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A Guide to the

Butterflies of Sewanee

Eileen Schaeffer and

Arden Jones

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Cover artwork by Eileen Schaeffer


A Guide to the

Butterflies of Sewanee Based on information recorded in the Sewanee Domain during annual Fourth of July Butterfly Counts Arden Jones Eileen Schaeffer with the invaluable assistance of Dr. David Haskell


Table of Contents Fourth of July Butterfly Count Lepidopteran Identification Resting Positions Phylogenic Tree Butterfly Gardening List of Common Adult Food Sources Family Papilionidae Family Pieridae Family Lycaenidae Family Nymphalidae Family Hesperiidae Acknowledgements Index Bibliography

1 2 3-4 5 6-7 8 9-15 16-24 25-44 45- 69 70- 103 104 105-106 107


What is the Fourth of July Butterfly Count? The North American Butterfly Association (NABA) sponsors an annual butterfly census across North America-including the United States, Canada, and parts of Mexico. These annual counts have been taking place since 1975. The counts are volunteer-based and rely on the dedication and help of butterfly enthusiasts of all kinds, both scholarly ecologists and compassionate amateurs alike. Anyone willing to participate in this once-a-year butterfly census is given a set of instructions by NABA in order to keep the counts consistent. Volunteers are asked to survey all the butterflies they see within a selected area with a 15-mile diameter. The counts take place in midsummer, around the 4th of July, and NABA is responsible for publishing the data gathered by the volunteers. These summertime surveys have been conducted in Sewanee, Tennessee since 1997, thanks to the leadership of David Coe and David Haskell. The counting crews are usually small, but some years up to a dozen eager lepidopterious explorers have participated. Some interesting findings over the years include the population crash after the anomalous freeze in 2007; the finding of a gynandromorph swallowtail (one half of the body was male-colored, the other half was femalecolored); and the documentation of several species that had not been officially recorded in the county. While the counts are a great way to spend a summer day and unexpected findings do occur, the main benefit of the count is to establish a long-term dataset that allows us to monitor population changes and to quantify year-to-year variation. Sewanee’s data is combined with hundreds of other counts across North America to paint a continent-wide picture of butterfly diversity.

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Lepidopteran Identification: Is It a Butterfly, a Moth, or a Skipper? Don’t go by intuition. Moths and butterflies are not as easily distinguishable as common knowledge would have one assume. Although moths and butterflies belong to separate taxonomic families, their similarities make differentiating between the two difficult. Butterflies belong to the superfamily Papilionoidea and moths to a diverse set of other families. Albeit these differences, both groups fall under the order Lepidoptera (translating to “scaly-winged” in Latin). To complicate matters further, there is a third branch of insects within the order Lepidoptera that is considered neither “true” butterfly nor moth. This third branch of scaly-winged insects belongs to the family Hersperiidae, and its members are commonly called “Skippers”. There are forty Skipper species within Sewanee’s geographic range. Their small size and nondescript markings make them difficult to distinguish in the field, but their unique behavior and subtle markings make them a delight to observe and identify. For the purposes of this book, we will include them along with “true” butterflies, although they do not always possess the same Papilionidae characteristics. Generally speaking, butterflies, moth, and skippers possess many similarities. The evolution of the Lepidopteran order occurred in tandem with the diversification of flowering plants during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era. This congruous evolutionary history explains why both moths and butterflies have such close ties to one another and the plant species they utilize. Moths, butterflies, and skippers all journey through the same four life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult, but their manner of metamorphosis differs slightly. Both pupate within the protecting walls of a chrysalis, but moths will typically spin a cocoon around their chrysalis for camouflage. Some of the more crafty species will even weave sticks and leaves into their cocoons. There are certain behavioral traits and anatomical features that can aid in the identification of butterflies and moths, but as with the identification of any species, exceptions to the rule seem to always persist. True butterflies members of Papilionidae - typically have clubbed ends on their antennae, and they rest by either holding their wings open, spread flat across their backs to display their dorsal markings, or folded vertically. On the other hand, skippers have hooked antennal clubs, large eyes, stout bodies, and strong wing muscles. Their wings are typically shorter than other Lepidoptera members. They also have a unique basking position, called the “jet plane”, in which they rest with their hind wings vertically positioned and their forewings held horizontally. “Moth” is the general term given to all members of Lepidoptera that are neither true butterflies nor skippers. This being so, calling something a “moth” is not taxonomically valid. Most have antennae that are not clubbed (although some do), but are either filamentous or feathery. In our particular region, these species tend to be nocturnal and rest with their wings folded horizontally on their backs, similar to a tent. Worldwide, there are about ten times as many “moth” species as butterflies.

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Various Wing Positions Identification can be tricky, but you can tell much about your lepidoptera of interest just by the way they hold their wings while testing or feeding

Skippers

Closed-wing

One way to tell if a moth-looking insect is actually a skipper is by the way it holds its wings. If it is in the “jet-plane” pose (shown below) it is almost certainly a skipper. This position is common when basking for warmth. However, some skippers prefer to bask or feed with closed wings (shown at right), and others prefer the “spread-wing” stance (below to the right).

Jet-plane

Spread-wing

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

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True Butterflies The basking, resting, and feeding positions of true butterflies vary as well. The two main wing poses are shown below.

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Open: Swallowtails, like this Eastern Tiger, commonly bask and/or nectar with open wings.

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Folded: This Great Spangled Fritillary is feeding with closed wings.


(Simplified) Lepidoptera Phylogeny Papilionidae Swallowtails

Pieridae Whites, Orangetips, Yellows, & Sulfurs

Rionidae Metalmarks

Lycaenidae

Papilionoidea

True Butterflies

Gossamer-winged (Hairstreaks, Coppers, Elfins, & Blues)

Nymphalidae Brushfooted Butterflies (Snouts, Fritillaries, Admirals, Monarchs, Emperors, True Brushfoots, & Satyrs)

Hesperiidae Skippers

Moths

Lepidoptera, the taxonomic order encompassing butterflies and moths, consists of 125 families. The “true butterflies� are categorized within the five superfamilies Papilionidae, Pieridae, Riodinidae Lycaenidae, and Nymphalidae. Skippers belong to the superfamily Hesperiidae. Moths belong to the superfamily Hedylidae and others. Source: Tree of Life Web Project. 2003. Lepidoptera. Moths and Butterflies. Version 01 January 2003 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Lepidoptera/8231/2003.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Butterfly Gardens Transforming your yard or garden into a butterfly sanctuary can be easily achieved. Like many other creatures, butterflies are attracted to peaceful spaces that promise food and shelter. Below are some simple tricks that will bring butterflies to your backdoor. Butterflies rely on different plants depending on their particular life stage. Caterpillars need the food and shelter provided by their larval host plant, while adult butterflies seek nutrition from nectar or other food sources, such as tree sap or manure. Researching which butterfly species utilize which plants for larval and adult food is helpful in planning your garden. Many species are generalists, meaning that they can obtain nectar from a variety of plants, while others are more specialized, only utilizing a select few plant species for sustenance and habitat. A good rule of thumb is that diversity in plant species will promote diversity in butterfly species. If a species’ larval host and favorite nectar plants are in your garden, you can expect to see the butterfly throughout all of its life stages.

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Black swallowtails, Papilio polyxenes, need plants in the parsley family (e.g. Petroselinum sp.) in their larval forms, but when they mature into adult butterflies they rely on nectar sources, like this Zinnia ( Zinnia sp.) for sustenance.

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When planting new species in your garden, be sure to encourage native species and to ward off invasive or foreign species that may choke out a butterfly’s favorite endemic plant. Not all foreign plants are harmful, and many non-indigenous plants that have been naturalized to the Domain, such as butterfly bush (Buddleia utahensis), are good nectar sources. Having an available water source for the plants and the butterflies themselves is a good idea too. It is not advisable to use any sort of pesticides in your garden, for they are often lethal to caterpillars. Butterfly gardening can also be low-maintenance. Rather than keeping your entire lawn mowed, partition off portions for wildflowers to grow freely. In addition, long grasses are popular skipper food. Some of our region’s most important butterfly nectar sources are those plants we commonly mis-label as weeds, such as Red Clover, Queen Anne’s Lace (although an invasive species in our region), and Field Thistle. Since not all species rely on flowering plants, it is also a good idea to avoid any impulse to rake, mow, or clear the lawn often. Fallen leaves and woody debris provide safe habitats for some species.

