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Fall 2007

Arch 351 Chris Wagner

Professor Yin


Project: Chumash Cultural Museum - Fossil Point, Avila Beach, California

Table

of

Contents

1) Part 1: Conceptual Development 2) 2D / 3D Concept Collages 3) Part 2: Research 4) Cultural Matrix 5) Museum Precedent Study 6) continued... 7) San Fran Field Trip: Federal Bldg Presentation 8) continued... 9) Part 3: Design Development 10) Site Visit 11) continued... 12) Site Analysis Powerpoint 13) continued... 14) Initial Overall Site Analysis 15) 3D Site Collage 16) Built Topography Models 17) Overall Site Analysis Development Diagrams 18) Overall Site Plan and Section 19) Relationship Diagrams 20) Volumetric Program Exploration 21) Revised Programs and Matrix

22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42)

Initial Museum Site Plan and Section Initial Gesture Model Program / Floor Plan Development Gesture Model Development

Part 4.1: First Midterm Review Floor Plan / Section / Vignettes Exploratory Model continued... continued...

Part 4.2: Second Midterm Review Floor Plan Elevations and Sections Site Plan / Aerial Views / Int. Perspectives Exploratory Model

Part 5: Final Schematic Design Floor Plan Sections Elevations / Site Plan Interior Perspectives / Aerial Views Exploratory Model continued...

43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58)

Part 6: Presentation Poster Part 7: Arch 341 Project Title Page: Building Analysis Project Original Project Statement Table of Contents Overview of Selected Buildings Design Concept and Expression Site Forces Circulation and Activity Zones Structural System Sustainable System Building Envelope System Longitudinal Section Transverse Section Model Documentation and Works Cited

Conclusion

and

Closing Thoughts


Part 1: Conceptual Development The

Chumash Indian Tribe can not take place without an explicit connection with nature. The Chumash Indians once inhabited the very land that we “coastal Californians� now call the coveted Central Coast. They lived lightly on the land, giving back to nature for everything they borrowed, and at all times consciously strove for a harmonious existence. This integral connection to nature is the basis for my own concept ideas about what a Chumash Museum should be. In my two-dimensional collage, concept for a cultural museum representing the

there is an exploration of a building that will focus on the incorporation of natural providence, that is to say the benefits we can reap from wind, water, earth, sun, and the seasons.

As

well,

I

envisioned a building with a solid,

earthen core surrounded by circulation and support in the form of lightweight, non-intrusive pathways.

The

three-dimensional collage continues these themes,

and adds to them, by focusing on the integration of found, natural materials that blend into the site, and the idea of large plazas covered by a light-diffusing outer shell.

The inside,

client envisioned a long-span open structure with flexible

partitions

and along these lines,

that comes along with a long-span

I too system.

will pursue the form and function

1)


2D / 3D Collages The 3D

collage explores the dialogue between

an earthen plaza and a light, tranlucent shell that covers it, providing shelter from the elements, yet allowing penetration of daylight, wind, and breathtaking views.

Ancillary

spaces jut out from

the main core in a lightweight fashion, like the wings of a bird.

The form seeks a relationship with the landscape, with a pronounced aerodynamic shape.

The 2D

collage explores ideas of natural

relationships, that is to say the potential of integrating all aspects of the natural world into the built environment, hoping not only to be efficient in terms of lighting, heating, cooling, etc. but to reach a state of balance between manmade and natural.

How

these various elements come into existence, weave together, and are ultimately integrated gives life to the design challenge, and provides sufficient inspiration for process.

2)


Part 2: Research The research process further enhanced a basic understanding of the Chumash Culture, while providing essential inspiration and a foundational background in museum design from a precedent study and field trip. The cultural matrices developed by the studio as a group helped to provide visual

Chumash Indian Tribe. A field trip to San Francisco exposed the studio to high-profile firms and cuttingedge architecture, in particular the San Francisco Federal Building by Morphosis. This building provided inspiration for my own project, in terms of a rational, semi-rectilinear structure covered in an expressive, diffusing skin. Researching a built museum proved to be the most beneficial of the research projects, and I was fortunate enough to learn about a similar project in Massachusetts for the Pequot Indians. This museum inspired me to pursue circulation that linked the service and served spaces, and the public and private spaces as well. Also, it influenced me with its large atrium space, entered from the east, that serves to orient visitors and employees alike, then directs them to their respective spaces. Finally, the museum had a true connection to the landscape, seeking to blend into the treeline, while providing a beacon, or gesture, high into the sky with the viewing tower. reference and more information regarding the

3)


Cultural Matrix One

of the most interesting and well-documented

Chumash is basketweaving. Baskets,

aspects of the

their proficient skills

in

and weaving in general,

played a huge role in the success of

Chumash

hut

structures, waterbottles, food-storage containers, and other textiles.

