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E M F _ TO R Q U E // SPACE_BENDERS

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Wonderlab :: ResearchCluster 1, 2014-2015 Graduate Architectural Design

UCL, The Bartlett School of Architecture

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B E N D I N G & W E A V I N G S PA C E

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Abstract With the development of new technology, architecture is becoming more complex, the innovation of the prevailing fabrication could no longer meet the demand for these unprecedented structures. Bending structure and space weaving are ones of them. To deal with traditional building materials such as wood and bamboo, the way and elastic behaviour to make use of them are dependent on the craftsman’s experience. However, with the new building material’s coming out and architecture becoming more complex, the experience could not suit for the new required. The aim of this project is to develop a computer-based approach for matters, tools and robotics to control fabrication. Recently, the new technology has been used to control the preciseness in construction, and more importantly, to combine all the processes from design to fabrication. This project will focus on the design and the fabrication system. It introduces the whole fabrication process from the simulation to product, and presents one prototype to describe the method. It could be a potential method to expand the reach of fabric formwork for complex 3d structures. In details,our research topic focuse on space bending and weaving. Bending structure is a structural problems which plagued architetcs and engineers for a long time. Because of its aesthetic values and structural meaning, architects and engineers never give up exploring the possibilitties of bending design and construction. Even though the design and technology evolved a lot than in the past, they still can not meet the requirement in practice.How to design a stable and strong bending structure is still under exploration. Weaving as a traditional craftwork, has been applied to a lot of fields and created lots of value by its own characteristics and advantages. Its values lies in traditonal handmade crafts and decorations. However, how to apply weaving to architectures and structures is still a hard problems. In this research, our proposal will focus on bending structure and space weaving, try to find out a new possibility for architectures and engineers to solve this porblem. For design part, our research will focus on the method and application of parametric architectural design through algorithm of electric magnetic field (EMF). Besides, the relationship between electric magnetic field (EMF) system and bending structures is another crucial point needs to be mentioned, in the meanwhile, in some part, it will explore the approach to use it and the benefits of electric magnetic field (EMF) system considering the application of bending structures. In the meanwhile, we will depend on the designs to consider the way for fabrication system, and in the process of fabrication, we can get a lot of feedbacks for design in order to evolve the design system. Through considering characteristics of materials, methods of construction and design system, our proposal will combine design and fabrication as a whole. ‘Fabrication depends on the ability of the designer to harness the properties of materials and to anticipate how these can be transformed by sequencing of manufacturing operations. It is not just the fabrication processes described here that are important but also how these relate to or express, design intent’(R.Glynn and B.Shiel, 2012).

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CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 2 BENDING

2.1 Case Studies 2.1 a Wave Pavilion 2.1 b Nebuta House

3 WEAVING

3.1 Case Study 3.1 a ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion

4 FABRICATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Bending Metal Research Bending Machine Robot as The Third Axis Structural Analysis

5 DESIGN PROCESS

WONDERLAB :: RESEARCH CLUSTER 1, ALISA ANDRASEK, DAGHAN CAM Space_Benders:: Ameyavikram.M, Andrey. B, Guan Tianping, Peng Shuai

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

2 Dimensional Simulation Introduction Of Spin 3 Dimensional Simulation Introduction Of Spin The character Of eletric magnetic field The System at Work Initial Test’s Weaving Patterns Weaving the Bent Structures

6 PHYSICAL PROTOTYPES 7 APPENDIX

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UCL, The Bartlett School of Architecture


emf_Torque Ameyavikram.M, Andrey Bezuglov, Tianping Guan, Shuai Peng

This research aims to create an adaptive method for producing bent and woven structures. To make it feasible, a system for precisely controlling the bending process, which is cost effective light-weight, reusable and, most importantly, controllable, is developed in this research. The methodology is based on a computation simulation and the fabrication system is applied to the principle of bending, weaving and physical deformation with building materials. The concept is to build up a series of continous surface and structures based on the elastic deformation of different building materials. Meanwhile, the robots are used to get the data from the computer simulation and provide the power to maintain control of it.This research explores the form of adaptive bending-active structure by developing a fabrication system on the basis of the elastic characteristics of materials. Initially, it will introduce a number of theories and logics that have contributed to the development of this system. In the following part, the methodology and strategy will be explained. Finally, architectural applications and a physical prototype fabricated based on the use of the system will be covered to demonstrate its practicability in actual construction process.