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Planting any common nectar source, like this row of butterfly bush (Buddleia utahensis), is a simple way to attract a variety of butterflies, like these Eastern Tiger and Black Swallowtails (Papilio sp.) to your yard. 7


Common Adult Food Sources While some species can only nectar from a select few sources, many are able to feed at a diverse variety of flowering plants Dogbane- Apocynum cannabinum Common milkweed- Asclepias syriaca Bougainvillea*- Bougainvillea sp. Butterfly weed*- Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly bush*- Buddleia utahensis Tickseed sunflower- Bidens aristosa New Jersey Tea- Ceoanthus americanus Tall Thistle- Cirsium altissimum Field Thistle- Cirsium discolor Queen Anne’s Lace*- Daucus carota Legumitous plants (beans, peas, etc.)*family Fabaceae Sunflowers*- Helianthus sp. Lantana*- Lantana sp. Privet*- Ligustrum sp. Japanese honeysuckle*- Lonicera

japonica

Alfalfa *- Medicago satifa Peppermint*- Mentha piperita Wild cherry- Prunus avium Wild plum- Prunus munsoniana Blackberry- Rubus villosus Black-eyed susans- Rudbeckia hirta Japanese meadowsweet- Spiraea

japonica* Goldenrods- Solidago sp. White Clover*- Trifolium repens Red Clover*- Trifolium pratens Dandelion*- Taraxacum officinale Blueberry- Vaccinium sp. Ironweed- Vernonia sp. Verbenas*- Verbena sp. Vetch*- Vicia sp. Violets*- Viola sp.

* Indicates naturalized species; these plants are not indigenous to the Domain but they have been naturalized and many are common in gardens and yards. All others are native species.

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family Papilionidae

swallowtails "It seems forever-Since first I saw thee glance, With all the dazzling other ones, In airy dalliance, Precipitate in love, Tossed, tangled, whirled and whirled above, Like a limp rose-wreath in a fairy dance.�

Robert Frost, My Butterfly

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Pipevine Swallowtail Battus philenor Caterpillar host plants: Pipevine plants such as the Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria) Adult food plants: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), and thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Single row of large red spots under hindwing; Scales are iridescent causing it to appear either bright blue or nearly black depending on how light reflects off the surface of its wings; flutters while nectaring

Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: David Haskell

Antarctica is the only continent with no native butterfly species Source: http://www.thebutterflysite.com/facts.shtml

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Zebra Swallowtail Eurytides marcellus

Photo credit: Megan McCarty

Caterpillar host plant: Paw-paw (Asmina triloba) Adult food plants: Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Lilac (Syringa sp.), Redbud (Cercis canadensis), Verbena sp., Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), and Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Identification: Black and white stripes running length-wise along wings and body; long tail streamers Abundance: Fairly common, usually only in spring and early summer. (The Zebra Swallowtail is more abundant in the coves than atop the plateau)

The practice of eating insects is called “entomophagy�.

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Black Swallowtail Papilio polyxenes

Caterpillar host plants: Parsley family plants (Apiaceae sp.) Nectar plants: Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), Butterfly bush (Buddleia sp.) Identification: males have yellow band across top surface of wings; females are brushed with blue on hindwing. Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: (top) DrMotoPhoto; (bottom) cledry Many species of butterflies have taste sensors in their feet that allow them to identify the plant they land on immediately. Source: http://www.thebutterflysite.com/facts.shtml

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Giant Swallowtail Papilio cresphontes Caterpillar host plants: Common hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata) Adult food plants: Azalea (Rhododendron sp.), Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea sp.), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Dame's rocket (Hesperis matronalis), Milkweed (Asclepias sp.) and manure Identification: two yellow V’s on top surface of wings; mostly yellow below Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: David Haskell, Christa Hayes

While Giant Swallowtails can lay their eggs on any citrus family plant, the Hop Tree is the only citrus species native to the Domain.

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Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Papilio glaucus

Photo credit: David Haskell

Photo credit: Gerald Smith

Caterpillar host plants: Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Wild cherry (Prunus avium), Adult food plants: Prefers sturdy plants with red or pink flowers; many members of the families Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae; puddles on manure and carrion Identification: Barred yellow and black across top surface; Females occur in a black form that is commonly confused with Black Swallowtail, except it has yellow spots of edges of hindwing. Abundance: Common

The term “puddling� refers to when certain insects aggregate on manure or around mud puddles in order to obtain extra nutrients and minerals. This behavior is especially common in male butterflies who need these nutrients for sperm production.

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Spicebush Swallowtail Papilio troilus

Photo credit: David Haskell

Caterpillar host plants: Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) predominantly; also Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Devil's walking stick (Aralia spinosa) Adult food plants: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Thistles (Cirsium altissimum sp.), Milkweed (Asclepias sp.), Azalea (Rhododendron sp.), Dogbane (a.k.a. Indian hemp, Apocynum cannabinum), Lantana (Lantana sp.)

Identification: Two rows of red spots under hindwing; on surface, row of blue/green spots along hind edge of wings; females have more blue-green markings, while males have more blue. Abundance: Common Butterflies and caterpillars breathe with the help of spiracles and trachea. Spiracles are the small openings that line the body and allow the oxygen to enter. The trachea are the bodies��€™ inner tubes that carry this oxygen deeper into the body. - http://butterflywebsite.com/faq.cfm#q25

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family Pieridae

whites, orangetips, yellows, and sulphurs “Eyes aloft, over dangerous places, The children follow the butterflies, And, in the sweat of their upturned faces, Slash with a net at the empty skies. So it goes they fall amid brambles, And sting their toes on the nettle-tops, Till, after a thousand scratches and scrambles, They wipe their brows and the hunting stops.�

Rudyard Kipling, Butterflies

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Checkered White Pontia protodice Caterpillar host plants: Cultivated and wild cabbages and mustards (Brassica sp.) Adult food plants: Mainly composites, Field coneflower (Ratibida pinnata), Verbena sp., and Alfalfa (Medicago satifa) Abundance: Fairly common, especially in open areas; commonly seen in developed places where cultivated host and nectar plants grow.

Photo credit: Jim McCulloch The Composites are members of the largest flowering plant family, Compositae (Asteraceae). They are characterized by having arrangements of many small flowers in patterns to resemble a single flower. Sunflowers are a prime example .

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West Virginia White Pieris virginiensis Caterpillar host plant: Bittercress (Cardamine sp.)

Adult food plants: Bittercress (Cardamine sp.), Spring beauty (Claytonia sp.), Violets (Viola sp.) Identification: Completely white with no yellow tint Abundance: Uncommon, preferring cove habitats and wooded areas.

Photo credit: David Haskell

West Virginia Whites only fly in the spring, which is why there are no recorded sightings in the 4th of the July counts; however, they are found in Sewanee earlier in the year

In Louisiana, it is thought to be good luck if a white butterfly flies into your house. Source: http://www.insects.org/ced4/symbol_list3.html

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Cabbage White Pieris rapae

Photo credit: Cody Hough

Photo credit: pondhawk

Photo credit: David Haskell

Caterpillar host plants: Cultivated and wild cabbages and mustards (Brassica sp.) Adult food plants: Many species, especially Mustards (Brassica sp.), Dandelion (Krigia sp.), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Mountain-wood and Southern Prairie asters (Eurybia divaricata and Eurybia surculosa), and Mint (Mentha rotundifolia)

Identification: Females have two black spots on each wing, while males only have one. Abundance: Common, especially in gardens and open areas.

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A group of people in Sumatra (the region northwest of Australia and between the Indian and Pacific Oceans) claims to have descended from butterfly eggs. The wives of tribe members are believed to be sent down from the heavens in the form of adult butterflies. Source: http://www.insects.org/ced4/symbol_list3.html


Falcate Orangetip Anthocharis midea Caterpillar host plant: Mustards (Brassica sp.) Adult food plants: Many species, especially mustards (Brassica sp.) and Violets (Viola sp.) Abundance: Fairly common; found in coves and during the spring

Photo credit: pondhawk

Photo credit: Megan McCarty The creation myth of the Pima Indians in North America says that Chiowotmahki, the creator, transformed into a butterfly and flew over the world in order to find the best spot for his tribe to settle. Source: http://www.insects.org/ced4/symbol_list3.html

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Clouded Sulphur Colias philodice Caterpillar host plants: Alfalfa (Medicago satifa), White sweet clover (Trifolium repens), and Pea family plants (Fabaceae) Adult food plants: This species is a generalist and will feed on many different plants. Identification: All yellow with no orange coloration; One or two white spots on lower wing and females can be albino and have white wings; can interbreed with the Orange Sulphur to produce a hybrid offspring, and this may make the butterfly difficult to identify. Photo credit: Laura Perlick / USFWS

Abundance: Common; the Clouded Sulphur is a habitat generalist and will live in a variety of open habitat types.

