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The Official Publication of the National Defense Transportation Association

February 2021

www.ndtahq.com

The

COVID-19 Pandemic Response


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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021


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www.linkedin.com/company/Landstar | Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

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February 2021

FEATURES

AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION DURING COVID-19 February 2021

Vol 77, No. 1

A Joint Urgent Operational Need Met

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US Transportation Command & Air Mobility Command PUBLISHER

VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) MANAGING EDITOR

Sharon Lo | slo@cjp.com CIRCULATION MANAGER

Leah Ashe | leah@ndtahq.com PUBLISHING OFFICE

NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761

GRAPHIC DESIGN & PRODUCTION MANAGER

Debbie Bretches

ADVERTISING SALES DIRECTOR

DLA DISTRIBUTION PROVIDES COVID-19 SUPPORT TO MILITARY SERVICES & FEDERAL AGENCIES

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HOMECOMING: SUPPORTING THE REPATRIATION OF US CITIZENS AMID THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

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By Dawn Bonsell

An Interview with Kalitta Air’s Pete Sanderlin and Heath Nicholl By Sharon Lo

WHOLE-OF-AMERICA APPROACH

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How Operation Warp Speed Allocated 20 Million Vaccine Doses in 2020 By Lisa Simunaci

Bob Schotta bschotta@cjp.com

ADVERTISING & PRODUCTION Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. Custom Publishing Division 375 Greenbrier Drive, Suite 100 Charlottesville, VA 22901 434-817-2000 x330 • F 434-817-2020

www.n

SIGNU TODAYP

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om

The S /the-source ource NDTA’s Officia lN

ewslett er Add pu b li c a ti o to your ns@nd email a ta ddress hq book

DEPARTMENTS Defense Transportation Journal (ISSN 0011-7625) is published bimonthly by the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-profit research and educational organization; 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220, Alexandria, VA 22304-7296, 703-751-5011. Copyright by NDTA. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Virginia, and at additional mailing offices. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: One year (six issues) $40. Two years, $60. Three years, $75. To foreign post offices, $45. Single copies, $6 plus postage. The DTJ is free to members. For details on membership, visit www.ndtahq.com. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Defense Transportation Journal 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296

CYBERSECURITY LESSONS FROM THE FIELD | Ted Rybeck........................................ 8 PRESIDENT’S CORNER | VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.)....................................... 9 CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE.......................................................................................28 HONOR ROLL..................................................................................................29 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS.................................................................................... 30

We encourage contributions to the DTJ and our website. To submit an article or story idea, please see our guidelines at www.ndtahq.com/media-and-publications/submitting-articles/.


NDTA Headquarters Staff VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) President & CEO COL Craig Hymes, USA (Ret.) Senior VP Operations

CYBERSECURITY LESSONS FROM THE FIELD

Patty Casidy VP Finance Lee Matthews VP Marketing and Corporate Development

Preparing for CMMC Compliance

Annie Keith Operations Manager

By Ted Rybeck

Leah Ashe Manager, Database Rebecca Jones Executive Assistant to the President & CEO For a listing of current Committee Chairpersons, Government Liaisons, and Chapter & Regional Presidents, please visit the Association website at www.ndtahq.com. EDITORIAL OBJECTIVES The editorial objectives of the Defense Transportation Journal are to advance knowledge and science in defense logistics and transportation and the partnership between the commercial transportation industry and the government transporter. DTJ stimulates thought and effort in the areas of defense transportation, logistics, and distribution by providing readers with: • News and information about defense logistics and transportation issues • New theories or techniques • Information on research programs • Creative views and syntheses of new concepts • Articles in subject areas that have significant current impact on thought and practice in defense logistics and transportation • Reports on NDTA Chapters EDITORIAL POLICY The Defense Transportation Journal is designed as a forum for current research, opinion, and identification of trends in defense transportation and logistics. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily of the Editors, the Editorial Review Board, or NDTA. EDITORIAL CONTENT Archives are available to members on www.ndtahq.com. Sharon Lo, Managing Editor, DTJ NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761 slo@cjp.com

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Chair, Benchmarking Partners, & Chair, NDTA Cybersecurity Best Practices Committee

This series of articles will draw on real cases of companies as an amalgam under the name DIB-Co. Each edition will include micro-case installments of how the company transformed itself. On this journey, DIB-Co will go from being unaware that they were part of the Defense Industrial Base to recognizing that dozens of their customers were suppliers to the iconic giants of US defense logistics.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

• To ensure continuity of operations, the practical strategy and checklists for Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) compliance will build resiliency in the Defense Industrial Base (DIB). • CMMC, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800171, and cybersecurity best practices overall fit into each company’s overall readiness plans for all major hazard types. With less than 100 employees, DIBCo has earned its reputation from the team’s decades of dedication to manufacturing precision components and its state-of-the-art 24/7 fully-automated machining centers. Everything DIB-Co does connects to networked capabilities, and DIB-Co’s employees continuously upskill on their increasingly sophisticated automation. DIB-Co proudly produces its USmade precision components, which make their way into more complicated electromechanical end products for customers, including the Department of Defense (DOD). However, if the regulatory compliance with the DOD ever seemed too costly for DIB-Co to remain profitable, DIB-Co, like thousands of other suppliers, would likely drop fulfillment of DOD

contracts and switch all production over to commercial customers. How could that be? The company has a deep sense of patriotism, but DOD contracts only account for a minority portion of DIB-Co sales. Consequently, DIB-Co prioritizes the diversification of its customer base by market category and by geography. In DIB-Co’s industry, that means focusing on commercial clients first, not the DOD. Consequently, DIB-Co views DOD mandates on cybersecurity as important but peripheral requirements. In many cases, DIB-Co did not even realize that its customer’s customers were DOD contractors. What does the example of a small business like DIB-Co tell us about how to make cybersecurity best practices and compliance the norm? Nationwide DOD initiatives cannot succeed as a standalone approach. Success of DOD-led cybersecurity needs to be part of local, regional, national, and international private sector-led mobilization. ISO 9000 managed to accomplish this decades ago for quality assurance. All DIB companies understand their ISO 9000 requirement, but few worry about complying with the ISO standard for cybersecurity. No such nationSee Cybersecurity pg. 27


PRESIDENT’S CORNER Committed to Our Nation VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) NDTA President & CEO

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s I write, we are on Day 2 of a new administration. We all feel the need to reflect and redouble our efforts to commit to honor, integrity, humility, and the pursuit of Constitutional freedoms and the responsibilities that come with those commitments. We will fully support our new Commander-In-Chief as we have supported those who came before. At NDTA, we all serve the Nation and support a strong national security posture, and are committed to that end. Some NDTA members are in uniform, others in coveralls, and others in civilian dress. As Americans, we all serve the Constitution. This is

evident when those who immigrate to the United States take their oath. Their oath is to the Constitution. As citizens born in the US, we have the same obligation but never had to swear an oath unless we went into the military or politics. We require all who immigrate and become citizens to take that oath. I don’t know of any exceptions. Our commitment to the Constitution is a commitment to be upheld by all Americans. And as we sail, fly, rail, truck, and work under the American flag, that holds special legal and social obligations—as it did for prior generations of Americans. And as it shall for future generations.

WELCOME NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS as of February 5, 2021

SUSTAINING • Apex Logistics International Inc. (upgrade) • Drury Hotels LLC • IHG Army Hotels • National Industries for the Blind (NIB) • SEKO Logistics • Swan Transportation Services

Thank you for being part of NDTA. You all represent an important aspect of our Defense Industrial Base (DIB) and continue to be committed to ensuring it remains strong even when it gets difficult and there are obstacles. Recently, I felt somewhat sorry to have to describe a “hard” DIB issue to VADM Dee Mewbourne, the Deputy Commander at US Transportation Command. The Admiral just said, “That’s okay, we do See President’s Corner pg. 30

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Aeromedical Evacuation During COVID-19 A Joint Urgent Operational Need Met This article combines content from various news stories published by US Transportation Command and Air Mobility Command.

