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MORPHOLOGICAL Progressive restoration in Bayview waterfront shipyard By David Dana Bachelor In Architecture University Iberoamericana 2008

A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley Committee in charge: Professor Susan Ubbelohde Professor Tom Buresh Architect Marc L’italien Professor Peter Bosselman Spring 2011

 


Morpho’logical: Progressive restoration in Bayview waterfront shipyard. 2011 By David Dana


Abstract A year of thesis gives us the opportunity to navigate through a more personal research. It is a year full of ideas, aspirations, sometimes limitations and realities that we confront. In my case I am very passionate about the relationship of architecture with nature and the role of innovation and preservation in our worldwide history.

The aim of this thesis was to explore the parallel recovery and evolution of Buildings and Landscapes through time.

At the eastern shoreline of San Francisco rests a naval base with one of the most wonderful and provocative histories in the Bay Area. Today this site is currently abandoned and contaminated, also responsible for decades of environmental inequalities. Bayview Hunters Point was home of diverse programs and multiple tenants. In 1976 after the occupation of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, the FBI and the Environmental Protection Agency revealed information concerning the illegal disposal of toxic waste1. This event not only affected its ecosystem but its integration to the city.

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Progressive Restoration seeks to maximize the potential of postindustrial sites through decades of sequential architectural interventions. This study asks how preserved architectural elements in the former Bayview Hunters Point Naval base could stay alive and yet be adapted to evolve over time; Also the mediation and re-evaluation with constructed landscapes and its implications to the practice of architectural design. “The term recovery implies that something once lost, devaluated, forgotten, or misplaced had been found again.” -James Corner in Recovering Landscapes.

After the 2030 Challenge2 I believe that architecture is currently confronting a period of re-configuration and is more aware of the future challenges. It represents an open door for new ideas, technologies and possibilities.

Morpho’Logical consists in a ‘continuous and periodical adaptive reuse strategy’ of a military base into a Media Park.

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Acknowledgments Although I am the creator of this work of architecture, it wouldn’t have been possible without the active help, motivation, and constant support of many people. Thank you for your time and your interest.

Thanks to Susan Ubbelohde for your continuous inspiration, your patience and for your invariant professional orientation. Thanks to Tom Buresh for always encouraging me to move forward and for your offering of very smart and well appreciated thoughts and comments during this process. Thanks to Marc L'Italien for the vivid conversations, and for your changeless coherent feedback. Thanks to Peter Bosselman for supporting me and for being part of the committee. Deep appreciation to Harrison Fraker and Jill Stoner for sharing your time, knowledge, and ideas for the project.

And Finally I want to conclude saying that, I would never have made it this far without the ongoing support of my Family, my dog Chipolito and my beloved future wife Ronit Stein.

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Table of Contents 1: Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 V-V11 1-8 2: Urban Ecosystems Natural Ecosystems; an introduction……………………………………………………………………………7 9-14 3: The role of innovation and preservation in Architecture…………………..……………………………………………………….7 15-41 4: Precedents and Case Studies Classification…………………………………………………………………………………………..7 42-53 5: Bayview Hunters Point…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 54-60 6: The Media Park (Proposal)…………………………………………...………………………………………………………………….7 61-67 7: Progressive Restoration (Vision and Objectives of the project)…………………………………………………………………..7 68 8: Architectural Interventions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7 69-73 8.1: Phase One (Cleanup and Activation) 2011…………………………………………………………………………………….7 74-81 8.2: Phase Two (Space Occupation) 2021 ………………………………………………………………………………………….7 82-89 8.3: Phase Three (Cavities Occupation/Urban Infill) 2031 ……………………………………………………………………...7 90-99 8.4: Phase Four (Vertical Expansion) 2041………………………………………………………………………………………….7 100-102 9: Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7 103-107 10: Endnotes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7 108, 109 11: Bibliography & Sources…..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 12: Selected Images…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7

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Preface Coming from a city like Mexico City makes me think how incredible it is to visit the preserved “Teotihuacan Pyramids”, and the innovative “Soumaya tower” during the same day. It amazes me to have the opportunity to witness, ‘history’ -The Aztec Ruins in New Mexico, and ‘innovation’ -Zaha Hadid Parametricism at the same time in the same country.

I realized that in this particular exploration I don’t pretend to impose or assume how things should be, nor want to enforce architectural conclusions, on the other side I take this journey as an opportunity for improving my knowledge and for architectural experimentation. I leave this research as an open dialogue for future criticism hoping to open possibilities and opportunities for inspiration in the field of architectural design.

This thesis questions how we think about nature and architecture; it asks if the world needs a new mediating system between preservation and redevelopment. The project itself it is suggestive of an attitude and a process for designing and restoring historical and postindustrial sites, through flexibility, dynamism, and adaptability. The design strategy explores the topic of adaptive reuse3 and its implications by time; each phase addresses parallel restorations that mediate the progress and continual relationship of architecture and landscape design.

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Keywords Morphological: The study of structure and form. Progressive: continuous, dynamic, flexible & gradual. Restoration: heal, cure, improve, rebuild, and strengthen.

1. Aerial view of Hunter’s Point.

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“A landscape is a space deliberately created to speed up or slow down the process of nature. As Eliade expresses it, it represents man taking upon himself the role of time.” -J.B. Jackson in Recovering Landscapes.

“Revitalizing post industrial cities” delivers solutions to complex issues concerning urban planning, design, and financing, to reveal lessons on ways to successfully convert decaying land and buildings into vibrant parks, stimulating cultural destinations, and active commercial complexes.” -Carol Berens in Redeveloping Industrial sites.

“The task of the architect is not to reduce design to ideology. The task is to keep alive the liberating spirit of design without the illusion of autonomy.” -Dovey Kim in Liberty and Complicity in framing places

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Urban Ecosystems Natural Ecosystems; an introduction. ‘The perceptual world of an ant, in other words, is limited to the street level. There are no birds eyes views of the colony, no way to perceive the overall system—and indeed no cognitive apparatus that would make sense of such a view “Seeing the whole” is both a perceptual and conceptual impossibility for the ant species.’ ‘It's only by observing the entire system at work, that the global behavior becomes apparent.’

- Steven Johnson in Emergence: the connected lives of ants, brains, cities, and software

By understanding the worldwide expansion of urban settlements, it is important to think of the impact created by densification and to question the role of nature in the city; also to realize the duty that ‘Ecological Parks’ play in the coming century.

2. Map of Grasslands. (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

3. Map of Croplands (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

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Urban Ecosystems The world is experiencing the largest expansion of the human footprint in history (most of the urban growth is concentrated in Africa and Asia.). Today more than half of the world’s population will be living in cities and towns; In the coming decades population growth would be almost 5 billion.4

The phenomena of urban fabrics is currently experiencing a massive change. During the past year I took the time to research the gradient of existing ‘Urban Ecosystems’; from the traditional colonial city (San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico), to the active modern city (Berlin, Germany) and finally the extensive mega city (Shanghai, China). Each of these operates in a different rhythm of time, and is experiencing different urban challenges and transformations. In the first case, San Cristobal de las Casas had steadily increased its demographics in the past years, due to migration from rural areas. Currently is estimated to have about 200,000 inhabitants, which represents a remarkable growth since 2005 where the city’s population was 142,364 people5. The municipality’s area is 484.00 km² (186.87 sq mi)6, and is experiencing urban problems by the expansion of slums. (Often the people that migrate from rural areas struggle with economical problems that forced them to settle in poor neighborhoods). Favelas7 in most of the cases contribute to insanitation, pollution, and crime.

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4. Map of World Population. (Measuring Poverty- Economic Inequalities)

5. Map of World Poverty. (Measuring Poverty- Economic Inequalities)

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On the second case, the city of ‘Berlin’ experienced its maximum population growth until 1940 with a population of 4,500,000 inhabitants. And then decreased to 3000,0008 after the Second World War. The years that followed Berlin experienced cycles of relative decrease and increase which impacted with a low and superficial expansion to its demographics. The city currently has a population of 3,440,441 in an area of 891.82 square kilometers9. That means that it hasn’t reached its maximum growth. Although this city is recognized for national and international migrations, this metropolis has been capable of offering equal education and opportunity to its inhabitants. In the past years Berlin accomplished 1.7% of growth rate on its economy.

And finally, ‘Shanghai’ which is known to be one of the most prosperous and dense cities in the world. The population of Shanghai had reached 23,019,148 inhabitants; that represent a growth of 37.53% since the registered census of population in the year 200010. This extensive city is home of the busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million in the year 2010. The three larger services of industry are hold in the real estate, retail and financial services, and recent studies proven that Shanghai is successfully evolving in poverty reduction11.

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While dense cities have triggered a lot of interest in the public attention, colonial cities and towns are expected to experience an even more challenging transformation. Sadly some of them lack of the resources to confront the scale of the change.

‘Modern Cities’ like Berlin are more prepared for the coming challenges, and with successful functionality and organization either in the government, and the rest of the population; This type of cities offer: culture, social diversity, better education, healthcare, jobs and income.

The density of urban life can relieve pressure on natural habitats and areas of biodiversity. The challenge for the next few decades is learning how to exploit the possibilities urbanization offers.12

The lack of opportunities in the countryside is moving people off the land. Migration is one of the most important aspects that is impacting urbanization, and often people who leave rural areas in search of economical opportunities, end up living in ‘favelas’. ‘Urban Infill’ becomes a great strategy to fulfill the maximum potential of the human footprint, reduces the necessity for urban sprawl by identifying existing cavities. Such spaces are vast and always surrounding us; gaps between buildings, blocks and houses. I believe that there are great opportunities to build in central San Francisco via infill


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restoration. Smart densifications of cities not only potentialize the urban fabric, but also respects ‘Natural Ecosystems’ and the evolution of biodiversity.