The fear of butterflies is called “Lepidopterophobia�

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Orange Sulphur Colias eurytheme Host plants: Alfalfa (Medicago satifa), White sweet clover (Trifolium repens) Adult food plants: A wide variety including Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and Asters (Eurybia sp.)

Photo credit: Daniel Schwen

Abundance: Common, especially in open fields

Photo credit: Benny Mazur

This butterfly is also known as the alfalfa butterfly, due to its preference of alfalfa as a host plant. It takes a variety of forms. The Orange Sulphur can look strikingly similar to the Clouded Sulphur, but as can be surmised by the name, it always has orange on the upperside of each wing.

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Cloudless Sulphur Phoebis sennae Caterpillar host plants: Maryland Senna (Senna marilandica) Nectar plants: Many flowers with long tubes, including Butterfly bush (Bougainvilla sp.), Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), Hibiscus sp., Lantana (Lantana sp.), and Common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) Abundance: Common, especially in Autumn months

Photo credit: David Haskell

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Little Yellow Eurema lisa This butterfly is very small and bright and is the most common of the yellows. Caterpillar host plants: Partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata) and Wild sensitive plant (Chamaecrista nictitans) Nectar plants: Legumes from genus Cassia .

Photo credit: Anne Toal

Abundance: Uncommon in the butterfly counts, because it is only seen in the fall

Sleepy Orange Eurema nicippe Caterpillar host plant: Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), Cassia family plants Nectar plants: Golden Dewdrop (Duranta repens), Tall Porterweed (Stachytarpheta mutabilis), Pentas (Pentas lanceolata) Abundance: Uncommon Photo credit: Megan McCarty

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family Lycaenidae

gossamer-wings: hairstreaks, elfins, blues, & coppers “You are a splendid butterfly It is your wings that make you beautiful And I could make you fly away But I could never make you stay You said you were in love with me, Both of us know that that's impossible And I could make you rue the day, But I could never make you stay� The Magnetic Fields, All My Little Words

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Harvester Feniseca tarquinius Caterpillar host food: Woolly aphids (Carnivorous larvae). Nectar plant: Aphid honeydew (a sugary waste secretion) Their short proboscis is better suited for feeding on aphid honeydew rather than sipping flower nectar like most other butterflies. Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

Photo credit: Benimoto

Harvesters are the only butterflies that are carnivores in North America! Harvester caterpillars will sometimes cover themselves in the aphid carcasses to protect themselves from carnivorous ants.

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American Copper Lycaena phlaea Caterpillar host plant: Garden buckwheat (Fallopia japonica), Climbing false buckwheat (Fallopia scandens) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, including Buttercup (Ranunculus), White clover (Trifolium repens), Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and Yarrow (Achillea leucanthemum vulgare) Identification: underside of wings have sharp coloration difference; forewings are copper with black spots and hindwings are gray with distinct orange rimming outer wing Abundance: Rare; prefers open grassy areas; seen in the field by Lake Cheston

photo credit (top right): Mullica; (bottom right):Yamada* "The butterflies still danced, preoccupied in the center of the clearing.� William Golding, Lord of the Flies

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Great Purple Hairstreak Atlides halesus Caterpillar host plant: Mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum) Adult nectar plants: Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Hercule’s club (Aralia spinosa), and Wild plum (Prunus munsoniana). Identification: Quite iridescent black hind and forewings that shine blue with light; upper abdomen blue, lower abdomen orange

Abundance: Rare, but has been sighted on Old Farm Road near the Baseball field.

Photo credit: Anne Toal

"They seemed to come suddenly upon happiness as if they had surprised a butterfly in the winter woods." Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome

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Coral Hairstreak Satyrium titus

Photo credit: Benimoto

Caterpillar host plant: members of Prunus sp., such as Black cherry (Prunus serotina ) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety; Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus) and Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Identification: recognized by its large, coral colored spots lining outer hindwing; also lacks blue spot on lower, outer hindwing that demarcates many regional Hairstreaks Abundance: Fairly uncommon

“Happiness is a butterfly, which when pursued, is always just beyond your grasp, but which, if you will sit down quietly, may alight upon you� Nathaniel Hawthorne

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Edward's Hairstreak Satyrium edwardsii

Photo credit: GregTheBusker

Caterpillar host plants: Oaks (Quercus sp.) Adult nectar plants: Wide variety; Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Japanese meadowsweet (Spiraea japonica), Milkweeds, (Asclepias sp.), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus), and White sweet clover (Melilotus alba)

Identification: blue patch on lower hindwing; both outer wings lined with dark gray spots outlined in white Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present. “I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free. Mankind will surely not deny to Harold Skimpole what it concedes to the butterflies." Charles Dickens, Bleak House

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Banded Hairstreak Satyrium calanus

Caterpillar host plant: Oaks (Quercus sp.), Hickories (Carya sp.) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, especially Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.) Identification: Blue spot on tail is not topped with orange like other Hairstreaks Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit:David Haskell

Hickory Hairstreak Satyrium caryaevorun Caterpillar host plant: Hickories (Carya sp.) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, especially Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Sumac (Rhus sp.), and Milkweed (Asclepias sp.) Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present.

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King’s Hairstreak Satyrium kingi

Photo credit: Fitz Clark

Caterpillar host plant: Sweetleaf (Symplocos tinctoria), species not found in Sewanee Adult nectar plants: American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), Sparkleberry (Vaccinium Arboreum) Abundance: Rare King’s Hairstreaks prefer swampy areas near forest and lake edges.

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Striped Hairstreak Satyrium liparops

photo credit: Gilles Gonthier

Caterpillar host plants: Wild cherry (Prunus avium) and Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, such as common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus), Sumac (Rhus sp.), Vibernum, and White sweet clover (Melilotus alba) Abundance: Uncommon “I do not know whether I was then a man dreaming I was a butterfly, or whether I am now a butterfly dreaming I am a man." Chuang Tzu

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Juniper Hairstreak Callophrys gryneus Caterpillar host plant: Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) Adult nectar plants: Many flowering plants, especially Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Queen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota), Butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa), white sweet clover (Melilotus alba) Identification: Wings are very iridescent and turn brilliant green in sunlight Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present.

Photo credit: pondhawk "Butterflies are self-propelled flowers. "

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R.H. Heinlein


White M Hairstreak Parrhasius m-album

Photo credit: (left) davidmcnicholas, (right) pondhawk

Caterpillar host plant: Oaks (Quercus sp.) Adult nectar plants: Many small flowering plants, such as Vervain (Verbena sp.) and Lantana (Lantana sp.) Identification: dull grey outer wings; bright blue inner wings rimmed with black Abundance: Uncommon “Butterflies... not quite birds, as they were not quite flowers, mysterious and fascinating as are all indeterminate creatures.� Elizabeth Goudge

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Gray Hairstreak Strymon melinus

Photo credit: (left and middle) Eileen Schaeffer; (right) Terrwilliger

Caterpillar host plants: Many herbaceous plants, such as Pea plants (Clitoria mariana), and Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus alba) Adult nectar plants: Many flowering plants, including Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Milkweeds (Asceplias sp.), Mint (Mentha rotundifolia), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Tick-trefoils (Desmodium sp.), and Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus alba) Abundance: Fairly uncommon

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Red-banded Hairstreak Calycopis cecrops

Photo credit: (left) Arden Jones; (right) David Haskell

Caterpillar host plant: Fallen leaves, especially from Sumacs (Rhus sp.) and Oaks (Quercus sp.) Adult nectar plants: Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Wild cherry (Prunus avium), Tickseed (Coreopsis sp.), Sunflowers (Helianthus sp.), Sumac (Rhus sp.), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus), Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), and Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Identification: Grey wings; thick orange band rimmed with thin black and white stripes on outer edges Abundance: Uncommon “What should that reckless zephyr fling But the wild touch of thy dye-dusty wing! � Robert Frost, My Butterfly

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Brown Elfin Callophrys augustinus Caterpillar host plants: Buckwheat (Fallopia japonica) and Dodder (Cuscuta gronovii) Adult nectar plants: Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), Spicebush (Lindera benzoin), Willow (Salix sp.), and Wild plum (Prunus munsoniana) Identification: No distinct markings; soft brown to copper wings Abundance: Rare in Sewanee; found near Piney Point in spring.

