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Figure/ground Similarity Proximity Continuance Closure Translation Rotation Reflection Glide Reflection Symmetric Balance Asymmetric Balance Ambiguous Balance Neutral Balance

Figure / Ground

relating to or denoting the perception of images by the distinction of objects from a background from which they appear to stand out, esp. in contexts where this distinction is ambiguous.


The law of similarity states that elements within an assortment of objects are perceptually grouped together if they are similar to each other. This similarity can occur in the form of shape, color, shading or


The law of proximity states that when an individual perceives an assortment of objects they percieve objects that are close to each other as forming a group.


The law continuance states that elements of objects tend to be grouped together, and therefore integrated into perceptual wholes if they are aligned within an object.




The law of closure states that individuals percieve objects such as shapes, pictures, etc., as being whole when they are not complet. Specifically, when parts of a whole picture are missing, our perception fills the visual gap.

Translational symme-


Translational symmetry leaves an object invariant under a discrete or continuous group of translations .


Translational symmetry leaves an object invariant under a discrete or continuous group of translations .


Reflection symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, or bilateral symmetry is symmetry with respect to reflection. That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflectional symmetry.

Glide Reflection

In the plane, a glide reflection symmetry (in 3D it is called a glide plane symmetry) means that a reflection in a line or plane combined with a translation along the line in the plane, results in the same object. The composition of two glide reflections results in a translation symmetry with twice the translation vector.


Is a similarity of the space. Dilations change the size but not the shape of an object or figure. Every dilation of a Euclidean space that is not a congruence has a unique fixed point that is called the center of dilation. Some congruences have fixed points and others do not.

Symmetric Balance

Symmetrical Balance is characterized by a central axis; compositions are characterized by regularity, congruency, proportion, passivity, inactivity and stability

Asymmetric Balance

Asymmetrical Balance is characterized by irregular or unequal arrangements between compositional elements relative to a central axis; it is often refered to as dynamic, active, tense, or diverse.

Ambiguos Balance

Balance is characterized by a lack of, or unclear, relationships between compositional elements; it is referred to as vague or indefinite.

Neutral Balance

Neutral Balance is characterized by randomness and ambiguos equilibrium; it is referred to as nonactive, lacking emphasis or contrast.

Design by Derick Lopez, 2013 All rights reserved.

Visual Order Final  
Visual Order Final  

An e-booklet that illustrates some very important visual laws and principles.