The Negative Pressure CONEX-Light rests between C-17 and HC-130J aircraft at Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina. Photo by Lt Col Paul D. Hendrickson, USAF/Released.

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s the COVID-19 pandemic began spreading worldwide, a Joint Urgent Operational Need (JUON) emerged: The need for aeromedical evacuation of COVID-positive patients. How to transport patients with a highly contagious respiratory illness while safeguarding medical personnel and aircrew 10

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health is a formidable challenge. But, for the US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), it was a challenge they were determined to meet. THE TRANSPORT ISOLATION SYSTEM

In 2014, in response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, USTRANSCOM officials worked in conjunction with the Defense

Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHS) to develop the Transport Isolation System (TIS). The TIS is a module-system capable of evacuating patients with highly infectious diseases. Roughly the size of a minivan, the TIS could be loaded aboard a C-17 Globemaster III or C-130 Hercules aircraft.


The inside of a Transport Isolation System in a hanger at Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina, before it is loaded onto a C-17 Globemaster III. US Air Force photo by SrA Jared Trimarchi, USAF/Released.

It moved two patients per module, with four modules fitting onboard a C-17. The module isolated the patient, filtered the air that moved through the compartment and allowed access to treat patients with air- or fluid-borne communicable diseases. While the TIS was built with the intent of transporting Ebola patients, it also had the capability to support evacuations of patients

with other infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a viral respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus.

Ebola outbreak. This also marked the first movement of COVID-19 positive patients aboard US Air Force aircraft. The mission, REACH 725, consisted of the aeromedical evacuation of three US Government contractors who tested positive for Coronavirus from Afghanistan to Ramstein Air Base (AB), Germany. Upon arrival at Ramstein, the patients were transferred to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center for medical treatment. REACH 725 was comprised of a full TIS force package, which includes one C-17 and aircrew carrying two TIS modules and medical support personnel, consisting of aeromedical evacuation specialists, Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) members, infectious diseases doctors and technicians, and TIS operators.

INTO OPERATIONAL SERVICE

AT THE READY

On April 10, 2020, Air Mobility Command (AMC) aircrew and medical personnel conducted the first operational use of the TIS since its development during the

Upon receipt of a warning order from USTRANSCOM on April 8, the 618th Air Operations Center (AOC) had tasked a TIS-trained AMC aircrew and medical www.ndtahq.com |

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Airmen assigned to the 313th Expeditionary Operations Support Squadron transfer a COVID-19 patient following the first-ever operational use of the Negatively Pressurized Conex to transport 12 patients aboard a C-17 Globemaster III aircraft at Ramstein Air Base, Germany, to receive higher level of care at the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany. US Air Force photo by A1C John R. Wright, USAF/Released.

team at Ramstein AB to prepare to execute the mission within 24-hours. Drawn from multiple specialties and units from across the Air Force, these Airmen were prestaged with a Joint Base Charleston C-17 and TIS at Ramstein’s 86th Airlift Wing in late March in anticipation of Joint Force, allied and partner requirements in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. From the time of their arrival, the Airmen had trained to increase proficiency on the movement of infectious patients via the TIS. Hours before the crew stepped to the C-17, Brig Gen Jimmy Canlas, 618th AOC Commander, led a teleconference call in which he provided them with clear guidance in line with the recently released AMC COVID-19 Patient Movement Plan (PMP). The PMP provides aircrew and support personnel a comprehensive and detailed process by which to transport patients aboard pressurized military aircraft, including patients afflicted with highly contagious diseases like COVID-19. “Through the meticulous effort of AMC’s planners over the past few weeks, in coordination with US Transportation Command, we’ve produced a detailed plan that guides our crews on how to safely and effectively move ill patients to a location where they 12

| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

At the start of the pandemic, USTRANSCOM and AMC had been able to foresee the need to transport COVID patients—and in greater numbers than the TIS could accommodate. In anticipation of this need, USTRANSCOM published a JUON statement that spelled out the requirement for high-capacity transport for large numbers of individuals each month who might be infected with COVID-19. So as the TIS commenced aeromedical evacuations, work to develop its successor had already begun.

can receive greater care, all while providing protection for our aircrew, medical personnel, and aircraft,” said Canlas reflecting on the mission. “Within hours of completing and releasing this plan to the force, the crew of REACH 725 validated the hard work of these planners by safely transporting three COVID-19 patients nearly 4,000 miles from Afghanistan to Landstuhl.” A NEED PERSISTS

While functional, the TIS has its operational limitations. One of those primary limitations being the relatively low number of patients the TIS could transport at one time. At the start of the pandemic, USTRANSCOM and AMC had been able to foresee

the need to transport COVID patients— and in greater numbers than the TIS could accommodate. In anticipation of this need, USTRANSCOM published a JUON statement that spelled out the requirement for high-capacity transport for large numbers of individuals each month who might be infected with COVID-19. So as the TIS commenced aeromedical evacuations, work to develop its successor had already begun. In early April, USTRANSCOM, AMC, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) leaders joined forces to invite creative materiel and non-materiel solutions to address the problem. They worked with a team comprised of the Air Force Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN)


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A 721st Aircraft Maintenance Squadron Airman marshalls a C-17 Globemaster III aircraft following the first-ever operational use of the Negatively Pressurized Conex. The NPC is the latest isolated containment chamber developed to transport up to 28 individuals with infectious diseases. US Air Force photo by A1C John R. Wright, USAF/Released.

The NPC offered a significant capacity increase, capable of safely transporting up to 28 passengers, 23 ambulatory patients, or eight litters. It allows for multiple configurations to accommodate combinations of ambulatory and litter patients, as dictated by the situation. The NPC also has notably bigger doors and windows than its predecessors to allow for better visual communication, as well as seats with increased safety factor ratings.

Defense Systems Branch working with the Joint Program Executive Office for CBRN Defense and partnering with teams across the Air Force and Department of Defense (DOD) under the direction of the Program Executive Office for Agile Combat Support as the JUON lead for the AF. THE SOLUTION

The collective team came up with a solution—the “Negatively Pressurized CONEX,” or NPC—a 40-foot metal shipping container outfitted with air-handling and other equipment that can be carried aboard a C-17 transport jet. The system’s onboard equipment ensures negative air pressure on the inside so that the aircrew responsible for transporting it and its patients won’t be put at risk for infection. The NPC offered a significant capacity increase, capable of safely transporting up to 28 passengers, 23 ambulatory patients, or eight litters. It allows for multiple configurations to accommodate combinations of ambulato14

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ry and litter patients, as dictated by the situation. The NPC also has notably bigger doors and windows than its predecessors to allow for better visual communication, as well as seats with increased safety factor ratings. In addition to the NPC, the team simultaneously developed an “NPC-Lite” (NPCL) model, a custom-built aluminum structure about 12 feet shorter than the NPC. It carries fewer passengers and will fit on the smaller C-130 aircraft. The NPCL is designed to move patients inside a theater of operations, while the NPC will be used to move patients out of theater. URGENT NEED MET WITH URGENT ACTION

A huge part of what makes the story of how the NPC came to be so remarkable is the timeframe in which it occurred. The requirement was spelled out on March 28. USTRANSCOM sent the JUON statement to the Joint Staff for validation on the same day that the Joint Rapid Acquisition Cell as-

signed it for execution to the Air Force. The Air Force assigned the Program Executive Office for Agile Combat Support as its lead for the effort. Having acquisition working with the Joint Staff and USTRANSCOM in parallel, rather than sequentially, was key to expediting the process. By April 7, a contract was awarded using the Other Transaction Authority (OTA) process. The first proof of concept NPC was constructed in only 13-days and delivered to Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina, on April 20 for validation testing. That testing concluded April 30, at which point Air Mobility Command green-lit the NPC as the system to meet its requirements under the JUON. On June 30, the NPC flew its first operational mission out of Ramstein Air Base, Germany—just 95 days after USTRANSCOM published that JUON statement spelling out the requirement for the high-capacity transport for large numbers of individuals each month who might be infected with COVID-19. Under normal circumstances, this process could have taken more than a year to complete. Working effectively together and in parallel across departments and agencies enabled the success of these efforts. The use of the patient movement systems has resulted in the successful and safe transport of nearly 300 COVID-positive patients. As the challenges associated with the pandemic continue to evolve, USTRANSCOM remains ready to meet those challenges. DTJ


Defense Logistics Agency Distribution San Diego, California, makes daily medical supply truck deliveries to the USNS Mercy, staged in the Los Angeles Port of San Pedro, where sailors provide operational medicine support to help with the COVID-19 outbreak May 13, 2020. Photo by LT Marc Walker, USN, DLA Distribution San Diego/Released.