Photo credit: (top) Dennis Holmes; (bottom) Ray Bruun

Dodder is a parasitic plant. This unique, viney species lacks roots and leaves and is completely dependent on other plants for survival. In Sewanee you can find it wrapped around many different plant species.

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Frosted Elfin Callophrys iris Caterpillar host plants: Wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria) and Wild lupin (Lupinus perennis) Adult nectar plants: Any flowering plant (A great generalist species) Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present.

Photo credit: pondhawk

“The butterfly's attractiveness derives not only from colors and symmetry: deeper motives contribute to it. We would not think them so beautiful if they did not fly, or if they flew straight and briskly like bees, or if they stung, or above all if they did not enact the perturbing mystery of metamorphosis: the latter assumes in our eyes the value of a badly decoded message, a symbol, a sign.� Primo Levi

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Henry's Elfin Callophrys henrici

Photo credit: Megan McCarty

Caterpillar host plants: Redbud (Cercis canadensis), American holly (Ilex opaca), and Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Adult nectar plants: Redbud (Cercis canadensis), Willow (Salix sp.), Wild plum (Prunus munsoniana), American holly (Ilex opaca), and Hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) Identification: Light to dark brown coloration; distinct white hashes on either side of hindwing dark brown spot Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present. “The toad beneath the harrow knows Exactly where each tooth-point goes; The butterfly upon the road Preaches contentment to that toad.� Rudyard Kipling, Pagett, M.P.

40


Eastern Pine Elfin Callophrys niphon

Caterpillar host plant: Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Adult nectar plants: Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Privet (Ligustrum sinense), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and many others Identification: Distinct black banding on wings outlined with white; sandy brown wings Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present.

Eastern White Pines (Pinus strobus) are native to Tennessee, but they are not native on Sewanee's Domain

41


Eastern-tailed Blue Everes comyntas

Photo credit: (left) David Haskell; (right) seedmoney1

Caterpillar host plant: White sweet clover (Melilotus alba), Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, such as Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus alba), Wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Cinquefoils (Potentilla sp.), Asters (Symphyotrichum sp.) Identification: Outer hindwings rimmed with 1-3 orange spots in bottom corner; male inner wings are bright blue while females are dark brown to black Abundance: Very common “Defrauded I a Butterfly -The lawful Heir -- for Thee –” Emily Dickinson, Defrauded I a Butterfly

42


Spring Azure Celastrina ladon Caterpillar host plant: Dogwood (Cornus florida), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus), and Japanese meadowsweet (Spiraea japonica) Adult nectar plants: Many flowering plants, especially Privet (Ligustrum sp.), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Identification: Very pale grey with small dark spots; inner wings are grey to light blue Abundance: Very common

Photo credit(top): david dehetre; (bottom) orchidgalore

“A caterpillar who seeks to know himself would never become a butterfly." Andre Gide

43


Silvery Blue Glaucopsyche lygdamus

Photo credit: (left) davidhofmann08; (right) palmchat

Caterpillar host plant: Legumes, such as Vetch (Vicia sp.) Adult nectar plants: many flowering plants, particularly Asters (Eurybia sp.) Identification: small; upper wings iridescent blue; outer wings gray and submarginally rimmed with black spots outlined in white Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present. 44

The Danish word for butterfly, "sommerfugl" literally translates to "summer bird".


family Nymphalidae

brushfoots “Yellow butterflies Over the blossoming, virgin corn With pollen spotted faces Chase one another in brilliant throng�

-Hopi Native American song

45


American Snout Libytheana carinenta (includes bachmanii and motya) Caterpillar host plant: Hackberry (Celtis laevigata) Adult nectar plants: Asters (Eurybia sp.), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Dogwood (Cornus florida), and Goldenrod (Solidago sp.) Identification: called the “Snout” for its prominent, elongated palps, which are sensory mouthparts Abundance: Very common, especially on sandy edges of lakes and ponds.

Photo credit: (top) Bill Bouton; (bottom) lepsibu

“The caterpillar does all the work but the butterfly gets all the publicity.” George Carlin

46


Gulf Fritillary Agraulis vanillae Caterpillar host plant: Purple passion vines (Passiflora incarnata) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, especially composites such as Lantana (Lantana sp.) and Sunflowers (Helianthus sp.) Photo credit: David Haskell (top and bottom right), Christa Hayes (below)

Abundance: Very common, first appearing in late summer and remaining throughout the fall.

“What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly. � Richard Bach

47


Variegated Fritillary Euptoieta claudia Caterpillar host plant: Passion vine (Passiflora incarnata), Flax (Linum Striatum), Violets (Viola sp.)

Adult nectar plants: Many flowers, especially Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Tickseed sunflower (Bidens aristosa) Identification: Gold, tan, and brown hues outlined in black Abundance: Very common, especially near open, grassy fields. Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

48

Beautiful and graceful, varied and enchanting, small but approachable, butterflies lead you to the sunny side of life. And everyone deserves a little sunshine. Jeffrey Glassberg


Diana Fritillary Speyeria diana Caterpillar host plant: Violets (Viola sp.) Adult food sources: dung, Common milkweed (Asceplias syriaca), Ironweed (Vernonia sp.), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Butterfly bush (Buddleia sp.) Identification: Distinct sexual dimorphism between males and females; males have brown-black wings and body rimmed with gold; females have black wings and body with blue patterns on hindwings. Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: (top) pondhawk; (bottom) Bill Bouton

49


Great Spangled Fritillary Speyeria cybele

Photo credit: (left) Eileen Schaeffer; (right) Christa Hayes

Caterpillar host plant: Violets (Viola sp.) Adult nectar plants: Many species, especially Milkweeds (Asceplias sp.), Thistles (Cirsium sp.), Ironweed (Vernonia sp.), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), Verbena (Verbena sp.), Vetch (Vicia sp.), and Red clover (Trifolium pratense) Identification: Golden wings that gradually darken to brown with black markings on upper wings; bold white spots below on hindwings. Abundance: Very common

“This magnificent butterfly finds a little heap of dirt and sits still on it; but man will never on his heap of mud keep still..." Joseph Conrad

50


Meadow Fritillary Boloria bellona

Photo credit: Bill Bouton

Caterpillar host plants: Violets (Viola sp.) Adult nectar plants: Composites, such as Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale), Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), and Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), sometimes Verbena sp., Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Identification: Upperside dark orange and red with dark black markings Abundance: Not yet sighted in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they may be present

51


Silvery Checkerspot Chlosyne nycteis Caterpillar host plant: Sunflower (Helianthus sp.), Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), and Wingstem (Verbesina alterniflora) Adult nectar plants: Nectar from flowers of Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Identification: Very similar to Pearl Crescent but is a bit larger, has more defined dark brown outline on underside of wings, silver spots inside wings, and brown spots on hindwing Abundance: Rare

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

52


Pearl Crescent Phyciodes tharos

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plant: Asters (Eurybia sp.) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, particularly Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), and Asters (Eurybia sp.) Identification: Inside wings golden orange with black markings; outer wings light yellow and brown Abundance: Very common 53


Baltimore Checkerspot Euphydryas phaeton

Photo credit: D. Gordon E. Robertson

Caterpillar host plants: Before hibernation: Turtlehead (Chelone glabra), Hairy beardtongue (Penstemon sp.), Plantain (Plantago sp.), False foxglove (Agalinis sp.) After overwintering: these, plus Southern arrow-wood (Crataegus macrosperma), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and White ash (Fraxinus biltmoreana) Adult nectar plants: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Viburnums (Vibernum sp.) Abundance: Rare

54


Question Mark Polygonia interrogationis Caterpillar host plant: Elms (Ulmus sp.), Small-spike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Hackberry (Celtis laevigata) Adult food sources: Rotting fruit, tree sap, dung, carrion; if unavailable, will visit Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Photo credit: David Haskell

Abundance: Fairly common

Eastern Comma Polygonia comma Caterpillar host plant: Elms (Ulmus sp.) and Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) Adult food sources: rotten fruit and tree sap Identification: very similar to Question Mark, but lacks horizontal black patch on outer portion of forewing Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: pondhawk

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Mourning Cloak Nymphalis antiopa

Photo credit: (left) SD Dirk; (right) Dendroica Cerulea

Caterpillar host plants: Willows (Salix sp.) and Elms (Ulmus sp.) Adult food sources: Prefer tree sap (they face downward and walk down tree while eating sap), also feed on rotting fruit and occasional nectar Abundance: Fairly common

Mourning Cloaks overwinter as adults, so they are often the first butterfly seen flying each year in early spring

56


Painted Lady Vanessa cardui Caterpillar host plant: Thistle (Cirsium sp.) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, including Thistles (Cirsium sp.), Asters (Eurybia sp.), Ironweeds (Vernonia sp), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), and Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.) Identification: Similar marking as American Lady, but orange coloring on wings has a bit more pink; four smaller distinct eyespots on outer hindwing Abundance: Uncommon Photo credit: urolucas

American Lady Vanessa virginiensis Caterpillar host plant: Pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia), Silvery cudweed (Gamochaeta argyrinea), and Purple everlasting (Gamochaeta purpurea) Adult food sources: Thistles (Cirsium sp.), Asters (Eurybia sp.), Ironweeds (Vernonia sp), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Chinese privet (Ligustrum), and Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.) Identification: Similar to Painted Lady but only two large eyespots on outer hindwing and perfect white dot in orange stripe on inner forewing Abundance: Very common

Photo credit: Christa Hayes

57


Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta Caterpillar host plants: Small-spike false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Pennsylvania pellitory (Parietaria pensylvanica) Adult food sources: Sap, rotten fruit, and bird droppings; flowers visited less commonly, such as Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Asters (Eurybia sp.)

