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The Official Publication of the National Defense Transportation Association

October 2020



| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020


Flying With Honor. Serving With Distinction. Atlas Air Worldwide is proud to be an NDTA Chairman’s Circle Plus member and support the men and women of the United States Armed Forces.

Atlas Air Worldwide is a global leader of innovative, outsourced aviation services and is proud to support the U.S. Military. With the largest 747 and 767 charter fleet, supported by our global infrastructure and dedicated employees, we provide leading on-time performance, 24/7 operations, experience flexibility, and an unwavering commitment to safety and service excellence. Atlas delivers value to the U.S. Military and all of our customers. Always.

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THE LANDSTAR ADVANTAGE A recognized industry leader, Landstar provides safe, secure, reliable transportation services delivered by our unique network of independent agents and capacity providers. • One of the industry’s largest van and platform selections with over 66,000 truck capacity providers under contract

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www.linkedin.com/company/Landstar | Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020


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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020



Since 1895, the Army & Air Force Exchange Service has gone where our Nation’s military mission goes to strengthen the readiness and resiliency of Soldiers, Airmen and their families.

The Department of Defense’s largest exchange service, the Exchange provides needed tastes of home in all 50 states and 32 countries. 100% of Exchange earnings are reinvested in the military community, supporting critical Qualityof-Life programs. In 2019, $217 million in dividends were generated for these critical programs. The Exchange benefit goes beyond tax-free shopping and military-exclusive pricing. Each year, the Exchange provides 800,000 combat uniforms to troops and supports the military in contingency locations with permanent stores, mobile field Exchanges and imprest funds. Annually, the Exchange serves nearly 3 million school lunches to military children at DoDEA schools. Overseas bakeries produce millions of products each year with American flour. Water-bottling plants produce more than 4 million gallons of water a year, ensuring overseas troops have potable water. Behind this support is a comprehensive logistics operation with 11 worldwide distribution centers, the Exchange’s own import program and the 12th largest private retail fleet in the U.S. Today, the Exchange is the defense transportation system’s third-largest customer. In response to COVID-19, the Exchange leveraged technology to transform operations and provide safe, sanitized and secure support to military communities. Team Exchange drove more than 60,000 additional fleet

miles to deliver a half a million supplies in response to the pandemic and deployed Mobile Field Exchanges— stores on wheels—to New York City, Fort Drum, Fort Benning and Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston. The pandemic has accelerated the need to invest smartly in logistics as new systems and processes increase our productivity and improve services. The Exchange recently implemented a state-of-the-art warehouse management system at its largest distribution center in Virginia (the Exchange’s fourth installation of its new WMS). The Exchange also invested in a powerful fleet management system, working with USTRANSCOM, which is adding real-time analytics and informing better transportation decision making. Future innovation efforts include the implementation of augmented reality at the Exchange’s new distribution center in Korea and leveraging robotics to meet an ecommerce case count increase of 135% as a result of the pandemic. The Exchange is family serving family, hiring more than 46,000 Veterans and military spouses since 2013 as part of its commitment to hire 50,000 by the end of 2020. Heroes who served can find out about rewarding careers as motor vehicle operators, warehouse workers, logisticians and more by visiting ApplyMyExchange.com. Exchange drivers, warehouse workers and store associates are committed to delivering for our Nation’s military communities.

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Many Solutions, One Mission: Global Warfighter Support Crowley has been a consistent, responsive partner of the United States government for more than 100 years. We stand ready to support your mission by providing you with speed to theater of operations, 24/7/365 readiness, experience, high performance and best-in-class technology. At a moment’s notice, anywhere in the world, we provide: logistics, maritime, technology and energy solutions.

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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

October 2020

FEATURES October 2020

Vol 76, No. 5



Sharon Lo | slo@cjp.com CIRCULATION MANAGER

Leah Ashe | leah@ndtahq.com PUBLISHING OFFICE

NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761


CONSTRAINTS-BASED THINKING 16 A Way to Lead Your Organization to Breakthrough Results By Sridharan Chandrasekaran



Debbie Bretches




Bob Schotta bschotta@cjp.com

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DEPARTMENTS Defense Transportation Journal (ISSN 0011-7625) is published bimonthly by the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-profit research and educational organization; 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220, Alexandria, VA 22304-7296, 703-751-5011. Copyright by NDTA. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Virginia, and at additional mailing offices. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: One year (six issues) $40. Two years, $60. Three years, $75. To foreign post offices, $45. Single copies, $6 plus postage. The DTJ is free to members. For details on membership, visit www.ndtahq.com. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Defense Transportation Journal 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296

CYBERSECURITY LESSONS FROM THE FIELD | Ted Rybeck.......................................10 PRESIDENT’S CORNER | VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.)......................................11 CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE.......................................................................................36 HONOR ROLL..................................................................................................37 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS.................................................................................... 38

We encourage contributions to the DTJ and our website. To submit an article or story idea, please see our guidelines at www.ndtahq.com/media-and-publications/submitting-articles/.

NDTA Headquarters Staff VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) President & CEO COL Craig Hymes, USA (Ret.) Senior VP Operations Patty Casidy VP Finance


Lee Matthews VP Marketing and Corporate Development

Learning from COVID-19 as a Contested Environment

Annie Keith Operations Manager

By Ted Rybeck

Leah Ashe Manager, Database Rebecca Jones Executive Assistant to the President & CEO For a listing of current Committee Chairpersons, Government Liaisons, and Chapter & Regional Presidents, please visit the Association website at www.ndtahq.com. EDITORIAL OBJECTIVES The editorial objectives of the Defense Transportation Journal are to advance knowledge and science in defense logistics and transportation and the partnership between the commercial transportation industry and the government transporter. DTJ stimulates thought and effort in the areas of defense transportation, logistics, and distribution by providing readers with: • News and information about defense logistics and transportation issues • New theories or techniques • Information on research programs • Creative views and syntheses of new concepts • Articles in subject areas that have significant current impact on thought and practice in defense logistics and transportation • Reports on NDTA Chapters EDITORIAL POLICY The Defense Transportation Journal is designed as a forum for current research, opinion, and identification of trends in defense transportation and logistics. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily of the Editors, the Editorial Review Board, or NDTA. EDITORIAL CONTENT Archives are available to members on www.ndtahq.com. Sharon Lo, Managing Editor, DTJ NDTA 50 South Pickett Street, Suite 220 Alexandria, VA 22304-7296 703-751-5011 • F 703-823-8761 slo@cjp.com


| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

Chair, Benchmarking Partners, & Chair, NDTA Cybersecurity Best Practices Committee

This series of articles will draw on real cases of companies as an amalgam under the name DIB-Co. Each edition will include micro-case installments of how the company transformed itself. On this journey, DIB-Co will go from being unaware that they were part of the Defense Industrial Base to recognizing that dozens of their customers were suppliers to the iconic giants of US defense logistics.


hat does it take to be a champion of cybersecurity for the Defense Industrial Base that can be relied on when allies face a contested environment? COVID-19 created a test case with important answers to that question because the pandemic itself has acted as a global adversary. This case analysis will show how COVID-19 represents a challenging reality for the US supplier base during an international crisis and how the pandemic serves as a wake-up call on two related issues: • COVID-19 exposed how much more progress the Defense Industrial Base needs to make for mobilization of any kind • The wake-up call is even louder in the case of readiness for a cyber incident because its onset can be so sudden, systemic, and geographically widespread

In this case, COVID-19, as an adversary, drove a kind of nationwide and international shutdown of the Defense Industrial Base that, to date, has been prevented through the dedication and innovation of the Department of Defense (DOD) and its supplier community. Despite those heroics, every supplier can tell a story of how we could and need to do better in the future. What follows is a case analysis of the experience for one of those suppliers, which illustrates the overall point that COV-

ID-19 has exposed less Defense Industrial Base readiness than we need in three areas: 1. Collaboration infrastructure 2. Shared contingency plans 3. Checklists of specific actions within those plans Take the example of DIB-Co.* Like 99% of the Defense Industrial Base members, DIB-Co only covers a small part of the Defense ecosystem. However, for any partner connected with that sector that depends on DIB-Co’s commitment to excellence, DIB-Co plays an indispensable role. In DIB-Co’s case, no official communication across the US Defense Industrial Base had been made to identify which companies qualified as “essential” once shutdowns began in early March 2020. DIB-Co only knew to stay open because emails came in from customers who were themselves sub-suppliers. These larger firms had the benefit of staff and systems to double-check that DIB-Co would be maintaining operations as a sub-supplier since customers considered DIB-Co “essential.” For all those organizations that lack the staff to coordinate communication among their sub-suppliers like DIB-Co, the status quo leaves a breakdown in needed collaboration. See Cybersecurity pg. 35

PRESIDENT’S CORNER A Word of Thanks VADM William A. Brown, USN (Ret.) NDTA President & CEO Dear NDTA Team, I want to say thank you to everyone who attended the 2020 NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meeting. For the record, it is the first time in our 76-year history that we met virtually. There have been years when the event was cancelled altogether, so this tells us something about just how far the “digital thread” has progressed and advanced our society’s ability to connect and communicate. One of the many insights that came out of the Fall Meeting was the idea that new innovations in technology are speeding up due to the need to socially distance. Likewise,

we learned that more technological changes are right around the corner regarding space, communications, and energy. As one speaker said, “The future arrived, unannounced.” The challenge given to all of us from almost every speaker was to leverage these new capabilities. USTRANSCOM is trying to take full advantage of new technology through its efforts with SpaceX to influence sub-orbital logistics capabilities to be tested in 2021. For those of you who registered for the Fall Meeting, every keynote, panel, and all 78 Transportation Academy classes are available to you through January 8, 2021. If you have any questions about accessing


CHAIRMAN’S CIRCLE PLUS • Kalitta Air LLC SUSTAINING • Ameriflight, LLC • Agape Travel and Tours • Coachman Luxury Transport • Dash Point Distributing, LLC • Eyre Bus Service, Inc. • MatchTruckers, Inc. • Perfect Logistics, LLC

these valuable resources, please give us a call here at the office. There is a lot of important information in each session. Regarding the virtual format, we had good feedback that the meeting was effective—but pretty much everyone missed the in-person format. I am pleased to inform you that we See President’s Corner pg. 38

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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