DLA Distribution Provides COVID-19 Support to Military Services & Federal Agencies By Dawn Bonsell, DLA Distribution Public Affairs Officer

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n support of the military services and other federal agencies during the COVID-19 pandemic, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Distribution provides assistance as part of DLA’s long-standing agreements with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The agency responded early and often to requests from military services and federal agencies focused on winning the COVID-19 battle and continues distributing critical supplies.

From the onset of the pandemic through the end of 2020, DLA Distribution centers received and/or shipped 39,500 Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, over 400 vaccine ancillary kits, 1.5 million N95 respirator masks, 20 million other masks, 1.2 million face shields, more than 517,000 bottles of hand sanitizer, more than 66,000 thermometers, 39,000 testing swabs, 1.5 million rapid COVID-19 test cards, 157,000 COVID-19 rapid test kits, an additional 100,000 COVID-19 test kits, 500 ventilators, 7.3 million medical gloves, 110,000 exam gloves, and 350 oxygen tanks.

In March, DLA Distribution Europe worked with the 21st Theater Sustainment Command to distribute 42 pallets of American Red Cross comfort packs to nine locations throughout the US European Command as part of the regional response. Personal protective equipment was also distributed to military field hospitals deployed to the hardest hit areas throughout the US. DLA Distribution Susquehanna, Pennsylvania (DDSP), the Defense Department’s largest distribution processing facility, began processing COVID-19 test kits, ventilators, hand sanitizers, masks, cots, hand-washing stations, industrial goggles, industrial face shields and breathing sets in April. The DDSP Transportation Services Team also shipped more than 72,000 Meals-Ready-to-Eat and nearly 1.1 million shelf-stable meals to support FEMA, US Northern Command, and US IndoPacific Command. When the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended the wearing of cloth face coverings April 3, DLA www.ndtahq.com |

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Defense Logistics Agency Distribution Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, employees receive 20 million donated cloth masks from the Department of Health and Human Services for distribution to warfighters and federal, state and authorized local governmental agencies April 17, 2020. Photo by DLA Distribution Susquehanna/Released.

responded quickly. Working in conjunction with DLA Troop Support Medical, DDSP received 20 million manufacturer-donated cloth face masks from HHS. The company retrofitted factories in March to make the masks, which military services and federal, state and authorized local governmental agencies ordered by cases of 500 from FedMall, a government e-commerce platform. DLA Distribution Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania (DDTP), and Tobyhanna Army Depot (TYAD) worked together in early April to support an urgent Army Medical Materiel Development Activity request for more than 300 oxygen tanks. DDTP and TYAD expedited the tank shipment to hospitals to aid in the treatment of the rapidly spreading virus. The USS Nimitz contacted DLA Distribution Puget Sound, Washington (DDPW), April 17, requesting distribution assistance for over 3,000 COVID-19 test kits. DDPW received the test kits April 20, immediately packaged the kits and established priority overnight delivery to key Navy test sites in California. As Navy hospital ships prepared to deploy to support the pandemic, DLA Dis16

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“With the constant change in support levels due to COVID-19, the one constant was our logistics community. DDDC assured continuous, on-time deliveries, and neither 3rd Fleet nor the ship had to double back to rework distribution issues with leadership. We could not have asked for better service from DLA,” said RADM Kenneth R. Blackmon, USN, Deputy Commander, US 3rd Fleet.

tribution Norfolk, Virginia, and federal agencies turned the USNS Comfort, a 250bed operation, into a 1,000-bed operation in five days. Personal protective equipment, food and consumables were loaded before the hospital ship set sail to New York City in April. Meanwhile, DLA Distribution San Diego, California (DDDC), loaded 100 pallets of 6,000 medical items including test kits and dressings for USNS Mercy at the Port of Los Angeles. After the initial supply push, DDDC made three deliveries each week to the USNS Mercy until it left Los Angeles May 15 for its home port in San Diego.

“With the constant change in support levels due to COVID-19, the one constant was our logistics community. DDDC assured continuous, on-time deliveries, and neither 3rd Fleet nor the ship had to double back to rework distribution issues with leadership. We could not have asked for better service from DLA,” said RADM Kenneth R. Blackmon, USN, Deputy Commander, US 3rd Fleet. The San Diego distribution center also sent about 380 shipments of personal protective equipment, cleaning supplies, medical equipment and repair parts to the USS Theodore Roosevelt in Guam, over 3,000 types of material to the USS Nimitz


Carrier Strike Group and more than 5,000 items to the USS Makin Island’s Expeditionary Strike Group. To support the US European Command, DLA Distribution Europe and DLA Troop Support arranged for the shipment of 14 pallets of personal protective suits to DLA Distribution Europe’s Theater Consolidation and Shipping Point in Germersheim, Germany. The suits were delivered by commercial trucks to troops in Italy, Germany, Belgium, Romania and Poland May 8-29. In June, DLA Distribution Yokosuka, Japan, collaborated with 7th Fleet officials to distribute more than 16,000 face masks, 186,000 gloves, 1,500 protective suits and over 600 goggles to ships from Naval Force Yokosuka, Japan; Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan; the USS Nimitz, and the USS Theodore Roosevelt to help control the virus’ spread. In an ongoing mission throughout July, DDSP’s Mechanicsburg location received over 95 trucks of protective equipment including 4 million isolation gowns and face shields to support FEMA’s assistance to hospitals dealing with rising COVID-19 infections across the country.

Defense Logistics Agency Distribution Yokosuka, Japan, collaborates with 7th Fleet employees to ship over 16,000 face coverings, over 186,000 protective gloves, over 1,000 protective coveralls and 600 goggles to 21 ships in the US Pacific Command area of responsibility to help control the spread of COVID-19. Photo by Walter Humko, DLA Distribution Yoksuka/Released.

“Our logistics professionals at DDSP are committed to assisting FEMA and our other interagency partners to meet the needs of the nation during this critical time,” said DDSP Commander COL Trenton Conner, USA.

As the nation braced for an anticipated second wave of COVID-19 in the fall, DLA and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) officials partnered to ensure over 1,200 Department of Veterans Affairs’

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Defense Logistics Agency Distribution Commander BGen Keith D. Reventlow, USMC, center, and DLA Distribution Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, Commander COL Trent Conner, USA, right, inspect N95 masks destined for over 3,000 nursing homes for the Department of Health and Human Services as DLA Distribution assists nursing homes dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic August 28, 2020. Photo by Nutan Chada, DLA Public Affairs/Released.