Chapter 1 Introduction

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Chapter 2.1

Today, bending is used in many different shapes and forms due to the advancement in the bending machines. Bending can be found in just about anything in our daily lives from dishwashers, carsaz, airplane, trains, water lines, and many more.

Bending Case Studies

Bending is basically a metal forming process to permanently form metal pipes and metal flats in a specific way. There are different types of bending machines including form bound and freeform-bending, along with the heat supported and cold forming procedures. With the development of new technologies, it has become much easier to use bending technology than before. Attracted by these advantages of active bending structures which provide prestress and achieve intricate shapes, an increasing number of engineers and architects are now interested in it. They use different materials for bending to build small shelter and pavilion structures. For example, the project ‘Water and Wind cafe, Bamboo Bar’ is made of bamboo, while the ‘elastic habitat’ is made of flexible plastic tubes. Nevertheless, despite these advantages and a number of projects that have been successfully built, bending technology is construction method that is not generally adopted. Limitations such as the uncontrolled elastic deformation, the spring back of the materials and the difficulty of fixing the distorted materials and the special configurations are some of the challenges for today’s researchers. A few projects have attempted to solve these problems by using different new technologies. In this chapter a project will be analyzed, to have a clear understanding of the procedures in detail.

Chapter 2 Bending

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http://www.archdaily.com/79693/wave-pavilion-macdowell-tomova

Chapter 2.1a Case Study 1 - Wave Pavilion

Bending process

Wave pavilion is an architectural installation generated by computational processes and built by using custom digital fabrication technology.

In order to control the bending process precisely, robotic technology has been used in this project to control the degree of bending, and to connect different components with the wire bender. Curves have been drawn and analysed on the computer before bending each rod. Those curves which achieve in the computer simulation would tell the robot how to move and what to do. And then the wire bender and the robot arm work together to rotate, grab, and bend each vertex. A nearly perfect physical manifestation of the digital model will be the result of the robotic fabrication which is extremely precise and the makeup of the steel which can vary. Furthermore, ‘the enormous power of digital technology has the potential to run roughshod over the careless, subsuming the voice of the designer under the tendencies and biased of the ‘tool’’’ (P.MacDowell, 2012). The tool provides more possibilities for designers to achieve fabrication while the robotic provides precise control of the project with further study, one can notice intricate details of how the project fits all together and marvel at the precision.

This project was designed by Parke Macdowell and Diana Tomova in June 2010, and is situated in Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Michifan. At the college, the project plays a didactic role in the communication of digital fabrication. To achieve a bending active structure, two important parts, including computer simulation and bending process, should be considered.

Computer simulation In this project, lines are made by a slender steel rod. The most interesting thing in this project lies in the precise fabrication. Therefore, before fabrication, it is important to conduct computer simulation. From drawing to producing, a system is generated to simulate the fabrication process. In the system, the curve, especially the curve start point and curve direction point, would be input. Then, the curve is divided into a series of control points to simulate the bending length, radius and rotating degree.

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However, this project still has some limitations. It could just control curved surfaces, but cannot make a curve surface. In another way, it could just make nonlinear structures, rather than combine the surface, structure and space together.

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http://blog.archpaper.com/2011/04/molos-nebuta-house-ribbon-screen/

Chapter 2.1b Case Study 2 - Nebuta house | molo design Img.2

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The building is enclosed by twisted steel ribbons, each shaped to create variation: openings for light, areas of opacity, views, or opportunities for pedestrian circulation. The team established a set of rules for the ribbon’s forms, defining how they would twist and provide directional light and views, then created construction drawings by photographing their final model; none of the design was digitally produced. The steel was machined in a local shop and powder coated a deep red color that was inspired by locally-made lacquered dishes. Once they arrived on site, the 40-foot pieces were attached to a sub-frame at four points and manually adjusted to achieve a look of randomness. Their positioning allows the screen to be transparent at some angles and opaque at others, lending to the sense that it is moving.

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Img.1 - Using a paper model, the individual deflection of the individual steel strips was determined experimentally. Img.2 - Different bending some facade sections act closed, while others seem permeable and allow visual references to the outside. Img.3 - On model different variants were played both in terms of light and view management, as well as to the external appearance. Img.4 - Each strip was bent individually using a specially designed machine.