While ‘Global’ cities would maintain its evolution and would prevail as centers of: trade, banking, finance, innovation, and markets. Constructed landscapes would become our primary and most accessible interaction with nature in the fabric of cities.

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Natural Ecosystems

Agricultural land is currently exploited with a cipher of an 80%; within that number 15% of the exploited lands were lost during the twentieth century based on wrong agriculture.

The most common causes to crop failure are based on:

tsunamis, tornadoes, floods, insect pest, plant disease, soil erosion, earthquakes, war, drought and civil unrest. On the other hand there is currently 160,000,000 ha of total area for new agricultural lands, (that represents a 20% of unexploited lands).

The earth’s natural resources are finite, which means that if we use them continuously, we will eventually exhaust them.


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Natural Ecosystems had been greatly affected by the expansion of our civilization and by the effects of climate change.13 Abnormalities like the accelerated rise of sea level as consequences of Global Warming had forced us, not only to reconfigure our practice but also to re-educate our society; In response to that this era is re-envisioning new models of urban construction. During the past decade, theorists and architects have been working together to find a balanced solution; in the case of James Corner and Charles Waldheim, they have not only shifted the conception in which architecture and nature collaborate, but also proposed to reinvent our practices into ‘Landscape Urbanism.’ LANDSCAPE URBANISM is an approach to urban design in which the elements which form cities (water, landform, vegetation, vertical structures and horizontal structures) are composed (visually, functionally and technically) with regard to human use and the landscape context14. By Landscape Urbanism they envision the total dissolution of the two terms into one word, one phenomenon and one practice. Although, the evolution of the practice has raised a lot of criticism and a contradictory understanding, I agree that buildings and landscapes must be considered together, planned together, and designed together in order to achieve a healthier and better quality of urban life.

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In response to that and due to the site conditions and opportunities, I appraise the ecological park as a social, economical and cultural ctalyzer15 for the area of Bayview Hunters Point. In this thesis I examine particularly the topic of ‘densification by an infill approach’ and I suggest a strategy that integrates private investment with green areas and open space: a “Media Park’.

“City should be structured toward meeting: The need for creative activity, for the ouvre, the need for information, symbolism & the imaginary play.” -Philosopher Henri Lefebver in The right to the city. Social Justice and the right of Public space.

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6. Gradient of Ecosystems in the city of San Francisco. (The Nature in the City).


The Role of Innovation and Preservation in Architecture.

Preservation ‘Architects – we who change the world – have been oblivious or hostile to the manifestations of preservation. Since 1981, in Portoghesi’s Presence of the Past, there has been almost no attention paid to preservation in successive architecture Biennales.’ - Rem Koolhaas & ‘OMA’ ‘The economic issue confronting preservationists in the 1980’s is not historic preservation, reconstruction, rehabilitation or adaptive use, but rather continuing use. Our society needs to continue to use the good buildings that have been built for the purposes for they were built.’ -Preservation: Toward an Ethic in the 1980’s—National trust for historic preservation.

Innovation ‘Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore.’ -Andre Gide 1947 Nobel Prize for literature, 1869-1951

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The architectural field has changed more in the last 30 years than in the previous 3,000 – thanks to the rapid acceleration of globalization and the convulsions of the market economy16. Temporality has become one of the most important topics in the field of architecture, landscape and urban design. Architects produce spaces to accommodate human activities, and their decisions impact the every day lifestyle of the rest of the population. Today, the field is confronting crucial challenges, and the selected urban approach will direct the evolution of cities for the next century. Even though society generally has had a difficult time learning from the experiences of the past, I consider myself an optimistic, and I am inspired to work for a better future by studying the past. During this chapter I question if the world needs a new system of mediation between ‘Historical Preservation’ and ‘Redevelopment’.

Thanks to the existence of the Heritage Preservation movement, many valuable historical landmarks still exist and had been protected as far as today. This extraordinary movement had been responsible for the recognition of our cultural heritage, and the craftsmanship from our previous generations. It is important to distinguish that in a global society like today, it’s easy to justify the need for new redevelopment and therefore, the destruction of historical buildings. The media without a preservationist perspective can easily communicate needs for new constructions, by arguing that old is bad; old parts of cities are unsafe; buy new to benefit from advances in technology; parking spaces are the greatest needs for the city; only wealthy people live in restored neighborhoods; preservation is expensive; old buildings are difficult

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to heat or cool; do not use space well; are expensive to maintain17. In the book of Preservation towards an ethic Alan C. Green argues that ‘the future of the preservationist movement may depend on to whom and with whom they communicate and how well they do it’. He believes that by expressing the right vision and engaging the educational community, the values would be clear and therefore would sustain the solidification of the preservationist’s movement; also that the message for the educational sector is that ‘preservation, rehabilitation, renewal and reuse are all important tools that can improve the quality of neighborhoods and cities’.

By the Mid 1970’s, predictions of accelerated growth of new construction in downtown San Francisco were widespread. San Francisco planning and urban renewal association (SPUR), the chamber of commerce, and San Francisco tomorrow were only a few organizations, which made these predictions. Many landmark-quality buildings had been lost in recent years and the traditional character of the downtown area was, although still largely intact, was on the verge of irreversible change. Clearly, if these predictions for continued growth were accurate, many more fine buildings would be lost and the character of the area would continue to be eroded. -Michael R Corbett in Splendid survivors ‘San Francisco’s Downtown Architectural Heritage.

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The Population in the Bay Area is expected to increase by thirty percent in the next 30 years to nearly 9 million people. It is further assumed that growth will happen in a concentrated way, in and around existing urban centers instead of in a diffuse way in exurban regions18. Therefore the functionality of cities would become more complex and issues like traffic would increase. As a result new infrastructure would be needed to optimize the flow and connectivity of our cities. Time cannot be stopped in its track; the growth and dynamism of urban fabrics had created a dilemma that question the current approach to heritage conservation; The dilemma asks if we should reuse, restore, manipulate and even erase some of the protected buildings.

A huge section of our world (about 12%) is now off-limits, submitted to regimes we don’t know, have not thought through, cannot influence. At its moment of surreptitious apotheosis, preservation does not quite know what to do with its new empire19.

Although the increase of density in modern metropolis generates possible growth in disease, pollution and crime, they symbolize a natural response to the existing needs and conditions of our society, and represent a laboratory of culture, diversity and change.

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Innovation is expected to come, today the ‘2030 challenge’ calls architects for all over the world for their contribution in altering our urban ecosystems into 100% carbon neutral. The challenge itself recognizes that something is wrong and needs to be reevaluated. As we know Buildings are the major source of global demand for energy and materials that produce by-product greenhouse gases20. The after effects of this wake up call have captured our imagination in order to solve this problem. Today the evolutions of new technologies like energy simulation programs are contributing for the creation of high performance buildings that respond to the necessities of our environment. This segment of our profession is rapidly increasing and examples like the ‘Chartwell Scholl21’ (a project designed by Ehdd) have proven to be successful.

Are we reaching a stage were functionality is becoming the main point and is forcing preservation to become a secondary concern? Is it possible to think of cycles of re-evaluation that consider ‘not what to keep but what to restore or abandon’? In my personal opinion I think that some of the buildings that are currently protected, need to be revaluated and smartly readapted to change, because they have not only the potential to be active but to be mutated, manipulated and positively restored for the benefits of our society. I also think that by carefully inserting the right program, ‘Heritage Preservation Reuse’ would maximize the potential of historical buildings.

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Lina Bo Bardi suggested one of the main problems of the west lies in its definition of linear time. Architecture to her, did not define time, it existed in it. She believed the meaning of architecture could not be solely defined by its material and visual qualities; it was deeply related to the social processes that made it possible. In the end of her life, she stated it didn’t matter whether architecture was modern or not. What truly mattered was that architecture should be useful to its inhabitants.

-Dirt van den Heuvel in ‘The Challenge of Change’

In conclusion, ‘The role of innovation and preservation’ represents a very challenging and sensible concern. We most not forget our past and I would proudly encourage preservation in architecture to keep not only maintaining but also reinforcing its values. On the other hand, in a period were densification is increasing and sustainable design is a major consideration for our well being, I would always support the evolution of functionality even if protected buildings need to be sacrificed.

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Precedents and Case Studies Classification. During this process I researched strategies to reuse historical sites. Perkins and Will Architects offer a useful framework for classifying types of reuse:

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Heritage Preservation Reuse Through preservation we acknowledge that the layers of history provide interest and vitality to the built environment. Historic buildings have enduring architectural and cultural qualities that cannot be replicated today. By preserving important buildings, we recognize and protect the craftsmanship of previous generations, while creatively and sensitively providing for contemporary life safety, accessibility and other systems that allow the building to function for contemporary uses.

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Adaptive Reuse Adaptive reuse repurposes older buildings for new uses. This transformative process begins by understanding the existing character of the building and how those “bones” might accommodate new programs. Then architects finds ways to make alterations and additions that are sympathetic to the building original concept.

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- Post-Industrial Waterfronts Restoration Urban edges where the city meets the water have often been closed to the public, relegated to industrial uses, and condemned over time to become areas of urban decay, pollution and dereliction. As cities evolve and industry relocates, post-industrial urban waterfronts can become communal meeting places, centers for arts and entertainment, focal points for celebration and inspiration. As designers and planners, we most delight in the unique potentials waterfronts and buildings offer, and bring to them creativity, contemporary design and civic identity.

- Military Base Reuse New applications for existing infrastructure, remediation of tainted lands, and a concerted effort to work with the existing environment(both built and natural) are the cornerstones of urban approach to these fascinating projects. Architects build on the efficiency of many military bases' original infrastructure (streets, utility corridors, landscape) and seek to expand upon and refocus existing patterns. These frequently large and polluted sites can be regenerated and repurposed for sustainable new mixed-use communities, waterfront parks and other types of human habitation.