Winning Principles for Defense Transportation Digital Modernization Strategies By Maj John Biszko, USAF


he Defense Transportation Enterprise—military and industrial components—is in a race to capitalize on the data and knowledge revolution, which is the normative and technical follow-on to the digital revolution of the nineties. Not everyone in the defense transportation community has the same perspective as to how to score relative gains against competitors in this race. To that end, this article draws on my year as the first-ever Air Mobility Command (AMC) Chief Data Officer. It also attempts to persuade the reader that winning principles are human-capital-intensive, inculcate a shift from automation to ideation, cause a normative shift around integration semantics, push science out of programs and into pure services, decentralize analytics, and combine with an increasingly ubiquitous corporate framework to empower the Commander. First, observers around the enterprise notice that as Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications mature, the associated workforce tends to grow. Whereas some believe that computer programming and data science ought to allow one’s community to do more with fewer employees, which would be a sign of capitalizing on an increasing degree of automation, the opposite is occurring. One finds oneself in need of more and more people to do data science work. Since the emphasis is on augmenting human efforts with ML/AI (not replacing human operators with those capabilities) and making systems more capable by making them more complex, one requires an increasing number of human workers to achieve the imagined effects. Some of those imagined effects are the applications of things like deep learning, neural networks, natural language processing, or computer vision to an exist-

ing group of systems that hold archived records. To implement that vision, one must link previously unlinked systems and add applications and layers of code to existing infrastructure. Leaders understand that by doing those things—linking previously unlinked systems and adding things to them—one increases the complexity of what one depends on. A leader who understands that achieving his or her vision for digital modernization will necessitate an increase in system complexity will reject or qualify support from partners who advertise that they will simplify the system. The leader is really setting out to magnify

Whereas some believe that computer programming and data science ought to allow one’s community to do more with fewer employees, which would be a sign of capitalizing on an increasing degree of automation, the opposite is occurring.

effectiveness by making systems less complicated, but more complex. In addition to magnifying effectiveness while growing in complexity, key stakeholders consider yet another seemingly disingenuous but valid paradigm shift. Boomers on the event horizon of the digital revolution wanted to automate workflow processes; however, later generations on the edge of the data and knowledge revolution want to augment creativity and ideation, which is an inherently complex interaction of human and machine competencies. Human beings can imagine, and machines cannot. Machines can reason faster than humans—apply

the scientific method to human ideations and model the ramifications of those ideations—years faster than humans. Those data science professionals who can create the architecture necessary to make this pairing accessible to the average person are purple unicorns, and many in the defense transportation community are latent to integrate them and slow to capitalize on their unique knowledge, skills, and abilities. Abundantly clear from one’s inertia in capitalizing on data science technologies is that one is not primarily limited in achieving desired end states by technology unavailability. Indeed, there are many advanced and diverse data and knowledge technologies in the world, each one an outgrowth of one imagining what one can do with statistics and computer programming by applying those skills to a natural condition. Strategic leaders remain wanting, however, for a cadre of operational and tactical leaders who consistently imagine and reimagine how to provide responsibility and accountability over these emerging technologies’ applications to military problems. Responding to that impoverishment, strategic decision-makers in the Defense Transportation Enterprise use the term integration in different ways than before. Whereas the defense industrial complex used the word in the early 2000s primarily to describe the intertwining of people and processes, in the last two years the term has been increasingly used to imply the stitching together of disparate subsystems so that the data contained in each becomes part of a larger, more comprehensive system. What used to be called integration is increasingly referred to as convergence, implying an interests-based approach to cooperation. Integration increasingly means subsystem linkage and accessibility, aimed again at augmenting the human effort, and it also implies the responsibility and www.ndtahq.com |


accountability necessary to operationalize a dev-sec-ops pipeline eventually outmodes benefits of layering a corporate framethat integration. science as a system or program, one is left work over the top of a board and counAdding on to the newly technical bend cil process is coming to a close. Whereas with Science as a Service (ScaaS). Since the of integration, federal data cataloguing is Defense Transportation Enterprise has a the J1, J2, J3, etc., would meet in council ending some data-gentrified companies’ strong institutional memory of evolving to inform the Commander’s decisions; or preeminence and instead rewarding a new Software as a Service (SaaS), Enterprise in industry, the Chief Information Ofcavalcade of data scientists, statisticians, Information Technology as a Service (EIficer (CIO), Chief Data Officer (CDO), and computer programmers. By making TaaS), and Data as a Service (DaaS), the Chief Analytics Officer (CAO), Chief authoritative source cataloguing a by-law, community is poised to adapt faster to Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Technolthe federal government ogy Officer (CTO), and has allowed the DeChief Knowledge Offipartment of Defense cer (CKO) would meet to improve data underin council to inform standing beyond previleadership…on military ous requirements for staffs it is increasingly contract services aimed both. Instead of failing at the same competenin a haphazardly comcies. Armed with a fedpetitive knowledge and eral data catalogue and information confluence, moderately mature data the two structures supunderstanding, howporting data-informed ever, the defense side of decisions aqueduct as the complex remains in one structure. Having relative paucity of data been adapted for depreparation skills. Comfense knowledge manpanies that advertised agement, the corporate helping one get ahold of framework is increasone’s data are making the ingly supplementary and Having been adapted for defense knowledge management, the transition to helping one integral to the Comcorporate framework is increasingly supplementary and integral to the prepare one’s data. To the mander’s battle rhythm. Commander’s battle rhythm. This integration of a specially adopted extent that a company This integration of a specan make the move, it cially adopted corporate corporate framework on military staffs has doubled the rigor of datapreserves its relative marframework on military informed decisions without doubling the cost of decision making. ket share. staffs has doubled the Even this lucrative rigor of data-informed window of opportunity in data preparaScaaS than its predecessors. The Comdecisions without doubling the cost of detion is ephemeral. As initiatives like commander’s ability to contract for data science cision making. puter programming language incentive as a service outside of a program allows for In summary, the winning strategy for pay and data analytics as a military core what Dr. Brian Keegan calls “decentralized both sides of the military industrial comcompetency combine with the rapid comexecution” of the data science application plex is to first aggressively validate, fund, moditization of data preparation web apto mission.1 Whereas data governance and hire additional personnel who provide plications, data professionals are increasframeworks allow for centralized control of ideation-centric applications of data sciingly chased to higher ground. Since the processes, the centralizing programmatic ence to mid-level problems. Second, focus dev-sec-ops pipeline used to increasingly paradigm is cut from execution, and the high-level strategy documents and midcommoditize data analytics applications Commander reaches out to industry on an level implementation plans on an orientawill also increasingly speed and commodas-needed basis for scientific services. tion toward dev-sec-ops highways. Third, itize the dev-sec-ops process itself, the view This lowering of the level of execution embrace complexity, both in systems and of acquisitions as systems- and programsof data science projects and partnering in governance. Complexity does not neccentric is dematerializing. Using a process with industry dovetails with an increasing essarily imply complication or difficulty, to develop applications of AI in order to amount of training in basic data analytics and humans remain near infinitely more speed up and streamline processes, inacross a growing number of military specomplex than the machines or governance cluding those used to field better AI, is a cializations. Dr. Chris Provan describes structures they ordinarily feel compelled to wicked cycle of increasingly expeditious this as an informal emergence of analytic simplify. DTJ innovation that ultimately leads to the dissolutions advisors at lower levels in the solution of many things exogenous to the chain of command, springing in tandem 1 Dr. Brian Keegan, (Data Scientist, MicroStrategy), process’s essence. with a trend in the commercial sector to Interview by John P. Biszko, 26 May 20. The process itself is a science or scientific “decentralize analytics.”2 methodology, increasingly an instance of Further on from ScaaS, the service 2 Dr. Chris Provan (Data Scientist, Mosaic), computational social science. Since AI in components’ grappling with the costs and Interview by John P. Biszko, 28 May 20. 14

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

The modernization behind the mission. Unified mission and operational system capabilities are the cornerstone for modernization. As the pace of technological innovation accelerates, legacy core systems can’t keep up. People, processes, and operating models have to adapt to the rapidly changing workforce and the fast pace of disruption. Deloitte has a path to harness this changing environment and help you achieve bold outcomes.

www.deloitte.com/us/dsj Copyright © 2020 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved.

www.ndtahq.com |


Constraints-Based Thinking A Way to Lead Your Organization to Breakthrough Results By Sridharan Chandrasekaran, Partner, Goldratt Consulting

Shifting priorities? Limited time? Work piling up? Late deliveries?


s a leader, you have a choice: survive and get by with incremental improvements or really focus your organization on delivering Breakthrough Results. Most leaders want the Breakthrough Results but don’t know how to start. Constraints-Based Thinking, rooted in Dr. Eli Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints (ToC), might be the place to start. Constraints-Based Thinking sees every organization as a system where people, processes, and resources depend on each other to produce the system’s final output.

Dr. Eli Goldratt introduced ToC through the bestselling management book The Goal. ToC has enabled public and private organizations across the world to achieve big jumps in performance (throughput, cycle time, on-time delivery, etc.). From its origin in manufacturing, ToC and its applications have spread to every aspect of business.


• The main objective must be to improve overall system’s THROUGHPUT • Improving FLOW delivers improvements in throughput, speed, quality, and reduces costs • Every system is like a chain whose strength is dependent on the weakest link (the CONSTRAINT). A constraint is anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance versus its goal. Unless we are able to improve the constraint, the overall system will not improve. 16

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

TOC – TWO BASIC FRAMEWORKS FLOW and the Five Focusing Steps

FLOW is the orderly movement of work through a series of established steps in a system. • Good FLOW means that this movement is a steady, continuous stream where value is being added to the input as it moves quickly through the system to be the output.

• Bad FLOW is where the work is not moving quickly through the steps, perhaps waiting at every step, and taking a long time before becoming an output. Obviously, improving the FLOW through the system is the key to improving the system’s throughput. • Improving FLOW increases throughput, speed, quality, and reduces costs. HOW DOES FLOW GET DISRUPTED?