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Chapter 3.1 Weaving Case Study

We choose a project for reference which deals with the development of an innovative robotic fabrication process within the context of the building industry based on filament winding of carbon and glass fibres and the related computational design tools and simulation methods. A key aspect of the study is to research more about the transfer of fibrous morphology in the biological role model to fibre-reinforced composite materials and also to study the integrated from the start into the computer-based design and simulation processes, thus leading to new tectonic possibilities in architecture. The research focuses on the material and morphological principles of arthropods’ exoskeletons as a source of exploration for a new composite construction paradigm in architecture.

Chapter 3 Weaving

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https://www.cs.arizona.edu/patterns/weaving/books.html

By investigating the similarities between weaving and architecture we begin to see overlapping concepts. Architects and weavers both recognize the need to look beyond surface appearances in the process of designing. In the same way architects realize that quality design is more than skin deep, weavers understand the quality of a textile is dependent on the structure of the weave and not just the visual appearance of its fibers. As Anni Albers, a weaver from the Bauhaus, revealingly states: http://www.wallpaper.com/architecture/installation-by-barkow-leibinger-architects-at-the-marrakech-biennale/5673

“Surface quality of material, that is matière, being mainly a quality of appearance, is an aesthetic quality and therefore a medium of the artist; while quality of inner structure is, above all, a matter of function and therefore the concern of the scientist and engineer. Sometimes material surface together with material structure are the main components of a work; in textile works for instance, specifically in weavings or, on another scale, in works of architecture” ( Anni Albers , On Weaving (Middletown Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1965) In their common need to relate a design’s physical properties to its aesthetic implications, weaving and architecture share a trait worthy of further exploration

http://www.sxsepri.com/2015/hnews_0515/89.html

The history of textile use in architecture is broad. The most visible form of woven material today is tensile membrane structures.

Weaving and pattern logic Weaving described as a systematic interlacing of two or more elements to form a structure. This interlock logic give us a way to organize individual fibrous material into a integrate structure

In order to study the logic of weaving and interlocking, we did some research about Jenny Sabin’s Studio. We saw different looms and studied them. The logic to create interlocking structures using now are weaving, knitting, braiding, sewing and so on. Each of this logic has one purpose which is creating an interlocking structure, but with different methods and techniques to create knots. These methods can be put into industrial fabrication by using specific machines such as, looms to weave, knitting needle to knit, braiding machine for braiding. By borrowing and learning these methods already put into manufacturing, we can combine them with our simulation and fabrication methods to create our prototypes.

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Chapter 3.1a Case Study 1 - ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion / University of Stuttgart, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning This interdisciplinary project, conducted by architectural and engineering researchers of both institutes together with students of the faculty and in collaboration with biologists of the University of TĂźbingen, investigates the possible interrelation between biomimetic design strategies and novel processes of robotic production.

Fabrication process The robotic fabrication of the research pavilion was performed on-site in a purpose-built, weatherproof manufacturing environment by a 6-axis robot coupled with an external seventh axis. Placed on a 2m high pedestal and reaching an overall working span and height of 4m, the robot placed the fibres on the temporary steel frame, which was actuated in a circular movement by the robotically controlled turntable. As part of the fabrication process the fibres were saturated with resin while running through a resin bath directly prior to the robotic placement. This specific setup made it possible to achieve a structure of approximately 8.0m in diameter and 3.5m height by continuously winding more than 60 kilometres of fibre rovings.

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Bending structures have been widely used a long time before because of their compressive properties and unique aesthetic sense. With development of construction techniques, more and more architects prefer to use the bending structure to express their ideas and try to evolve a new way to for bending structure fabrication. In addition, the different combinations of bending patterns have different aesthetic and space usage values, such as bending structures of public buildings and residential housings. They provide a new way of space design and construction especially contributing to special-shaped space design and construction.

Chapter 4 Fabrication

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Chapter 4.1 Bending Material Research

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It is difficult to control spring-back in metal bending processing technique, especially for the multi-angle U-shaped part, although it is an ordinary technical problem. It is even harder for the numerical simulation to achieve simulation precision. Therefore, in the future, different materials, thicknesses and lengths will be tested to find out the best one for minimizing the disruption of spring back. And for fabrication, a series of traditional materials have been chosen to do some researches. With high strength, weight ratio, stiffness, toughness and ductile properties, steel can be developed into nearly any shape which is either welded or bolted together in construction. In addition, steel, which is made from alloys of iron and carbon, is used because of its high tensile strength, durability and low costs. If used properly, structural steel plate thicker than 6mm or ¼ inch can be a sustainable construction option. Stainless steel is an inherently green and recyclable material without any degradation or deterioration of quality and will stand up to specific rigors of a given environment, even for the harshest offshore or marine applications. It is considered to be the most recycled material in the world. Because of these properties mentioned above, steel has been chosen for this design project. The material quality of flexibility is available in all sheet materials, even in the most brittle ones such as glass if used carefully. Steel, which is used for skyscrapers as well as car and aeroplane bodies can be bent, twisted and stretched into double curvature shape because of its intrinsic flexibility based on the physics of Young’s ‘modulus of elasticity’. This description shows a metal which will not spring back to its original state once the applied load has been removed.