As 2020 ended, DLA Distribution had successfully delivered Moderna COVID-19 vaccine kits to three US Forces Korea locations; Naval Hospital Yokosuka, Japan; Naval Base Health Clinic Bahrain; three DOD locations in Germany, two in Belgium and several continental US locations. Vaccine deliveries allowed medical staff and other key workers to be inoculated before the end of the year. Vaccine kit shipments continue to other DOD locations.

health care facilities nationwide had 120 days of personal protective equipment. In addition, DDSP received, stored and distributed equipment to free VHA’s limited storage, saving millions of dollars in storage costs. More than 1,400 pallets of personal protective equipment were delivered on 62 trucks to DDSP’s Mechanicsburg and New Cumberland, Pennsylvania, locations mid-July through mid-August. Em18

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ployees stored most of the equipment and shipped the first 2,400 masks to veterans’ medical facilities August 21. DDSP also received, processed and shipped 1.5 million N95 masks for HHS to assist nationwide nursing homes facing mask shortages for healthcare staff. Employees received the masks August 25 from the Strategic National Stockpile in Atlanta and worked non-stop nearly round-theclock to ship the masks to over 3,000 nursing homes. In an ongoing mission, DLA Distribution San Joaquin, California (DDJC), and DDSP are distributing 6 million COVID-19 rapid test kits for HHS for distribution to medical facilities and Department of Defense (DOD) customers worldwide. The first rapid test kits began arriving in October and the shipments will continue through April. Although 90 percent of the components are arriving at DDJC’s refrigerated warehouse for assembly and shipment to medical facilities, 10 percent are shipping to DDSP for assembly and shipment to DOD customers worldwide. When the US Food and Drug Administration approved the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in December 2020, DLA Distribution began supporting the federal response

by receiving and shipping the vaccine to DOD vaccination locations outside the continental US, the Navy fleet, and a limited number of locations within the continental US. Ancillary kits containing gloves, needles, syringes, alcohol wipes, sharps containers, adhesive bandages, gauze, and tape are shipping as well. As 2020 ended, DLA Distribution had successfully delivered Moderna COVID-19 vaccine kits to three US Forces Korea locations; Naval Hospital Yokosuka, Japan; Naval Base Health Clinic Bahrain; three DOD locations in Germany, two in Belgium and several continental US locations. Vaccine deliveries allowed medical staff and other key workers to be inoculated before the end of the year. Vaccine kit shipments continue to other DOD locations. “These mission sets demonstrate DLA Distribution’s ability to serve as a key enabler to the armed services and whole of government throughout this global crisis,” said COL Robb Meert, USA, DLA Distribution Operations Director. The amount of items DLA Distribution processes with priority shipping, especially COVID-19 medical supplies, continues increasing daily as new requirements emerge. DTJ


Homecoming: Supporting the Repatriation of US Citizens Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

DTJ: Thank you for taking the time to

An interview with Pete Sanderlin, Chief Operating Officer, Kalitta Air, LLC, and Heath Nicholl, Senior Vice President & Deputy Chief Operating Officer, Kalitta Air, LLC

chat today. Kalitta Air was involved in supporting the government’s response very early in the COVID-19 outbreak. Specifically, you played a critical role in repatriating US citizens from overseas for the State Department. Can you give us a little background on your work with them?

By Sharon Lo, Managing Editor, DTJ & The Source

HEATH NICHOLL: We have a relation-

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t the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, global travel came to a near-total standstill, effectively stranding tens of thousands of US citizens abroad. In close coordination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Health and Human Services, the State Department was responsible for meeting the

monumental challenge of bringing these Americans home. With the dedicated support of their commercial industry partners, they were able to meet that challenge. To hear more about what it was like to carry out this unprecedented mission to bring home and repatriate thousands of US citizens from every corner of the globe, DTJ sat down with Kalitta Air’s Pete Sanderlin and Heath Nicholl.

ship with Phoenix Air Group and the State Department’s op med group [Bureau of Medical Services Directorate of Operational Medicine]. We’ve worked with them in the past. In particular, we worked with them in carriage of their biocontainment units that go inside a 747 aircraft. During the Ebola outbreak, the US government and other private sources developed a containerized biocontainment system [CBCS] that would fit into either military aircraft or a 747. We performed exercises into West Africa, to those the countries that had large Ebola outbreaks, transporting simulated patients to infectious www.ndtahq.com |

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disease centers within the US. So, we’ve had quite a bit of experience with them. PETE SANDERLIN: We’ve been doing

that about seven years, well before COVID. Even though we never carried patients on the Ebola front, we did provide support as a carrier for over 40 missions carrying PPE [personal protective equipment], medical supplies, and everything else into West Africa.

DTJ: What was it like when you got that

initial call from State requesting COVID response support? I imagine you had a lot to do to prepare your aircraft.

a lot of hard surfaces that are much easier to decontaminate after each mission. We also had a contract with a cleaning company that specializes in critical environments and performing decontaminations in places such as hospitals, biological labs,

and, of course, our aircraft. Typically, they would fly with us and then each time we brought passengers back to the US, they would go to work sterilizing and decontaminating the airplane before it went on a second mission. And that’s where the 747 freighter was an ideal candidate for this type of work.

PETE SANDERLIN: We have a lot of do-

DTJ: How did you prepare your person-

HEATH NICHOLL: And this was ideal for

the Department of State’s needs because we could carry the CBCS’s, and then being a freighter proves beneficial because it has

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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

PETE SANDERLIN: We were one of the

first carriers involved in these missions.

We also had a contract with a cleaning company that specializes in critical environments and performing decontaminations in places such as hospitals, biological labs, and, of course, our aircraft. Typically, they would fly with us and then each time we brought passengers back to the US, they would go to work sterilizing and decontaminating the airplane before it went on a second mission. And that’s where the 747 freighter was an ideal candidate for this type of work.

HEATH NICHOLL: I think the official notification came in over the weekend from our counterparts over at Department of State. They called us and asked how quickly we could get a 747 outfitted in order to repatriate passengers. With the largo MRO [maintenance, repair and overhaul] facility up in Oscoda, Michigan, we have the ability to put in seat pallets and configure the aircraft in a short amount of time.

nor airplanes. We buy a lot of ex-passenger airplanes that we can remove that equipment out of those airplanes and put them inside the 747. So almost immediately, we had everything on hand—we had slides, rafts, life jackets, oxygen, seats and seat pallets, and we were able to have lav equipment, as obviously we had to have physiological support for any potential patients. We were able to do this all in a short amount of time. I think from the time we got the call, about 72-hours later, we had our first 747 in Oscoda getting configured in a passenger configuration. These airplanes are full cargo, but we’re able to convert them and put seats inside the airplane.

the same methodology when the COVID call came in, and especially when there were US citizens involved.

You asked about our crews having concerns, but our crews are very patriotic, and there was never an issue trying to find volunteers. They were lining up to do this mission. They were so proud to be able to be part of this, to repatriate citizens back to the US during the COVID ordeal, that we had no lack of volunteers. It was amazing.

nel? Did they express a lot of concern for their health and safety, given how little we knew about the virus at that time?

DTJ: Did you have any difficulty getting

HEATH NICHOLL: Well, with our background working the Ebola relief flights and CBCS exercises, we developed protocols in relation to infectious disease and mitigation methods. We make sure that we give our team members—our pilots, our mechanics, and our loadmasters—the best health and safety environment we can put them in. We did that during the Ebola outbreak. We created our own internal protocols on how we would sterilize the airplane, how we protect the crews, and make sure that everything returned to us and put back on board the aircraft was treated to be Ebola-free and virus-free before heading back to the states. And that kind of segues into COVID, we applied

HEATH NICHOLL: From our experience working with Ebola and doing the exercises with the Department of State, we had quite a surplus of PPE, everything from the Tyvek [protective suits] to the masks, the face shields, respirators, and gloves. We were very well equipped. And in addition, because the State Department was involved, they provided equipment as well.

PPE or any other supplies for your personnel?

DTJ: Once you had your people and

equipment in place, what protocols or procedures did you implement to carry out these flights?

PETE SANDERLIN: Basically, how it all worked is that we would screen everyone.


They were all pre-screened before loading the airplane by State Department personnel. Along with the passengers, we were provided flight nurses and doctors that flew along with us. They would monitor the passengers’ health onboard the aircraft. If a passenger had become ill, they would move them to designated seating on the airplane. We also had a secure segregated area where, if a passenger happened to develop COVID symptoms while en route back to the US, we could put them in an isolation area of the airplane. We had that screened off so we could move passengers around as needed based on their health conditions. The healthy passengers stayed towards the front. If someone happened to develop any symptoms, we move them into the back into the screened-off area. HEATH NICHOLL: And similar pro-

tocols were used to deplane the aircraft as well. The crew would remain isolated during deplaning while the passengers would exit the aircraft. We even identified exit locations that if a passenger became ill during the flight back to the States, they would be removed first through the identified exit point. So, you never had cross-contamination in either direction between areas of potentially sick and healthy passengers. DTJ: It sounds like everything went re-

markably well. Did you have any trouble traveling in and out of any countries or locations?