Using native reeds, the chumash could weave intricate, patterned baskets that, when coated with tar, could even hold water! This technology also extends into their water transportation, the

Tomol

canoes, which were built

as planks, sewn together at the seems, and essentially caulked with tar to prevent water penetration.

No

interior framework kept these canoes

together, just the tied seams and tar.

The Chumash also made artifacts out of obsidian and seashells, notably objects like mortar and pestels, jewelry, and turtle carvings. These surviving artifacts and baskets are not plentiful, and will not survive indefinitely. The current situation provides more than enough reason for the need of a comprehensive

Chumash Cultural Center

to protect, collect, and

educate all people about the

Chumash.

CHUMASH BASKETS AND ARTIFACTS

CHRIS WAGNER . JAMES ROSS . PAUL RUPPERT

4)


Museum Precedent Study PEQUOT MUSEUM AND RESEARCH CENTER The inspiration for this volumetrically complex museum has many components. The overall concept was to create four unique sectors with appropriate corresponding massing and aesthetic qualities aligned symbolically and literally along the cardinal directions. The main exhibit space is partially buried in the hillside, an organic landform that steps down in terraces, while providing picturesque views of the adjacent swamp and cedar forest. Conceptually, this radial form conforms to the topography of the site both in a vertical and horizontal nature. The outer edge of the form follows the natural inclination of the forest tree line, and the green roof of the structure becomes a mediator between nature and the built environment. The enormous, circular volume is the most prolific of the project’s spaces, and at ground level functions as a ritual gathering space.

and entry. Beneath lies an auditorium, with access from the exhibit space. This dynamic combination of two semicircles, one clad in glass with exposed steel, the other clad in natural wood panels, refers first to the plan of a fortified Pequot village where a massacre took place in 1637, and secondly to the exposed skeletal structural system of a typical Pequot wigwam or longhouse. The next space is the long, rectilinear bar that extends southwest of the site. This is the research center, a linear volume with two stories above ground, and another two beneath. The facade of this bar was inspired conceptually by an abstraction of a wampum belt, with a dialogue between open glazing, and white and black panel cladding. Finally, the observation tower marks the entry to the complex, as well as creating a vertical contrast to the otherwise horizontal nature of the facility as a whole. Symbolizing metaphorically the resurgence of the Pequot tribe, the tower reaches for the heavens.

CONCEPT AND FORM

Mashantucket, Connecticut . 1993-98 . Polshek Partnership Architects The site is located near the south-eastern seaboard of Massachusetts, in the middle of a historic cedar swamp where a Pequot trail once linked the tribal fishing grounds to inland villages. The overall facility size is enormous, at roughly 320,000 square feet, with the museum portion taking up a respectable 85,000 square feet. In an effort to change perspective on the Pequot Tribe, previously known to be near extinction and the driving force behind a successful casino, the architect and client hoped to create a museum and research center to not only share the Pequot Tribe’s history with the world, but also to preserve their own culture, attract more Pequots to come back to their native lands, and ensure a better future for Pequot generations to come. Conceptually, the architects tried to marry the building to the site by making use of a north -facing slope and minimizing the overall building footprint through a balance between building vertically and spreading out horizontally. Each volumetric mass corresponds to a different function, and all relate back in some way to the history, artifacts, and culture of the Pequot. There is a conscious dialogue on the site between respecting nature and the landscape, and building with innovative, modern technology. The building forms, for the most part, attempt to relate to the natural contours of not only the land, but the prevalent vegetation. Great effort was taken to avoid disturbing the inspirational woodlands and nearby swamp, yet at the same time, there was a need to appreciate the stunning vista and admire the undisturbed land, hence the viewing tower.

SITE AND CONTEXT

ACCESS TO THE SITE CURRENTLY EXISTS THROUGH TYPICAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION, WITH BOTH A PUBLIC ENTRANCE THAT SWINGS BY THE CIRCULAR GATHERING AREA VOLUME, AND PRIVATE ENTRANCE TOWARDS THE BACK OF THE RESEARCH CENTER WITH ADDITIONAL STAFF PARKING. HOWEVER, A PLAN YET TO BE REALIZED CALLS FOR A MORE SUSTAINABLE APPROACH, WITH A PROPOSED MONORAIL THAT WOULD WIND SLOWLY THROUGH THE PICTURESQUE WOODLANDS EN ROUTE TO ARRIVE AT THE EASTERN ENTRY POINT NEAR THE IMPOSING VIEWING TOWER.