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Twisting test’s

Bending test’s

Img.1 & Img.2 - Before and after of 1.00 mm steel twisting test. Img.3 & Img.4 - Before and after of 0.50 mm aluminium twisting test. Img.5 & Img.6 - Before and after of 1.50 mm aluminium twisting test.

Img.1 & Img.2 - Before and after of 1.00 mm steel bending test. Img.3 & Img.4 - Before and after of 0.50 mm aluminium bending test. Img.5 & Img.6 - Before and after of 1.50 mm aluminium bending test.

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Our fabrication is based on the Pedestal Arch and Ring Roller. A few prototypes have been designed for understanding how the machine works and how to modify it according to related needs. An automated system is involved to control the degree of bending and twisting. In this machine, bobbins have been used to hold the metal strips in place and for bending and twisting. The chain-ring system is also used to achieve the automation of the system and to control the accuracy. The simple belt driven system which is commonly found in bicycle has been applied in the machine to support the automation and control the structure’s design when necessary. To achieve the precise bending fabrication, controlling the twisting degree, we use Arduino Uno Revision 3 to control the motor rotate by degree, speed and angles. The motor’s movement could be updated from the bending simulation of the digital model. This method ensures that the fabricated model is similiar to the digital model.

Chapter 4.2 Bending Machine

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Initial Idea

Axis A Axis B

Axis A Axis B

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Bending machine

Bending machine

Img.1 - Showing the working details of the machine used for bending and twisting, which is connected to arduino motor for the control of the angles and output it for fabrication.

Img.1 - Initial idea for the bending of the strips Img.2 - After initial tests, decided to use two machines for better control and twisting of the strips Img.3 - The process of transferring the digital data to machine for fabrication

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Diagram showing how the metal strips twist and bend when both the machines work and rotate in clockwise and counter clockwise directions. Bending machine Img.1 - Showing the cross section of a part of the bending machine with the parts labelled. Img.2 - Showing the cross section of the bending machine with the parts labelled. 40

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By having two machines, although it provided with accurate curves, it was only in the same plane. In order to add a 3 dimensional lift or to make arches, manual work was added, which was opposite of what was aimed to be achieved. Hence, one more axis for optimising results, and no manual work, was introduced; the robot. The robot forms the third axis to the machine mainly because they have the ability to rotate in 6 axes. Robots were used as an added element which would introduce the bend or the arch that is required according to the design. In this manner, the point at which the lift should be added is also controlled i.e. arch formation is controlled. The robot is not fixed or stagnant to a single place. It can move in the x and y directions. The control of the robot arm is done with the software which determines where the robotic arms needs to be each individual strip according to the calculations derived from the digital model.

Chapter 4.3 Robot as the Third axis

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Diagram representing the placement of the robot with machines.

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Diagram showing the arrangement of robot with the machines.

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UNDERWATER CUT

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ROBOT BENDING

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PHYSICAL BENDING STRIPS

Through controlling different angles of rotation, the distance between the two machines and the robot, the strips can be bent into different form which we design. In the meanwhile, through considering the characteristics of material, stability of structure and the space of structure, we use the machine to fabricate some different stripes.

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DATA TRANSFORM

DIGITAL MODEL

The process to transfer the data from the digital model to the physical model is as the diagrams explain above, we divide the bent strips and number them , grasshopper helps us with the dimensions, which are then fabricated and bent using the machines.

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Before product each bending material, it should divide the digital model to different groups. We marked each group and sort different for assemble them together.After that, using the bending process to product each material one by one. Finally, come assemble them together by design nodes. However, due to the differentdeformed of each material, it is hard to fix them. In order to address the problem and improve the validity of the structure, a series of methods have been tested. At first, two types of methods about direct connection are used tofocus on changing the way of assemble at node points. However, the tability and strength is not significant. Then, another method which electric welding the is taken into consideration. Although the result is more obvious than the direct methods mentioned previously, it is not hard to deal with because of the aluminium. Finally, the problem is solved by adding another external force by design a connect node. In this regard, two methods are tested. The first method fix the bending material directly into the node one by one. The second method is put them together first and then fix them to the connect node. The latter one has been proved to be more efficient.