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These strategies, well-identified and articulated by Perkins and Will, were useful in guiding me to discover specific case studies that offered approaches and methods for this project. The case studies vary in location, use and scale, some are more related to the topic of landscape restoration and others to architectural restoration, and each suggests possible ways of thinking about the future of this site. Researching the ‘previous’ approaches to historical and postindustrial alterations, gave me an opportunity to evaluate which approach I wanted to consider as the main approach to my design implementation. After considering the challenges and opportunities of Bayview Hunters Point, I clearly identified that the ‘Adaptive Reuse’ strategy was the most appropriate the site. The following chapter classifies and evaluates the case studies. ADAPTIVE REUSE POSTINDUSTRIAL WATERFRONT HERITAGE PRESERVATION RESTORATION REUSE

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Heritage Preservation Reuse. - Landscape Urbanism: Xochimilco Ecological Park Location: Mexico City; Original Date: 10th Century; Original Program: Tenochtitlan, Agricultural settlement of the Aztec’s; Re-use Date: 2008, Reuse Program: Ecological Park; The designer: Enrique Norten; The client: Government of Mexico.

Overview Located in the natural preserve of Xochimilco, in the southern part of Mexico City, the master plan addresses a unique set of social, urban, and architectural challenges. The existence of the lakes, the chinampa farms and the canals provides a very fertile ground for re-thinking the natural habitat and reconnecting it back to the city. Serious air and water pollution problems give urgency to the need for new forms of sustainability. Taking on these paradoxical variables, the project seeks to create equilibrium and innovative sets of sustainable patterns22.

This project not only deals with heritage preservation but also with culture, traditions and festivities that needed to be integrated to its context. It aims to restore the landscape degradation and to augment the biodiversity of the area.

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Cleaning the contaminated San Buenaventura River23 is the critical first tasks. The architect envisions a water treatment plant that would be located in Cerro de la Estrella24 for environmental remediation and habitat growth. Furthermore he incorporated the construction of a biogas plant to the programmatic design for excellence in energy efficiency. And finally, the envisioning of new routes of public transportation ‘The expansion of the urban fabric has been remarkably extensive in Mexico City, the site became trapped in a very unfavorable condition, and in response to that the new model for Xochimilco optimizes the accesses to the area. 
 Xochimilco became an UNESCO world heritage in 1987. For most of the citizens of Mexico City, the site holds what characterizes our history. It is a place known for its vivid social interaction, for the remarkable flower markets, and the traditional Chinampas25. I am very passionate about this urban intervention because it touches and manipulates land that was constructed by the Aztecs. As Mario Schjetnan the chief designer of the previous restoration26 in Xochimilco philosophizes ‘the mystery and fascination of Xochimilco is that is at once ‘a place created by man at the 10th century, and a living archeology for us today of a perfect manmade ecological system that has become deeply embedded in our collective consciousness27.’

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The area is experiencing a major migration from rural areas and that becomes and important factor for the creation of jobs and opportunities which is necessary when 40% of the population in the area lives below poverty28. Vision and Objectives of the project: •

Not only secure and conserve the rehabilitation of the existing heritage, but the creation of new.

Activate beneficial cycles of sustainability for the area.

Be part of an integral strategy that would connect the community and the territory.

Generate spaces of cultural and environmental education

Reorganize and optimize the attractions and access to the site

Improve the conditions in which operate the scientifically institutions of the area

Clean the water and make it drinkable.


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General Information

Client: Government of the Federal District.

Location: Southern Mexico City.

Consultants: Lead Designer, Enrique Norten from Ten Architects. Sustainability consultant, Arup Engineers. Landscape Architect, Hargreaves Associates.

The existing program includes an Olympic Rowing Track; a Flower Market; a local park; Cuemanco sports club; research facilities and parking. The proposed additions to the program consist of The Research and Education Facility of Water [CIEAX], water treatment lagoons, additional parking and public transportation facilities, regulatory water basins and a botanical garden29. 
 The Xochimilco Ecological Park informed my project in many different ways, but particularly in the understanding of how should we connect these large portions of segregated land, to its surroundings. Also helped me to recognize and preserve architectural historical elements in the area.

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7. Xochimilco Ecological Park. Courtesy of TEN Architects.

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Heritage Preservation Reuse.

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Architecture: The Ferry Building & The James Flood Building. *Ferry Building- Location: San Francisco; Original Date: 1939; Original Program: Ferry Building; Re-use Date: 2003, Reuse Program: Mixed use property, with a farmers market, restaurants and shops; The designer: Simon Martin-Vegue Winkelstein Moris (Architects), Baldauf Catton Von Eckartsberg Architects (Retail Architects), and Page & Turnbull (Preservation Architects); Public Private collaboration. *James Flood Building- Location: San Francisco; Original Date: 1904; Original Program: Dental and Medical Offices; Reuse Date: 1990, Reuse Program: Retail shops; Tenants: Gap, Woolwort, Urban Outfitters and Anthropologie.

Overview 
 Buildings are not static, usually after 30 years of occupation the materials need maintenance improvement and changes. As we know landmark buildings have overlapping conversations and multiple dilemmas of how should be treated; the two and most common approaches consist in ‘preservation’ or ‘conservation’.

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In the first case, ‘preservation’ argues that historical buildings should not have human influence in order to be completely protected; that means that they wont experience maintenance or changes through the retention of a structure’s original fabric, unchanged and unrestored.30 The second case, ‘conservation’ argues that historical buildings should be protected through maintenance, changes and occupation, even if it transforms the original program. This strategy considers the replacement of defective elements; moving buildings to new sites; introducing adaptive uses; protecting street patterns and urban spaces, even though the buildings forming the spaces may have changed; and conserving its character31;

The James Flood Buildings and the Ferry Buildings are two great examples of historical landmarks that would help me to defend why this type of buildings should be occupied, and restored through conservation. The two case studies are projects that have undergone informative evolutions. While the envelope and the structure have been carefully protected, the program has been active and changeable, and the spatial configuration flexible and dynamic. This architectural approach not only potentializes the building, but also thought us how can we benefit from recycling and reusing historical buildings.

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On the one side, the James Flood Building was designed in a Beaux Arts-style that was intended to mirror the great commercial buildings of the eastern cities. Constructed between 1901 and 1904, the Building is a 12-story plus basement, steel framed building; the structure is wedge-shaped in plan with an attached cylindrical tower at its leading corner. Through the course of its time this building experienced multiple renovations that would transform the interior and conserve the exterior. It is important to add, that nowadays the conservation approach often implies the reconstruction or replication of architectural ornaments, and this process is accomplished by innovative new technologies. The four monumental arches that had been destroyed in 1952 were replicated in polymer concrete. To ensure the accuracy of these important building elements, the new arches were cast in molds taken from one of the two remaining arches at the building. The design team completely rebuilt the storefront facade using fabrication technologies that were sympathetic to the original historic fabric of the existing facade. Between the arches, a metal and glass curtain wall was installed as a retail storefront. Additionally, the flat canopy designed for the leading corner of the building is a reinterpretation of the one installed on the building by Owl Drugstore in the 1920’s. The restoration of the sandstone facade was treated as a separate project. Where possible, the sandstone was repaired and retooled or patched to approximate its original condition. The Flood Building is now a registered historical landmark, and has been returned to its former place as a lynchpin at the center of the downtown retail corridor32.

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Many preservationist altercate that this methods both the transformation of programs and the alteration of architectural elements, affects its original character and looses its historical image, therefore it becomes a false replication and ‘theater scenery’33.

The James flood building experienced many different tenants, it changed from being a medical office to a dentist and finally to retailers like Gap, Urban Outfitters Anthropologie and Woolworths. The renovation divided its interiors and inserted independent vertical circulation to most of the modules. Most of the units have either one, two or three connected floors. The Flood Building Is a remarkable example of how heritage preservation buildings could be recycled to produce income and in this case also to support the retail sector of cities.

On the other hand the Ferry Building was designed by a young architect named A. Page. Brown, in 1982. The Project included a 245-foot-tall clock tower modeled after the 12th century bell tower in the Seville Cathedral in Spain to serve as a welcoming beacon on the Bay. Construction was started in 1896, and the Union Depot and Ferry House—quickly shortened by public use to the Ferry Building—received its first scheduled arrival in July 1898. Passengers off the boats

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passed through an elegant two-story public area with repeating interior arches and overhead skylights. At its peak, as many as 50,000 people a day commuted by ferry34. By the 1950’s, and after the opening of the bay bridge, the building was used very little. This situation triggered the first renovation that aimed to accommodate standard office spaces with some retail and public areas on the ground floor. After 20 years the traffic in the city increased and forced the ferry building to provide transportation alternatives. In 1989 the Loma Prieta Earthquake caused extensive damage to the Embarcadero Freeway, and was tear down. Therefore the building was visible again and ready to the last renovation as far as today. It is said by ‘The Splendid Survivors35’ that ‘neither earthquakes nor freeways could destroy the Ferry Building’. Today the program of the building is transformed into a farmers market; a mixed-use program that consists in food, shops and restaurants. The Ferry building is a very solid example that shows the potential that holds ‘heritage preservation reuse.’ This project became a major tourist attraction that not only generates great income, but also successfully commercializes local products from the Bay Area.

These case studies demonstrate that ‘program’ has a very important role in heritage preservation reuse. Even though it changes the purposes for they were built.

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Sequential architectural intervention not only supports the evolution of the neighborhood but also fulfill the necessities of its environment; and as a result it becomes a major tourist and local attractions for the city.