AS FAR AS BASIC CIRCULATION IS CONCERNED, VISITORS

ARRIVE AT THE GATHERING SPACE (LOBBY) AND CAN CHOOSE TO PROCEED INTO THE MAIN EXHIBIT VOLUME OR THE RESEARCH CENTER. THOSE WHO CHOOSE THE EXHIBIT SPACE FIRST WILL DESCEND A SERIES OF RAMPS AND

/ OR STAIRS WHILE TRAVERSALONG THIS ROUTE,

ING FOUR LEVELS OF EXHIBITS WITH STUNNING VIEWS OUT INTO THE CEDAR SWAMP TO THE NORTH.

THERE IS ALSO PRIMARY ACCESS TO THE AUDITORIUM, WHICH SITS BENEATH THE GATHERING SPACE. THE RESEARCH CENTER

IS THE OTHER MAIN VOLUME, AND CAN BE ACCESSED FROM THE GATHERING SPACE, EXHIBIT SPACE, OR FROM BEHIND IN THE PRIVATE PARKING LOT. THE VIEWING TOWER IS CONNECTED TO THE GATHERING SPACE, AND THEREFORE CAN BE ACCESSED EITHER AT FIRST ENTRY TO THE SITE, OR UPON LEAVING.

USE / CIRCULATION

5)


PEQUOT MUSEUM AND RESEARCH CENTER The museum is broken up into four distint volumes: the gathering space, the viewing tower, the museum exhibit, and the research center. The gathering space unifies the other three volumes and serves as a reference point for navigation. As well, it contains an elevated, cantilevered dining space (see adjacent picture) and an underground “320-seat auditorium for Native American dance, film, music, storytelling, and conferences”. The viewing tower is attached to this main volume, and rises up 200’ providing a reference point both for musuem guests and potential visitors who can see it from far away. As well, this towering skeletal structure allows for appreciation and education about the surrounding forests. The musuem exhibit space is a series of switchback ramps with multiple entry and exit points, as most visitors will be unable to view the massive exhibit space in its entirety in just one day. By this design, they will have a clear point of reference for when they return. As well, the exhibit space provides circulation, restroom facilities, and access to both the research center and outdoor terraces. The linear research center volume, despite its outward appearance, actually houses the majority of support facilities, including a “children’s library, atrium space, public programs department, administration offices, an archaelogical laboratory, a collection storage and retrieval facility for Native American ethnographic and archeological artifacts, and a twostory, 150,000-volume library and archive of print and electronic materials on Native American topics”.

SUPPORT FACILITIES

Mashantucket, Connecticut . 1993-98 . Polshek Partnership Architects THE DIFFICULTY OF MERGING COMPLEX VOLUMES: THE TWO ASYMETRICAL SEMICIRCLES WITH A RECTALINEAR BAR AND AN ORGANIC, RADIAL LANDFORM... an engineers nightmare! RELIANCE ON NORTH LIGHT FOR SOME INDIRECT LIGHTING OF EXHIBITS, RESEARCH LIBRARY SPACE, AND THE MAIN GATHERING SPACE (PLUS IT IS A SUPER VIEW THAT TIES TOGETHER MAN AND NATURE (SKY) AND CREATES A UNITY)....` MULTIPLE ENTRY / EXIT POINTS UNIQUE FOR A MUSEUM, YOU DONT FEEL PRESSURED TO DO IT ALL AT ONCE! MONORAIL WOULD BE A NICE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ADDITION THAT FEW BUILDINGS CAN AFFORD (i.e. GETTY CENTER...)

TECHNICAL SPECIALITIES

NORTH LIGHT, LIGHT SHELVES, SMALL FOOTPRINT, ORIENTED EAST TO WEST WITH LONG SOUTH EXPOSURE ...GOOD CAUSE IT IS COLD CLIMATE.... MINIMAL DISTURBANCE OF FOREST PROFILE, WITH EXCEPTION OF VIEWING TOWER, PROPOSAL FOR MONORAIL REDUCES VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND EMISSIONS... PARTIALLY UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS MAKE USE OF TEMPERATURE STABILITY AND ALSO TERRACED EARTHEN ROOFS OF EXHIBIT SPACE HELP NATURALLY INSULATE SPACE WHILE GIVING BACK TO NATURE BY PROVIDING VARIOUS PLANTS, HERBS, FLOWERS, AND BERRY BUSHES. LEFT FOREST INTACT ON ALL SIDES, AND DID NOT ENCROACH ON ADJACENT SWAMP... INTRODUCES EDUCATION AND AWARENESS ABOUT THE SURROUNDING FOREST, IN TURN WILL BE SUSTAINABLE IF MESSAGE IS WELL RECIEVED. WHAT ELSE?? DETAILS, MATERIALS, AND FINISHES SOUGHT TO RELATE TO TRIBE MATERIAL CULTURE, BE ORGANIC AND NATURAL (AT LEAST VISUALLY)... THAT IS TO SAY WOOD, A GREAT RENEWABLE RESOURCE, AND EARTH-TONE COLORS...TO NOT BE AN EYESORE AND RESPECT PEQUOT CULTURE!t