Natural causes: Every system has natural variations where things don’t go as planned. Delays in one part of the system can cascade and flow will get disrupted. These disruptions to flow are intrinsic to any system and are not easy to remove. For example, in maintenance, we know aircraft will break and sometimes tasks will take longer than planned—that is reality. Self-inflicted causes: In real-world systems, the majority of the flow disruptions are due to the way we react to and manage the natural delays. When things get delayed and we start missing our commitments (deadlines), there is pressure to start or release work sooner in order to meet the deadlines. When we release work too early, work piles up in front of resources resulting in wait times (i.e., the flow is getting blocked). As wait times increase and

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things get delayed, more work becomes urgent. As a result, there are priority conflicts and leaders increase multi-tasking. As queues build up, the same resources (crews, teams, etc.) are now “spread thin” over more jobs. As a result, each job gets fewer resources than needed and therefore takes longer. The net impact of multitasking, priority conflicts, and spreading thin is that work takes much longer than

planned and the productivity of resources is low, which results in more delays than we started. The vicious cycle of delays leading to more delays is shown below: The pressure to start work sooner comes from an assumption that the “sooner we start, the faster we can finish.” Unfortunately, when there is limited capacity, starting work sooner increases the amount of “work-in-process” (WIP) in the system. High WIP leads to long wait times, priority conflicts, fire-fighting, multi-tasking, and spreading thin. Together, these lead to increased delays and poor throughput. HOW DO YOU IMPROVE FLOW DRAMATICALLY?

There are four common techniques for improving flow quickly: • Control WIP • Full Kit (everything you need to complete the job) before starting work • Focus & Finish jobs before picking the next tasks • Establish clear and stable priorities The following illustration (derived from actual experiences) shows the impact of em-

ploying FLOW techniques—controlling WIP, ensuring full kit before starting work, focus and finish, and setting clear priorities. The positive impact on Mission Capable rates is clearly seen as you move from the high WIP environment (left side) to the controlled WIP environment (right side). FIVE FOCUSING STEPS

A fundamental assumption is that every system is like a chain and the strength of the system is equal to its weakest link (constraint). Unless we are able to improve the constraint, the overall system will not improve. • Step 1 - Identify the Constraint: Identify the constraint in the process. Typically the constraint has the lowest throughput and often work piles in front of it. The constraint also experiences severe multi-tasking and changing priorities. • Step 2 - Exploit the Constraint (i.e., maximize constraint usage): An hour lost on the constraint is an hour lost for system throughput. It is critical to squeeze the max out of the constraint. Usually, this involves obtaining the immediate maximum potential from the constraint without significant investment.

• Step 3 - Subordinate Everything to the Constraint: Since the constraint is the main resource that determines the system’s throughput, subordination of the remaining resources/steps in the process is required. The best way to subordinate everything to the constraint is by controlling the release of work into the process. • Step 4 - Elevate the Constraint by Expanding Constraint Capacity: Once we have subordinated everything else to the constraint, we expect to see big improvements in system speed and throughput. It is now time to invest money (NOT before) to increase capacity at the constraint. • Step 5 – Go Back to Step 1: If a constraint still exists, these steps must be repeated until all constraints are removed. Constraints-Based Thinking is a powerful tool leaders can use to help drive their organizations to Breakthrough Results. The concepts of FLOW and the FIVE FOCUSING STEPS have proven themselves in repeated applications in a variety of business and operational settings. DTJ

“In management, constraint should have a positive meaning. It is the key indicator for where and how to focus the organization’s improvement efforts.” — Eli Goldratt


| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

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Global Supply Chain Trends and Emerging Technologies in the Internet of Un-Secure Things By Jeffrey Beaudoin, US Department of Defense


n 2020, new technologies are emerging at a break-neck pace to solve problems, fill gaps, drive process improvements, and solve problems that have not yet been realized. With emerging technologies and hyper-connected supply chains, we are seeing new trends in the way we approach logistics at many different levels. Artificial Intelligence is disrupting transportation modes like never before seen. Automation and robotics are helping make logistics operations safer and more efficient. Supply chain data is being collected, stored, and displayed in new and exciting ways with specialized software applications that bring greater visibility to assets. For every problem, there are twice as many solutions and ten times as many risks or ways for things to go wrong. Securing the supply chain that rides on digital infrastructure and enhancing supply chain risk management (SCRM) are more important than ever. Risk management is not


| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

Our vision is to create a “Smart World,” intelligent infrastructure linking objects, information and people through the computer network. This new infrastructure will allow universal coordination of physical resources through remote monitoring and control by humans and machines. Our objective is to create open standards, protocols and languages to facilitate worldwide adoption of this network—forming the basis for a new “Internet of Things.”1 — Dr. David L. Brock

a new discipline, and neither is cybersecurity. They are not even new ideas. Both risk management and cybersecurity use models, concepts, frameworks, etc. that have existed for decades in other industries and have slowly made their way to the supply chain. THE RISE OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS

When most people think of the Inter-

net of Things (IoT), they picture smart devices like their Amazon Echo speaker, Samsung TV, Nest thermostat, or LG refrigerator. For years, IoT devices have been infiltrating every part of the general consumer’s lives and homes with the goal of making devices and individuals more connected and capable, while automating routine and repetitive tasks that require little to no cognition to complete.

Today’s consumers use these devices to check the time, weather, or sports scores; set reminders and leave messages; watch their favorite Netflix shows; adjust the air temperature; and populate their grocery store lists. These are just a sample of the many routine and repetitive tasks for which these devices can be used. Bo Li and Yulong Li summarized: Similar to the way the internet connects all computers, the Internet of Things connects most products, machines, and people together. This concept has been realized recently through new technologies in sensor devices, data storage and analysis equipment, and decision-making tools. As the IoT has gained popularity in recent years, the potential to use it in supply chain management (SCM), especially supply chain innovation (SCI), has become much greater.2 Take the Apple Watch, one of the most prolific examples of a connected wearable IoT device that has capitalized on personal health over the past few years. Sensors in the watch track workouts, monitor movement, detect falls, monitor for rapid or skipped heartbeats and heart rates, as well as electrocardiograms. The sensors in the watch include an optical heart rate sen-

Apple Watch, one of the most prolific examples of a connected wearable IoT device has capitalized on personal health over the past few years. Image courtesy Apple.

sor, an electrical heart sensor, an accelerometer, and a gyroscope.3 Data from the sensors is stored on the wearer’s watch and Apple iPhone to be reviewed by the wearer at any time through native Apple-branded mobile apps. The stored data can also be shared with third-party mobile apps installed on the watch or iPhone, such as a mobile Electronic Health Record (EHR), allowing the wearer to review and interpret data in different perspectives and use cases. IoT devices assist the consumer thanks to highly developed software programs or algorithms, commonly referred to as Artificial Intelligence (AI). According to Bringsjord, et al., the type of AI used in IoT technologies most closely aligns to a

subfield known as machine learning (ML), which “is concerned with building systems that improve their performance on a task when given examples of ideal performance on the task, or improve their performance with repeated experience on the task.”4 While the IoT devices mentioned have very loose implications for and impact on supply chains, the technologies and concepts in the consumer market have expanded into the commercial market. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN

The supply chain is innovating by embracing ML at many different levels and for many different purposes. One such instance of using ML to automate repetitive tasks can be seen at the Manzanillo International Terminal (MIT) near the Atlantic Ocean entrance of the Panama Canal. MIT is part of the “global cargo movement logistics system,” owned by parent company Carrix, which provides trans-shipment operations, including container terminal operations (CTO).5 CTO is a highly repetitive task that involves large cranes designed to load, unload, and reposition shipping containers around the terminal, and on and off container ships. MIT and www.ndtahq.com |


Carrix have employed ML to control the process involving the movement of containers using their cranes with humans only involved in overseeing the process through remote monitoring terminals for a large portion of their operations. The cranes use data from Global Positioning Systems (GPS), shipping manifests, and grid coordinate limits to operate within specific spaces around the terminal. The ML controlled cranes receive prioritized inputs from the shipping manifests to determine the most appropriate locations to offload and stage containers as they are prepared for the mode of transportation to the next destination. To ensure that the cranes have limited travel within the terminal, they ride on railroad tracks close to the edge of the pier where the container ships dock. Automation is not present in all of the cranes at the terminal, as MIT also employs remotely piloted cranes. Where crane pilots used to sit in a cab above the containers as they raised and lowered, now there are cameras and controls operated remotely from the same operations center that oversees the automated cranes. The use of ML is becoming a disruptive technology and is emerging in other areas of supply chains. As logistics companies have seen demand for packages increase without a proportionate rise in supply of drivers, the gap has driven innovation in autonomous vehicles for long haul shipping, as well as last-mile delivery. Dylan Jennings and Dr. Miguel Figliozzi presented a case study on the use of autonomous vehicles for reductions to energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the 2020 Transportation Research Board’s (TRB) Annual Meeting. In the study conducted by the team, the performance of Autonomous Delivery Robots (ADRs) was analyzed using both the Sidewalk ADR (SADR) in a Starship/Mothership configuration, as well as a Road ADR (RADR) configuration.6 In both configurations, firms leverage existing vehicle platforms that include the Ford Transit Connect and Mercedes Benz Sprinter vans to transit between warehouses or grocery stores and target neighborhoods.7 On top of the base chassis, the firms install proprietary technology that includes GPS antennas, monitoring cameras, connected sensors, and starship delivery robots. Similar to the ML used to control the cranes of MIT, the firms building SADRs and RADRs use advanced algorithms to 22

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

The Manzanillo International Terminal (MIT) near the Atlantic Ocean entrance of the Panama Canal, employs machine learning to control the container movement process using their cranes. Humans are only involved in overseeing the process through remote monitoring terminals for a large portion of their operations. Photo courtey MIT.

determine delivery route priorities based on data from GPS and individual order information.8 The algorithms also parse input data from the GPS antenna, sensors, and cameras while in motion to ensure safe transit on sidewalks and along roadways. Once items are delivered to the intended recipients, the scheduling and routing system is updated with confirmation of receipt of goods. The AES Corporation, an energy management company, provides sustainable energy solutions in 14 different countries. AI has been incorporated into the daily operations of AES facilities, as well as customer solutions. AI has been helping AES site operations in the areas of predictive maintenance for critical components, as well as the monitoring and interpretation of power plant components that feed analytics dashboards. The infrastructure incorporates network and internetconnected sensors at various points and components in the power generation and storage value chain. These sensors provide constant input data that is processed and displayed to operations personnel, company leadership, and their customers as operating temperatures & pressures, usage and transmission rates, battery storage capacities and health, and other important metrics and notifications, all at the speed of relevance. Speaking at The AI Summit San Francisco in December of 2017, AES Vice President and Chief Technology Officer