HEATH NICHOLL: At first, we had some

snafus, but like anything else, the more you do it, the more refined it gets. The initial obstacles revolved around getting the passengers properly screened. And having our first entry points ready to receive a large volume of passengers in a secure, quarantined area such as Anchorage, Alaska, took a lot of coordination. But things got better over time. Our biggest mission was when, at one point, we had four 747s with passengers.

They were staggered within seven hours of each flight coming out of China, repatriating back. We probably had more than 1,100 people in the air at once. But the different points in the US that we went into, such as the airbases, things for the most part went fine. It was amazing how well it went. DTJ: If you had to pinpoint one thing,

what do you think was the key to mission success?

HEATH NICHOLL: I think it’s our people. It’s our team. It’s our folks. I can’t emphasize enough the willingness of our pilots, loadmasters, and our mechanics to do these missions. For example, our Oscoda groups, I mean, we had people wanting to work extra shifts in Oscoda to configure these airplanes for these missions. We had crew volunteering to fly. They felt like they’re all part of something. And especially when they saw the first airplane land on the news, they were so proud to be part of Kalitta Air. We had people tripping over each other to do this. They wanted to be part of something big, and through our eyes, it was big. It was huge. DTJ: It was a big deal for those of us

watching at home too. Is there anything you would have changed, or do you have any lessons learned or best practices you could share?

HEATH NICHOLL: You have your little

hiccups here and there through a mission set, but nothing that would say we need to start over and regroup and redo this again. The ability to do the exercises in advance and with our work with Ebola really had us prepared. It was very easy to adapt the Ebola protocols to COVID, and they almost worked universally because both are so contagious. And, if I could make a plug for the 747, as it is the ideal for air circulation because the flight crews have their own air source, which alleviated crew concerns. And the ability to load the CBCS’s through the

nose door makes it a fantastic aircraft for these missions. DTJ: Now that passengers can fly com-

mercial, are you still involved in supporting the government’s COVID response efforts?

PETE SANDERLIN: We are. We’re still working with the Phoenix Air Group, Department of State, and other government agencies on other things. We’ve shifted from repatriation to now the vaccination. We have a smaller role because using a 747 for transporting the vaccinations is overwhelming, but we still support in that role. DTJ: Well, Heath, Pete, I appreciate you

sharing this story with us. It has been an incredibly challenging year, but we are so proud of NDTA’s members’ and partners’ work throughout the pandemic, so thanks to you and everyone at Kalitta for your contributions. Before we go, I always like to end by asking if there is anything else you would like to share with DTJ’s readers about this experience?

PETE SANDERLIN: This experience has

been kind of surreal because when it first hit the news, there were pictures of Kalitta planes everywhere. It was a big story both here and internationally, and we were overwhelmed with the media coverage. We tend to be the back in the shadows with a small-knit group of companies and agencies that we work for, so our focus is on trying to stay ready and keep our crews ready to do whatever it was called for.

HEATH NICHOLL: We had a single goal in mind, band together and get our citizens home safely. And as a benefit, we’ve developed friendships along the way with our partners. We are very proud to be a part of it, and if we’re called upon, we’re going to be there again. We will keep running exercises, running drills to keep our crews and everybody else current on this. So, we can be there anytime we’re called upon. DTJ

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Whole-of-America Approach How Operation Warp Speed Allocated 20 Million Vaccine Doses in 2020 By Lisa Simunaci, Office of the Secretary of Defense Public Affairs

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A

s 2020 came to a close, Operation Warp Speed (OWS) leaders looked back on their nearly eight-month-old mission and tallied some of the milestones on the journey to get America past the COVID-19 pandemic. “I’m incredibly proud of what we have accomplished to date—something like this has never been done before,” said Operation Warp Speed Chief Operating Officer GEN Gus Perna, USA. “The achievement is America’s. Our strategy all along has been a whole-of-America approach—and we have seen so many dedicated professionals work tirelessly in support of this effort.” Operation Warp Speed stood up in May as a partnership between the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop and deliver COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics. With just 100 people assigned full-time to the operation, the team took shape through five primary branches: vaccine development; therapeutics development; supply, production and distribution; plans, operations and analysis; and security and assurance. Operation Warp Speed stood up a Vaccine Operations Center in HHS headquarters, where the majority of the team is located, to monitor the operation from end-to-end. A separate Vaccine Coordination Center in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta links regional planning teams to the jurisdictions—states, territories and major metropolitan cities—they support. As the year closed out, two vaccines and three therapeutics received Emergency Use Authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More than 20 million doses of vaccines were allocated to jurisdictions and more than 14 million were delivered across states, territories and to five federal entities. Additionally, more than 500,000 courses of monoclonal antibody treatments and more than 400,000

With just 100 people assigned fulltime to the operation, the team took shape through five primary branches: vaccine development; therapeutics development; supply, production and distribution; plans, operations and analysis; and security and assurance. Operation Warp Speed stood up a Vaccine Operations Center in HHS headquarters, where the majority of the team is located, to monitor the operation from end-to-end.

GEN Gustave F. Perna, USA, Chief Operating Officer of Operation Warp Speed, monitors a simulation exercise in Operation Warp Speed Headquarters in Washington, DC. DOD photo by EJ Hersom/Released.

units of COVID-19 convalescent plasma were delivered throughout the country. “I want to join General Perna in thanking and acknowledging the work of tens of thousands of people in the development, manufacture, supply and administration of

the vaccine,” said Dr. Moncef Slaoui, Chief Science Advisor to Operation Warp Speed. Operation Warp Speed selected six promising vaccine candidates and supported the manufacturing of those products in parallel—assuming the financial risk— while research was ongoing to determine the safety and efficacy of each contender. “When this operation stood up, there was no domestic capacity to manufacture vaccines at broad scale,” Perna said. The operation boosted manufacturing through Technology Investment Agreements—a US Army Corps of Engineers program that expanded capacity and built out facilities to manufacture vaccines and vials. It embedded Army logistics officers, who became known as the “iron majors,” to support the manufacturers. The logistics professionals identified challenges, recommended solutions and kept in close contact with Operation Warp Speed headquarters for reach-back support. Additionally, 18 companies received priority ratings under the Defense Production Act, boosting their precedence when it came to securing the important supplies and components needed to manufacture their products and helping to expand domestic manufacturing capacity for vaccines and therapeutics. “This essentially puts them at the front of the line,” Perna said. Since manufacture of the vaccines began while clinical trials were ongoing, by the time the FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in December for Pfizer’s and Moderna’s vaccines, several million doses of the drugs were ready for shipment. Both EUAs were granted on Friday evenings, and by the following Mondays, vaccines began arriving at administration sites across the country. For months, Operation Warp Speed regional planning teams worked hand-inhand with the CDC to assist their planning efforts for vaccine administration. While initial uptake appeared slow, Perna sugwww.ndtahq.com |

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NDTA Members in Action

FedEx Express Provides Critical Support for Operation Warp Speed

gested that a lag in reporting, major winter holidays, and the newness of the vaccines and the administration process were likely behind the apparently slow start. “I believe we will see many more shots going into arms after the first of the year,” Perna said. A newly developed partnership with CVS and Walgreens will take the vaccine to long-term care facilities to vaccinate their residents. Another new program with 19 retail pharmacy chains will ultimately see the vaccines at locations where people are accustomed to receiving their flu shots.