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Identification: Very distinct coloration on outer wings: deep brown with white and bright orange markings Abundance: Very common

Photo credit: Christa Hayes

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Common Buckeye Junonia coenia Caterpillar host plants: Plantains (Plantago sp.), Allegheny monkey-flower (Mimulus alatus and Mimulus ringens) Adult nectar plants: Mainly composites, such as Asters (Eurybia sp.), Chickory (Cichorium intybus), and Tickseed sunflower (Bidens aristosa); also Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Identification: Unmistakable in the field; large black eyespots rimmed in gold on outer forewings Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: Christa Hayes

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Red-Spotted Purple Limenitis arthemis Caterpillar host plant: Wild cherry (Prunus avium), Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Oak (Quercus sp.), Deerberry, (Vaccinium stamineum) Willow (Salix sp.), Basswood (Tilia americana) Adult food sources: Sap, rotting fruit, carrion, dung, and occasionally nectar from small white flowers: Spiraea, Privet (Ligustrum sp.), and

Viburnum Identification: irisdicent blue-green forewings with brown hues in outermost tips and a brown underside; 2 orange stripes rim base and 3 orange dots line hindwings. Abundance: Common

Photo credit: (top) Dendroica cerulea; (bottom) Larry Meade

New phenotypes are created between these two forms in areas where ranges overlap, making exact identification difficult .

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Viceroy Limenitis archippus Caterpillar host plant: Willows (Salix sp.) Adult food sources: Early in the season when few flowers are available, Viceroys feed on aphid honeydew, carrion, dung, and decaying fungi. Later generations feed on mainly composites such as Asters (Eurybia sp.) , Goldenrods (Solidago sp.), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Similar to a monarch but has an extra black stripe on hindwing and row of white dots. Abundance: Very common Photo credit: pondhawk

The cardiac glycosides contained in the milkweed that the monarch feeds on makes it poisonous to predators. The Viceroy butterfly mimics the Monarch in order to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous as well.

61


Goatweed Leafwing Anaea andria Caterpillar host plant: Prairie-tea (Croton monanthogynus), Spurges (Euphorbia sp.) Adult food sources: Rotten fruit, dung, sap, bird droppings Identification: Male wings are muted red in the summer and richer in the summer. Female wings are much lighter red with indefinite Abundance: Uncommon

Tawny Emperor Asterocampa clyton Caterpillar host plant: Hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

Adult nectar sources: Sap, dung, carrion, and rotting fruit; flowers seldom visited Abundance: Fairly common

62

Photo credit: pondhawk


Hackberry Emperor Asterocampa celtis

Caterpillar host plant: hackberry (Celtis laevigata) Adult food sources: sap, dung, carrion, and rotten fruit Identification: Rusty brown hindwings and body; 1 or 2 eye-spots in outer, bottom portion of forewing; underside of wings are grey to tan. Abundance: Very common

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

63


Southern Pearly-eye Enodia portlandia Caterpillar host plant: Switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea) Adult food sources: Sap, rotten fruit, dung, and carrion Identification: Resembles Northern Pearly-eye; biggest difference is the yellow antennae clubs as opposed to the black clubs on the Northern Pearlyeye; Distinct row of large black eyespots rimming outer wings Photo credit : Arden Jones

Abundance: Uncommon

Northern Pearly-eye Enodia anthedon Caterpillar host plants: Grasses, such as Bearded shorthusk (Brachyelytrum erectum), Plumegrass (Saccharum alopecuroides) Adult food sources: Dung, fungi, carrion, and sap from Willow (Salix sp.) and Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) Abundance: Fairly common

64

Photo credit : pondhawk


Creole Pearly-eye Enodia creola Caterpillar host plant: Switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea)

Adult food sources: Never nectars; prefers to feed on rotting fruit, sap, dung, and carrion Identification: Male forewings are pointed; Brown upperside and tan, grey underside of both wings; Five eye-spots line outer forewing in straight row Abundance: Uncommon

Appalachian Brown Satyrodes appalachia Caterpillar host plant: Sedges (Carex sp.) Adult food sources: Mainly tree sap and other non-flower resources Identification: Ashy brown wing coloration; similar to Carolina Satyr but eye-spots do not touch Abundance: Fairly common, especially in shaded areas and near the edges of lakes and ponds.

photo credit: David Haskell

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Gemmed Satyr Cyllopsis gemma

Photo credit: Arden Jones

Caterpillar host plants: Many grass species Adult food sources: Sap and rotting fruit Abundance: Fairly common, especially in forested areas. Identification: Commonly mistaken for the Carolina Satyr, this butterfly is a bit larger and has an iridescent black marking on its outer hindwing that resembles a "gem".

66


Carolina Satyr Hermeuptychia sosybius Caterpillar host plant: Many grass species Adult food sources: Sap and rotting fruit Identification: dull brown color with yellow ringed eyespots along outer edges of wings; erratic flight very low to ground

Photo credit: Arden Jones

Abundance: Fairly common, particularly in forested areas

Little Wood Satyr Megisto cymela Caterpillar host plant: Many grass species

Adult food sources: Flowers rarely visited; feeds on sap and aphid honeydew Identification: Two large eye-spots on outer edges of both hind and forewings Abundance: Fairly common Photo credit: Christa Hayes

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Monarch Danaus plexippus Caterpillar host plant: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and less commonly Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Adult food plants: Milkweeds (Asclepias sp.), but earlier in the season before milkweeds bloom, Monarchs visit many species, including Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Lilac (Syringia vulgaris), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Lantana (Lantana sp.), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.); in fall months, mostly composites including Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Ironweeds (Vernonia sp.), and Tickseed sunflower (Bidens aristosa)

Identification: Orange coloration with black body and veining, although males are brighter orange; white spots rim outer edges of both wings Abundance: Very common; more commonly seen in the spring and fall as opposed to the summer months in Sewanee.

Photo credit: David Haskell (left), Arden Jones (right)

69

A monarch at rest looks like a fleck of tiger, stilled and wide-eyed. A monarch at flight looks like an autumn leaf with a will, vitalized and cast upon the air from which it seems to suck some thin sugar of energy, some leaf-life or sap. - Annie Dillard, Pilgrim at Tinker Creek


family Hesperiidae

skippers “'Twould ease -- a Butterfly -Elate -- a Bee -Thou'rt neither -Neither -- thy capacity -But, Blossom, were I, I would rather be Thy moment Than a Bee's Eternity -Content of fading Is enough for me -Fade I unto Divinity -And Dying -- Lifetime -Ample as the Eye -Her least attention raise on me –” Emily Dickinson, ‘Twould ease– a

Butterfly--

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Golden-banded Skipper Autochton cellus

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Caterpillar host plant: Hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata) Adult food plants: Trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens), Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

The Gold-banded Skipper is most often found in flight during the late afternoon and likes wooded areas near streams.

71


Hoary Edge Achalarus lyciades

Photo credit: pondhawk

Photo credit: Roy Brown

Caterpillar host plants: Beggarticks (Bidens sp.), False indigo-bush (Amorpha fruticosa), Bushclover (Lespedeza sp.) Adult food plants: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus) Identification: Resembles the Gold-banded Skipper, but patch on forewing is more amorphous than the yellow band of the Gold-banded; underside of hindwing has a frosted patch of white, alluding to the butterfly’s common name. Abundance: Rare Only one recorded sighting in Sewanee in 2004 count.