Chris Shelton said, “Digital solutions are a multiplier of value, making both existing systems and investments in new forms of energy more profitable. AI can ensure we utilize the millions of connected assets on the electricity grid to their full potential, from utility-scale solar and wind farms down to the washing machines and toaster ovens in our homes. Improved awareness, classification, and prediction of outcomes made possible by digital intelligence will enhance business value for utilities and energy consumers alike, fundamentally enabling more abundant and sustainable power for society.”9 A November 2019 agreement with Google secured a 10-year partnership to deliver renewable power to a data center in Chile.10 Uplight, a company in which AES has invested more than $53 million, will leverage the underlying Google Cloud suite of capabilities to deliver advanced analytics powered by AI to enhance their “…end-to-end energy action system, to increase customer satisfaction, and reduce carbon emissions.”11 The health industry has seen a significant rise in connected technologies that take direct inputs from patients, equipment, and providers to build profiles and results compiled by low-level applications and higher-level ML algorithms. Advances in supply chain technologies are used to manage inventory and resupply with AI helping to predict correct levels of medications and avoid overstock or backorders.12

While the use of inventory management is not unique to healthcare institutions, Chris Sullivan from Zebra Technologies, “… sees several areas where IoT technology is benefitting healthcare providers… Hospitals can benefit from machine-to-machine automation, tracking, and replenishment capabilities as consumption occurs.” As a leading inventory management technology company, Zebra offers multifunctional mobile connected solutions for healthcare that are capable of: medication administration and tracking prescriptions, inventory management, voice calls, secure text messaging, push-to-talk (PTT), alarms and alerts, blood transfusion administration, electronic health record access, and breast milk management.13 Functionality on the Zebra devices is enabled with mobile applications developed to read barcodes and RFID tags, capture images, and securely communicate within and outside hospitals over WiFi and cellular networks.14 As part of the logistics arm of healthcare, UPS is enabling more accurate tracking of time and temperature-sensitive packages by leveraging IoT sensors as part of a new Healthcare and Life Sciences unit. According to an October 2019 press release, “It will leverage UPS’s Smart Global Logistics Network package tracking capabilities, combined with new, next-generation, onpackage sensor technology to enable priority flow paths, sortation, contingency actions and delivery services for critical healthcare shipments. This new portfolio will provide UPS’s most comprehensive priority-handling services for chain of custody, time-dependent and temperaturesensitive packages to help increase on-time reliability.”15 AT&T is another capability provider of connected devices for the health industry, what they refer to as the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). In this category, AT&T concentrates on delivering: • Secure JACS tablets explicitly designed to comply with the Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA) – Enables secure IoT patient monitoring – Connects to EHR for visual recording of patient conditions – “Facilitates teleconferencing and remote patient-to-doctor video calls”16 • HIPAA compliant hub to wirelessly connect patient home health IoT mon-

itors for secure transmission of health data – Uses Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) to connect with other IoT medical devices in the patient’s home – Transmits data to cloud-based EHR for medical personnel review over AT&T 4G LTE cellular network • Aira service to aid visually impaired customers with smart glasses and smartphones that connect with live agents to provide navigation in hospitals and places of business17 Distributed ledgers are another emerging technology in the supply chain, originally intended as a means of adding digital timestamps to documents that could not be altered. Blockchain is an example of a distributed ledger that has introduced some disruption to supply chains. Bitcoin is one of the best examples of blockchain technology, which was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto.18 With distributed ledgers, data is written to blocks in a chain—

Distributed ledgers are another emerging technology in the supply chain, originally intended as a means of adding digital timestamps to documents that could not be altered. Blockchain is an example of a distributed ledger that has introduced some disruption to supply chains.

known as the blockchain—and copies of blockchain are stored across multiple decentralized nodes in a network. Traditional databases store records across tables in a centralized database file. In a distributed ledger network, each node maintains a copy of the blockchain and transactional data is validated across a majority of the nodes before writing to the next block. The dispersed nature of distributed ledgers adds high levels of complexity, which benefits data security as the likelihood of data manipulation from nefarious actors is significantly less likely. In the supply chain, distributed ledger technology is especially attractive for in-

creasing confidence in suppliers, products, and statuses. Companies like IBM and TradeLens have developed solutions at different levels in the technology stack. TradeLens is a cloud-based transactional platform-based application dedicated to supply chain and logistics focused on: Shippers and Beneficial Cargo Owners (BCOs), Third Party Logistics (3PLs) and Freight Forwarders, Intermodal Operators, Authorities, Ports and Terminals, Ocean Carriers, Financial Services, and Software Developers.19 The TradeLens platform runs in the IBM cloud and uses IBM’s private distributed blockchain network, or Blockchainas-a-Service (BaaS), to write, store, and share customer supply chain and logistics data reliably and securely.20 As customers subscribe and add data to the TradeLens platform, it is written to the blocks in the BaaS network. These customers then bring on partners from within their supply chains to share and transmit data. As this is occurring, these transactions are written to blocks across the distributed nodes as well. UPS has been working with blockchain technologies for years. A November 2017 press release announced, “UPS joined the Blockchain in Trucking Alliance (BiTA) forum for the development of blockchain technology standards and education for the freight industry.”21 As part of the BiTA, UPS and other members look to create standards around data and formatting to enable easier integration into blockchain networks. The early move to join the BiTA can be seen as strategic for UPS. As companies begin to see value in the technology and find ways to adopt blockchain in their automated systems and operations, UPS and other early adopters will have created momentum in these data standards that are most important to their own operations. New entrants to these distributed blockchain networks will be required to adopt the industry standards agreed to by the earliest adopters. EXPLORING THE RISKS

Risks always accompany emerging technologies and the examples discussed here are no different. Vulnerabilities lurk around the corners, in the hardware, firmware, data, and software. Most prominently, risks and vulnerabilities exist in the people working with any technology, regardless of how secure its manufacturer may proclaim it to be. If the supply chain is not moniwww.ndtahq.com |


tored at key points known to be at risk, a system vulnerability may be injected in data or code upstream in the manufacturing processes that is carried through to production deployment of an end item. This is also true for hardware that may be powered by vulnerable firmware if security processes and standards are not followed. In the world of data analysis, “garbage in, garbage out” is a commonly heard phrase. A variation of that phrase is “garbage in, garbage stays.” If data standards are not used, and extra steps not taken to normalize data, a risk to the business may materialize with significant effects downstream in production, supply chain, and data analysis products. The effects can result in inventories not reflecting appropriate levels of stock, incorrect items being shipped due to mismatches in manifests, customers not receiving correct orders, or measures on leadership dashboards reflecting inaccurate company performance. In addition to the

implemented to protect from data loss and guard against unauthorized access. Proactive measures must be implemented to identify vulnerabilities and risks in the supply chain. Businesses, whether they are forward-leaning early adopters or cautious observers who prefer to wait for the technology to mature, should take a risk-based approach to new technologies. Companies should start their approach by defining their risk appetites, using a risk register as a way for business leaders to communicate with developers and implementation teams. This will allow for clear communication about areas of operations where they are more or less comfortable with employing these technologies. Once the risk tolerance is defined, manufacturing process reviews must be employed to identify points in the process that are most vulnerable and where cyclical and periodic checks make sense. Insider threats are the biggest vulnerability to operations. Companies must

Identification of risks and vulnerabilities in manufacturing and development processes and supply chains are merely a starting point. Companies that produce and/or use emerging technologies and IoT enabled devices must approach these new capabilities with caution rather than blind adoption. use of standards with data, protection of the data that is stored and accessed must also be considered; companies must understand the risks to mitigate, accept, and/or avoid them. In cases where systems store Personally Identifiable Information (PII)— like in healthcare systems such as AT&T’s IoMT suite of connected tools that access, transmit, and update patient information in EHRs—providers must ensure that there are additional security measures 24

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

take a similar approach to the personnel they employ to address technological risk. Significant resources—and the right resources—are necessary to design, implement, protect, and actively monitor system security, education, and awareness programs to reduce the risk of insider threats. Security controls must ensure separations of duties are forced through programs and good cyber hygiene practices are implemented, supported, and

practiced by leadership, and enforced at all levels of operations. Wireless communication security comes with significant risks for cybersecurity attacks. As developers focus more on developing and delivering capabilities, they tend to focus less on securing the infrastructure that supports the operating environment. When IoT solutions are introduced, they pose a risk for an attack using their wireless communications including WiFi, Bluetooth, and cellular. As these technologies are introduced into an operating environment such as MIT’s ML and remote-controlled container cranes, significant attention must be given to securing the communications protocols to avoid signal hijacking or manin-the-middle attacks common to wireless communications. This requires the use of best practices to secure equipment that transmits and receives wireless signals at the software-level with encryption and strong authentication, as well as at the hardwarelevel with physical access measures such as cable conduits, redundant power supplies, and locking cabinets. Identification of risks and vulnerabilities in manufacturing and development processes and supply chains are merely a starting point. Companies that produce and/or use emerging technologies and IoT-enabled devices must approach these new capabilities with caution rather than blind adoption. This requires critical thought to understand how the emerging technologies being employed not only to increase efficiency in production and supply chains, but also how they can bring increased risk that could lead to business losses. The recognition of risks will help in developing better resiliency, redundancy, and disaster recovery plans for their operations, systems, and supply chains. WHAT IS BEING DONE AND WHAT IS ON THE MENU OF POLICY OPTIONS?