Time-definite express transportation of critical shipments is exactly what our FedEx Express air-ground network was built to do when it launched in 1973. This effort will be among the most important work in the history of our company. All of us at FedEx are immensely proud to be a part of these historic deliveries. On Resources FedEx Express has the largest cargo fleet of airplanes in the world. FedEx Express also has the flexibility and customized solutions, including charter flights, refrigerator trucks and trailers, warehousing, thermal blankets, ultra-cold freezers, and temperature-controlled containers, to help safely move temperature-sensitive shipments, such as vaccines and other bioscience shipments, around the world. Most importantly, FedEx has the ability to ship to every ZIP code in the United States. We have been planning for months and are prepared to handle the transportation of vaccines as they are approved for use. Our Technology At FedEx, the information about the package is as important as the package itself as it moves through the network. FedEx SenseAware ID, a Bluetooth low-energy sensor device, will be affixed to vaccine shipments, helping to ensure these temperature-sensitive deliveries move swiftly and safely through the FedEx Express US network with FedEx Priority Overnight service. From origin to destination, dedicated FedEx Priority Alert customer support agents are using SenseAware monitoring technology to track the location of vaccine shipments in near real-time. This technology is complemented by the FedEx Surround platform, which leverages artificial intelligence and predictive tools to proactively monitor conditions surrounding the packages, allowing customer support agents to intervene if weather or traffic delays threaten to impede delivery times. Additionally, there has been education, special communications and some training for these shipments. As we ship COVID-19 vaccines, we are continuously working with our team members to ensure we are properly prepared to handle the packages from point of pick-up until they are delivered to their final destinations. Our Distinct Networks We have two networks for parcel delivery in North America: FedEx Express, with timedefinite and cold chain capabilities that serves a majority of our healthcare customers and is shipping vaccines, as well as FedEx Ground, our ground network that predominantly handles e-commerce shipments, including the surge of e-commerce shipments during our holiday peak effort. The distinction means that each has the dedicated resources they need to safely deliver the best possible service. Courtesy FedEx Global Public Affairs.

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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

US Air Force Lt Col Nest Cage walks past a motivation poster inside Operation Warp Speed Headquarters in Washington, DC. DOD photo by EJ Hersom/Released.

The partnership covers about 60 percent of pharmacies throughout the nation and includes grocery stores, big box stores, and wholesale clubs. “Most Americans live within five miles of a pharmacy,” Perna noted. “This deal will ensure easy access for most people.” Operation Warp Speed also arranged the necessary supplies associated with vaccine administration. Along with vaccine shipments, administration sites are also receiving alcohol swabs, needles and syringes. To protect the cold-chain requirements for vaccine, Operation Warp Speed is also supplying dry ice. “We’ve cut through the red tape on several fronts so everyone can focus on what they do best,” Perna said. With two vaccines now moving and the expectation that others will be approved, Perna said the mission has established a cadence that should provide predictability and a sustainable tempo moving forward. “We started this process from scratch and we are learning at every step,” Perna said. “We took the best minds in science, a tested vaccination infrastructure and the best of American industry to answer this unprecedented call to save lives and help the nation move past this pandemic.” DTJ


OPERATION WARP SPEED

VACCINE DISTRIBUTION PROCESS

IN SUPPORTING THE DISTRIBUTION & ADMINISTRATION OF COVID-19 VACCINES, OWS HAS FOUR KEY GOALS, TENETS, AND ARCHITECTURE Ensure safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines

Reduce morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 disease through effective and efficient distribution of COVID-19 vaccines

Support rapid vaccine distribution based on CDC guidance for states immunizations services

Assist with the return to pre-pandemic quality of life

DISTRIBUTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF A COVID-19 VACCINE FOUR KEY TENETS CONTROL/VISIBILITY Where vaccines and secondary item kits are at all times in the process of distribution and ensuring the vaccines go to prioritized groups as determined by policy

COVERAGE Deliver vaccines beyond the normal brick and mortar facilities, including potential mobile or on-site delivery of vaccine to long-term healthcare facilities and other hard to reach populations

UPTAKE How many vaccines were administered per location per day to match supply with demand

TRACEABILITY Confirm which of the approved vaccines were administered: • Regardless of location (private/public) • Reminder to return for second dose • Administer the correct second dose

TRIALS

MANUFACTURING

FDA Based on data from clinical trials, vaccine candidate is submitted for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or Biologics License Application (BLA)

MANUFACTURER Vaccine is being manufactured concurrent with clinical trials, and upon EUA/BLA and CDC recommendation, vaccine is ready to ship

• Reviews EUA/BLA application • Approves EUA/BLA application • Oversees ongoing reporting • Pharmacovigilance

ADMINISTRATION SITES Vaccines, upon EUA/BLA, are ready to ship to: • Pharmacies • Nursing homes • Public Clinics • Hospitals • Doctor's offices and Mobile Clinics • Military Treatment Facilities

OWS & CDC Allocation of initial/limited doses will be based on CDC prioritization models • Independent advisory panel (Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices with input from Nat’l Academies of Science) informs CDC prioritization • Initial/limited doses will be allocated for specific groups ○ Oversees distribution of vaccine ○ Tracks product that is delivered/administered

DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES Vaccines & associated ancillary kits (syringes, needles, and alcohol swabs) will be shipped concurrently to distribution depots and facilities

DISTRIBUTOR • Maximize use of existing pharmaceutical distribution infrastructure • Central Distributor established for kitting & distribution operations • IT infrastructure supports ordering, distribution, administration, and tracking end-to-end

PHARMACOVIGILANCE (FDA & CDC) 24 month post trial monitoring for adverse effects/additional safety feature

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MAIL OR FAX TO: National Defense Transportation Association | 50 S. Pickett St., Suite 220, Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 | (FAX) 703-823-8761

Costs are minimal, but the rewards are great! >> Contact NDTA for more information at 703-751-5011 or visit www.ndtahq.com <<

NDTA MEMBERSHIP

Maybe you know someone who would like to join. The National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA) is a non-political, non-profit educational Association composed of government, military, and industry professionals dedicated to fostering a strong and efficient global transportation and logistics system in support of national security. Membership in NDTA affords opportunities to serve and educate the community in your area of expertise as well as other special benefits.

APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP

CORPORATE MEMBERSHIP

Corporate membership in NDTA provides increased exposure and networking opportunities for those companies wanting to do business with the US government or military. Membership should be a key part of any business plan where the defense and government logistics, transportation, travel and distribution system is the target market. Corporate membership will offer your team the opportunity to be a part of the discussion and share ideas with top military, government, their execution teams, and industry leaders—the individuals who are setting and influencing the transportation, travel and distribution agenda for today and the future.

Name

APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP

Position/Title Name Organization Position/Title Mailing Address Organization City

State Zip Mailing Address

Work Phone

Email

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City Work Phone

State Zip Email

Sponsor Fax

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Membership Type

n Life $450.00 n Regular – 3 Years $150.00 n Military/Government – 3 Years $135.00 n Regular – 1 Year $55.00 n Military/Government – 1 Year $50.00 n Young Leaders (under 35 years of age) $40.00 n Retired (not gainfully employed) $40.00 n Student $20.00

n Chairman’s Circle Plus (global or national company with multiple operating entities) n Chairman’s Circle (global or national operating company) n Sustaining Member (national or regional operating company) n Regional Patron (small business or local operating company)

University Program Custom program development creates a unique relationship for participation with the NDTA including participation in: • National NDTA & USTRANSCOM events • University on-site instruction and publishing opportunities • Student membership and scholarship awards • Local chapter engagement

Amount Remitted $______________________ Donation to the Foundation $______________________

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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

For more information on Corporate Membership and University Programs, contact Lee Matthews 703-751-5011 or lee@ndtahq.com.