72


Southern Cloudywing Thorybes bathyllus

Caterpillar host plants: Beggartick (Bidens sp.), Bush-clover (Lespedeza sp.), and other legumes Nectar plants: A wide variety, especially Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Crownvetch (Securigera varia), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Thistle (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Has a white patch in band of antennal club and a pale face; larger white spots on forewings than Northern Cloudywing and more aligned; easily confused with the Northern Cloudywing and the Confused Cloudywing and may be best identified from a photograph.

Photo credit: (both) pondhawk

Abundance: Uncommon; prefers very dry and open areas.

Northern Cloudywing Thorybes pylades Caterpillar host plants and nectar plants are similar to those of the Southern Cloudywing. Identification: The spots on the forewing are smaller and arranged in a triangle, instead of the more linear arrangement of the spots on the Southern Cloudywing. Dashed face and antennal clubs lack white spots. It is also easily confused with the aptly named Confused Cloudywing. Abundance: Uncommon; This species has the greatest range of

.all the Cloudywings and is found throughout the United States 73


Confused Cloudywing Thorybes confusis

Photo credit: Bill Bouton

This species is distinct in that the middle spot in the lower cluster of three spots resembles more of a thin white line rather than a spot. It also has dark markings on the hindwing of the underside that neither the Northern nor the Southern Cloudywing have. Caterpillar host plant: Priva lappulacea, not found in Sewanee Adult food plants: Nectar from many flowers (highly generalist species) Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present In their larval form, caterpillars exhibit several “instar� stages while in their larval form in which they shed the skin they have outgrown

74


Hayhurst's Scallopwing Staphylus hayhurstii

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar Host plants: Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album)

Adult food plants: Marigold (Calendula officinalis), Garden buckwheat (Fallopia japonica), Cucumber (Cucumbis sp), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), and White clover (Trifolium repens) Identification: Checkered fringe and black bands on upperside of wing; gold or silver flecking on background of wings. Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present.

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Dreamy Duskywing Erynnis icelus

Caterpillar host plants: Willow (Salix sp.), Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), occasionally River birch (Betula nigra) Nectar: Blueberry, Virginia strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus), Vetch (Vicia sp.)

Identification: Very similar to the Sleepy Duskywing, but more gray in hue. Both species lack the pale spots on the forewing that characterize other Duskywings in our region. The Dreamy has a gray patch at the “wrist’ of the forewing. It also has longer “palps” (the arm-like extensions jutting out from the mouth)

Photo credit (both): pondhawk

Abundance: Uncommon; found near forest edges between field and woodland.

Sleepy Duskywing Identification: Slightly larger and more brown than the Dreamy Duskywing.

Erynnis brizo

Caterpillar host plants: Shrubby oaks (Quercus

sp.) Nectar plants: Heaths (Ericaceae) including Azalea (Rhododendron sp.) and Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), Blackberry (Rubus sp.) and Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Abundance: Uncommon

76


Juvenal's Duskywing Erynnis juvenalis

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Caterpillar host plants: Oaks (Quercus sp.) Adult food plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis), Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), Carolina vetch (Vicia caroliniana), Redbud (Cercis canadensis), and cultivated Lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

Identification: very similar to Horace’s Duskywing; glassier spots on top outer portion of forewing, plus a light spot near the center of the forewing; two spots on underside of hindwing Abundance: Fairly common; Juvenal and Horace's Duskywings are commonly abundant some years, while in others they are sighted much less frequently.

77


Horace's Duskywing Erynnis horatius

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Oaks (Quercus sp.) Adult food plants: Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Sneezeweed (Helenium flexuosum), Goldenrod (Solidago sp.), Peppermint, (Mentha piperita), False boneset (Brickellia eupatorioides) Identification: Similar to Juvenal’s but browner and lacks the two spots on underside of forewing Abundance: Fairly common “The butterfly is a flying flower, The flower a tethered butterfly.” -Ponce Denis Écouchard Lebrun

78


Mottled Duskywing Erynnis martialis

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus) Adult food plants: Houstonia sp., Gromwell (Lithospermum canescens), Vervain (Verbena sp.) Identification: Smaller than other Duskywings; strong mottled pattern on front of wings; purple sheen when freshly emerged Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate they are present

“Till Sundown crept- a steady Tide- And Men that made Hay- And Afternoon- and Butterfly- Extinguished in the Sea-� Emily Dickinson, From Cocoon forth a Butterfly

79


Zarucco Duskywing Erynnis zarucco

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), Herbaceous legumes (Fabaceae) Adult food: Many flowering plants (generalist species)

Identification: Like Horace’s but has pale brown patch at “wrist” of forewing; smaller spots Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

80


Wild Indigo Duskywing Erynnis baptisiae

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Crown vetch (Securigera varia) Adult food plants: Blackberry (Rubus sp.), White sweet clover (Melilotus alba), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Sunflower (Helianthus sp.), and Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) Identification: Similar to Horace and Juvenal’s Duskywing, but smaller in size and with smaller white patches on forewing; base of forewings are very dark Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

81


Common Checkered-Skipper Pyrgus communis Caterpillar host plants: Mallows (Malvaceae) Adult food plants: Prefers white-flowered composites such as Fleabane (Erigeron sp.), Asters (Eurybia sp.); also Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Beggarticks (Bidens sp.), and many others Identification: Both fore and hindwings covered with white checkers Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit: David Haskell

“May the wings of the butterfly kiss the sun And find your shoulder to light on, To bring you luck, happiness and riches Today, tomorrow and beyond.� Irish Blessing

82


Common Sootywing Pholisora catullus

Photo credit: Alice & Seig

Caterpillar host plants: Lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), Spiny amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus), sometimes Mints (Mentha sp.) Adult food plants: Many, including Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Woodsorrel (Oxalis sp.), White clover (Trifolium repens), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), cultivated cucumbers and melons (Cucumis sp.) Identification: Small and very dark; one or two rows of contrasting white spots on forewing; small white spots on head Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

83


Swarthy Skipper Nastra lherminier Caterpillar host plant: Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) Adult food plants: Mainly low-growing flowers, including Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Ticktrefoil (Desmodium sp.), Purple vetch (Vicia sp.), New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus), and Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Photo credit: Dendroica Cerulea

Identification: Small, drab brown skipper; yellowy underneath with paler veins; may have a few forewing spots. Abundance: Very rare and has not been recorded in any fourth of July counts.

Photo credit: pondhawk

84


Clouded Skipper Lerema accius Caterpillar host plant: Many grasses

Adult food plants: Many pink, purple, or white flowers, including Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Vervain (Verbena sp.), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and Lantana (Lantana sp.)

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Identification: Below on hindwing, a dark smudge of a band spanning wing; often a purple tinge to hindwing; small white spots on forewing Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit: Arden Jones

85


Least Skipper Ancyloxypha numitor

Photo credit Christa Hayes

Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses Adult food plants: nectar from many low growing plants, such as Wood-sorrel (Oxalis sp.), and White clover (Trifolium repens) Identification: Very small; orange below wings and black and orange above Abundance: Uncommon; prefers wet, grassy areas

86


Fiery Skipper Hylephila phyleus Caterpillar host plants: Weedy grasses, such as Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.)

Adult food plants: Wide variety; Asters (Eurybia sp.), Purplehead sneezeweed (Helenium flexuosum), Ironweed (Vernonia sp.), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Small orange skipper with many small dashed dots on underside of hindwings. Abundance: Fairly common; Found in sunny, open areas such as fields, lawns, gardens, levees, roadsides, and second-growth scrub.

Photo credit: David Haskell

Photo credit: Arden Jones

87


Cobweb Skipper Hesperia metea

Photo credit: Jim Conrad

Caterpillar host plant: Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) Adult food plants: Low-growing plants, such as Wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Bird's-foot violet (Viola pedata), and Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Vervain (Verbena sp.)