SUSTAINABLITY

6)


SF Field Trip: Federal Building Presentation San Francisco Federal B ildi Building Morphosis Arch 352 James ross, chris wagner, john vierra, nick seward

Design Innovation ƒ

Stop Skipped elevators to encourage exercise

ƒ

Daycare on site

ƒ

Work out center

ƒ

Outdoor courtyard on 11th, 12th, and 13th

ƒ

Hiding mechanical on top of roof with building skin

7)


continued...

Materiality: ƒ

“Let the materials speak for itself”

ƒ

Exposed concrete and steel

ƒ

Composite cement board

ƒ

Perforated maple panels (lobby entry) – gives warmth

ƒ

green glass façade

ƒ

metal scrim

ƒ

- A unique concrete mix - lowering lighting costs: slag cement

Sustainability ƒ

The building deploys an integrated custom window wall to regulate internal comfort standards through natural ventilation, thermal mass storage, t and d both b th passive i and d active ti sun shading

ƒ

Saves 50% cost in heating and cooling – operable windows and mechanical louvers

ƒ

Building is thin to allow natural light to penetrate (note the low cubical height)

ƒ

recycled granite plaza

ƒ

Recycled rubber for kids playground

ƒ

small footprint

Spatial p Experience p ƒ Evocative structure: The undulating concrete roof slabs ƒ Architecture A hit t iincorporates t art: t The Th giant i t translucent t l t glow l lamps l ƒ Entry space verticality: Lobby as a cathedral ƒ Blur the line between circulation and gathering space: giant steps ƒ The office as a community exchange: three three-story story connecting lobbies ƒ Exposed and honest: Materials allowed to show “natural” texture / form ƒ hot and cold: Concrete and steel compete with perforated wood panels ƒ Daylight to the max: thin building form allows natural daylight to penetrate ƒ Garden terrace in the sky: a place to gather / a place to gaze

8)


Part 3: Design Development Design development began with a trip to the actual site for the proposed Chumash Museum. The site is a beautiful location flanked by cliffs on three sides, on the bluff just to the east of Avila Beach. The client, Fred Collins, and developer, Rob Rossi, provided the studio with in-depth history of both the Chumash occupation and significance of the site, as well as the more recent involvement and contamination from the oil industry. This site visit was followed by a series of site analysis projects that helped to develop a clear understanding of the site’s potential advantages, as well as pitfalls.

Through

plan and section analysis, initial designs for both the site

as a whole and the museum were developed and revised.

Through

a series of

gesture models and hand-drawings, my initial museum design changed significantly, ultimately leading up to the first midterm design.

Relationship

diagrams, program revisions and matrices, and three-dimensional blocks helped to develop a more effective design synthesis.

During all of this process, I tried to stay true to my initial conceptual ideas, focusing on a form that would relate well to the landscape, maximize amazing views, and function well in terms of environmental response.

9)


Site Visit

as seen from fossil point

Pacific Ocean (south)

Avila Beach (west)

Pismo / Shell Beach (east)

10)


continued... miscellaneous photos

view north towards rolling hills

existing oil infrastructure

flat pad near fossil point

avila beach

existing oil infrastructure

fossil point

11)


Site Analysis Powerpoint SITE LOCATION: GENERAL

SITE LOCATION: SPECIFIC

Fossil Point ((Avila Beach))

The Earth The USA

Chumash Museum and Healingg / Education Center: Site Analysis y

California

S Luis San L Ob Obispo C County t

FOSSIL POINT, AVILA BEACH, CA CHRIS WAGNER & JAMES ROSS : ARCH 351 YIN : FALL 2007

NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT

PHYSICAL FEATURES

PHYSICAL FEATURES

Natural Features Trees Brush Roads / Paths / Plateaus Beach Ocean

Manmade Features Existing Structure

12)


SENSORY EVALUATION

CLIMATE

Maximum Average

VISUAL

Main Access Road

Decembe er

Octobe er

Novembe er

Juuly

Maay

Junne

Ap pril

Septembe er

S Secondary d Roads R d / Pedestrian P d t Paths P th

August

Alternate Access / Main Road

Marc ch

Minimum

January

AUDIBLE

Annual Temperature

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 February

OLFACTORY

(De egrees Fahhrenheit)

CIRCULATION

(Month)

TACTILE

Sun Path Diagram for 36 degrees North latitude

SIZE AND ZONING Total Land: 95 acres (20% Buildable) Zoning: Industrial

Miscellaneous Information:

Avila Beach (93424) Population: p 797 (2000 Census) Latitude: 35.2 N Longitude: -120. 8 Elevation: 196 ft (Fossil Point Site)

*data sourced from nearest city: Pismo Beach, CA

continued...