Cont’d from Cybersecurity pg. 8 wide ISO cybersecurity campaign exists yet for ISO-related procedures needed to secure suppliers’ business continuity. This question raises the complications currently coming up of how small business sub-suppliers comply with the new regulations related to foreign compromised communications equipment. Today, many of those sub-suppliers face the same existential threats driven by the pandemic as the rest of the economy. Consequently, they rightfully worry about any additional costs or personnel burdens from new regulations, particularly on cyberse-

Addressing the cybersecurity in these non-defense sector US businesses goes beyond the DOD’s mandate. However, degraded security in the nondefense critical infrastructure sectors will directly impair the security of the defense sector that depends on them.

curity risk understanding, containment, and reduction. Sub-suppliers also question whether they will find the right resources for CMMC upskilling and assessment, heightening those worries. These concerns merit attention given that the US still lacks a “whole of nation” public education campaign on the massive cybersecurity upskilling and assessment efforts that will be needed. From a magnitude perspective, the CMMC efforts will require direct participation from: 1. 12,000+ suppliers contracted directly by the Defense Logistics Agency; 2. 300,000+ DIB members who support them. Ultimately, all 30 million US businesses will need to do their part in cyber readiness along with their international trading partners. Addressing the cybersecurity in these non-defense sector US businesses goes beyond the DOD’s mandate. However, degraded security in the non-defense critical infrastructure sectors will directly impair the security of the defense sector that depends on them. Meanwhile, the financial and communication resources dedicated to a nationwide effort have been limited despite important efforts by NIST and various agencies working

on the CMMC. In addition to the limited dollars, the US still lacks a “whole of government” alignment for CMMC that would be an American parallel to the Chinese government’s mobilization. In the People’s Republic of China model, President Xi Jinping has combined a unified industrial effort comparable to President Kennedy’s Space Race. The whole of China mobilization also includes a comprehensive public relations campaign comparable to the way JFK rallied the US to his President’s Physical Fitness Program by writing articles in Sports Illustrated. ESTABLISHING 300,000 POINTS OF LIGHT FROM THE FIELD

Despite the baseline of inaction on cyberreadiness, role model businesses do exist. For example, DIB-Co worked with resources from its local chamber of commerce to upskill on cybersecurity and addressed the 110 cyber controls from the NIST 800-171 standard. This also prepared DIB-Co for a higher level Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification. DIB-Co already cites value received from documenting the overall protection of its customer and supplier relationships. As evidenced during COVID-19, cybersecurity breaches are only one of the eight major hazards that put all companies, including DIB-Co, and their value chains at risk (i.e., Information Technology, Biological, Utility Outage, Meteorological, Supply Chain Interruption, Accidents, Hazardous Materials, Fire/Explosion). CMMC, NIST 800-171, and all the best practices for responding to hazards make sense for a company regardless of any mandate. In the words of DIB-Co’s CEO: “We don’t have an IT Staff. We depend on our expert business and process team to build in cybersecurity to our standard operating procedures. As we start working out the contingencies, we’re documenting how our processes operate now. When I retire or anyone else transitions, we’ll still have those capabilities understood in a systemic way. ISO 9000 got us a long way, but this is what we needed to do to deal with a larger group of disruptions, including cyber-attacks. The goal is to have our supplier and customer interdependencies understood well enough that we get alerted to those disruptions across the network. Likewise, we’re all getting various attacks and resolving them, but we need an affordable way to exchange those lessons learned with companies across the supply chain and industry overall.” —CEO of DIBCo, a small precision manufacturer DTJ

CALL TO ACTION: ENGAGING EXISTING DOD RESOURCES DOD’s Defense Industrial Base Cybersecurity (DIB CS) Program, executed via the DOD Cyber Crime Center (DC3)/DOD-Defense Industrial Base Collaborative Information Sharing Environment (DCISE), provides a clearinghouse and exchange among Defense Industrial Base suppliers as the: • No-fee operational focal point for a voluntary partnership of 770+ Cleared Defense Contractors • Single repository for all cyber incident reports affecting unclassified networks • Subject Matter Expert (SME) in Analysis of Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) targeting the DIB Since 2008, DC3/DCISE has used multiple official and industry data streams to: • Perform more than 74,240 hours of nocost forensics and malware analysis • Publish more than 11,123 cyber reports • Share more than 446,983 actionable, non-attributional indicators Since the DIB CS Program’s inception in 2008, the voluntary partnership has grown steadily, including 50% expansion for each of the last three consecutive years. While it began with a focus on large prime contractors, the program has recently seen higher growth in the number of small and medium-sized companies joining. With new companies added nearly every week, the voluntary DIB CS Program currently consists of: • 57.09% Very Small (less than 250 employees) • 18.84% Small (250-1,000) • 9.14% Medium (1,001-5,000) • 3.54% Large (5,001-10,000) • 11.38% Enterprise (10,001+) companies DCISE offers products and services tailored to support defense contractors based on industry sector and cybersecurity maturity. In support of a DIB CS Program pilot, DCISE has extended its offerings to a small pool of non-cleared defense contractors, with the intention of expanding these offerings once the initiative moves out of the pilot phase. “According to a partner survey, information from DC3/DCISE has helped reduce risk for 80% of the participating organizations and has alerted 65% of those organizations to a previously unknown threat.” —Ms. Krystal Covey, Director of the DOD Cyber Crime Center’s DOD-Defense Industrial Base Collaborative Information Sharing Environment (DC3/DCISE)

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CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE

These corporations are a distinctive group of NDTA Members who, through their generous support of the Association, have dedicated themselves to supporting an expansion of NDTA programs to benefit our members and defense transportation preparedness.

AAR CORP. + PLUS Agility Defense & Government Services + PLUS AIT Worldwide Logistics, Inc. + PLUS American President Lines, LLC + PLUS American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier + PLUS Amtrak + PLUS Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings + PLUS Bennett + PLUS CGI + PLUS Chapman Freeborn Airchartering, Inc. + PLUS Construction Helicopters, Inc. (d/b/a CHI Aviation) + PLUS Crane Worldwide Logistics, LLC + PLUS Crowley + PLUS Deloitte + PLUS DHL Express + PLUS Enterprise Holdings + PLUS FedEx + PLUS Freeman Holdings Group + PLUS Goldratt Consulting North America LLC + PLUS Hapag-Lloyd USA, LLC + PLUS International Auto Logistics + PLUS Kalitta Air LLC + PLUS Landstar System, Inc. + PLUS Liberty Global Logistics-Liberty Maritime + PLUS Maersk Line, Limited + PLUS Matson + PLUS National Air Cargo, Inc. + PLUS Omni Air International, LLC + PLUS Schuyler Line Navigation Company LLC + PLUS The Suddath Companies + PLUS TOTE + PLUS Tri-State + PLUS US Ocean, LLC + PLUS Waterman Logistics + PLUS Western Global Airlines + PLUS American Maritime Partnership Amerijet International, Inc. Ascent Global Logistics /USA Jet Airlines Berry Aviation, Inc. BNSF Railway Boeing Company Boyle Transportation, Inc. Bristol Associates Choice Hotels International 28

| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

CSX Transportation CWTSatoTravel Echo Global Logistics, Inc. Global Logistics Providers KGL McKinsey & Company National Air Carrier Association Norfolk Southern Corporation

SAP Concur Sealift, Inc. Telesto Group LLC The Pasha Group The Port of Virginia Transportation Institute U.S. Bank Freight Payment Union Pacific Railroad UPS Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, Inc.


HONOR ROLL

OF

SUSTAINING MEMBERS AND REGIONAL PATRONS

ALL OF THESE FIRMS SUPPORT THE PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES OF NDTA

SUSTAINING MEMBERS AAT Carriers, Inc. ABODA by RESIDE Accenture Federal Services Admiral Merchants Motor Freight, Inc. Agape Travel and Tours Air Transport International, Inc. Al-Hamd International Container Terminal AMAC Logistics LLC American Maritime Officers American Moving & Storage Association American Trucking Associations Ameriflight, LLC Anacostia Rail Holdings Apex Logistics International Inc. ArcBest Army & Air Force Exchange Service Arven Services, LLC Atlas World Group International ATS Specialized, Inc. Avis Budget Group Baggett Transportation Company BCD Travel Beltway Transportation Service Benchmarking Partners, Inc. Blue Star Charter & Tours, Inc. Bolloré Logistics BWH Hotel Group C.L. Services, Inc. CIT Signature Transportation Coachman Luxury Transport Coleman Worldwide Moving Cornerstone Systems, Inc. Council for Logistics Research Dash Point Distributing, LLC Delta Air Lines Drury Hotels LLC Duluth Travel, Inc. (DTI) El Sol Travel Inc. REGIONAL PATRONS ACME Truck Line, Inc. Agile Defense, Inc. Amyx C5T Corporation CakeBoxx Technologies LLC CarrierDrive LLC Cartwright International Cavalier Logistics Chassis King, Inc. Columbia Helicopters, Inc. Dalko Resources, Inc.

