highly resourceful and can recommend schools, job openings and can be a reference for you. They can also recommend classes you may need to take in order to secure a teaching position for the future. Some of my research techniques in looking for teaching positions were looking for jobs through search engines like Monster and/or Hot Jobs. There is also a job search engine that specializes only in teaching positions (http://www.higheredjobs. com). But, I found little to no response when applying through various job search engines. So, I took my search a step further. I looked at every online school accredited by the DETC and researched their respective Web sites looking for posted job opportunities. I visited online (continued)
(Inspired by Distance Learning, continued) regionally accredited institutions and applied the same technique. If there was a posted teaching position that I felt qualified to teach, I would apply and send my resume, curriculum vitae and cover letter via e-mail. Again, taking it a step further, I would call the school to introduce myself and confirm that they had received my resume. The online instructor is unique beyond the traditional standards of teaching. You must be savvy and proficient with all forms of technology pertaining to distance education (i.e., Internet, e-mail, chat rooms and virtual classrooms). The students you’re teaching online today expect a timely response to their questions and want a fair and expedient grading process. Most students want to know why they were given an A or C. Students want reassurance that there on the right path or want the directed guidance to get them there. They want your feedback and input, not just a grade. Waiting a week or until the weekend to respond to students questions is not an acceptable practice in distance learning. Students and schools should expect a 24-48 hour response from the instructors. You must be engaging, knowledgeable and you should give the students the time and effort they give to you, in the classes you teach. You must know your limitations in what you’re capable of teaching. Focus your teaching target on your combined background of education, specific skills, experience, training and knowledge, no matter how obtained.
The moral of this personal story is to inform you that if you’re a graduate from a DETC institution and interested in teaching online classes, you should realize this goal is attainable. The only limitations of having a DETC graduate secure a teaching position are the limitations that you choose to believe. Stay positive, be persistent and never give up. That’s the way, the only way, in which the educational world changes for the better.
(DETC and the Military, continued) from page 26) could be due to the transit time of business mail sent from Marines stationed worldwide. To better serve Marines, the online exam initiative is essentially a web-based testing program. Via their Training officer or Training NCO and using the Command UVR, Marines now can log in to be tested instead of receiving a paper copy of the exam and answer sheet. When they log in, the Online Exam program will create a unique randomly generated test composed of a number of questions pulled from a test item bank for the course in which they are enrolled. The test item bank for a particular course currently provides a bank of 100 questions; the intent is to expand this bank to at least 150 questions in the near future. The Online Program provides Marines, with computer access, a highly efficient, accessible, and responsive tool for taking MOS and PME courses while guaranteeing the highest possible standard of exam honestly and integrity. #
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Technology and the Military
by Dr. Jeffrey P. Cropsey
(Editor’s Note: Dr. Jeffrey P. Cropsey is the Director of the Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Support (DANTES). He joined the staff in 1992 as the Head of the Examination and Certification Department. From 1992 to October 1998, he was Deputy Director of DANTES, before becoming Director in May 2005. He spoke on “Voluntary Education in the Military” at DETC’s 80th Annual Conference in April 2006 in Seattle, WA.) The use of technology has always been part of the military culture. On the battlefield besides as Confederate General Bedford Forrest said, “Get there firstus with the mostus” the day was often won by the side with the best technology. Whether it was with a large wooden horse at the gates of Troy or a drone plane hunting down Al Qaeda in Afghanistan,
technology has been the secret to victories for centuries. Now it is no secret that technology developed by the military later becomes staples of civilian life. How many of us wear “Trench” coats or khaki shorts? Each day many of us drive on the Interstate Highway system built to enhance national defense. We cook with Corning ware developed from missile nose cones and use ballpoint pens devised for high altitude use in bombers when fountain pens wouldn’t function. And perhaps most significantly for us we use the Internet daily, which was originally designed to support the Department of Defense. As in so many things in life we see a circle of ideas coming back to the originators with improvements. These unintended consequences of the Internet and digital technology are coming back to the military (continued)
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(Technology and the Military, continued) to help them advance their civilian education. Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and Airman are by demographics young and have grown up with technology. They are comfortable with it and have made it part of their life styles. As educators wanting to reach these folks we need to be driving down this electronic street that the military member lives on. It not just that high tech is “cool.” In today’s smaller all volunteer military, deployments are much more common that in the past. Deployed Service members, whether on a ship or in a Humvee in the desert, need to have portablity and remote access as part of their lives. They send letters by e-mail, use computer cameras to have real time with their families from thousands of miles away, download their favorite music and videos to their ipods and other MP3 players and want their education accessible the same way. Any time, any place. It is no surprise, therefore, that technology based distance learning has exploded in the recent years. - In 2005, 46% of Navy, Marine and Coast Guard enrollments in postsecondary courses were for distance learning courses. - In 2005 more than half (55%) of 1778 schools being provided Tuition Assistance were for distance learning courses*.