SOURCES 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

City-data.com Western Regional Climate Center Online Google Images Onsite Photography Wikipedia.com S t Visit Site V t Experience E & Sk Sketches t h Arch 207 Blackboard References

13)


Initial Overall Site Analysis The

comprehensive site plan

initial site analysis provided a

basic understanding of the site as a whole, while providing the opportunity to start thinking about circulation, structure placement and relationships, views, and climatic response.

While

existing vegetation

the

site is rather large, it is also precariously steep and jagged, with ackward, man-made plateaus carved out of the bedrock.

Vegetation

onsite is

sparse, and mostly unnatural due to constraints of the oil depots.

The

native oaks and chapparal are sparse at best, something reintroduced.

It

I

think ought to be existing circulation

still strikes me as

amazing, that up until the site visit,

I

didn’t know anything existed above the bluff and town of

Avila Beach. Now,

hopefully, there will be an icon of the

Chumash Nation,

tastefully

designed of course..., a beacon of hope on fossil point

a healing center

Chumash, their land.

for both the now inhabit

-

and those who existing structure

14)


3D Site Collage The

three-dimensional site

collage makes explicit the phenomenal views from the site to the west, south, and east.

As

well, there is an understanding of the prodominant southwest breeze and the location of the sun at both the winter and summer solstices.

Initial

placement of the site structures shows an emphasis on seclusion and simple circulation, with the placement of the museum at the

Fossil Point. In this location, the Museum will maximize its views, and be seen from both Avila and Pismo Beach. tip near

15)


Built Topography Maps

Overall Site Topography Map

Museum Site Topography Map

scale:

scale:

1” = 200’

1” = 25’

16)


Overall Site Analysis Development Diagrams

Outdoor Spaces and Circulation

Natural and Proposed Vegetation Identified Slopes and Elevations

Activity Structures

17)


Overall Site Plan (no

scale)

The

and

Section

overall site plan developed has a major emphasis on a

system of tram and rental centers to keep patrons, guests, and employees from relying on personal vehicular access, and promoting the use of alternate transportation like electric golf carts and bicycles.

A

large public parking lot

exists just off the main access road, and another small private lot provides space for employees and campers.

The

site design allows for three distinct areas that break up the three tiers of lodging:

The

upper-tier lodges face the

ocean, while the middle-tier bungalows are more secluded back near the forest, and finally the camping spots are isolated as far as possible, as to cater to a slightly different crowd.

Support

facilities dot the remaining

landscape and plateau pads, with a natural green garden ahd path space as a central organizing element.

18)


Relationship Diagrams

19)


Volumetric Program Exploration

alternative

final layout

1

alternative

2

20)


Revised Programs

and

Matrix

Museum Program

Museum Spaces Matrix Overall Site Program

21)


Museum Initial Site Plan

(no

A

scale)

and

Section

more in-depth study of the museum site, following initial

relationship diagrams, program requirements and matrices, and volumetric program explorations yields the initial museum design.

This first access, with

concept places the public spaces

along a main

support spaces and an open plaza

between and along the sides.

The

ancillary spaces are built

into the hillside to provide views to the east and west, while making use of the thermal stability.

Meanwhile, the gallery space and lobby are more pronounced, wave-like forms that roll along the hill in a north/south direction. Referencing early concept ideas, a long-span covering shell covers rational gallery spaces beneath, while providing a dialogue between daylight transitional spaces and darkened gallery rooms.

The

possibility of underground circulation and

gallery space beneath the central plaza is also explored.

22)


Initial Gesture Model

23)


Program / Floor Plan Development

Initial Revision The

initial

Museum

Revision Process

Revision Result

Revision Process

concept is now revised through a series of plan

diagrams and sketches, and is significantly revised, moving the ancillary spaces to relate better to the topography, in a dialogue where the main public space is a wave form in the vertical direction, while the ancillary spaces are organized in a horizontal wave.