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BENDING MACHINE PHYSICAL MODEL

The basic idea of bending is using three axises to control the bending process. On both sides, each axis controls the twisting. In the middle of this material, another axis, which could move up, down, front , behind, right and left, is used to control the bending position. As for the elastic deformation, the material would experience nonlinear change of length. On each side, the material could change its length automatically. When the bending process is finished, the machine would cut the material in both sides to meet the design requirement.

Bending Test Through this model we can see that different sizes of the metal strips can be bent and twisted.

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Chapter 4.4 Structural Analysis

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Structural The design was analyzed in structural analysis Karamba environments for self-weight. This enabled us to determine the maximum allowable self-weight that the structure could resist before buckling would occur. A Karamba model was set up to simulate the behavior of the physical tests and determine a value for stiffness that took the internal slippage and movement into account. The analytical model was calibrated in two steps: firstly, for analysis of individual strips, so as to understand them as arches of different curvatures, secondly, for analysis of a shell, obtained as a network of the strips when connected through a skin of resin and carbon fiber. The analysis was carried forward by adjusting the Young’s Modulus, for aluminum and carbon fiber, using the deflection of the physical model as a target. All previous tests had showed that the failure mode would be local buckling rather than a single element reaching its stress capacity. Using Karamba’s analysis module a critical buckling load was found for the applied loads. During the design of the installation it was possible to quickly insert chosen bent lamellas into the Karamba model for real-time analysis of the possible configurations. By analyzing the local curvature of an individual strip at intervals along its length a series of local bending moments can be derived that have the combined effect of straightening the curve. These moments are applied where the reinforcement touches the strips. Karamba’s large deformation solver has been used to validate this method by showing how a curved element becomes straight when these bending moments are applied. Different reinforcement carbon fiber patterns were tested in collaboration with the structural designers. The final design combines aesthetic considerations and structural efficiency.

BENDING STRUCTURE

CIRCULAR ARCH

CATENARY ARCH

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SHELL

SHELL - 3D

SHELL - NETWORK

BENDING AND WEAVING 63


Chapter 5.1 2 Dimensional Simulation

In the electric magnetic field(EMF) system, its basic logic is according to Maxwell’s equations, in terms of its simulation, this basic logic can be simulated through vector field with positive and negative charges. It seems a little simple if the design system only contains this basic algorithm. In order to make the system more intricate and controllable for design, our research is trying to add more functions into our system step by step, such as agents, spin force and vector force. To begin with, except for the functions what we mentioned before in the magnetic field simulation analysis session, through setting the charges as the agents moving around the field, different charges have interactions with each other. Cohesion, separation and alignment are the basic elements of the logic to control this function. Each charge has its own behavior, in the meanwhile, their behaviors will be disrupted by other charge. Additionally, in order to get the electric magnetic field(EMF) line, our research tries to record the trail of charge while they are moving in the field.

Chapter 5 Design Process

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Charge : 100 Decay : 1.00 Step : 5000 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 9

Charge : 80 Decay : 1.00 Step : 5000 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 9

Initially, our proposal creates a field due to point charges. Through setting a boundary in order to restrict the range of magnetic field, we can make sure each point charge in the field is valid. In addition, the following idea is to set point charges on different positions in the field, and the position can be controlled through setting coordinates of each point charge. Each point charge has its own properties, such as the decay of charge potential and magnitude of the charged quantity. Through controlling its properties and change the data, the point charges will have different impacts to the magnetic field. The field line will start from the point whose charge is positive to the point charge which is negative. In addition, the decay of charge potential is higher, the field line is shorter. Our simulation includes some other forces in the bending system to be more complicated. Spin force is one of the forces which mainly affects the magnetic field . The force position is in line with a point which is set before. The spin force will impact magnetic field more strongly when its strength is higher and radius is bigger. As for the decay of spin force, if it is bigger, the rotation effect will be more effective. The process is initiated with the use of magnetic field simulation at a 2 dimensional plane level by controlling different parametric data such as the charge, the decay rate and other characteristics of the magnets in order to see the different effects of the magnetic curves and find more possibilities of form formation to apply to the design. Charge : 150 Decay : 0.80 Step : 6400 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 4

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Charge : 90 Decay : 1.10 Step : 5500 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 8

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Chapter 5.2 2 Dimensional Simulation - Introduction of Spin

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To improve the process and the design, spin points are introduced to gain more control and to make magnetic field simulations provide better design outputs. Through this, each element could be controlled individually and results obtained are according to the designer’s choice and requirements.