From a Defense and US national security perspective, protecting supply chains is critical to maintaining prosperity for the American people. For the US to maintain its position as the regional hegemon and the world’s superpower in a time of great power competition, policies must be enacted to enable and protect critical supply chains and logistics infrastructure while remaining adaptive to emerging technologies and the security concerns around the IoT. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment

(OUSD A&S) has published a new requirement, known as the Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) 1.0, for Department of Defense (DOD) contractors to phase into their operations. According to the CMMC Model v1.0 release in January of 2020, “The CMMC framework adds a certification element to verify the implementation of processes and practices associated with the achievement of a cybersecurity maturity level. CMMC is designed to provide increased assurance to the DOD that a defense industrial base contractor can adequately protect controlled unclassified information (CUI) at a level commensurate with the risk, accounting for information flow down to its subcontractors in a multi-tier supply chain.”22 Injecting proper security practices into solutions development has become more prominent in the private sector in recent years, due to increases in attacks from many different vulnerable points of system access. The prominence of security in development has spawned a framework of DevelopmentSecurity-Operations or DevSecOps, where minimally viable products are introduced into an operating environment using agile development techniques. The differentiation factor for DevSecOps is that security standards and validation procedures are baked into the development and release process rather than considered after the fact, ensuring security considerations are addressed early on in the development process. In February 2020, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) released draft guidance on cyber supply chain management for industry comment. NISTIR8276 (Draft) is a complementary document to previous guidance related to implementing and improving cybersecurity for critical infrastructure, focusing specifically on cyber supply chain risk management (C-SCRM). NIST fully recognizes the increased risks to businesses that are…becoming digital, producing digital products and services, and moving their workloads to the cloud, the impact of a cybersecurity event today is greater than ever before and could include personal data loss, significant financial losses, compromise of safety, and even loss of life. Organizations can no longer protect themselves by simply securing their own infrastructures since their electronic perimeter is no longer meaningful; threat actors intentionally target the suppliers of more cyber-mature organizations to take advantage of the weakest link.23

The race towards the deployment of 5G communications infrastructure will further enable or hinder these emerging technologies and IoT-connected devices. While the increased bandwidth capacity will enable significantly faster transmissions of data, with far less lag than current 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) standards allow, the US must continue to take the position that the use of equipment from companies such as Huawei in are not compatible with National Security Interests. The US policy must continue to communicate that US and allied service providers should not allow equipment to be deployed as part of any vendor’s infrastructure. US policy focused on critical supply chains must be updated to include basic cybersecurity, redundancy, and resiliency guidelines. These guidelines should specifically address the risks highlighted herein regarding data standards where operations rely heavily on AI and ML, encryption and wireless security for IoT connected equipment and devices, and insider threats. DTJ

1 David L. Brock, “The Electronic Product Code (EPC) A Naming Scheme for Physical Objects,” MIT AUTO-ID CENTER, January 1, 2001, p5. 2 Bo Li and Yulong Li, “INTERNET OF THINGS DRIVES SUPPLY CHAIN INNOVATION: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK,” International Journal of Organizational Innovation, Vol 9 Num 3, January 2017, Section B, p71. 3 Apple, “Health on Apple Watch,” Healthcare, www.apple.com/healthcare/apple-watch/, accessed March 9, 2020.

http://blog.aes.com/blog-details/2017/An-instantlyscalable-clean-tech-as-powerful-as-any-before-it/ default.aspx, accessed March 9, 2020. 10 AES, “AES and Google Create Strategic Alliance to Accelerate the Future of Energy,” Investors, PressRelease-Details, November 6, 2019, www.aes.com/ investors/press-releases/press-release-details/2019/ AES-and-Google-Create-Strategic-Alliance-toAccelerate-the-Future-of-Energy/default.aspx, accessed March 9, 2020. 11 Ibid. 12 Dan Matthews, “Future IoT Trends in Supply Chain Management and Healthcare,” The IoT Magazine, https://theiotmagazine.com/future-iottrends-in-supply-chain-management-and-healthcared5ff658a93ab, accessed March 9, 2020. 13 Zebra, “Healthcare,” Mobile Computers, www. zebra.com/us/en/products/mobile-computers/ healthcare.html, accessed March 11, 2020. 14 Zebra, “Software,” Mobile Computers, www. zebra.com/us/en/products/software/mobilecomputers.html, accessed March 11, 2020. 15 UPS, “UPS Launches New Tech-Enabled Healthcare Solutions, Standardizes Quality Systems, Forms Healthcare Unit,” Pressroom, Atlanta, GA, October 21, 2019, https://pressroom.ups.com/pressroom/ ContentDetailsViewer.page?ConceptType=PressReleases &id=1571667364399-490, accessed March 12, 2020. 16 AT&T, “JACS Solutions Secured Tablet with AT&T Control Center,” AT&T Internet of Medical Things, www.business.att.com/content/dam/ attbusiness/briefs/iomt-jacs-solutions-secured-tabletbrief.pdf, accessed March 11, 2020, p2. 17 AT&T, “Internet of Medical Things,” Internet of Things, www.business.att.com/categories/internetof-medical-things.html, accessed March 10, 2020. 18 Investopedia, “Bitcoin’s Price History,” Cryptocurrency > Bitcoin, www.investopedia.com/ articles/forex/121815/bitcoins-price-history.asp, accessed March 12, 2020.

4 Bringsjord, Selmer and Govindarajulu, Naveen Sundar, “Artificial Intelligence”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2019 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford. edu/archives/win2019/entries/artificial-intelligence/>.

19 TradeLens, “Platform,” www.tradelens.com/ platform, accessed March 12, 2020.

5 Manzanillo International Terminal, About Us, www.mitpan.com/en/, accessed March 4, 2020.

21 UPS, “UPS Joins Top Alliance To Create Blockchain Standards For Logistics,” Pressroom, Atlanta, GA, November 7, 2017, https://pressroom. ups.com/pressroom/ContentDetailsViewer.page?Co nceptType=PressReleases&id=1510065871593-824, accessed March 12, 2020.

6 Dylan Jennings, and Dr. Miguel Figliozzi, “Can Autonomous Delivery Robots Reduce Last Mile Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions?”, Transportation Research Board 2020 Annual Meeting, Paper: 20-05617, p3. 7 Ibid, 5-6. 8 Matt Burgess, “Mercedes vans filled with swarming delivery bots could be heading to your hometown,” Wired, September 7, 2016, www.wired. co.uk/article/mercedes-starship-drones-delivery-van, accessed March 5, 2020. 9 AES, “An instantly scalable clean-tech, as powerful as any before it,” AES, Blog, December 7, 2017,

20 Ibid, and IBM Blockchain, “Technical Overview, September 2019,” IBM Blockchain Platform, p2.

22 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, “CYBERSECURITY MATURITY MODEL CERTIFICATION (CMMC) Version 1.0,” January 30, 2020, p 2. 23 Jon Boyens, Celia Paulsen, Nadya Bartol, Kris Winkler, James Gimbi, “Key Practices in Cyber Supply Chain Risk Management: Observations from Industry,” NISTIR 8276 (Draft), February 2020, https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/nistir/8276/ draft, accessed March 18, 2020.

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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

NDTA has a number of awards that recognize individual and corporate members, as well as chapters and military units that have excelled in fostering the goals and aims of the association. We congratulate this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s award winners and thank them for their contributions to the association, and to the greater logistics and transportation community.

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COL Rodney Mallette, USA (Ret.)

MG Stephen Farmen, USA (Ret.)

Chief Executive Officer International Auto Logistics, LLC

Former Commanding General Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command

ith more than six years at International Auto Logistics, LLC (IAL), COL Rod Mallette was a driving force in the success of the Federal Government’s Global Privately Owned Vehicle Contract. Under COL Mallette’s leadership, this contract provides comprehensive vehicle shipping and storage services for US service members, Department of State and Department of Defense personnel. He also oversees Vehicle Processing Centers (VPCs) across the globe, which transport over 70,000 vehicles annually. COL Mallette and the IAL team focus on providing a quality experience for each service member. Having served NDTA with dedication while in the Army and at other industry partner organizations, and having held numerous leadership positions in the association over four decades of service, the NDTA Board of Directors hereby present COL Rod Mallette the National Transportation Award.

s the Commanding General of the US Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC), MG Steve Farmen acted to reactivate and invigorate NDTA’s Ports Sub-Committee. His profound knowledge and understanding of America’s ability to project power using surface forces was instrumental in establishing the NDTA-Christopher Newport University Surface Force Projection Conference. This conference has become instrumental in developing a strong relationship between the US Government and industry. Throughout his 36-year career in the Army, MG Farmen continuously supported NDTA, culminating in his strong support during his leadership role as the Commanding General of SDDC. NDTA is proud to award the National Defense Leadership Award to MG Steve Farmen.




Mr. Michael Scott

Mr. Thomas Shull

Vice Director Defense Logistics Agency

Director & CEO The Army & Air Force Exchange Service


r. Tom Shull is awarded the NDTA DOD Distinguished Service Award for his exceptional service and commitment to the goals and objectives of NDTA. Mr. Shull has drawn upon his military background, as well as extensive private-sector retail experience to transform the Army & Air Force Exchange Service (Exchange) into a thriving benefit supporting military readiness, recruiting, retention, and resiliency. When the COVID-19 pandemic struck, the Exchange—under Mr. Shull’s leadership—remained steadfast in its commitment to provide mission-essential services to military communities around the world. Troops downrange and in dangerous areas around the world always received the Exchange support they needed under his direction. The distinctive accomplishments of Mr. Tom Shull reflect credit upon himself, the Exchange, and NDTA. 28

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r. Michael Scott has served in the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) since 1986, rising through the ranks from a technician to the Vice Director of one of DOD’s premier agencies—and the only agency focused on logistics. Having served in a variety of critical positions of importance in the DLA at the Senior Executive Service level since 2008, Mr. Scott is an expert in the agency’s expansive logistics enterprise. Through his leadership, Defense Industrial Base associations such as NDTA are valued partners enabling NDTA to provide DLA leadership insight into critical industry issues. Due to his strong positive relationship with the association, Mr. Michael Scott is hereby recognized by the NDTA Board of Directors with the NDTA DOD Distinguished Service Award.


M Mr. Kevin Tokarski

Associate Administrator US Maritime Administration

r. Kevin Tokarski was selected to serve in the Senior Executive Service in 2008. As Associate Administrator of Strategic Sealift at the US Department of Transportation’s Maritime Administration, Mr. Tokarski oversees government-owned capabilities in the Ready Reserve Force and National Defense Reserve Fleet, cargo and commercial sealift capabilities in the Maritime Security Program and cargo preference programs, Emergency Preparedness and Response, ship disposal, and maritime training and workforce development. He also supports civil emergency planning for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Operations Division as the Chairman of the Transport Group – Ocean Shipping. At all times, Mr. Tokarski has faithfully included NDTA in discussions involving every aspect of sealift, including the Jones Act. His support and leadership have ensured NDTA can credibly support sealift and port interests. He was instrumental in arranging NDTA’s participation in NATO’s standing committee on Ocean Shipping. His expert contributions have been critical to US national interests for a strong shipping industry and mariner workforce. For his dedication and strong support for NDTA, the Board of Directors is proud to present the Distinguished Government Service Award to Mr. Kevin Tokarski.


Ms. Patty Casidy

LTC Jeremy Gottshall, USA

Vice President of Finance NDTA


s. Patty Casidy is awarded the NDTA President’s Award for her many years of dedicated service to the association as the Vice President of Finance and Registrar. For over 14 years, her meticulous attention to detail and outstanding financial and accounting skills have ensured the organization remained strong and financially sound. Her love for children and desire to give back to the community led her to initiate an annual Toys for Tots program that has spanned eleven years and has donated thousands of toys to the USMC for distribution to children in the Northern Virginia Region. Always thinking about improvements, Patty initiated an NDTA conference registration modernization effort by introducing and implementing the EventRebels on-line registration, conference and trade show software system. In the role of Volunteer Coordinator, she organized and managed the many volunteers involved in supporting NDTA events. Patty’s many achievements are a credit to her determination to make a difference at the NDTA and we are thankful for her service.