Identification: White chevron on hindwing, sometimes also following veins in a “cobweb� like pattern Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they are present

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Peck's Skipper Polites peckius

Photo credit: (both) milesizz

Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses Adult food plants: Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Vetch (Vicia sp.), Thistles (Cirsium sp.), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Common milkweed, (Asclepias syriaca), Dogbane (Apocynum cannibinum), and New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus) Identification: Below, tan with yellow patches; one part of central patch juts out towards outer edge of wing; above, patchwork and brown and yellow Abundance: Fairly common

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Tawny-edged Skipper Polites themistocles

Photo credit pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Panic grasses (Panicum sp.) Adult food plants: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Bluets (Houstonia sp.), Purple coneflower (Ratibida pinata), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Small skipper; leading edge of forewing is tawny; underside of hindwing is dull brown Abundance: Uncommon

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Crossline Skipper Polites origenes

Photo credit: pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Purpletop (Tridens flavus); various grass species Adult food plants: Prefers white, pink, or purple flowers, such as Purple vetch (Vicia sp.), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Bluets (Houstonia sp.), and New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus) Identification: Similar to Tawny-edged but larger; hindwing is more yellow with a pale band of spots Abundance: Uncommon

“I saw a poet chase a butterfly in a meadow. He put his net on a bench where a boy sat reading a book. It's a

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misfortune that it is usually the other way round. � Karl Kraus


Northern Broken-dash Wallengrenia egeremet Caterpillar host plants: Panic grasses (Panicum sp.) Adult food plants: Prefers white, pink, or purple flowers, such as Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus) Identification: Pale band of spots under hindwing shaped like a “3”. Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit: Eileen Schaeffer

Southern Broken-dash Wallengrenia ortho Caterpillar host plants: Crowngrass (Paspalum sp.) and other weedy grasses Adult food plants: Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris) Identification: Similar to Northern Broken-dash but warmer, red-orange color; male has “broken” black line on forewing (“stigma”) next to orange line. Photo credit: pondhawk

Abundance: No sightings, but range maps indicate that they may be present

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Little Glassywing Pompeius verna

photo credit pondhawk

Caterpillar host plants: Purpletop (Tridens flavus), many grasses Adult food plants: Prefers white, pink, and purple flowers, such as Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Joe-pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum), and Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Identification: Squarish white spot in middle of forewing; white at base of antennal clubs Abundance: Uncommon; Prefers open areas near wooded rivers or swamps

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Sachem Atalopedes campestris Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses; Crabgrass (Digitaria sp.), Blue grass (Poa sp.), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Fescue (Festuca sp.), and Indian Goosegrass (Eleusine indica), among others Adult food plants: Many species; Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occedentalis), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Thistles (Cirsium sp.), and Asters (Eurybia sp.) Identification: Orange skipper with chevron on underside of hindwing. Abundance: Common

Photo credit: David Haskell

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Delaware Skipper Anatrytone logan

photo credit: Marvin Smith

Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses: Festuca, Digitaria, Eleusine, and Poa sp. Adult food plants: Prefers pink and white flowers; Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Bluets (Houstonia sp.), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: Plain orange under wing and along margin; black veining above Abundance: Uncommon

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"The butterfly counts not months but moments, and has time enough." -Rabindranath Tagore


Hobomok Skipper Poanes hobomok

Caterpillar host plants: Panic grasses (Panicum sp.) Adult food plants: Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule), and Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Identification: Large yellow patch on hindwing Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit: pondhawk

“But these are flowers that fly and all but sing: And now from having ridden out desire They lie closed over in the wind and cling Where wheels have freshly sliced the April mire.� -Robert Frost, Blue-Butterfly Day

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Zabulon Skipper Poanes zabulon Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses; Festuca, Digitaria, Eleusine, and Poa sp.

Adult food plants: Many species; Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Everlasting pea (Lathyrus latifolius), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Crownvetch (Securigera varia), Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), Joe-pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: In males, mostly yellow below with brown enclosing a yellow spot at hindwing base; In females, hindwing is purplish brown. Abundance: Fairly common

Photo credit: Dendroica cerulea

“The Butterfly's Numidian Gown With spots of Burnish roasted on Is proof against the Sun Yet prone to shut its spotted Fan And panting on a Clover lean As if it were undone –” -Emily Dickinson, The Butterfly’s Numidian Gown

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Dun Skipper Euphyes vestris

Caterpillar host plants: Many sedges (Carex sp.) Adult food plants: Prefers white, pink, or purple flowers; Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Crownvetch (Securigera varia), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), and New Jersey tea (Ceoanthus americanus) Identification: Plain brown hindwing underside; forewing also plain brown with a black stigma in males and small white spots in females Abundance: Uncommon

Photo credit: Christa Hayes

Dusted Skipper Atrytonopsis hianna

Caterpillar host plants: Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) Adult food plants: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), Phlox sp., Vervain (Verbena sp.), and Red clover (Trifolium pratense) Identification: Eyes are half-circled with white, like a bandit; underside of wings “dusted� with gray at margins. Abundance: Very rare and never recorded in any fourth of July counts.

Photo credit: pondhawk

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Pepper and Salt Skipper Amblyscirtes hegon

Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses Adult food plants: Many species, Viburnum sp., and Blackberry (Rubus sp.) Identification: Wing margins with alternating bands of dark and lighter dashes Abundance: Confirmed species in Sewanee, but very rare and has not been recorded in any fourth of July counts.

Photo credit: pondhawk

Lace-winged Roadside-skipper Caterpillar host plants: Cane (Arundinaria sp.)

Amblyscirtes aesculapius

Adult food plants: Nectar from flowers including Elephant's-foot (Elephantopus sp.), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), White clover (Trifolium repens), Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris), and Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Identification: Above wings “laced� with white cobweb patterns; margins of wings with alternating dashes of light and dark Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they are present

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Photo credit: Christa Hayes


Carolina Roadside-Skipper Amblyscirtes carolina Caterpillar host plants: Giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) Adult food plants: Cinquefoil (Potentilla sp.), Wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Blackberry (Rubus sp.), and Ironweed (Vernonia sp.) Abundance: no sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they are present

Common Roadside-Skipper Amblyscirtes vialis Caterpillar host plants: Many grasses

Adult food plant: Prefers low-growing blue flowers, such as Vervain (Verbena sp.) and Common selfheal (Prunella vulgaris) Identification: Similar to the Salt and Pepper in their uniform brown and black coloring, but Common Roadside has a hint of a violet hue instead of green. Their small size and similar characteristics make them very difficult to identify, and perhaps this leads the recorded abundance to be skewed as well. Abundance: Rare

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Bell's Roadside-Skipper Amblyscirtes belli Caterpillar host plant: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), among others Adult food plants: A very wide variety of nectaring plants Abundance: no sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they are present Photo credit: Charles T. and John R. Bryson, , Bugwood.org

Ocola Skipper Panoquina ocola

Caterpillar host plant: Legumitous plants (Fabaceae) Adult food plants: Lantana (Lantana sp.), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) Abundance: No sightings in Sewanee, but range maps indicate they are present Photo credit: Christa Hayes

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Silver-spotted Skipper Epargyreus clarus

Photo credit: David Haskell

Caterpillar host plants: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis), and various legume species Adult nectar plants: A variety of flowers; Common milkweed (Asceplias syriaca), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and Thistles (Cirsium sp.) Identification: A relatively thicker body than other skippers; brownish-black wing coloring with transparent “gold� spot on outer portion of forewing and a white band in the middle of the forewing. Abundance: Very common

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Long-tailed Skipper Urbanus proteus

Photo credit: David Haskell

Caterpillar host plant: Viney legumes, such as Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis), Ticktrefoils (Desmodium sp.), and American hog-peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata) Adult nectar plants: A wide variety, including Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea sp.) and Lantana (Lantana sp.)

Identification: Long “tails” extending from hindwings; brownish-black coloring on upperwings with iridescent bluish-green at wing bases. Abundance: Uncommon

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The Italian word for butterfly is 'farfalla’


We Thank You This project would not have amounted to anything without the invaluable guidance from Dr. David Haskell. Thank you for your advice, butterfly data, and the many lovely photographs. Thanks also to David Coe whose leadership of the 4th of July butterfly counts has produced an outstanding data set on the butterflies of our region. We cannot go without thanking Christa Frangiamore Hayes who gave us our original inspiration and led us to love the skippers and swallowtails on St. Catherines Island in Georgia. Also, many thanks to Pradip Malde, our source for all things technological. Your enthusiasm and support have been tremendously useful. We are greatly appreciative to everybody who contributed in the making of the Sewanee Herbarium, from which we accessed information on native and naturalized plants, especially Dr. Evans. Thank you to the folks at Print Services, especially Sondra Bridges, for your advice on printing. Susan Blettel from the University’s Office of Marketing and Publications also lent useful suggestions. For support with printing costs, we thank the Sewanee Environmental Institute. And lastly, from the far-reaching span of the internet, we have greatly benefitted from the generosity of butterfly photographers across the globe who have made images available to the appreciative public through the Creative Commons domain. Thank you all!