24)


Gesture Model Development

25)


Part 4.1 First Midterm Review After

weeks of site analysis and design development, the first official design

concept for the

Chumash Museum

comes into light.

idea of a wave-form that attempts to mimic the spaces where it dips and undulates.

The

The design follows the hillside, and create interesting

public spaces are organized to follow

a direct axis through fossil point, and are the most pronounced, expressive buildings.

Meanwhile,

ancillary spaces hug the edges of the plateau,

carving into the ground in an attempt to disappear into the earth.

There

is a

central plaza that breaks up the museum experience, allowing for outdoor exhibits and a connection between the public and private circulation paths.

A

water feature snakes through the site, mimicking the wave-form plan of the ancillary spaces, while providing a visual continuem for guests, which starts at the museum entrance and ends at the fossil point viewing area.

The museum is divided into two separate buildings, the first as a one-story volume, while the second contains a two-story volume with a viewing platform (the reward for making the museum journey / experience). Initial ideas of structure and skin come into play, with a longspan glulam shell that covers thermally-insulated gallery spaces.

26)


Floor Plan . Section . Vignettes scale:

1” = 50’

Lobby Perspective

Floor Plan

Section Viewing Platform Perspective

27)


Exploratory Model: 1” = 25’

28)


continued...

29)


continued...

30)


Part 4.2 Second Midterm Review The

second midterm review sees a significant revision of my original design.

The

main changes that highlight this new developing design focus on the rotation of the overall building form to perform better in terms of solar gain, daylighting, and relation to the actual topography.

The

new design has maintained the wave-

form in a sense, but now the public volumes relate well both to their function and program, and to the site as well.

Elongated

in an east

/

west direction, the

major volumes provide a sweeping gesture that attempts to continue the pattern of the surrounding hillside, as if the manmade plateaus had never been carved into the site.

As

well, each volume increases and shifts, creating ample north light

opportunities while providing for the experience of a cave, earth, and sky gallery.

This

new museum design focuses on the experience of the guest as they travel

through different environments, all enclosed still in a long-span shell above.

The

ancillary spaces, in the meantime, relate directly to the main public volumes,

almost as if they were pulled, and deconstructed off to the east axis.

The

scale

of the overall form is broken down, and the smaller buildings attempt to blend into the receding hillside. entire system together.

A

connecting pathway with a covering trellis brings the

Finally,

the overall building layout relates to a grid

created by axis lines through fossil point, and a secondary axis that runs through a smaller point, creating a unique thirty-degree shift.

31)


Floor Plan

scale:1/64”

= 1’ - 0”

32)


Elevations

and

rescaled to:

Sections 1/64” = 1’ - 0”

North Elevation

East Elevation

Longitudinal Section

Transverse Section

33)


Site Plan . Aerial Views . Interior Perspectives scale:

1/64” = 1’ - 0”

34)


Exploratory Model scale:

1” = 50’

35)


Part 5: Final Schematic Design The

final schematic design, due to its proximity to the second midterm

review, is really just a refinement of the preceding design.

The

major

revisions for this iteration revolve around the development of a more pronounced, appropriate entrance, in terms of paving, pathways, and covering.

The water feature is continued in this new design, and again leads the Museum guests from entry point to the end of the Museum experience, where breathtaking views captivate the moment. Other changes involve simplification of structure and a more in-depth understanding of connections and interplay between the major volumes, as seen in the sections. Overall, this design solution for the Chumash museum is relatively simple in plan, seemingly rational, yet expressive in three-dimensions. Given more time, more revision, I think this design could become something rather moving. Some of the original concepts were lost in the ten-week translation, but that is not to say they could not still be integrated. Some successes already can be seen in the nature connection, implimented through the connecting water pathway, daylighting through north glazing, and scripted view scenes both throughout the museum experience and well into the outdoor plaza beyond.

36)


Floor Plan

37)


Sections

38)


Elevations

and

Site Plan

East Elevation: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”

North Elevation: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”

Site Plan: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”

39)


Interior Perspectives

and

Aerial Views

Cave Gallery

Southeast Aerial View Northwest Aerial View

Earth Gallery

Sky Gallery

40)


Exploratory Model: 1/16” = 1’ - 0”

41)


continued...

42)


Part 6: Presentation Poster ...a

synthesis of process featuring the best works of the quarter: Part 1: Conceptual Development

Part 3: Design Development

Site Section

2D Concept Collage

Fossil Point Vista: East, South, West

Site Plan

Initial Gesture Model

Museum Site Section

Program / Plan Revisions

3D Concept Collage

3D Site Collage

Part 2: Site Analysis

Museum Site Plan

Parts 1,2,3

Gesture Model Revision

Part 5

Part 4

43)


Part 7: Arch 341 - Building Analysis Project The Arch 341 Building Analysis Project followed the first midterm review, and was a great opportunity to take the design process further, by studying innovations in structure, sustainability, skin, circulation, site, and concept, and then implimenting similar strategies for my own design. I ended up referencing four different, very unique buildings that lent basically the majority of inspiration for my developing design.