By studying this projects I incorporated the topic of temporality to my thesis, both in architecture and landscape. Progressive restoration envisions flexibility and dynamism, either in the spatial quality of its architecture and also through the evolution of a changeable active program.

8. Source: Orange Exposure and Ferry Building Market Place

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Adaptive Reuse. - Architecture: California College of the Arts Location: San Francisco; Original Date: 1951; Original Program: Greyhound bus station; Re-use Date: 1999, Reuse Program: Educational Facilities; The designer: S.O.M; The client: California College of the Arts.

Overview

This project was a very successful example of how historical buildings have the potential to be reused instead of the negative mistake of tabula rasa.36 Adaptive reuse differentiates from historical preservation by considering more drastic transformations to the original building and program; this strategy is more accessible to physical and programmatic changes both in the exterior and interior of the project.

Nowadays, most of the cities offer vast opportunities to recycle old buildings with potential. One remarkable example of a transformation that happened in the past years, was the alteration of warehouses into lofts, live-work studios, and art collectives. This intervention that started in industrial areas of New York City, became very popular and as a result of that was incorporated in similar neighborhoods from all over the word. 29  


Particularly this project shows how the right shift of occupation can catalyze the neighborhood and bring it back to life. The California College of the Arts is located in a renovated 1950s San Francisco Greyhound bus maintenance facility, and currently is one of the most popular and active campuses in the city. The building not only promotes social and economic sustainability but also transforms the old site into a project that is environmentally responsible and capable of fulfilling the necessities of contemporary education.

Environmental Aspects: •

The building is heated by a solar-powered hydronic system. Significant daylighting was retained from the original building, providing natural light to the open studio spaces. Resource conservation was a main consideration in the design of the facility37.

General Information •

Owned and occupied by California College of Arts and Crafts, Corporation, nonprofit.


 30


Location: San Francisco, CA

Building type(s): Higher education

Project scope: a single building

Urban setting

Completed March 1999

This case study helped me to understand that the most appropriate intervention for the Media Park, it is hold in the ‘adaptive reuse’ strategy. After the implementation of this research into my thesis, I found ‘this’ a very coherent approach that challenges the current proposal for a football stadium redevelopment38. In response to that the intervention not only saves but also reuses historical buildings that are intended to evolve over time. Note: Even though the site has remained intact and abandoned for the past 30 years this is not a heritage preservation site.
 
 
 


31 



9. Source: BuildingGreen.com

32


Postindustrial waterfronts restoration.

-
Landscape Urbanism: Brooklyn Bridge Park Location: Brooklyn, New York; Original Date: 1900; Original Program: Shipping Complex; Re-use Date: 2009, Reuse Program: Waterfront Park; The designer: Michael Van Valkenburgh; Public-Private partnership. 
 Overview Postindustrial waterfronts are strategic locations to be reused. In the past, they were successfully constructed to service industrial uses, and they were accommodated in important locations for the flow of commerce and production. The dynamic evolution of cities and the development of new technologies forced the relocation of industrial manufacture and the abandonment of these fascinating sites. In many situations like in the case of the ‘Hunters Point Waterfront Shipyard’ the area became segregated and disconnected from the city.

Brooklyn Bridge Park is a very provocative example to study because its process had undergone important historical events and the site currently is facing a very challenging situation.

33 



The area itself was constructed in 1883 after the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge. As a result of that, this site served as a ferry landing area that would connect Brooklyn and New York. During the course of the years in the 1900’s new tenants led to new programs and constructions. The renovation consisted in the development of 40 piers and 150 stores and warehouses, making it the largest freight terminal in the world. The site of the Brooklyn Bridge Park was a remarkable waterfront through the first half of the 20th century, however shipping in the area decreased and that event forced its transformation into a shipping container port. Time passed and the site experience urban transformations that impacted the project and its sorroundings; and by the time of the American Revolution, the location around the historical ferry terminal, was transformed into a busy marketplace with industries such as slaughterhouses, breweries, and business. Today the new proposal envisions eighty-five acres of new parkland adjacent to 800 acres of open water and harbor piers. The construction strategy divided its program in phases of developments, and the park was intended to be completed in the year 2013;39 however after its first phase of construction the park struggled with economical support from the city. The city still refuses to take responsibility for paying for the maintenance and operation of the park40.

34  


"Brooklyn CB6 believes that until such time as the alternative sources of revenue (without housing), including those additional unstudied sources noted above, are sufficient to fund the operating costs of the park, the Brooklyn Bridge Park Corporation and the City should fund the shortfall."Community Board 6 letter, April 14, 2011. It is important to be aware that large parks like any other urban intervention have economical risks. And without the proper attention this situation could affect not only the area but also its surroundings. On the other hand with a balanced support from the private public partnership, the proposed program have the capacity to enliven the area and to potentialize its income.

The program consists in Recreational opportunities with approximately 40 acres of active recreational space including 9 acres of sport courts, playing fields and playgrounds located at the three major entrances. The plan offers access to the park's foremost asset - the water - through 4 miles of floating and fixed walkways and boardwalks, beach areas, and 12 acres of safe water for kayaking, canoeing, and other hand-powered water activity. A bike and in-line skating path will run the full length of the park. The Park will include 2 multi-use playing fields (for soccer, softball, lacrosse, etc.), 3 tennis courts, 10 handball courts, 6 35  


basketball courts, 2 volleyball courts, 3 playgrounds, a hockey rink, seasonal ice-skating rink, bike path, and 12-acre safe paddling zone. In total, over 77 acres of the Park will be dedicated to open space for both active and passive recreation41.

Brooklyn Bridge Park was an example that made me more aware of the importance of implementing a ‘construction strategy’ into this thesis. In response to that I understood that the subdivision of the ‘design’ in phases was crucial to achieve the goals of the project. In my case and having in mind the current economy and the site conditions I am subdividing the program in decades of architectural interventions.

10. Source: Brooklyn Bridge Park Conservancy.

36 



Military Base Reuse. - Landscape Urbanism: Orange County Great Park Location: Orange County, California; Original Date: 1942; Original Program: Military Base; Re-use Date: 2005, Reuse Program: Ecological Park; The designer: Ken Smith; Public-Private partnership.

Overview The Master Plan for the Orange County Great Park sets a new standard as a great metropolitan park of the 21st Century. The wise and conservative use of energy, water, and other scarce resources is central to the 1300-acre redesign of the former El Toro Marine Corps Air Station. The Department of the Navy has adopted the park as a model for future military base redevelopment42.

In This period the United States of America has over 730 military installations and bases in over 50 countries43, although they were successfully constructed and created to provide services for the rest of the Country. Today some of the sites have the accessibility and the potential to be recycled. Most of the bases have strategic locations that offer vast opportunities in program activation.

37  


Construction of the Marine Corps air station ‘El Toro’, began in 1942 on a parcel of land of Irvine ranch corporation. Throughout its history, MCAS El Toro has served the country as a training facility in peacetime and a staging area for support of overseas military missions in times of conflict.44 After many years of operation and a lack of activity on the station; the base was formally closed on July 2, 1999. In The years that followed this land raised an open debate that captured the public attention. The debate consisted either in transforming the program into an airport or into an Ecological Park. In 2002 after the cipher of 58% votes ‘The Orange County Great Park’, was approved for redevelopment.

The plan for an Ecological Park in Orange County represents a shifting moment in the practice of Landscape and Urbanism. It is important to notice that by ‘Ecological Parks’ I am describing the new models of Large Parks that differentiate from the ‘traditional model of historical parks’ (Golden Gate Park or Central Park). This new model is characterized for promoting education, and environmental technology through implementation and production. Confronting these issues will create jobs, recreational programs, and ultimately transform the community into a better place.


 38


Vision and Objectives of the project (quoted from a living landscape laboratory)45:

Biodiversity: Provide ecological habitats and corridors to reflect the local natural heritage and enhance biodiversity in the region.

Water: Protect and conserve natural and potable water resources.

Land: Remediate contaminated areas and develop healthy living soil.

Energy: Reduce the use of fossil fuels and the emission of greenhouse gases.

• •

Materials: Minimize the impact of construction materials and the generation of waste. Air Quality: Improve air quality of internal and external environments.

Heritage: Instill a sense of place that references the history of the site and the region.

Well-Being: Protect and improve the health and productivity of those who visit and work in the park.

Connection to Nature: Provide opportunities to experience nature and environmental education in the greater Orange County area.

Inclusion: Provide park experiences that match the cultural and recreational expectations of all visitors. Encourage community participation and civic engagement.

39 



Transit-Oriented: Provide a transit-oriented development with less polluting transportation choices and connections within and beyond the park.

Monitoring: Incorporate ongoing measurements and monitoring of key sustainability targets.


 General Information •

1,347-acre park; Greyfield and brownfield (Military base redevelopment)

Location: Irvine, California

Budget: $1.2 billion (projected)

Project Consultants: Lead Designer, Ken Smith. Principal Landscape Architect, Mia Lehrer. Architect, Ten Architects.

The Orange County Great Park was a very successful case study that reinforced my decision in the ‘site selection’ for my thesis. As you know, Bayview Hunters Point was home of a Military Naval Base during the Second World War. This example embraces the duty and the potential that ‘Ecological Parks’ hold. And how large portions of land like obsolete military bases, can be transformed into nature and biodiversity.

40 



11. Source: orangecountygreatpark.org

41


Bayview Hunters Point.

At the Eastern Shoreline of the city of San Francisco rests a former naval base with a wonderful and provocative history. Today the property is abandoned & contaminated, also responsible for decades of environmental inequalities46.