- From 2001-2005 the total number of different schools used by the military for all courses increased from 1492 to 1778. The number of schools providing distance learning courses for the same period increased from 512 (34%) to 982 (55%)* . (* numbers apply to Navy, Marines and Coast Guard)
There seems to be no doubt that these figures will continue to rise. Each Service has developed elaborate e-learning systems to support their training and information requirements. Navy Knowledge Online, Army Knowledge Online, Air Force Virtual Education Center, Military One Stop and a host of other sites are the information highways for the military in all aspects of their lives. As member institutions of the Distance Education and Training Council you are and have been in the forefront of technology delivered education. Your proud history has made you a leader in American higher education and a long time partner and supporter of the U.S. military. The military fights with technology and learns with technology. The next time you put on your trench coat before you drive out on the Interstate highway, remember the past role of technology in the military and be prepared to be part of that future. For more information on DANTES, please visit www.dantes.doded.mil.
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Distance Education in the Military (Editor’s Note: We invited the DETCaccredited military instiutions to describe their distance education programs and initiatives.)
The Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed Learning “When you are in the Air Force, you’re in for a continuing education.” The Air Force is known for encouraging its members to continue their education throughout their careers. It is also known for its commitment to explore and expand alternative methods of distance education to support Airmen assigned to bases in the United States, as well as, those assigned overseas. This commitment is heightened, in the post 9/11 environment, due to increased deployments and new demands around the world for air and space power. In a time when global reach has never been more important, the Air Force— through the Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed Learning (AFIADL)— provides education and training opportunities to individuals when they need it most . . . anytime, anywhere. AFIADL evolved from its earliest mission in 1950 as a correspondence school to become the first military organization to receive DETC accreditation in 1975. Today, AFIADL is a multi-faceted organization providing value-added distance learning solutions and services to its mem22
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bers while leveraging enterprise-level systems, global networks, and best practices. The Institute emphasizes the use of appropriate distance learning methodologies and technologies—paper, CD-ROM, interactive television, and network-centric virtual environments—to optimize the global delivery of learning. Our Distance Learning Specialists work collaboratively with course providers to advance innovations in teaching and learning through technology. Operating under the guidance of the Commander of Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, AFIADL provides professional military education, career-broadening, technical training, specialized and continuing education courses to people throughout the Department of Defense and federal agencies. Last year alone, AFIADL delivered 350 paper-based courses to over 180,000 students and distributed promotion materials to over 90,000 Airman through our Extension Course Division. We broadcast 220 courses to 11,000 students through our Satellite Broadcast Division, and we managed over 125,000 enrollments in 105 online courses through our Advanced Distributed Learning Division. New to operations this year, the Institute is leading the integration of online learning services at Air University and developing the architectural framework for online force development modules and a distance learning Master’s degree. We are proud of our many recent accomplishments. Primary among these is (continued)
worldwide and will soon expand to include sites in Southwest Asia and additional sites the implementation of E-Exam—a method in Europe. Since its development in 1991, of proctored electronic testing that is ad- ATN has grown and is now exceeding ministered in over 700 test control facili- over 246,000 student-training-hours per ties. Students get immediate feedback and year. In August of this year, and in partthe test proctors are able to transmit test nership with the Veterans Health Adminresults to AFIADL at the end of testing istration and the other military services, sessions. Student scores are posted to the ATN began broadcasting 24/7 medical student’s official record within 24 hours of training to clinics and hospitals across the receipt at AFIADL. The majority of Department of Defense. ATN is part of AFIADL’s paperthe Government Edubased tests have been cation and Training converted to the elecNetwork that protronic format and Evides programming Exam is quickly befrom 17 government Student scores are coming the method of agencies using 12 upposted to the choice for our stulinks and reaching student's official dents. 