I

chose to synthesize what

I

had learned from

analyzing these four buildings into a comprehensive proposal for a system that would make up my own building

(that

is to

say, the hypothetical building that closely related to my first midterm design at the time).

Fortunately,

even after the sig-

nificant revisions made during the transition to the second midterm review and final schematic design, the core ideas of my building design remain intact, and hopefully, feasible.

44)


Arch 341: Building Analysis Project

Chris Wagner

.

Professor Yin

.

Fall 2007

45)


Original Project Statement My building analysis project will consist of four different buildings, which will each be used to represent specific details that I hope to integrate into my own design of the Chumash Cultural Center. Currently, I am working with a significant amount of details, and am estimating that overall there will be anywhere from twelve to eighteen diagrams used to show the six required components for building analysis: design concept and expression, site forces, major and secondary circulation and activity zones, structural system, sustainable system, and finally the building envelope system. My initial reaction is to organize these diagrams in one of two manners: first, to use an 11 x 17 module to group roughly four to six diagrams per page, and then organized them in a vertical relationship for presentation. Viewing from top to bottom, the presentation will feature roughly three to four 11 x 17 pages of diagrams leading up to an 11 x 17 section of my proposed building. This section will be an attempt to best integrate the innovations viewed in the diagram above into a comprehensive scheme. The section will not correlate exactly to my current design, but will be a gesture to the overall ideas that I hope to incorporate into my final revision (i.e. bent glulams supported by CMU bearing / shear wall with tempered, diffused glass and plywood roof, possible addition of expressive roof cladding or green roof, etc.). Finally, at the bottom of this vertical presentation, I will display the finished section detail, again showing the gesture of my conceptual building ideas as displayed in the section cut. If this idea for presentation organization falls through, I am also looking at the idea of a pamphlet that opens up left to right, with diagrams leading to a final section, and then the section cut model displayed nearby. Basically, the two ideas are very similar at the core, but with different ideas about orientation and economy of printing. The

four buildings

I

will be using for my analysis project:

1) Zentrum Paul Klee – Renzo Piano Building Workshop Bern, Switzerland Museum showcasing artwork of Paul Klee 2) Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material – Samyn and Partners Marche-en-Famenne, Belgium Facility for forestry research 3) Izumo Sport Dome – Kajima Design Corporation Izumo, Shimane Prefecture, Japan Sport Dome for various athletic events 4) Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center – Polshek Partnership Architects Mashantucket, Connecticut Museum for Mashantucket Pequot culture Each

of these four buildings contains unique innovations that

I

envision as part of my own design.

The Zentrum Paul Klee

was chosen specifically for its conceptual derivation and

expression, which is an idea of a building that creates space both inside and out through the use of a wave form in section that cuts in and out of the ground. this idea of a waving form for the

Chumash Cultural Center

since day one, and hope to still find a place for it, especially if

file to the actual topography or some other significant factor.

I

I

I

have been playing with

can better relate the swooping forms of the roof pro-

am still very interested in how the ground and waveform can work together to create meaningful, continuous outdoor

space.

As well, I plan to use the Zentrum Paul Klee as reference for the sustainable feature of east / west facing louvers. Like my own project, the Zentrum Paul Klee orients itself (incorrectly) in an elongated from running South to North. This exposes the majority of the building surface area to harsh solar gain and glare in the morning and at sundown. Consequently, there needs to be a design of a solar feature to negate the direct sunlight and solar gain. Finally, I want to reference this building because it addresses the issue of how a waveform roof both becomes a wall and merges with the ground. Although the materiality expressed does not relate to my own project, the overall expression is incredibly relevant. The

Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material, chosen initially as my primary building, now to be used primarily for reference as regards As a structural system, this building incorporates a lattice of bent heavy timbers that interlock through steel connections to form an oval dome. This lattice system is supported intermittently by concrete block walls that break up the overall dome’s span. The form of this building is dissimilar to my own conceptual idea, but my idea is to integrate the ideas about connectivity and breaking up the span, and use a similar system that works well with a one-way system. For skin, the Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material utilizes tempered, radiant glass panels that are attached to the substructure by silicon. These glass panels reflect a significant amount of the solar energy during the summer, although they do not have much capacity to insulate or prevent other methods of heat transfer. Another positive aspect of the panels is the amount of ambient light they transmit into all parts of the facility, a characteristic I hope to take advantage of in my own design. In terms of sustainability, the outside shell of this building does not do much to stop heat gain and losses, as it is an extremely thin composition of glass, silicon, steel mullions, and heavy timber. However, as I just mentioned above, the tempered, radiant glass next building

I

will analyze is the

structure, skin, and sustainability.