Military Liaison NDTA Puget Sound Chapter


TC Jeremy Gottshall is awarded the NDTA President’s Award for his dedicated support as the Military Liaison to the NDTA Puget Sound Chapter. While commanding the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command’s (SDDC) 833d Transportation Battalion located at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, LTC Gottshall’s primary responsibility was cargo movements and port operations in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and Alaska. During this time, LTC Gottshall effectively collaborated with the local and regional stakeholders connected to the large transportation and logistics network throughout the PNW and Alaska. His positive leadership and management style were key to developing the vital relationships required to support the needs of the entire military and civilian mobility community. His service as military liaison to the Puget Sound Chapter has been exceptional, helping shape both the character and content of Chapter actions and interests. LTC Gottshall is a credit to NDTA, his unit, the US Army, and the entire Defense community.

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Mr. Robert Sherrill

Warfighter Support Representative & Alaska Command LNO, DLA, and NDTA North Pole Chapter & NW Regional President


r. Robert (Bob) Sherrill is deserving of the NDTA President’s Award for his dedicated service to the association and the greater logistics and transportation community. An NDTA Life Member, Mr. Sherrill’s efforts to develop and advance the goals and objectives of NDTA have been tremendous. He is a leader who knows how to get things done. This is evidenced by the fact that he started and restarted four NDTA Chapters, including Tampa Bay, North Pole, and Okinawa (twice). He understands the value of connections and relationships, and his work to connect government and industry to solve problems and make improvements has been simply outstanding. Perhaps most significant are Mr. Sherrill’s efforts to mentor and develop young professionals to become tomorrow’s leaders. NDTA is proud of Sherrill’s work and holds him up as an example of the kind of member we should all strive to be.

Mr. Kevin Ashley

Head, Transportation Financial Policy Section Headquarters US Marine Corps Installation and Logistics


r. Kevin Ashley is presented with the NDTA President’s Award for his dedicated volunteer support to NDTA. For over a decade, Mr. Ashley has served in various capacities within the association, including as the President of the Washington DC Chapter. If a volunteer is needed for the NDTAUSTRANSCOM Fall Meeting or the NDTA-DTMO GovTravels Symposium, Mr. Ashley’s name was always at the top of the list. He led the 2019 Fall Meeting’s Young Leader Professional Development Breakfast, ensuring it was a success. His work mentoring and encouraging young logistics and transportation professionals to get involved in NDTA is significant to the future of the organization and an inspiration to all members. Mr. Ashley’s outstanding support and service to NDTA is a credit to him and will make a significant impact to the future of the association.

Mr. John Joerger


r. John Joerger, a 23-year member, former NDTA DC Chapter President, and longtime volunteer, is presented with the NDTA President’s Award for his many years of support to the association. Over the course of many decades, Mr. Joerger has volunteered for the NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meeting, GovTravels Symposium, and many other events. His can-do attitude has been important to accomplishing the detailed coordination required to manage and ensure the success of NDTA’s events. As a volunteer, Mr. Joerger stepped-up and took on multiple tasks to empower the NDTA staff to provide conference attendees with food and beverage and first-class receptions. When NDTA commemorated its 75th Anniversary at the 2019 Fall Meeting at the Union Station Hotel in St. Louis, Mr. Joerger moved, protected, and placed the anniversary artwork, provided an escort to the USO Show Troupe, and made sure the celebration was a success. Mr. Joerger’s professionalism, hard work, and dedication well represent the ideals of the NDTA. 30

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Ms. Jane Clarke


s. Jane Clarke is presented with the NDTA President’s Award for her many years as a dedicated member and volunteer service to NDTA. As a member of the association’s St. Louis Chapter, she not only supported numerous NDTA-USTRANSCOM Fall Meetings with her time and talent, but also played a key role recruiting additional volunteers from the St. Louis Chapter to support the national-level meeting. Ms. Clark’s positive attitude, desire to make a difference, and willingness to support NDTA contributed to the success of the conferences and helped ensure a great experience for thousands of attendees. Volunteers like Ms. Clarke have been the backbone of NDTA’s success for over 75 years. She represents a long line of exceptional NDTA volunteers, and we recognize her service as key to the organization’s overall success.



Mr. Bryson Wingo

Ms. Renee Clark

Operations Analyst Supervisor The Army & Air Force Exchange Service


Freight Rate Specialist The Army & Air Force Exchange Service

r. Bryson Wingo, Operations Analyst Supervisor at the Army & Air Force Exchange Service (Exchange) is selected for the NDTA Young Executive of the Year award. Mr. Wingo has clearly demonstrated his ability to lead, develop, and direct teammates, execute plans, improve efficiencies, and drive overall costs down within the Exchange. He has built strong working relationships across his organization, NDTA, and the carrier network. This, paired with his analytical abilities, has changed how Exchange Logistics does business with the data collected both internally and externally and the tools Mr. Wingo has designed and built. Due to his exceptional efforts, the Exchange now has enhanced visibility to its network, which directly impacts the ability to make timely decisions and optimize costs while ensuring on-time product movement to distribution centers and stores. Mr. Wingoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s superb analytical and technical skills also led to his selection to lead a major project for designing and implementing enhanced reporting for daily COVID-19 updates to senior leaders at the Exchange, Headquarters Army, Headquarters Air Force, and Exchange Board of Directors. The distinctive accomplishments of Mr. Bryson Wingo reflect great credit upon himself, the Exchange, and NDTA.


s. Renee Clark is awarded the Individual Distinguished Service Award for her exceptional service and commitment to the goals and objectives of NDTA. She has been a member of NDTA for three years and served as the North Texas Chapter Secretary in 2019. Ms. Clark contributes immensely to maintaining the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) Chapter as a highly visible, professional logistics organization of choice. She has demonstrated motivation in seeking guest speakers, prepared and distributed communications to 300 members via Mailchimp, coordinated campaigns, and set up and executed luncheons and meetings. Her efforts ensured the DFW Chapter remains a highly visible and viable professional logistics organization of choice. Her professionalism and commitment to serve are truly noteworthy; she brings credit to NDTA and the Army & Air Force Exchange Service. NDTA Headquarters and the DFW Chapter are proud to have Ms. Clark as part of the NDTA team.


In conjunction with the senior logistics chiefs from each of the Services, the NDTA Instructor of the Year Awards honor instructors from the service transportation schools. Criteria for award selection are established by the military services and include such measures as the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technical knowledge, teaching skills, self-development, and general leadership abilities.


SSgt Matthew S. Caruso, USMC

Motor Transport Instructor Company Marine Corps Detachment, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri www.ndtahq.com |



Chima Anyanwu, Howard University Andrew Artaserse, California State University Maritime Academy Lonnie Byrnside, III, Missouri State University Kathryn Comeaux, Murray State University Esther A. Erby, University of Houston Marguerite Gelinas, University of Maryland, College Park Adam Hawtof, University of Maryland, College Park Addison Lash, Massachusetts Maritime Academy Lucca Martin, West Virginia University Brian McCauley, Old Dominion University Trevor Webb, SUNY Maritime College Benjamin Weisel, University of Virginia PROGRAM B

Connor Bradley, California State University Maritime Academy Jordyn Comeaux, Mississippi State University Skylar Diteman, Oregon State University Jacob Earick, Maryville University, St. Louis, Missouri Abigail Freeman, The University of Tennessee James Lipsett, San Francisco State University Mackenzie Myer, Colorado State University PROGRAM C

James Heninger, American Public University MSG Dairious Labron Robinson, Sr., USA (Ret.), American Public University NDTA ACADEMIC SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMS

NDTA offers three scholarship/tuition assistance programs to NDTA members and their financial dependents. • Program A: To support college students majoring in the fields of logistics, transportation, supply chain, physical distribution, and passenger travel services; to provide college scholarship opportunities for NDTA members and their dependents. • Program B: To provide college scholarship opportunities for NDTA members and their dependents; to encourage high school graduates to consider academic pursuit of degrees in the fields of logistics, transportation, supply chain, physical distribution, and passenger travel services. • Program C: To support distance learning college students majoring in the fields of logistics, transportation, supply chain, physical distribution, and passenger travel services; to provide distance learning college scholarship opportunities for NDTA members and their dependents. NDTA scholarship/tuition assistance funds can only be disbursed to an academic institution on behalf of the successful applicant. If the institution is not known at the time an application is submitted, the successful applicant must submit documentation showing that he/she has in fact been accepted by an institution as a full-time student before disbursements can be made. 32

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020


This award is presented annually to corporate members that have provided outstanding service in support of NDTA’s goals and programs at the local and national levels. AAR CORP. Accenture Federal Services Agility Defense & Government Services AIT Worldwide Logistics, Inc. American President Lines, LLC American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier (ARC) Amtrak Anacostia Rail Holdings ArcBest Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings BCD Travel Bennett BNSF Railway Boyle Transportation, Inc. Construction Helicopters, Inc. (d/b/a CHI Aviation) Crane Worldwide Logistics, LLC Crowley CWTSatoTravel Deloitte DHL Express Enterprise Rent-A-Car FedEx Freeman Holdings Group Global Logistics Providers Hapag-Lloyd USA, LLC International Auto Logistics KGL Landstar System, Inc. Liberty Global Logistics Maersk Line, Limited Matson mLINQS National Air Cargo, Inc. Norfolk Southern Corporation Omega World Travel Omni Air International Preferred Systems Solutions, Inc. Sabre SAP Concur Schuyler Line Navigation Company, LLC Southwest Airlines Co. Telesto Group LLC The Pasha Group The Port of Virginia The Suddath Companies TOTE Travelport Tri-State U.S. Bank Freight Payment United Airlines UPS US Ocean, LLC Waterman Logistics Western Global Airlines Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, Inc.


Since 1966, NDTA has honored units of the military services that have performed outstanding service in transportation or a related field. These units are selected for this recognition by each of the services.