1,970 sites. Courses record within 24 hours Also, AFIADL is taught over ATN of receipt at AFIADL. championing a blendclosely emulate the ed learning approach classroom environby adding multimement and can accomdia enhancements to modate many teachthe paper-based ing styles and frequent courses. The multichanges to content. media instruction is delivered via CDA major accomplishment has been the ROM and augments the course by teach- implementation of an Integrated Learning ing—as interactively as possible—those Center (ILC) to support the Air Force’s topics or procedures where students are Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) having trouble learning by just reading the initiative using a commercial off-the-shelf text. These enhancements use visual stimu- enterprise learning management system. lation, like video or animation, games, sce- An electronic customer support center narios, or simulations to demonstrate con- provides on-demand help and frequently cepts and actively engage the student. asked questions to students in an online Our Air Technology Network (ATN) environment. A content repository has delivers courses via one-way video satel- been added for tagging and storing sharlite broadcasts with two-way audio capa- able content objects to facilitate their rebility. ATN has 16 broadcast centers reach- use in multiple courses across the Departing 154 earth stations and 266 classrooms ment of Defense. This integrated system
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ing sites in deployed locations. The College of Enlisted Professional Military Eduof systems—the first ILC of its kind in the cation received a “Best Practice” citation Air Force—is now the model for Air for its implementation of the AFIADL Education and Training Command’s ADL electronic customer service center. In System. 2005, AFIADL won two awards from the The Institute is becoming well known Absolute Excellence in Electronic Media for promoting research in emerging tech- (AXIEM) program for its contributions in nology, process improvement, and the ef- developing interactive multimedia instrucfectiveness of instruction and services. tion for the Air Force Civil Engineers and Key research projects have put us in the Support Agency. And most recently in forefront of Air Force DL and include 2006, AFIADL was tapped to synchroidentifying taxonomies and terminology nize resident and non-resident instrucfor content meta-tagging, expansion of an tional programs and learning services at object repository, develAir University. opment of a tool for tagAFIADL has ging objects, and evaludeveloped a comAn electronic customer ation of scenario-based prehensive learning support center proand constructivist learnstrategy and is marvides on-demand help ing theory. We are also shalling the reanalyzing trends related and frequently-asked sources necessary to student access to to enhance the Air questions to students computers in the field, Force’s readiness in an online identifying processes by leveraging stanenvironment. for migrating from padard technologies per to online coursein a cost-effective ware, and using ATN blend of DL mefor datacasting large dia. In a nutshell, files to expeditionary classrooms. AFIADL supports a blended media apOur awards and recognitions best tell proach and has developed the capability to the story of AFIADL’s recent success deliver quality instruction through a variety beginning with the accreditation of of formats. Our fundamental principle in AFIADL by DETC in 2001 and again in DL is that learning objectives and mission 2006. In 2004, AFIADL won the United requirements drive media selection. It is States Distance Learning Association’s axiomatic at AFIADL that no single DL award for Excellence in Distance Learn- medium is a panacea; therefore, the ing Programming, Government Category AFIADL maintains a “tool box” of availand was rated “Outstanding” during the able options to meet growing requirements Command’s Organizational Readiness of an expeditionary force. AFIADL is the Inspection in 2005. The Air University learning bridge between knowledge orgaRegistrar was cited as a “Best Practice” nizations and the warfighter-learner. for its management of the AFIADL test(continued)