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Index A

Achalarus lyciades Agraulis vanillae Amblyscirtes aesculapius Amblyscirtes belli Amblyscirtes carolina Amblyscirtes hegon Amblyscirtes vialis American Copper American Lady American Snout

Anaea andria Anatrytone logan Ancyloxypha numitor Anthocharis midea Appalachian Brown

Asterocampa celtis Atalopedes campestris Atlides halesus Atrytonopsis hianna Autochton cellus B Baltimore Checkerspot Banded Hairstreak

Battus philenor Bell’s Roadside Skipper Black Swallowtail

Boloria bellona Brown Elfin C Cabbage White

Callophrys gryneus Callophrys augustinus Callophrys henrici Callophrys irus Callophrys niphon Calycopis cecrops Carolina Roadside Skipper Carolina Satyr

Celastrina ladon Cercyonis pegala

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Checkered White 72 47 99 101 100 99 100 27 57 46 62 95 86 20 65 63 94 28 98 71 54 31 10 101 12 51 38 19 34 38 40 39 41 37 100 67 43 68

Chlosyne nycteis Clouded Skipper Clouded Sulphur Cloudless Sulphur Cobweb Skipper

Colias eurytheme Colias philodice Common Buckeye Common Checkered-Skipper Common Roadside Skipper Common Sootywing Common Wood Nymph Confused Cloudywing Coral Hairstreak Creole Pearly-eye Crossline Skipper

Cyllopsis gemma

17 52 85 21 23 88 22 21 59 82 100 83 68 74 29 65 91 66

Erynnis zarucco Euphydryas phaeton Euphyes vestris Euptoieta claudia Eurema lisa Eurema nicippe Eurytides marcellus Everes comyntas

69 95 49 76 98 98

G Gemmed Satyr Giant Swallowtail

F Falcate Oragetip Family Hesperiidae Family Lycaenidae Family Nymphalidae Family Papilonidae Family Pieridae

Feniseca tarquinius Fiery Skipper Frosted Elfin

80 54 98 48 24 24 11 42 20 70 25 45 9 16 25 87 39

D

Danaus plexippus Delaware Skipper Diana Fritillary Dreamy Duskywing Dun Skipper Dusted Skipper E Eastern Comma Eastern Pine Elfin Eastern-tailed Blue Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Edward’s Hairstreak

Enodia anthedon Enodia creola Enodia portlandia Epargyreus clarus Erynnis baptisiae Erynnis brizo Erynnis horatius Erynnis icelus Erynnis juvenalis Erynnis martialis

55 41 42 14 30 64 65 64 102 82 76 78 76 77 79

Glaucopsyche lygdamus Goatweed Leafwing Golden-Banded Skipper Gray Hairstreak Great Purple Hairstreak Great Spangled Fritillary Gulf Fritillary H Hackberry Emporer Harvester Hayhurst’s Duskywing Henry’s Elfin

Hesperia metea Hobomok Skipper Horace’s Duskywing Hickory Hairstreak Hoary Edge

Hermeuptychia sosybius Hylephila phyleus

66 13 44 62 71 36 28 50 47 63 26 75 40 88 96 78 31 72 67 87


J Juniper Hairsreak

Junonia coenia Juvenal’s Duskywing K King’s Hairstreak

Parrhasius m-album

Little Glassywing Little Wood Satyr Little Yellow Long-tailed Skipper

Lycaena phlaeas M Meadow fritillary

Megisto cymela Monarch Mottled Duskywing Mourning Cloak

85 46 60 61 93 67 24 103 27 51 67 69 79 56

Nymphalis antiopa

84 92 73 64 56

O Ocola Skipper Orange Sulphur

101 22

Northern Broken-dash Northern Cloudywing Northern Pearly-eye

P Painted Lady

Panoquina ocola Papilio cresphontes Papilio glaucus Papilio polyxenes Papilio troilus

Q Question Mark

55

R Red Admiral Red-banded Hairstreak Red-Spotted Purple

Vanessa cardui Vanessa atalanta Vanessa virginiensis

58 37 60

Variegated Fritillary Viceroy

32

Pholisora catullus Phoebis sennae Phyciodes tharos Pieris rapae Pieris virginiensis

N

Nastra lherminier

Poanes hobomok Poanes zabulon Polites origenes Polites themistocles Polites peckius Polygonia interrogationis Polygonia comma Pompeius verna Pontia protodice Pyrgus communis

Pearl Crescent Peck’s Skipper Pepper and Salt Skipper

L

Lerema accius Libytheana carinenta Limenitis arthemis Limenitis archippus

35 53 89 99 83 23 53 19 18 10 96 97 91 90 89 55 55 93 17 82

34 59 77

57 101 13 14 12 15

Pipevine Swallowtail

Southern Broken-dash Southern Pearly-eye

Speyeria cybele Speyeria diana Spicebush Swallowtail Spring Azure

Staphylus hayhurstii Striped Hairstreak

Strymon melinus Swarthy Skipper T Tawny-Edge Skipper Tawny Emporer

Thorybes bathyllus Thorybes confusis Thorybes pylades

92 64 50 49 15 43 75 33 36 84 90 62 73 74 73

U

Urbanus proteus

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V 57 58 57 48 61

W S Sachem

Satyrodes appalachia Satryium calanus Satyrium caryaevorum Satyrium edwardsii Satyrium kingi Satyrium liparops Satyrium titus Sleepy Duskywing Sleepy Orange Silver-Spotted Skipper Silvery Blue Silvery Checkerspot Southern Cloudywing

94 65 31 31 30 32 33 29 76 24 102 44 52 73

Wallengrenia egeremet Wallengrenia otho West Virginia White White M Hairstreak Wild Indigo Duskywing

92 92 18 35 81

Z Zebra Swallowtail Zabulon Skipper Zarucco Duskywing

11 97 80

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Bibliography Information of butterfly host and nectar plants and species identifications obtained from the following sources: Brock, Jim P. and Kaufman, Kenn. Butterflies of North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003. “Butterflies and Moths of North America,” last modified 2012 Feb 5, http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ Butterfly quotes obtained from following online sources: “Quotations about Butterflies,” accessed Dec 2011, http://www.quotegarden.com/butterflies.html “From Cocoon Forth a Butterfly,” accessed Nov 2011, http://famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/emily_dickinson/poems/8639.html

“Moth and Butterfly Questions,” accessed Jan 2 2012, http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ “Butterfly and Moth Symbolism,” accessed Jan 2 2012, http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ Hall, Donald W. and Butler, Jerry F. online publication, University of Florida, April 2007. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ Pictures obtained from the following sources: Haskell, David Hayes, Christa Frangiamore Jones, Arden Schaeffer, Eileen Smith, Gerald Various photographers from Creative Common (CC)

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Creative Commons Photo Attributions accent on eclectic, Patrick Feller, http://www.flickr.com/photos/nakrnsm/ Alice&Seig, http://www.flickr.com/photos/askop/ anne.toal bazylek100-Robin Benimoto- Benny Mazur, http://benny.diaryland.com/ Bill Bouton clagnut-Richard Rutter. http://www.flickr.com/photos/clagnut/ cledry David Dehetre, http://www.flickr.com/photos/daviddehetre/ Davidhofmann08- David Hofmann, http://www.flickr.com/photos/23326361@N04/ Dendroica cerulea, John B., http://www.flickr.com/photos/dendroica/ davidmcnicholas- David McNicholas, http://www.flickr.com/photos/7876562@N05/ Dennis Holmes, http://www.flickr.com/photos/50234485@N02/ DrPhotoMoto- John Flannery, http://37photomoto.blogspot.com/ Gilles Gonthier, http://www.flickr.com/photos/gillesgonthier/621447065/ ginhollowhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/27830146N08/

GregTheBusker- Greg Schechter http://www.flickr.com/photos/gregthebusker/ Larry Meade lepsibu, website: Bubuleps Megan.McCarty, http://www.flickr.com/photos/meganmccarty/ milesizz- Dan Mullen Mullica- Robert Benner, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mullica/ Orchidgalore- http://www.flickr.com/photos/25609635@N03/ palm chat, Christian Nunes, http://www.flickr.com/photos/christian_nunes/3574505670/ Pondhawk-Eric Haley, http://www.flickr.com/photos/38686613@N08/ reophax-http://www.flickr.com/photos/41839209@N07/ Ray Bruun Roy Brown Photography- Roy Brown, http://www.flickr.com/photos/rbinv/ SD Dirkhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dirkhansen/ seedmoney1Terwilliger911- Jessie Terwilliger, http://terwilligerphoto.weebly.com/ UGA urolucas, Mark Lucas, http://www.flickr.com/photos/29187221@N05/ wolf9653

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Guide to Sewanee's Butterflies