Bayview Hunters Point is not only provocative in its history, but also in its physical conditions. The site is characterized by floods, landslides, and liquefaction. It is a portion of land that has experienced a periodical expansion of land filling since 1852; that means that the natural topography was artificially manipulated in order to enlarge its scale. After its formal closure in 1972 information was revealed concerning the disposal of toxic waste that affected its ecosystem. For most citizens of San Francisco is just a forgotten site. It is known for violence, drug and crime. And there exist a high rate of unemployment. It is located between the airport and the civic center of the city, and power plants, sewage treatments facilities, port piers and cargo sheds surround the area.  

42  


Today the Bayview Hunters Point region offers vast opportunities to be transformed and reactivated. The local community is facing major challenges both urban and social; this situation needs to be confronted to repurpose positive solutions.

One of the reasons why the outcomes of kids and families In Bayview is the way they are, is because the city is allowed to not feel it. That you could live in this city and never go to Bayview. Never step foot in the areas where the crime is occurring, where the kids are not performing in school, where the housing is dilapidated, where there is mold and and mildew in the homes, where there is raw sewage in the street. That happens right now. You can be a citizen of San Francisco, be as progressive as you want to be, and not have to see or witness that. Fred Blackwell, Mayors Office of Community Development.

History of the site.

Bayview Hunters Point is a history of multiple programs; it was created as a naval shipyard that became a military base until was closed in1972. The site has remained fenced and vacant till today.

43  


The history began before European migration, (there is existing data that shows settlements of Native Americans in the area)47. The community was settled along the Yosemite slough taking advantage of a rich natural ecosystem.

The first record of construction in the area comes from 1870 when the ‘Hunters’ family built a shipyard and a dry dock on the site; it is also known to be the first permanent dry dock in the west coast. By a few years later this site had became a major center for ships, private boats, and cargo shipping construction and repairs.

The growth of the industry continued for several years, and in 1910 the dry dock was sold to Bethlehem Steel. The industry experienced a positive growth and the expansion of industrial manufacture.

At the beginning of the Second World War, The Navy decided to purchase Hunters Point for $4 million. Industry jobs recruited citizens from across the country particularly to fill the shipyards of San Francisco, Oakland & Richmond48.

During the Second World War the Navy employed 24,000 new workers, most of them already came with knowledge in the industrial manufacture business. During this period the shipyard experienced a physical expansion by cutting the hills for land filling, during this period the Naval Base was active and in full time operation.

44 



After the war was over the Base was officially closed, and during the years that followed the employment in the area dropped from 14,400 to 8,500, workers. After the Second World War, the local community was emotionally and socially affected by the inexistence of job opportunities. The neighborhood was almost entirely dependent on the U.S navy Hunters Point Shipyard49, and the impact of the closure on the area was devastating.

In the years that followed, the ‘Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory’ occupied the site. During these years the operations of the lab affected the area and its ecosystem. (The aim of these operations was to study the effects of nuclear weapons and to develop counter measures)50. All of the experiments happened on site, and that incremented the toxicity of the area. The following are hazardous materials that were found on the site: heavy metals, sVOCs, cyanide, insecticides, pesticides, hydrocarbons, diesel and motor oil.

After 1974 the shipyard was closed, then reopen and leased to triple A51 which continued to repair ship’s for the following 10 years.


 45


12. Bayview Hunter’s Point. San Francisco History Center. San Francisco Public Library.

46


13. Toxicity in the area. Source: From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006

14. Toxicity in the area. Source: From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006

47


15. Map of Landfilling and Floodplains. Source From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006

48


16. Bayview Hunter’s Point Seismic Hazard Zones. Source: The Front Steps.

49


In 1976 the FBI and the EPA revealed information concerning the disposal of toxic waste, and therefore In 19991 the private industry on the site was permanently closed, as far as today.

Site conditions and Opportunities.

The site location offers great potential of linkage with the city by having both public transportation (bus routes), and Caltrain accessibility, as well as direct access that can be woven in with the surrounding community and residential neighborhoods. There exist opportunities for landscape restoration, open space and new habitat. The site through the recovery of land can create the following ecosystems: grasslands, wetlands, riparian, oak lands and coastal shrub. An ecological strategy can implement the project with storm water treatment. By removing the toxicity from the bay, the project has the potential to treat and recycle water, for landscape irrigation. The site basin is an important habitat site for many species, despite its contaminated conditions. Its protected shoreline and open waters, salt marshes, uplands and existing wetlands are the foundation of a potentially rich and varied

50  


ecosystem.

The following fauna was found among the area: frogs, owl, lizard, butterfly, egret, quail, fox, hawk,

hummingbird and salamander.

The northern parcels of Bayview are in process for future redevelopment of high-rise construction. The proposal consists in a mixed-use program of housing, retail and office spaces. The city will give the land to Lenar52 at no cost and Lenar will be responsibe for preparing the land for development. Lenar will do this using its own funds and City tax revenues that the development will ultimately generate. The Lenar single design plan consists of a single land use concept with a football stadium. The park would become an extension for the new neighborhood constructions. and holds the potential to become a major attraction of the city, and produce income and opportunities for its surroundings.

51  


17. Map of Prevailing Floods.

52


18. Potential for Landscape Restoration and Open Space. Source: Lenar Alternatives for the Park.

53


The Media Park (Program and Proposal)

A Media-Park represents the perfect bond of education and nature. At the same time those are the most important aspects that the area is seeking. By Media Park, I visualize an ‘Ecological Waterfront Park’ with ‘Educational Facilities’, On one hand the park would be set up for the public enjoyment, and on the other the educational campus would enliven the culture on the area and would reinforced initiative in the user professional careers.

The thesis proposal for the master plan consists in catalyzing the area, bringing it back to life, and reconnecting it with the rest of the city.

This thesis envisions a 50 years proposal divided in transition phases of progressive restoration. Each phase would develop a continuing transformation of architecture and nature.

The proposal brings together a social, technological, environmental and cultural program.

54 



19. Program Proposal for the Media Park.

55


- Social: The project would offer primary education, job opportunities, social participation, recreational programs and also a sense of community.

- Technological: An implementation of an integral zero energy transportation system, the construction of educational facilities of high performance, and finally the promotion of green and sustainable technology.

- Environmental: The project not only recovers but also expands its habitat and biodiversity. It is respectful of the environment by the recycle of landscape and buildings. It also saves land by a construction strategy of ‘Urban Infill’ (by densifying the educational facilities footprint, the project releases vast areas for landscape architecture, recreational areas and open space). The media park, implements a smart and sustainable system for energy and atmosphere, also a systemic approach for the capture of water and reuse for landscape irrigation.

56 



- Cultural: The park would offer, ‘active educational and cultural programs’, that would reinforce the identity of the local community. Also recognizes its history by the preservation of important architectural buildings and by the construction of ‘The Hunters Point History Museum’.

-General Overview:

Location: Sothern side of Bayview Hunters Point, San Francisco, California.

Size: 86 Acres

Public - Private partnership.

Classification: Adaptive reuse (Note: Even though the site has remain intact for the past 30 years this is not a heritage preservation site).

57 



Programmatic objectives for 2050. Waterfront Park:

Total area @ 3,285,000 sf / 75 Acres

Main Plaza @ 50,000 sf

Secondary Plaza 20,000 sf

Shrub/ Meadows 200,000 sf

Wetlands 300,000 sf

Agricultural Facilities 15,000

Farm lands 200,000

Community Gardens 100,000

Flower Gardens 200,000

Grasslands (Restoration) 800,000

Tree Forest Areas (Oak Reforestation) 200,000

Bird Watching 100,000

Dog Park 100,000

Open space 800,000

20. Master Plan Design Proposal.

58 



Educational Facilities:

Total area 500,000 sf/ 11 Acres.

Mixed use program

Media Library/Mediatheque @ 100,000 sf •

Lobby/Foyer

Collection Room

Classrooms

Media Center/Exhibition Gallery

Media Labs @ 100,000 sf •

Training Classrooms (Software)

Lab Workshops (Hardware & System)

Media Lounge @ 60,000 sf •

Cafeteria

Restaurant/Bar

Exhibition spaces

59 



History Museum @ 40,000 sf •

Permanent exhibition area

Temporal exhibition area

Auditorium@ 20,000sf •

Lecture space

Theater Facility

Commercial •

Farmers Market @ 150,000sf

Retail •

Shops @ 150,000sf

Infrastructure -

Parking spaces @ 30,000sf

60 



Progressive Restoration (Vision and Objectives of the project) The aim of this thesis is to explore the parallel recovery and evolution of buildings and landscapes through decades of architectural interventions; how the preserved elements could stay alive and yet, be adapted to evolve over time.