Charge : 130 Decay : 2.10 Step : 6000 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 11 Spin : 11

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Charge : 105 Decay : 1.60 Step : 6000 Accuracy : 1.0 Character : Positive Amount : 6 Spin : 1

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Chapter 5.3 3Dimensional Simulation

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Electric magnetic field(EMF) is a parametric system which based on vector field. To 3D simualtion, initially, the basic algorithm is the computation of vector magnitudes of each vector in the electric magnetic field(EMF). Different lengths of vector magnitudes show different intensities of electric magnetic field(EMF). Through mapping value of magnitudes with colors to show the intension or other characters is the traditional way to present the electric magnetic field(EMF). In this way, the characters can be more visible. Additionally, during the simulation, all the characters in the field is related to negative and positive charges, especially the intensity. Like charges repel, however, opposite charges attract, which is one of the fundamental laws of electricity. Negative charges will repel with each others, so do the positive ones in the field. Besides, it always indicates that filed line is start from positive charges and end in negative ones.

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Electric magnetic field(EMF) simulation

Electric magnetic field(EMF) simulation

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Positive Magnet : 6 Negative Magnet : 2 Positive Charge Strength : 200 Negative Charge Strength : 120 Vector Force : 1 Vector Force Strength : 50

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Spin force is one of the forces which mainly affects the magnetic field . The force position is in line with a point which is set before. The spin force will impact magnetic field more strongly when its strength is higher and radius is bigger. As for the decay of spin force, if it is bigger, the rotation effect will be more obvious.

Chapter 5.4 3Dimensional Simulation - Introduction of Spin

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Chapter 5.5 3Dimensional Simulation - The character of eletric magnetic field

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Column Design As for the column design, our idea is to control the magnets vertically, through changing charge,position , amount and some other characteristics of magnets, we can achieve the prototype of column.

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In the meanwhile, through modifying algorithm and parametric data, we can adjust the prototype and evlove column design. 103


Chapter 5.7 Design Prototyping - Initial Test’s

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Wall Design This was designed by combining positive charges and spin points, controlling the charge and the spin force, setting the Z value for each point on the magnetic curve to design the decorative wall. By changing parametric data, added a sense of movement, also adding different density in different parts and making each strip rotate in different directions 106

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Pavilion Design - 1

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For the bending part of the external structures, after getting the lines from the magnetic simulation, our proposal rebuilds and divides the line into different segments. Besides, With the application of a sin function to the field lines, their forms change from 2D to 3D through bending. The next step is to generate series of equally spaced, perpendicular frame along the curve, after which our system creates rectangles along the frame which will rotate in a certain angle on the frame plane. With the consideration of the visualization, through the application of series functions to the length of the rectangle, the external structure is more complicated and regular. Finally, our proposal creates a lofted surface through the rectangle along the curve and smooth the surfaces to make it look better than before.

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Structure - 1 In order to to achieve some open space,our idea is to control the position and charge of the magnets, and hiding some magnetic curves, we can achieved the structure.In addition, throug setting more magnets on the ground, more curves will end on the ground in one point, therefore , these curves can support the whole weight of structure and make structure to be more stable. Lastly, changing the curve density of deifferent part of structure can achieve nice effect.

Structure - 1 This was designed using the same system of magnets but with an intent to create a habitable space beneath the curves.

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Pavilion Design - 2 Initially, in order to achieve rich internal space and height fluctuation form, most of magnets are setting on ground, but with different charge. In the meanwhile a little negative charges are setting in the space with different charge and height.