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Focusing on the goal of “service and perception of service,” MCI continuously The Marine Corps Institute seeks to improve its services to its students. Beginning in August 2005, MCI has “Training Marines the World Over” designed, developed, and implemented three new service initiatives to serve MaSince February 1920, the Marine Corps rines, in particular, deployed Marines. Institute (MCI) has facilitated the training During August 2005, MCI deployed and education of individual Marines any- two of the three initiatives. where, anytime. To that end, MCI ensures The first initiative is the Command Unit access to products and provides opportu- Verification Report (Command UVR). nities to improve performance, to enhance The Command UVR is an online program Professional Military Education, and to that provides units with an enhanced capaprovide promotion opportunity, together bility to ensure account security and reliwith sponsors of Maability. Marines of pay rine Corps training grades E-8 and and education proabove, Chief Warrant grams. MCI accomOfficer 2 and above, Since 1920, the plishes this mission and officers who are through the developMarine Corps Captains and above ment, production, and may apply for a ComInstitute has faciliadministration of mand UVR Admintated the training of both paper-based istrator account via individual Marines courses and job perthe MCI web site. anywhere, anytime. formance aids. When a Marine MCI’s role in first logs in to the achieving its mission Command UVR, he above is ever increasor she is required to ing in today’s miligenerate a unique passtary environment. MCI served approxi- word and security question, and to digitally mately 616,000 Marines during fiscal year sign a pledge acknowledging his or her 2005, and projects serving 690,000 Ma- responsibility to follow proper procedures. rines during fiscal year 2006. Although, The account holder is then authorized to MCI strives for producing quality Military designate specific personnel, for example, Occupational Specialty (MOS) courses a Training Non-commissioned Officer and Professional Military Education (PME) (NCO) to access the Command UVR and programs to meet the training and educa- to manage a unit’s MCI program. (Note: tion requirements of the Marine Corps Total A unit’s MCI program is subject to inspecForce, one of its main focuses remains on the tion by the Inspector General of the Ma“service and perception of service” that is rine Corps.) provided to these Marines. (continued)
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To this end, Marines receive instantaneous pass/fail results for all exams submitted using this application. MCI student Training officers and Training NCOs records are updated immediately upon may then group and manage subordinate exam answer sheet submission and post units and Marines by their respective the numerical grade to the MCI database Monitored Command Code/Reporting Unit for viewing by the unit, via the Command Code (MCC/RUC). Account holders may UVR, or the by the individual Marine via also enter exam answers online in order to the MCI web site. allow Marines to complete their courses Furthermore, the student’s record is and receive credit for these courses in a updated the next business day in the Mamore timely and efficient manner. rine Corps Total Force System (MCTFS); Most importantly, the Command UVR the MCTFS is the main database for the gives account holders the ability to gener- entire Marine’s personnel folder. By impleate ad hoc reports and to generate account menting this application, approximately histories that display 40% of the exams every transaction taken on any given conducted on the acday are through using An electronic customer count. This gives the Digital DP-37. commands throughsupport center This application not out the Corps the abilonly better serves Maprovides on-demand ity to supervise their rines world-wide, but help and frequentlyunit MCI program, also provides signifiasked questions to and ensure that their cant cost savings in students in an online Marines are taking manhours and postal the courses that they environment. dollars to MCI. need to get promoted The third initiative and succeed. is the new MCI onThe second iniline exam. The online tiative, also deployed exam capability went through extensive during August 2005, was the digital exam “Beta” testing during August 2006, and answer sheet that MCI refers to as the was implemented during September 2006. Digital DP-37. Traditionally, each MCI MOS course and The Digital DP-37 application is a PME program has two active exams (prifaster, more reliable, and secure means to mary and alternate) which are provided to submit paper-based course exam answer the Marine with his or her course materisheets to MCI from any computer with als. The paper-based exam is sent in a Internet access. (Note: a unit must have sealed envelope with special instructions a Command UVR account to access the to the exam administrator or proctor. AlDigital DP-37 application.) though effective, it is not as efficient as it The Digital DP-37 application provides (continued on page 19) immediate feedback to on their exams.
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DETC Distance Education Workshop a Success More than 80 people attended the DETC Distance Education Workshop at the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, IN, on October 17-18, 2006. The Report on the
Workshop is on the DETC Web site at www.detc.org (select “About Us” and “Meetings and Report” and the link). Here are a few photos from the Workshop.
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DISTANCE EDUCATION AND TRAINING COUNCIL 1601 18th Street, NW • Washington, DC 20009 202-234-5100 • FAX 202-332-1386 www.detc.org • E-mail: email@example.com