The objectives of the project are the following: •

secure the remediation, rehabilitation and re-densification of the site.

re-organize and optimize the access, circulation and attractions of the site.

activate beneficial sustainable cycles for the area and for the local community of Bayview.

connect the area with the neighborhood and with the rest of the urban fabric.

generate areas for culture, knowledge and education vacant

Cultural Commercial industrial

Media Park Bayview Hunter Point Program

vacant

Educational

Digital Design Center

Auitorium 20,000 SF History Museum 40,000 SF

11%

Agricultural

Open space

Ecological Recreational

Wild & Passive

year 2011

70% Landfill/Industrial/Vacant

MediaLabs100,000 SF

Workshops/Diplomats/Open Studios

Mediatheque 100,000 SF

Workshops/Exhibitions/Competitions

Farmers Market 150,000 SF

Food & Flower Festivals

Dog Park100,000 SF

Dog Festivals

Bird Watching100,000 SF

Special Tour

Community Gardens100,000 SF

open space landfill

Media Lounge 60,000 SF

year 2030 (proposed)

80% Nature/Leisure/Recreational/Educational Commercial/Cultural

30%

Activities & Events

Lectures/Concerts Temporary/Stable Exhibition

Restaurant/Bar/ Caffe/Festivals

Tree Forest 200,000 SF

Flower Gardens 200,000 SF

Workshops/Trainings lessons/ Diplomats

Mountain Biking/ Bike Lanes/ Hikes

Flower Exhibition/ Workshops

wetlands pond

pond

picnic

BEACH

preseve streams

marsh

pond

picnic

dog park

marsh

lookouts

creek

lookouts

Permaculture Lands 200,000 SF

Workshops/Trainings lessons/ Diplomats

Shrub/Meadows 200,000 SF

Paths/Looks outs

Wet Lands 300,000 SF

Paths/Looks outs

meadow

COMMUNITY GARDEN

hike GRASSLANDS recreational area main plaza pond TIDAL MARSH field shrubs picnic area playground lookouts picnic courts camp Bayview Waterfrontpicnic marsh Park park path mediatheque visitor center media labs

marsh picnic

lookouts

media lounge

media park picnic workshops museum design workshops

recreational areatransport WOODS secondary plaza Bike Trail restore picnic lookouts

Bird watching

59% Open space 800,000 SF

Grasslands 800,000 SF

Sport fields/Paths

Sport fields/Paths

year 2030 (proposed)

Events/Activities & Proposed Program

61

21. Porgram Goals for 2050.


Educational Facilities. Against the current proposal of redevelopment for a football stadium53, I believe that the existing historical buildings have great potential to be recycled. The buildings that are located on site offer the spatial qualities to be restored into a continuo’s and connected complex.

Description of the existing buildings: In the northern side of the footprint, are located 6 continuo’s buildings that were constructed for industrial manufacture on the past. The constructions are situated in a one-shared block that is facing north and its perpendicular to the ocean. Based on its configurations and similarities, they were classified as three different types (‘a’ ‘b’, and ‘c’).

The type ‘a’ is classified for the first three warehouses from north to south of the block.


 62


VALUES OF THE PROJECT

MORE

integration densification progressive evolution environmental aggregation community educational

LESS segregation dispersion static retrogress toxic substraction individual unemployment

22. Selected buildings for progressive restoration.

63


The buildings share the same form, proportion, and height. This type of scheme is recognized by its horizontality having only one floor and the total height of 9 feet. The form is a rectangular geometry that has a series of horizontal windows, also longitudinal openings on the rooftop for natural day lighting.

The type ‘b’ is classified for the fourth and the fifth buildings of the perimeter, (also from north to south). This constructions share almost the identical qualities minus minimal changes in the proportions. The form and the height is exactly the same, it has the traditional double sloped roof and it differentiate from the type ‘a’ by having two floors with a total height of 43 feet.

The type ‘c’ it is unique on its form, it is the building that has more complication on his spatial qualities and is also the most thinner. The ‘c’ type building shares the same height than the type ‘b’ and is the last building of the block also from north to south.

Note: It is important to recognize that the total length of the 6 continuo’s buildings is 1200 feet; that represents two thirds of ‘pier 9’ -in the city of San Francisco. (That offers the spatial qualities to be restored into a continuo’s and connected complex).

64 



The educational facilities repurposes new program for the old buildings, a mixed-use program that is intended to be adapted, to evolve over time. This is a project that is committed to increase ‘density’, a project that propose savings in land use by vertical aggregation of program. This project not only contributes to density but also to intensity to its environment. I believe that the relationship of various and different functions is the key to ‘re-generation’. In that way the buildings becomes the creation of a new vibrant solution to the existing and negative consumption of resources. New features enrich the confirmation, restoration and mutation of the historical imprint of the perimeter block. Creating a contemporary environment, for culture and education.

The proposed massing scheme, conditionates a positive interaction between the remaining structures of the city, the new additional buildings and plazas, the pursuit of new habitat, and finally the creation of an educational complex of high environmental quality.

A cautiously understanding on structure, dimensions and distribution generates the very high flexibility and living dynamism of the campus, whose partition are proposed to evolve over time.

65 



Performance goals of the project:

After the completion of the ‘case studies’, and the research of ‘innovation and preservation’, I implemented my ideals into the project to define the performance goals of the buildings:

Envelop would be preserved & readapted.

To recognize, maintain and recycle historical elements of the Naval Shipyard. •

Program would be active & changeable.

By multiple programs, the facilities become not only an attraction but also a cultural detonator for the area. •

Spatial configuration would be flexible & dynamic.

By flexibility and dynamism the interior operation would achieve optimum efficiency in functionality. •

Module would achieve maximum spans.

A smart structural grid would optimize indoor distribution and quality in operation. •

Skeleton would provide maximum rigidity.

66 



By potentializing the structure of the project, we not only secure the high performance and safety of the building, but also we condition the future stability and possibilities for horizontal, and vertical expansion.

The project itself it is suggestive of an attitude and a process for designing and restoring historical and postindustrial sites.

67  


Architectural Interventions.

Introduction.

The creative processes that we ‘students’ experience, evolves through a series of complexities, forces that are non-linear. The path becomes a labyrinthum of randomness and opportunities. As ‘architects’ we tend to give coherence to a world that is hard to understand. Future challenges await us, and they need ‘not’ to be forgotten; they need to be inserted in our collective consciousness, and confronted.

This project evolves as a living organism, a hybrid generic form that is activated, sculpted, mutated and expanded. A rhizomatic proposal that is intended to experience cycles of densification, and condensation through time. Each phase intervenes with Architecture and Landscape constructions for the development of the 2050 master plan.

68 



Method Morpho’logical envisions a 50 years progressive restoration divided in decades of construction. Through this method, the site takes advantage of the benefits of time and achieves success in a long-term scenario. Each phase implements different challenges and opportunities to the site, also produces income for the coming periods; In that way the project would be economically self-sustaining, and would catalyze the area. Each phase describes the intervention in an introductory narrative of its goals.

2011.

Waterfront Park This period represents a transition from Clean Up to Activation; by the fertilization of land, seeding, and reforestation of different parcels of the site.

Clean up the toxic waste is the critical first task:

69  


What currently is happening on the site is the fastest and the most inexpensive method, which consists in covering the toxicity with an impermeable clay cap54. However this is just a temporary remediation that limitates the potential for new habitat, and has the risk of exposing hazardous toxics.

On the other side I believe that in the long scale scenario excavating and removing the toxic waste into a legal waste disposal would be a better strategy. This method removes pollution of the bay, and gives opportunity for the creation of wetlands, storm water treatment and new habitat.

01CLEAN UP

02 ACTIVATION

source: Vanal Facilities Engineering Command Parcel E Feasibility Study

test sites: not toxic test sites: not toxic heavy metals

p arcel e

oak tree

sVOCs cyanide insecticides pesticides hydrocarbons diesel motor oil

community gardens permaculture oak tree

meadow

LAND HEALING

developing of a cap for protection and clean up

SEEDING

First phase/ fertilization of land

REFOREST

reforestation strategy gradient from oak to meadow

23. Activation. (Seeding, Reforestation)

70  


RE

AC CE

SS

CR

NA

L

A

Y PLAZ ENTR

DIG

COMMUNITY GARDENS PERMACULTURE

BIR

TREEL

HING ATC DW

E SPAC OPENITAL DESIGN CENTER

S

LAND

WET

EA TIO

AND

FLOWER GARDENS

GRASSLANDS

GRASSLANDS

MA IN

SH

PL

RU

AZ

A

B/

ME

FA & S RME PE RS CIA M L E ARK VE ET NT S

AD

OW

S

DOG PARK

RAPID BUS TRANSIT

TRUCKS ROUTE

FLOWER GARDENS

CIRCULATION

PERMACULTURE

MAIN PLAZA

SHRUB/MEADOWS

DOGPARK

WETLANDS

BIRD WATCHING

OPEN SPACE

COMMUNITY GARDENS

GRASSLANDS

TREELAND

24. Zoning Masterplan and Access from public transportation.

71


Educational Facilities, (values of the project).

The following are descriptive words that classify the values and intentions of the project:

More

Less

Integration

Segregation

Densification

Dispersion

Progressive

Static

Evolution

Retrogress

Environmental

Toxic

Aggregation

Subtraction

Community

Individualism

Education

Unemployment

Note: The facilities are not activated until the toxicity of the site has been completely removed from the bay.

72  


25. Existing Buildings.

EXISTING BUILDINGS the existing buildings are analyzed to activate a progressive restoration 26. Existing Structure.

50 x 21 sq ft

EXISTING STRUCTURE the existing structure is analyzed to achieve maximum rigidity + maximum spans

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2021.

Waterfront Park This period represents the transition from recovery to mutation. The intervention consists, in sculpting the land an inundation of water channels.

The manipulation of land would help to distribute multiple systems and functionalities. The recovered and healed site would offer opportunities for future wildlife, and farmland productivity. The edge of the park is sculpted differently based on the objectives that I am trying to accommodate, in some parts it becomes a water barrier and in others an open slope for the creation of future wetlands. Through the concept of archipelago the project celebrates and allows internal flow of water.

This period activates a series of environmental and recreational programs that would involve the local community of hunters point, (Programs like community gardening and recreational sport activities). By taking advantage of that, the park

74  


would implement temporary events like the ‘farmers markets’, to sell and promote organic food and flowers that were cultivated in local parcels of the site.

Educational Facilities, (Space Occupation).

03 RECOVERY

03 MUTATION

low grass

water pockets water canal

The adaptive reuse begins by carefully inserting the program into the buildings. During this phase the span is maximized and the structure is reinforced with steel to achieve more flexibility in the scope of work. high grass high grass

LAND SCULPING

SUSTAIN

growth of landscape grasslands The readapted structural

grid would

excavation process + storage of soil for land filling optimize its future stability and performance,

INUNDATION

opening of barriers for inundation of water canals

also would provide opportunities for future

27. Phase II: From Recovery to Mutation. (Sustain, Landsculpting, Inundation)

horizontal and vertical expansion. The performance of the structure is intended to be the primary and most important element in the project either in functionality and aesthetics.