Pavilion Design - 2

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Pavilion Design - 2 The whole curves form a continuous form with different commanding heights. The combination and size of curves is different in different parts, through changing the density and the size of magnetic curves, we can achieve a pavilion with various forms. 113


For apply of 3D electric magnetic field(EMF) in the bending structure design, different approached are taken to control electric magnetic field(EMF) system. Initially in certain space, different charges will be produced randomly. Throughout changing position, decay, and other characters of charges and testing 3D system, we can search for the best algorithmic results. It focuses on combinations of different units of electric magnetic field(EMF) line which are created by the positive and negative charges. Therefore each units of electric magnetic field(EMF) line starts from one positive point and ends on the other negative ones. Through controlling the decay value and charge value, it is esay for us to get different combination of units. As for the combination of each unit, if the combination is different , the impact between each unit is different. Hence, field line of each component will be assumed as different forms. Besides, the thickness of electric magnetic field(EMF) line in each unit is related with the span. The larger the span is, more thicker it will be. Lastly, in order to design the structure to be more stable and offer more diversity to space, we try to design some connections between different electric magnetic field(EMF) line. Through this way, the electric magnetic field(EMF) algorithmic system can generate different designs depends on architect’s ideas and thoughts.

Column Design 114

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Chair Design As for the chair deisgn, we use the same system with the column, but change a little. Intially, in order to make the chair be more stable,especially the bottom, because this part need to carry not only its weight but also most of human body, we make the curves in this part with heigh desity and large size. In addition, to the backrest part, we deisgn magnetic curves start from central part and end in the surrounding part in order to create more using space and flowing form. For the whole form, we use three-paragraph method to deisgn the chair in order to achieve clearly defined primary and secondary for each part.

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Chapter 5.8 Design Prototyping - Weaving Pat-

Through combining some random value, we evolve the traditional weaving patterns. With the consideration of design ideas and stable of structure, our proposal changes the density and patterns while weaving the structure.

terns

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To increase the overall stiffness of the structure, carbon fiber are weaved throughout the water - jet pattern of bended strips. During the design of the installation it was possible to quickly insert chosen strip into the Karamba model for real-time analysis of the possible configurations. The strips are bending-active elements which, due to their curvature, apply a pre-stressing force on the carbon fiber network. Different reinforcement carbon fiber patterns were tested in collaboration with the structural designers. The final design combines aesthetic considerations and structural efficiency. The final design project is a single string of carbon fibre that has been guided around aluminium strips. The result is a strong structure. Using advanced industrial materials from, amongst others, the aerospace sector, we have fabricated a variety of artefacts in carbon fibre and epoxy resin, using a process called filament weaving where a band of fibres, impregnated with resin, is weaved around an aluminium strip in a specific pattern to produce the desired part’s geometry. The resin is heat – cured and the part solidifies. The process is typically used in the manufacture of pressure vessels and pipes for industrial use, where fibres are weaved in a regular and dense geometric pattern. The idea for Weaved Table was to challenge this convention by exploring the effectiveness of more random – looking geometries on a particular shape. As it turned out, this was quite a challenge to fabricate. Structural testing on a scale – model form of the Weaved Table returned successful results, and as soon as the big structure was ready, final full – scale versions were identically fabricated. Using the process, it is proposed to manipulate the filament path to a different configuration for each iteration. As required for construction purposes, it can be decided during the deign process where to put more or less material and control the locations as well as the number of fibre crossings, both of which will determine the maximum carry load of the object.

Chapter 5.9 Design Prototyping - Weaving the Bent Structures

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As to pavilion design with use of 3Dimentianl electric magnetic field, initially, our proposal through controlling the characters of magnets in order to design some structures. Due to consideration of mechanical properties of the structure, our proposal set most of positive magnets on the bottom part, and most of the negative magnets in the space. Therefore, most start part of strips are on the floor, the structure will be more stable. In the meantime, our proposal consider the aesthetics as well, design some strips in the air connecting the other part which stay on the floor.

Pavilion Design - 1 With the addition of the weave between the bent strips, more structural stability is provided. This also gives a chance to play with the aesthetics and the play of lights within the structure, by controlling the density of the weave.

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Additionally, due to the consideration of the stability of structures, our proposal apply weaving with carbon fiber between different strips. Each strips will connect with its closest strips through different weaving patterns. After weaving, our proposal take some measures to increase its strength.In the meantime, with consideration of aesthetic and stability, our proposal apply different densities and patterns in different parts of the structure.

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Pavilion Design - 1 With the addition of the weave between the bent strips, more structural stability is provided. This also gives a chance to play with the aesthetics and the play of lights within the structure, by controlling the density of the weave.

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Bending structure

Pavilion Design - 2

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With the addition of the weave between the bent strips, more structural stability is provided. This also gives a chance to play with the aesthetics and the play of lights within the structure, by controlling the density of the weave.