Ernst & Young Estes Forwarding Worldwide, LLC Europcar Car & Truck Rental Eurpac Evanhoe & Associates, Inc. Excl Hospitality – Suburban Suites/ MainStay Suites Eyre Bus Service, Inc. FlightSafety International GeoDecisions Green Valley Transportation Corp. Hertz Corporation Hilton Worldwide IHG Army Hotels Intermodal Association of North America (IANA) International Association of Movers International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA), AFL-CIO Interstate Moving | Relocation | Logistics Keystone Shipping Co. KROWN1 FZC LMI Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association MatchTruckers, Inc. Mayflower Transit McCollister’s Transportation Systems, Inc. Mercer Transportation Company mLINQS National Charter Bus National Industries for the Blind (NIB) National Motor Freight Traffic Association, Inc. National Van Lines, Inc. Northern Air Cargo, LLC Northern Neck Transfer Inc. Omega World Travel Omnitracs, LLC One Network Enterprises, Inc. ORBCOMM PD Systems, Inc. Perfect Logistics, LLC

DGC International Enterprise Management Systems HLI Government Services JAS Forwarding John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences Kalitta Charters, LLC Lineage Logistics LMJ International Logistics, LLC Lynden, Inc. MacGregor USA, Inc. Move One Logistics

Pilot Freight Services PODS Enterprises LLC Port of Beaumont Ports America Portus Preferred Systems Solutions, Inc. Prestera Trucking, Inc. PTS Worldwide Radiant Global Logistics Radisson Hotel Group Ramar Transportation, Inc. Ryzhka International LLC Sabre SAIC Savi SeaCube Containers Seafarers International Union of NA, AGLIW SecureSystem US, Inc. SEKO Logistics Shiplify, LLC Sixt rent a car LLC Southwest Airlines St. Louis Union Station Hotel a Curio Hotel Collection by Hilton StarForce National Corporation Stevens Global Logistics, Inc. Swan Transportation Services TMM, Inc. Transport Investments, Inc. Travelport Trusted Internet, LLC TTX Company Tucker Company Worldwide, Inc. United Airlines United Van Lines, Inc. Universal Logistics Holdings, Inc. US Premier Locations Women In Trucking Association, Inc. YRC Worldwide

North Carolina State Ports Authority NovaVision Inc. Overdrive Logistics, Inc. Patriot Contract Services, LLC PITT OHIO Port Canaveral Port of Port Arthur Port of San Diego Priority Worldwide Seatac Marine Services TechGuard Security Trans Global Logistics Europe GmbH

UNIVERSITIES Critical Infrastructure Resilience Institute – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign McKendree University

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Cont’d from President’s Corner pg. 9 hard.” I really appreciate that acknowledgment of responsibility by a fine leader. “We do hard.” I think that applies across our team of logistics and transportation professionals as they encounter many such situations, just as has been the case during the COVID-19

Thank you to all the NDTA Committees and Chapters for your leadership during the pandemic. You are definitely the glue that keeps NDTA “Rolling along.” Likewise, many thanks to our DOD and government leaders who selflessly serve our Nation.

crisis. Across the Department of Defense (DOD) logistics enterprise, there are military and civilian champions who get things done as they face obstacles. We should be removing as many of these obstacles as possible to speed up processes and ease the load

because new and more challenging complications will always emerge. As we proceed in 2021, there will be a continued urgency to vaccinate our citizens and contribute to solving the crisis on a world-wide basis. DOD will support this effort as requested, and industry will follow suit as needed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and/ or DOD. Travel, especially business travel, needs to reemerge within our economy and will do so with the encouragement of our government and DOD—at the appropriate inflection point in time. The Defense Travel Management Office (DTMO) has committed to working with NDTA’s Government Passenger Travel Advisory Council (GPTAC) to ensure the travel industry associated with DOD stays apprised of future business travel expectations for the department. This will be a major topic at the upcoming GovTravels conference in February. Thank you to all the NDTA Committees and Chapters for your leadership during the pandemic. You are definitely the glue that keeps NDTA “Rolling along.” Likewise, many thanks to our DOD and government leaders who selflessly serve our Nation. We

support you and appreciate your devotion and know-how to get hard things done! One last thought. As you know, NDTA is committed to education and the development of our future logistics and transportation leaders. With that in mind, I wanted to tell you that the NDTA Foundation is beginning a campaign this year to increase and expand our ability to provide scholarships. You’ll be hearing more about it soon. In the meantime, I want to remind members that applications for 2021 NDTA Foundation Scholarships are due to NDTA by April 15th. Godspeed to a safe and progress filled 2021! DTJ

DTJ INDEX OF ADVERTISERS American President Lines, Ltd.......................... 31 American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier (ARC).............. 5 Bennett Motor Express, LLC............................... 2 Crowley Logistics, Inc........................................ 3 CWTSatoTravel................................................ 17 Enterprise Holdings.......................................... 13 FedEx Government Services............................. 32 Kalitta Air LLC.................................................... 9 Landstar Transportation Logistics, Inc................ 6 Southwest Airlines............................................. 4

SURFACE FORCE PROJECTION CONFERENCE May 17-20, 2021 SAVE THE DATE

www.ndtahq.com/events/ports-conference/

The National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA) and Christopher Newport University’s Center for American Studies (CAS) jointly present the NDTA-CAS Surface Force Projection Conference: “CONUS to the INDO-PACIFIC Region: Projecting Forces through Strategic Ports to Provide Combat Power” (SFPC). The conference brings together U.S. government and industry subject matter experts in logistics and transportation to examine the challenges associated with deployment and employment of forces and equipment in support of U.S. national security objectives. Specifically, this conference focuses on the deployment and movement of U.S. Military Forces and sustainment from CONUS to the INDO-PACIFIC region considering

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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

Dynamic Force Employment to develop a range of options while leveraging Strategic Port readiness and a wide-range of surface connectors needed to respond to U.S. security threats. Join NDTA and CAS along with the NDTA Surface Committee and Ports Subcommittee as we team with USTRANSCOM’s Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC), U.S. Department of Transportation’s Maritime Administration (MARAD), the Association of American Port Authorities (AAPA), and the logistics and transportation Industry along with academia to find creative and innovative ways to improve deployment readiness, solve challenges and improve U.S. ability and capability to respond and operate in a global, multi-domain, and contested environment.


A Strong Capacity to Deliver From transporting essential supplies for our troops to household goods of Service Members and their families as a long-standing partner for the U.S. Military, American President Lines (APL) has proven to have the resources and know-how to be the mission critical link in your supply chains. APL offers weekly U.S. Flag services linking North America to Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa, the Middle East and Guam. To learn more about how we can support you, visit www.apl.com.

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We’re not in the military, but we’re proud to serve the U.S. We take our job and yours very seriously. At FedEx, you can count on us for access to networks in more than 220 countries and territories and the flexibility to handle anything that comes your way. And you can trust that there’s pride in everything we do.

fedex.com ©2007 FedEx

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| Defense Transportation Journal | FEBRUARY 2021

Profile for Defense Transportation Journal

Defense Transportation Journal  

The Defense Transportation Journal (DTJ) is the official publication of the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-politi...

Defense Transportation Journal  

The Defense Transportation Journal (DTJ) is the official publication of the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-politi...

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