After the definition of the public and the private areas, the structure is revealed for the creation of internal plazas. Such spaces could be used for active events and educational exhibitions.

75 



28. Community Gardening.

76


29. Recreational Facilities.

77


cultivated in local parcels of the site.

Educational Facilities, (Space Occupation).

The adaptive reuse begins by carefully inserting the program into the buildings. During this phase the span is maximized and the structure is reinforced with steel to achieve more flexibility in the scope of work.

The readapted structural grid would optimize its stability and performance, also would provide opportunities for future horizontal and vertical expansion. The performance of the structure is intended to be the primary and most important element in the project either in functionality and aesthetics.

After the definition of the public and the private areas, the structure is revealed for the creation of internal plazas. Such spaces could be used for active events and educational exhibitions.

 

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One of the analyzed factors that were mapped in the historical buildings, is located on their ‘extensive width, (300 feet)’; since the warehouses were constructed for the storage of industrial manufacture.

Taking advantage of that opportunity, the proposal divides the facilities into two main areas that are separated by the ‘mutated parts’, (which are located, close to the center). These internal patios are intended to grow and to be transformed into the main public concourse of the project. By doing so, the campus would be connected to its exterior and would be filtered from its surroundings through privacy.

2031. 50 ft

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50 ft 50 ft

40 ft 40 ft

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GROUND GROUND PLAN PLAN

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30 ft 30 ft 15 ft 15 ft

50 ft

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Waterfront Park.

46 ft46 ft

This period represents the transition from connection to adaptation.

2021 2011

URBAN INFILL 02 URBAN INFILL 01

Ground Ground Plan Plan Level Level 01 01 +-0.00 +-0.00 Scal1:300 Scal1:300 0 18

37

75

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0 18

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30. Ground Plan Phase II.


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31. Building Restoration. Phase II.

REVEAL STRUCTURE

as a response to the program requirements, parts of the facade get demolished to create a series of public plazas

32. Structure Reinforcement. Phase II.

50 x 45 sq ft

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

structure is reinforced with a new modularity that allows more flexibility, adaptability & rigidity in spatial configuration

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33. Space Occupation.

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‘mutated parts’, (which are located, close to the center). These internal patios are intended to grow and to be transformed into the main public concourse of the project. By doing so, the campus would be connected to its exterior and would be filtered from its surroundings through privacy.

2031.

Waterfront Park.

This period represents the transition from connection to adaptation.

04 CONNECT

05 ADAPTATION zero energy transportation system


 retaining holes

WATER EFFICIENCY

proposal for water cycle through park

INTERNAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM proposed loop for internal transportation system

ECOSYSTEM GROWTH + EXPANSION expantion of nature into the city

34. Phase III: From Connection to Adaptation. (Water Efficiency, Internal Transportation System, Ecosystem Expansion)

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Nature has evolve and expanded; the park is active. An internal zero energy transportation system gets implemented on the site. The media park is integrated into the San Francisco bay trail project55, and is successfully connected to the rest of the urban fabric. During this phase most of the infrastructure is constructed.

Green technology is used to create beneficial sustainable and environmental cycles: By the construction of water retaining holes; the park reuses and captures rainwater for irrigation. By the employment of wind turbines and solar panels; the park would be environmentally responsible.

Nature is everything but static, ‘constructed landscapes’ evolve in a non-linear and uncertain process of ‘adaptive design’.

Until recently, most ecologists believed that ecosystems follow a linear path of development toward a particular biologically diverse and stable ‘climax’ state. Within the past twenty years, however, research has shown this view to be incomplete. Although ecosystems do generally develop from simple to more complex states, they evolve along any of many possible paths, or even flip suddenly into entirely new states. Ecosystems are self-organizing, open, holistic, cyclic,

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and dynamic systems, marked by often sudden, unpredictable change. Diversity, complexity, and uncertainty are normal56.

Part of my intention of progressive adaptations, is to embrace the slowness of the restoration and to benefit from that; also to experience and ‘carefully mediate’ the natural spontaneous transformations in its ecologies.

Educational Facilities, (Cavities Occupation).

The facilities are horizontally expanded through a method of ‘Urban Infill”. Densification of the site would maximize the potential of the facilities and would integrate the creation of the public concourse. In this way the old buildings would become more connected, continuo’s and more responsive to a contemporary education and new sustainable technologies.

Infill method ‘Urban Infill’ is the insertion of additional housing units into an already approved subdivision or neighborhood. These can be in the form of additional units built on the same lot, by dividing existing homes into multiple units, or by creating new 35. Integral Transportation System.

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36. Grasslands and Coastal Shrub.

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Part of my intention of progressive adaptations, is to embrace the slowness of the restoration and to benefit from that; also to experience and ‘carefully mediate’ the natural spontaneous transformations in its ecologies.

Educational Facilities, (Cavities Occupation).

The facilities are horizontally expanded through a method of ‘Urban Infill”. Densification of the site would maximize the potential of the facilities and would integrate the creation of the public concourse. In this way the old buildings would become more connected, continuo’s and more responsive to a contemporary education and new sustainable technologies.

Infill method ‘Urban Infill’ is the insertion of additional housing units into an already approved subdivision or neighborhood. These can be in the form of additional units built on the same lot, by dividing existing homes into multiple units, or by creating new

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residential lots by further subdivision or lot line adjustments. Units may also be used by building on lots that were previously vacant. The advantage of infill housing is in the fact that it does not require the subdivision of greenfield land, natural areas, or prime agricultural land. Another advantage is that existing infrastructure is usually almost adequate to provide all the need for utility and other services, at least at first glance57.

During this phase the campus would experience the first expansion of program. (Everything happens on the ground level). The old buildings are carefully protected and the only restoration that they experience is by the implementation of doors and openings for connectivity and longitudinal circulation. Part of the goals of the design is to clearly differentiate the ‘modern’ from the ‘historical’, the ‘decrepit’ from the ‘robust’. The contrast in materiality would rectify the historical imprint and would diversify the gradient of interventions. The additional program is intended to be constructed with local resources and materials from the area.

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50 ft

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24 ft

GROUND PLAN

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46 ft

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2031

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37. Ground Plan Phase III.

38. Building Restoration. Phase III. (Urban Infill)

URBAN INFILL

to maximizte the potential of the site, buildings are horizontally expanded to take advantage of the existing cavities

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39. Cavities Occupation. (Horizontal Expantion of the Facilities)

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2041.

Waterfront Park.

The goals of the park are almost conceived, wetlands have created new habitat and the military base became an image of the past. The park represents the ‘human capabilities of creating ecosystems’, and function as the new lungs of the metropolis.

Bayview Hunters Point is transformed in a place that connects its own history with his current needs.

I cite Julia Czerniak in ‘Large Parks’ with her subdivision of the main three points that ‘constructed ecologies’ offer. Large Parks, can create vital roles in the city in three main ways:

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As social catalyst. Through cultural exchange ad a different array of spaces and activities. The presence of wildlife corridors, have to be balanced with often conflicting cultural desires.

As Ecological Agents. These parks promise in diverse ways to act more as a heart than a lung, enabling life through ecological investment locally and across the larger horizontal urban field. By their size and configuration, these schemes facilitate interconnectivity across a fragmented landscape responding to the obvious threat that urban expansion poses to landscape vitality and biodiversity.

As Imaginative enterprises. Parks can be places for imagination to extend new relationships and sets of possibility. Parks are places to project futures, and resilience is a measure of their ability to hold competing ones.

Large parks, the city and the future are intimately related.

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Ecological parks are large portions of land that are integral to the metropolis. They provide habitat for a rich ecosystem of flora and fauna. They function as green open spaces replete with forests and grasslands, targeted to social encounters and to the public enjoinment. Bayview Hunters Point represents a history of socio-spatial inequalities, also an opportunity for the expansion of biodiversity and the production of income. As we know the city of San Francisco, has greatly succeeded with this type of projects on the past. To mention an example: The ‘Presidio’ restoration of an army base into Crissy Fields’ (a project that became an official recreational area in 1990).

Educational Facilities, (Vertical Expansion).

This phase aggregates new facilities above ground. By doing so, it would increment the productivity and the population in the campus, also its diversity, and its variety in the educational programs.

The historical buildings became the foundation to support new additional program. Through this approach, the project not only reuses the old buildings but also it recognizes, protects, and carefully interlace them to the main ground of the 92 



40. Wetlands.

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41. Aerial View of the Park and the Facilities.

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example: The ‘Presidio’ restoration of an army base into Crissy Fields’ (a project that became an official recreational area in 1990).

Educational Facilities, (Vertical Expansion).

This phase aggregates new facilities above ground. By doing so, it would increment the productivity and the population in the campus, also its diversity, and its variety in the educational programs.

The historical buildings became the foundation to support new additional program. Through this approach, the project not only reuses the old buildings but also it recognizes, protects, and carefully interlace them to the main ground of the

50 ft

58 ft

50 ft

40 ft

100 ft

55 ft

58 ft

55 ft

200 ft

58 ft

58 ft

58 ft

100 ft

70 ft

27 ft

120 ft

75 ft

FIRST FLOOR

24 ft

46 ft

46 ft

46 ft

46 ft

46 ft

15 ft

30 ft

15 ft

50 ft

2041

Ground Plan Level 01 +16.00 Scal1:300 URBAN INFILL 04

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42. Ground Plan Phase IV.

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facilities. Through this intervention, the preserved elements would become a monument and a reminder of the previous generations, also would function as ‘historical ruins’ that would be adjacent to the innovative aggregated parts.