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Bending structure

Clothes Design

Weaving structure

Through control the position, charge and decay of magnets, we can get some nice curves from the electric magnetic field, in the meantime , we modify the basic structure depend on operating requirements. Additionally, by mirroring the structure and using different patterns, with consideration of usage function of people, our proposal design different densities on different part.

Dress Design

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Coffee table Design

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Coffee Table 166

As to this table, intially we use magnetic field system to achieve the basic bending structure. In the meahtime, we design the middle part of the table with hight density of bending strips. Because this part bear most weight of the whole table, therefore, we apply hight density of weaving pattern to this part to make the whole structure be more stronge and stable. Additionally, different patterns are apply to the surface of the table with different density in order to achieve variations.

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Chapter 6 Physical Prototyping

Physical Prototype - 1 Initial test with the bending machine to test the limitations of the fabrication process 174

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Physical Prototype - 3 Coffee Table with weaving Detail showing the density of the weaving between the supports underneath the surface forming the top to have a better structural support

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Material Robotic Move(X) Robotic Move(Y) Robotic Move(Z) Robotic Rotate Left Machine Rotate Right Machine Rotate

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235 -545 425 276 124 -34 80 -120 143 -56 -98 24 65 86 21 -54 76 -120

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Physical Prototype - 3 Coffee Table with weaving Overall shapes for table was developed in the Rhino program. Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino HAL software was used to control the robotic path for bending aluminium strips. To achieve the concept of forming the structures from a single uninterrupted aluminium strip, an exact description of one continuous robotic path over the strip was required. This was generated by manipulating a robotic path, using the Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino HAL software to define a start point, end point and base surface in Rhino. After extensive experimentation and changes in the used algorithms, a method was found that generated the continuous robotic path. Using variations in the parameters of the algorithms, the desired look finally was achieved.

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Clothes Design Workshop 1 - Bracelet Design

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This project is depended on flocking system, through controlling flocking system, applying their characters, we design this clothes . On details, our design is depend on the velocity, position, neighbours and other elements of flocking system. Through this algorithm, we try to design streamlined and complex 251 clothes


Clothes Design Workshop 1 - Bracelet Design

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Arduino

Robotic

Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than desktop computer or laptop. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board.

During the ensuing fabrication, we used (ABB IRB 1600 145 industrial 6-axis) robotic arm to wind the carbon fibre across the steel plates. We designed a nozzle which is a specific tool to assist in the winding process.

Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP.)

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The simulation process was executed by means of Grasshopper plug-in for Rhino HAL software. The simulation requires multiple iterative dynamic simulations prior to producing a physical non-linear prototype. The fabrication process is equally iterative until a perfect prototype is achieved. The end product is an extremely elegant structure, constructed with a minimum of materials, that derives its strength from its form rather than mass. The challenges have been very time consuming as the design depends on robotic simulation, which was previously an unknown entity.

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EMF_TORQUE SPACE_BENDERS

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Acknowledgement It gives us immense pleasure in bringing out the synopsis of the project “Bending and Space Weaving” Firstly we would like to thank Alisa Andrasek and Daghan Cam who gave us their valuable suggestions and ideas when we were in need of them. They encouraged us to work on this project. We would also like to thank Peter Scully, Abi Abdolwahabi, Vicente Soler, William Bondin, Amirreza Mirmotahari and the workshop for helping us with the robotic fabrication and the Arduino definition. We would also like to thank Maria Eugenia Villafañe for guiding us with the structural analysis for the project without which it would be imposibble to fabricate. We are also grateful to The Bartlett for giving us the opportunity to work with them and providing us the necessary resources for the project. We would also thank to all our friends who helped us to complete this project. We are immensely grateful to all involved in this project as without their inspiration and valuable suggestion it would not have been possible to develop the project within the given time.

Andrey Bezuglov | Pavlodar, Kazakhstan S.Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University The Bartlett School Of Architecture | UCL email: Italian_billionaire@mail.ru

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Peng Shuai | Nanchong, China

Tianping Guan | Shenzhen, China

Chongqing University Guandong University Of Petrochemical The Bartlett School Of Architecture | UCL Technology email: zhanfu767@126.com The Bartlett School Of Architecture | UCL email: archguantianping@sina.com箭箭

Ameyavikram M | Hubli, India B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology The Bartlett School Of Architecture | UCL email: ameya_vikram@hotmail.com

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Spatial bending and weaving  

#Bartlett#GAD#RC1#Space Benders

Spatial bending and weaving  

#Bartlett#GAD#RC1#Space Benders

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