Marine Corps




3d Transportation Support Battalion (3d TSB) has distinguished itself throughout the year for sustained superior performance across all functions of transportation operations. The battalion operated across the Indo-Pacific Area of Operations and provided direct and general support to the units of III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) in both garrison and deployed environments. 3d TSB successfully accomplished over 4,022 logistical support missions and drove over 90,097 road miles aboard Okinawa, resulting in the transportation of more than 32,776 short tons of cargo, delivery of more than 26,913 gallons of fuel, and movement of 21,328 personnel. Through the III MEF Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) on Kadena Air Base, 3d TSB conducted, received, and processed 40,114 personnel and 7,651 short tons of cargo over 661 missions. The battalion quickly deployed to Guam in support of COVID-19 response and relief efforts, enabling Combined Task Force 75 operations. The battalion conducted a Secretary of Defense-ordered selective offload of maritime prepositioning force (MPF) equipment, which directly impacted the US and DOD response to the USS Theodore Roosevelt in support of COVID-19. The battalion also supported III Marine Expeditionary Forces on Okinawa, providing unparalleled support in multiple areas of logistics and enabling operations throughout the Indo-Pacific Area of Operations. Through its efforts, 3d TSB ensured the forward-deployed forces of III MEF were able to maintain their momentum from deployment through redeployment and continue to operate throughout. 3d TSB’s dedication to III MEF has reflected great credit upon themselves and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.

The officers and crew of Navy Cargo Handling Battalion ONE (NCHB-1) performed their missions with exceptionally meritorious distinction throughout 2019. They supported eight real-world operations and exercises that operated within our Required Operational Capability/Projected Operational Environment spanning the globe. NCHB-1 currently sits on the edge of taking on new and expanded capabilities, especially in the ordnance and fuels realms. Responding to Combatant Commanders’ needs and requirements in both of these critical areas has rendered NCHB-1 the “go-to” battalion for expeditionary fuels and ordnance transportation missions. Tasked as a rapid-response, forward-deployable logistics support team that conducts expeditionary cargo handling, air terminal, fuels, ordnance handling, and open ocean and freight terminal operations in support of all six Geographic Combatant Commanders, NCHB-1 is the Navy’s 9-11 cargo handlers. The battalion’s capability to provide independent mission-tailored detachments or command-wide deployment as a self-sustaining unit to any region in the world has placed it in critical roles during numerous real-world contingency operations and training exercises. NCHB-1 has conducted cargo handling and expeditionary logistics support on all seven continents, deploying 5,139 personnel to provide an astounding 48,710 man-days in support of all training exercises and detachments. Of note was the battalion’s ability to support critical missions supporting various entities during this award period, including Trident Juncture, Joint Logistics Over The Shore (JLOTS), Resolute Sun, Joint Task Force Port Opening (JTFPO), and Operation Deep Freeze.

3d Transportation Support Battalion (3d TSB) Combat Logistics Regiment 3 (CLR-3), 3d Marine Logistics Group (3d MLG) Okinawa, Japan

Navy Cargo Handling Battalion ONE (NCHB-1) Navy Expeditionary Logistics Support Group Williamsburg, Virginia

Through their extraordinary professionalism, tireless dedication to duty, and unparalleled expeditionary logistics expertise, the officers and crew of NCHB-1 have distinguished themselves among all units performing worldwide combat service support roles and have done what no other active-duty Navy command can do. In doing so, they have genuinely reflected credit upon themselves and upheld the finest traditions of the United States Navy. Navy Cargo Handling Battalion ONE is a stand out command and most deserving of the NDTA Military Unit Award for Calendar Year 2019. US NAVY RESERVE COMPONENT

Navy Cargo Handling Battalion THIRTEEN (NCHB-13) Fourth Navy Expeditionary Logistics Regiment Gulfport, M

Navy Cargo Handling Battalion THIRTEEN (NCHB-13) delivers expeditionary operational logistics for the geographic Combatant Commanders, Naval Component Commanders, and Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, all of which directly support National Military Strategy. NCHB-13 is a commissioned Navy Reserve battalion with skilled Sailors charged with conducting warehousing, cargo transport, ordnance handling, tent camp operations, expeditionary fuel operations, surface cargo handling, port terminal operations, air cargo handling, and air terminal operations. As evident in a multitude of accomplishments in executing sixteen global logistics operations and exercises during 2019, NCHB-13 was extended in the Advanced Phase of operations to continue their superb execution and positioned themselves as the “go-to” Navy Cargo Handling Battalion in times of swift operational logistics support. The unit’s motivated members pride themselves on professional development and mission success. The support events ranged from being pier-side on the US East Coast to supporting forces in the Middle East deserts to combat logistics support in Africa. The nature of the Reserves requires Sailors to honor the demanding rigors of the Navy while maintaining the responsiwww.ndtahq.com |


bilities of their civilian careers. NCHB-13 Sailors certainly upheld their commitment to the nation in 2019. NCHB-13’s drive towards readiness excellence, coupled with its safe and seamless execution of operational logistics tasking, including its quick response to unplanned demands, demonstrates the battalion’s ability to excel under arduous circumstances and its worthiness to be selected for the NDTA Navy Reserve Military Unit of the Year.


51st Logistics Readiness Squadron 51st Mission Support Group Osan Air Base, Republic of Korea

The 51st Logistics Readiness Squadron is located at Osan Air Base, Republic of Korea, the most forward permanently based Fighter Wing in the Air Force. Comprised

of 537 military and civilian personnel, the squadron is single-handedly responsible for a diverse set of logistics roles that include: transportation and fleet management, supply, fuels, deployment and reception, and logistics planning. The squadron’s efforts support over 12,000 base personnel and defend the lives of over 51 million people. As Team Osan’s primary deployment operation lead, the squadron directed the largest U-2 deployment in 16 years and enabled the execution of the first-ever 5th Reconnaissance Squadron Operation Plan launch. Additionally, the squadron directed and organized multiple on and off peninsula training events that unified the movement of more than 15,000 sorties and 218 tons of cargo. These actions were critical to the support of United States Forces Korea Air Component Command’s only Integrated Rapid Airfield Damage Repair System, ensuring peace and stability within the Indo-Pacific Command Area of Responsibility. Leading the charge, the unit influences innovation and improvement through all aspects. The squadron developed a

round-the-clock base shuttle bus system and demonstrated a proof-of-concept Global Positioning System, which drastically reduced customer wait times. Furthermore, the squadron played a critical role in the large-scale peninsula-wide movements, including unwavering Presidential support and the repatriation of five Fallen Heroes. The 51st Logistics Readiness Squadron oversees a high operations tempo Personal Property Shipping office and boasts a highly rated cargo team for the largest Air Force Transportation Management office in US Forces Korea, supporting movements for more than 16,000 personnel and four bases, and processing 77,000 assets worth 816 million dollars. This integral support initiated back-to-back wins for the Pacific Air Force’s Defense Packaging Policy Group Achievement Award in addition to the significant NDTA Military Unit of the Year Award. DTJ

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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

Cont’d from Cybersecurity pg. 10 While unofficial customer dependencies turned out to be key for DIB-Co’s staying open, DIB-Co’s neighbor was not so lucky. That factory also manufactured industrial products that could be considered essential. However, this factory next door never received any requests or noti-

Any company or country puts itself at risk by falling behind in the ability to leverage Networked AI and Big Datadriven cybersecure trade exchanges. In turn, success for DIB-Co and the entire Defense Industrial Base depends on effective joint mobilization and innovation among customers, suppliers, Research and Development, educational institutions, trade/professional associations, and other partners.

fications that gave them the confidence to keep employees on the job. As a result, all of the employees at the neighboring factory were laid off based on that breakdown in official information sharing and collaboration. By the time anyone there recognized their essential status, employees were already on unemployment, so the process of calling them back was much more complicated. In contrast, DIB-Co not only kept its workers employed but volunteered alongside its local chamber of commerce and the surrounding community to help support frontline services. DIB-Co retooled their operations to support COVID-19 response to customer needs and evaluated whether the firm could retool and produce ventilator parts as an emergency contractor. DIB-Co was struck that the authorities making the emergency request did not offer sufficient specifications to enable DIBCo to determine whether the fit would be right based on the company’s current machining capacity. Ultimately, DIB-Co concluded that the tolerances needed for the ventilator parts required more reconfiguration of DIB-Co’s machining centers than would make sense...unless a case was

made that no one could meet the requirement except DIB-Co. DIB-Co’s CEO believes that the decision not to participate might have had a different outcome if DIB-Co received more coordinated and precise information combined with shared visibility of available resources. In short, collaboration in response to any incident requires secure exchanges distributed across the relevant supply chain partners. Today, China’s government and a small number of nationwide industry partners use top-down alignment to accomplish this coordination. The country’s Belt and Road strategy takes that approach to global supply chain coordination as well. This government-driven approach would not fit the US environment, but some more distributed capacity exchange would work. According to the DIB-Co’s President: “We’ve responded to COVID-19, but we can do even more in the future if we work smarter together. We shouldn’t wait, as a company or as a country, for the next emergency to talk about the essential products and services we can already predict the country will need. For example, why don’t all of us as local machining companies understand our capacities ahead of time for making essential products for predictable scenarios? That way we would be able to better leverage our capabilities here in the US during a crisis when it’s hard to be dependent on faraway suppliers.“ — DIB-Co President

driven cybersecure trade exchanges. In turn, success for DIB-Co and the entire Defense Industrial Base depends on effective joint mobilization and innovation among customers, suppliers, Research and Development, educational institutions, trade/professional associations, and other partners. The effectiveness and efficiency of that mobilization drives the outcomes that America needs: a stronger US Defense for immediate and emerging threats, an innovative Defense Industrial Base, and a resilient economy. To date, the US still lacks the fully engaged, nationwide movement to upskill the Defense Industrial Base for cybersecure collaboration and capacity exchanges. Major General Thomas Murphy, who leads the DOD Task Force that sparked the creation of Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC), calls this a whole-ofnation strategy as opposed to a whole-ofgovernment strategy. KEY TAKEAWAYS

1. Contested Environments: COVID-19 exposed basic holes in Defense Industrial Base cybersecure supply chain operations that will be instructive in all contested environments. 2. Private Sector-driven Mobilization. Successful cybersecurity improvement across America’s Defense Industrial Base requires a national movement for cybersecure commercial

“To paraphrase the US National Defense Strategy: Our military advantage will continue to erode without changes to industry culture and increased security across the Defense Industrial Base, and Research and Development enterprise. We need to secure our supply chains and better defend networks that aren’t classified, or even our own, but that we rely on every day. In the 21st century, Great Power Competition looks different. Instead of a whole of government strategy, this will need to be a whole of nation strategy.” — Major General Thomas Murphy, Director, Protecting Critical Technology Task Force, Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Pentagon

DOD has discussed this notion of a capacity exchange as a goal since the end of World War II, and it has been a best practice for the private sector since the late 1990s. Any company or country puts itself at risk by falling behind in the ability to leverage Networked AI and Big Data-

efficiency and effectiveness. DOD mandates can accelerate that mobilization but cannot lead it. 3. Capacity Exchange Preparedness. The coordination of cybersecure capacity exchanges are common sense but not yet common practice. DTJ www.ndtahq.com |



These corporations are a distinctive group of NDTA Members who, through their generous support of the Association, have dedicated themselves to supporting an expansion of NDTA programs to benefit our members and defense transportation preparedness.