For the vertical expansion, a prefabricated steel space frame is delivered and assembled on site for the accommodation of ‘various needs and functionalities of the campus’. Once the skeleton is raised, joined, and completed; a crane would be used to insert a promenade of modular interlocking units (This is an affordable and very common strategy for this types of constructions, it has been used in the past for several successful projects, to mention one: The Habita 67 of Moshe Safdie that is located in Montreal, Canada). Each unit is created to distribute different programs of the project, also constructed with a gradient of different materials. By doing so it would complete the programmatic goals, and the final architectural modification that was envisioned for this thesis.

50 x 45 sq ft

VERTICAL SPACE FRAME prefabricated structure is delivered to site for vertical expantion + cantilievers construction

43. Building Restoration. Phase IV. (Vertical Expansion)

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44. Vertical Aggregation of Program.

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45. Main Access to the Facilities.

46. Cantilever Design Intervention.

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47. Public Concourse. (View from the inside of the facilities)

48. Space Frame Design Intervention.

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Conclusions.

Before the initiation of my research, it took me several weeks of personal questioning and reflections to understand which were the right topics for me to explore. Having in mind that the coming year would revolve around my thesis, I perfectly understood that I needed to approach the ones that I was more curious and passionate about. I always knew, I wanted to re-think global issues and implement them into an exercise of architectural design. Through a very consistent and obsessive agenda, I decided to work with the ‘effect of temporality in architecture and landscape’, and I have to admit that it was very challenging to narrow it down ‘into a site and even more into a physical form’.

I want to say that this exercise, because of: its history, conditions, and progressive periodical approach, it gave me the opportunity of thinking and gaining more expertise in bigger scale projects; even though it still an academic exploration, it forced me to think in how to materialize the complexity of the program and its multiple systems.

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At the beginning of my encounter with Bayview I instantly fell in love with the site. I started with a very secure position ad statement that defended the local community, and blamed everybody else. Through the evolution of my research I shifted my position (which I want to clarify and I am not ashamed of’), that consists in the following conclusion: I realize that the neighborhood of Hunters Point in order to be saved and enliven it needs to be confronted as a ‘Top-Down’ approach.

I greatly support the existing proposals for ‘mixed use high-rise’ in the northern side of the parcels, but I am also convinced that ‘redevelopment’ or ‘tabula raza’ is never the best approach. I encourage the reuse of the remaining structures and its adaptation for beneficial functionalities.

Although this project is representative and suggestive of an alternative strategy of construction, I am convinced that the ‘Urban Infill’ approach it is sensational for global warming and the protection of natural ecosystems. Cities need to shift and grow from the inside, not the outside. ‘After 20 years of beholding the urban expansion of Mexico City, I became more sensible in the topic of densification. I remember that the unification of Toluca and Mexico City (which used to be two different cities) made me question how rapidly this world is changing. Although the United States is far away to experience the urban and social problems that

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Mexico is confronting, I am aware that recent studies show that the Bay Area is expected to grow in the coming 30 years to nearly 9 million people.

In the twenty first century sustainability is no longer a ‘plus’ it’s a ‘must’. The new model of Ecological Parks holds a theory that through its materialization and completion would compromise cities for a better future. The selection of a ‘Media Park program’ not only offers recreational activities and green space, but also the advancement of education and the opportunity of jobs on the area.

In a period were globalization is growing and mass production is needed, everything is intended to be faster, and through ‘faster’ is recognized as better. ‘I don’t opposed that’ but in this particular case the segmentation of interventions in phases, offer the opportunity of flexibility and dynamism in the evolution of the construction. By embracing the ‘slowness of restoration’ the park would reach its maximum potential, and it would be safely benefited from its production.

Finally, I think that Hunters Point deserves a better future. Removing the toxicity, and readapting the program into a Media Park, would not only meet, but appropriate this goal.

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Endnotes. 























































 1 From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006 2

The 2030 °Challenge is an initiative by Edward Mazria and Architecture 2030 asking the global architecture and construction community to adopt a series of greenhouse gas reduction targets for new and renovated buildings. 3

Adaptive reuse is the process of adapting old structures for purposes other than those initially intended.

4

UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. Linking Population Poverty and Development.

5

Wikepedia. San Cristobal de las Casas. Demographics.

6

Wikepedia. San Cristobal de las Casas. Demographics.

7

Favelas, is the generally used term for poor neighborhoods in South America.

8

Wikepedia. Berlin. Demographics.

9

Wikepedia. Berlin. Demographics.

10

Wikepedia. Shanghai. Demographics.

11

China Through a Lens. Shanghai Agenda on Poverty Reduction.

12

UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund. Linking Population Poverty and Development.

13

Climate Change, long-term alteration in global weather patterns, especially increases in temperature and storm activity, regarded as a potential consequence of the greenhouse effect 103 



14

The Garden and Landscape Guide. The Landscape Urbanism reading chapter.

15

Catalyzer, is the process in which the rate of a chemical reaction is changed (either increased or decreased) and it is used in urbanism as a word that describes a positive impact on the area. 16

Rem Koolhaas Oma in, Russia, Moscow 2010. Strelka, a non-profit and independent institute based in Moscow’s that promotes research in architecture. 17

Preservation Towards an Ethic in the 1980’s. Perspective on Preservation.

18

Ivan Balin in Reconstructing the Urban Marsh. Thesis 2009, Uc Berkeley.

19

Rem Koolhaas Oma, in Venice Biennale 2010. Cronacaos Itlay.

20

Architecture 2030. Source from the 2030 Challenge.

21

Chartwell School is an independent school for students with learning variations. The new campus creates exceptional, high-performance learning environments. The project was design by Ehdd. 22

World Architecture News. Xochimilco Masterplan Chapter, 2010.

23

San Buenaventura River, located in the west side of the Xochimilco footprint.

24

Cerro de la Estrella, located in the northern side of the Xochimilco footprint.

25

Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico. Today are recognized as a world heritage landmark.

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26

Mario Schejtnan was the lead designer of the previous restoration in xochimilco in 1993. The project was recognized with the Urban Design award by Harvard University in 1996. 27

Andres. M. Power in Designing for Ecology: The Ecological Park. Thesis MIT 2006.

28

Arc Space, Ten Arquitectos. Xochimilco Masterplan and Aquarium.

29

World Architecture News. Xochimilco Masterplan Chapter, 2010.

30

Source from Preservation Towards an Ethic in the 1980’s. National trust for historic preservation.

31

Source from Preservation Towards an Ethic in the 1980’s. National trust for historic preservation.

32

Re-Building Movility, James Flood Building History and Case Study.

33

Source from Preservation Towards an Ethic in the 1980’s. National trust for historic preservation.

34

Source from the Ferry Building Marketplace History.

35

The Splendid Survivors. San Francisco Downtown Architectural Heritage.1976

36

Tabula rasa is a term used for the ‘redevelopment’ strategy approach to existing buildings.

37

Source, from Building Green. California College of the Arts Case study.

38

Currently, The Lenar masterplan proposal consists in a single land use concept with a football stadium.

39

Source Brooklyn Bridge Park. The Park plan.

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40

A walk in the park. Alternatives To Brooklyn Bridge Park Housing Gaining Traction.

41

Source Brooklyn Bridge Park. Faqs.

42

Source The Sustainable site initiative. Orange County Great Park.

43

The Worldwide Network of US Military Bases . Map of military bases world wide, 2001-2003.

44

Source, History of the Land. Orange County Great Park.

45

Source The Sustainable site initiative. Living Landscape Laboratory.

46

Sara Nafici in The people or the place? Revitalization/Gentrification in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. MIT Thesis 2006.

47

From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006

48

Sara Nafici in The people or the place? Revitalization/Gentrification in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. MIT Thesis 2006. 49

Sara Nafici in The people or the place? Revitalization/Gentrification in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. MIT Thesis 2006. 50

From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006

51

Triple A, Ship repair agency.

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52 Lenar, Development office responsible for the current masterplan redevelopment proposal in Bayview Hunters Point. 53

Currently, The Lenar masterplan proposal consists in a single land use concept with a football stadium.

54

From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006.

55

San Francisco Bay Trail Project is a 500-Mile Shoreline Trail Around the Bay.

56

Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves in Large Parks. 2007.

57

Source Infill, Wikepedia.


 


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Bibliography and Sources.
 
 Julia Czerniak and George Hargreaves. Large Parks. 2007. Princeton Architectural Press, New York. In Association with the Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge Massachusets.

Carol Berens. Redeveloping Industrial Sites. A guide for architects planners and developers. 2011. John Wiley & Sons.

Charles Waldheim. The Landscape Urbanism reader. 2006. Princeton Architectural Press.

James Corner. Recovering Landscape. 1999. Princeton Architectural Press.

Dirk Van den Heuvel, Maarten Mesman, Wido Quist, Bert Lemmens.The Challenge of Change. 2008. IOS Press

National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Towards an Ethin in 1980’s. 1785. The preservation press.

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Michael R Corbett,Charles Hall Page & Associates Inc. Splendid Survivors, San Francisco’s Downtown Architecture Heritage. 1979. The foundation for San Francisco Architectural Press.

From Pollution to Parkland: Alternatives for a Waterfront Park in Hunters Point Shipyard. 2006.

Sara Nafici. The people or the place? Revitalization/Gentrification in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. Thesis MIT 2006.

Andres. M. Power. Designing for Ecology: The Ecological Park. Thesis MIT 2006.

Ivan Balin. Reconstructing the Urban Marsh, a performative waters edge in a future of higher sea levels. Thesis 2009, Uc Berkeley. Philippe Robert. Adaptations, New uses for Old Buildings. 1989. Princeton Architectural Press.

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Morpho'Logical. Progressive Restoration in Bayview Waterfront Shipyard  

A sustainable approach to Architecture_Restoration of Postindustrial Sites

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