AAR CORP. + PLUS Agility Defense & Government Services + PLUS AIT Worldwide Logistics, Inc. + PLUS American President Lines, LLC + PLUS American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier + PLUS Amtrak + PLUS Atlas Air Worldwide Holdings + PLUS Bennett + PLUS CGI + PLUS Chapman Freeborn Airchartering, Inc. + PLUS Construction Helicopters, Inc. (d/b/a CHI Aviation) + PLUS Crane Worldwide Logistics, LLC + PLUS Crowley + PLUS Deloitte + PLUS DHL Express + PLUS Enterprise Holdings + PLUS FedEx + PLUS Freeman Holdings Group + PLUS Goldratt Consulting North America LLC + PLUS Hapag-Lloyd USA, LLC + PLUS International Auto Logistics + PLUS Kalitta Air LLC + PLUS Landstar System, Inc. + PLUS Liberty Global Logistics-Liberty Maritime + PLUS Maersk Line, Limited + PLUS Matson + PLUS National Air Cargo, Inc. + PLUS Omni Air International, LLC + PLUS SAP Concur + PLUS Schuyler Line Navigation Company LLC + PLUS The Suddath Companies + PLUS TOTE + PLUS Tri-State + PLUS US Ocean, LLC + PLUS Waterman Logistics + PLUS Western Global Airlines + PLUS American Maritime Partnership Amerijet International, Inc. Ascent Global Logistics /USA Jet Airlines Berry Aviation, Inc. BNSF Railway Boeing Company Boyle Transportation, Inc. Bristol Associates Choice Hotels International 36

| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

CSX Transportation CWTSatoTravel Echo Global Logistics, Inc. Global Logistics Providers KGL McKinsey & Company mLINQS National Air Carrier Association

Norfolk Southern Corporation Sealift, Inc. Telesto Group LLC The Pasha Group The Port of Virginia Transportation Institute U.S. Bank Freight Payment Union Pacific Railroad UPS Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, Inc.





SUSTAINING MEMBERS AAT Carriers, Inc. ABODA by RESIDE Accenture Federal Services Admiral Merchants Motor Freight, Inc. Agape Travel and Tours Air Transport International, Inc. Al-Hamd International Container Terminal AMAC Logistics LLC American Maritime Officers American Moving & Storage Association American Trucking Associations Ameriflight, LLC Anacostia Rail Holdings ArcBest Army & Air Force Exchange Service Arven Services, LLC Associated Global Systems Atlas World Group International ATS Specialized, Inc. Avis Budget Group Baggett Transportation Company BCD Travel Beltway Transportation Service Benchmarking Partners, Inc. Blue Star Charter & Tours, Inc. Bolloré Logistics BWH Hotel Group C.L. Services, Inc. CIT Signature Transportation Club Quarters Hotels Coachman Luxury Transport Cornerstone Systems, Inc. Council for Logistics Research Dash Point Distributing, LLC Delta Air Lines Duluth Travel, Inc. (DTI) El Sol Travel Inc. Ernst & Young Estes Forwarding Worldwide, LLC REGIONAL PATRONS ACME Truck Line, Inc. Agile Defense, Inc. Amyx Apex Logistics International Inc C5T Corporation CakeBoxx Technologies LLC CarrierDrive LLC Cartwright International Cavalier Logistics Chassis King, Inc. Columbia Helicopters, Inc.

Europcar Car & Truck Rental Eurpac Evanhoe & Associates, Inc. Excl Hospitality – Suburban Suites/ MainStay Suites Eyre Bus Service, Inc. FlightSafety International GeoDecisions Green Valley Transportation Corp. Hertz Corporation Hilton Worldwide Intermodal Association of North America (IANA) International Association of Movers International Longshoremen’s Association (ILA), AFL-CIO Interstate Moving | Relocation | Logistics Keystone Shipping Co. KROWN1 FZC Kuehne + Nagel, Inc. LMI Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Association Marriott International Martin Logistics Incorporated MatchTruckers, Inc. Mayflower Transit McCollister’s Transportation Systems, Inc. Mercer Transportation Company National Charter Bus National Motor Freight Traffic Association, Inc. National Van Lines, Inc. Northern Air Cargo, LLC Northern Neck Transfer Inc. Oakwood Worldwide Omega World Travel Omnitracs, LLC One Network Enterprises, Inc. ORBCOMM PD Systems, Inc. Perfect Logistics, LLC Pilot Freight Services PODS Enterprises LLC

Dalko Resources, Inc. DGC International Enterprise Management Systems HLI Government Services JAS Forwarding John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences Kalitta Charters, LLC Lineage Logistics LMJ International Logistics, LLC Lynden, Inc. MacGregor USA, Inc. Move One Logistics

Port of Beaumont Ports America Portus Preferred Systems Solutions, Inc. Prestera Trucking, Inc. Professional Drivers PTS Worldwide Radiant Global Logistics Radisson Hotel Group Ramar Transportation, Inc. Ryzhka International LLC Sabre SAIC Savi SeaCube Containers Seafarers International Union of NA, AGLIW SecureSystem US, Inc. Shiplify, LLC Sixt rent a car LLC Southwest Airlines St. Louis Union Station Hotel a Curio Hotel Collection by Hilton StarForce National Corporation Stevens Global Logistics, Inc. TMM, Inc. Transport Investments, Inc. Travelport Trusted Internet, LLC TSA Transportation LLC TTX Company Tucker Company Worldwide, Inc. United Airlines United Van Lines, Inc. Universal Logistics Holdings, Inc. US Premier Locations Vetcom Logistics Wapack Labs Corporation Women In Trucking Association, Inc. YRC Worldwide

North Carolina State Ports Authority NovaVision Inc. Overdrive Logistics, Inc. Patriot Contract Services, LLC PITT OHIO Port Canaveral Port of Port Arthur Port of San Diego Priority Worldwide Seatac Marine Services TechGuard Security Trans Global Logistics Europe GmbH

UNIVERSITIES Critical Infrastructure Resilience Institute – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign McKendree University

www.ndtahq.com |


Cont’d from President’s Corner pg. 11 had 1520 registered attendees. A big shoutout to USTRANSCOM for their role in promoting the event, which has become critical for professional development and situational awareness in our community of interest. Other issues, such as Contested Logistics in a near-peer fight, were discussed. One of the lines of effort in the Joint Staff ’s Joint Warfighting Concept is to develop operational solutions to enable force projection and sustainment. NDTA will be working with several other Defense Industrial Base associations and the Joint Staff to provide the industry perspective regarding contested logistics. We also acknowledge that many of our transportation and logistics industry partners are working with pharmaceutical companies involved with Operation Warp Speed (OWS) to distribute the expected COVID-19 vaccine. USTRANSCOM is in a “be prepared” position to assist OWS as things develop. Due to the cold storage requirements for most of the vaccines, it will be challenging to deliver to deployed units, including deployed commercial mariners on US-flagged vessels. I encourage any NDTA company that wants

to support OWS; the best strategy is to contact the appropriate pharma distributors or support logistics companies already involved with pharma distributors. NDTA Headquarters has partnered with the Washington DC Chapter to reach out to ALL CHAPTERS to share in a monthly webinar covering important topics with key DOD and industry leaders. It has been hard during the pandemic for chapters around the world to come together. This is an opportunity to get that sense of community and be exposed to what is happening in the world of logistics. We want everyone to feel connected. Please be on the lookout for this monthly event, normally held the third Thursday of each month (over the lunch hour on the east coast). As we look to 2021, we are in full swing planning and preparing for a couple of other important events. The Defense Travel Management Office (DTMO) and NDTA will co-host the annual GovTravels Symposium virtually February 23-25, 2021. In addition, the Surface Force Projection Conference, hosted by NDTA’s Ports Subcommittee and Christopher Newport University, will be held towards the end of May. That is still

planned to be an in-person event—knock on wood! Also, thank you to so many companies and individuals who are contributing to our annual Marine Corps Toys For Tots toy drive this year. You are all great Americans! Lastly, I am reminded that the holiday season is fast approaching. Despite the challenges of 2020, we have much for which to be thankful. I hope everyone can stay in touch with friends and family, even while we remain vigilant. DTJ

DTJ INDEX OF ADVERTISERS American President Lines, Ltd...........................39 American Roll-on Roll-off Carrier (ARC)...............2 Atlas Air..............................................................3 Avis Budget Group............................................34 Bennett Motor Express, LLC..............................26 Crowley Logistics, Inc.........................................8 Deloitte.............................................................15 The Exchange – AAFES.......................................7 FedEx Government Services..............................40 Landstar Transportation Logistics, Inc.................4 Maersk Line, Limited..........................................6 The Pasha Group..............................................19 Port of San Diego..............................................11 RYZHKA............................................................38 Sea Cube Containers..........................................5 Transportation Institute.....................................17





Michael S. Dunbar President 619-417-5799 • mdunbar@ryzhka.com



| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

American President Lines: Mission RedeďŹ ned American President Lines (APL) now exclusively serves the U.S. Military, U.S. Government, and Guam sectors. From transporting essential supplies for our troops to household goods of Service Members and their families as a long-standing partner for the U.S. Military, APL has proven to have the resources and know-how to be the mission critical link in your supply chains. American President Lines offers weekly U.S. Flag services linking North America to Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa, the Middle East and Guam. To learn more about how we can support you, visit www.apl.com.

www.ndtahq.com |


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| Defense Transportation Journal | OCTOBER 2020

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Profile for Defense Transportation Journal

Defense Transportation Journal  

The Defense Transportation Journal (DTJ) is the official publication of the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-politi...

Defense Transportation Journal  

The Defense Transportation Journal (DTJ) is the official publication of the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), a non-politi...