46)


Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

. . . . . . . . . .

of

Contents

Overview of Selected Buildings Design Concept and Expression Site Forces Major and Secondary Circulation and Activity Zones Structural System Sustainable System Building Envelope System Longitudinal Section Transverse Section Model Documentation and Works Cited

47)


Overview

of

Selected Buildings

design concept and expression

/

sustainable system

Zentrum Paul Klee Bern, Switzerland Renzo Piano Building Workshop 1999 - 2005 structural system

/

sustainable system

/

building envelope system

Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material Marche-en-Famenne, Belgium Samyn and Partners Architects 1992 - 1995 site forces

/

major and secondary circulation and activity zones

/

sustainable system

Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center Mashantucket, Connecticut Polshek Partnership Architects 1998 structural system

/

sustainable system

/

building envelope system

Izumo Dome Stadium Izumo-City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan Kajima Design Corporation 1992

48)


Design Concept

and

Expression

wave-form inspiration

conceptual sketch

Zentrum Paul Klee

The

design concept for the

Zentrum Paul Klee

was inspired by the rolling hills of the surrounding countryside.

Renzo Piano

used

these rolling forms to extract an idea of a wave form, that when translated into three dimensions, shows the wave form gradually emerge from the flatter surrounding earth of the site. outside, and above ground

/

below ground.

The

Within

this idea, there exists an inherent dialogue between inside and

museum spaces exist with the above ground portions of the wave, while the

underground wave sections create transitional spaces between exhibits as visitors are treated to a view and fresh air. also exists a unique dynamic between how the building meets the ground and how the roof becomes a wall. the building form as a whole would directly penetrate the earth at each juncture.

However,

Renzo

There

decided that

he allowed the building skin to recede

just before the intersection, while allowing the structural steel columns to continue penetration.

The

connection between roof

and wall, however, is more veiled, and while the wall and roof appear to come together at the seams from outside, the wall is actually set back rather far from the roof, while a sustainable louver screen acts to reinforce the visual cue.

roof-to-ground connection

site plan

roof-to-wall connection

49)


Site Forces The Pequot Museum

responds to a unique topography on the

eastern seaboard of

Massachusetts. The

site is isolated, and exists

near a historic swamp where old pequot trails still run.

As far as The museum is footprint (given the

the eye can see, there exists a dense cedar forest. placed in a linear direction with a minimal

enormous amount of program space), and is partially built into the hillside for both the private research space and the public exhibit space.

The

exhibit space makes the most out of its northern

orientation, and has ample glazing to make use of the natural light.

The

overall profile of the building attempts to stay low to the

ground, to blend in with the tree line of the cedar forest, while allowing the slightest view above.

However,

the giant viewing

tower acts as a symbol and locator of the pequot museum, and pequot museum: site forces response

stands out to viewers coming from a distance.

The

exhibit space is

organic and conforms to the found topography, and even goes as far as providing a green-roof terrace to blend into the environment, and earthen tones help the building blend into nature. pequot museum aerial views

view of tower

50)


Major

and

Secondary Circulation

and

Activity Zones

Visitors to the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center have access to the facility from both an outside monorail and vehicular parking. The main entrance for the entire complex (which is 320,000 square feet spread over four stories) is accessed from the east, a gesture towards common Native American practice for building entrance orientation. Private parking and entrance for staff and service members exists on the opposite side of the building, to the west.

Visitors and guests arrive at the large, radial atrium space, seen on the right, and then are given the option to continue into the organic, topography-influenced exhibit space (blue), or proceed into the rectilinear bar space (red), which is the research, library, and administration zone. In this “private� functional space, circulation follows rectilinear

auditorium beneath orientation space

corridors and moves vertically through a system of staircases and elevators.

There

are numerous patio

spaces for fresh air and access at all points to both the exhibit space and the orientation space to outside). four story

Meanwhile,

(two

(as

well as

dining platform above orientation space

the public exhibit space is a

stories underground) winding ramp and

stairway space that spirals downward while following the contours of the land.

Exhibit

space flanks north-

facing glazing and is flexible, with a free plan.

Along

the museum path, frequent exits lead to outdoor patios and even a green-roof terrace on top of the four-story space

(green). Within

the central

(brown)

space, there

exists a dining space, auditorium, elevator and mechanical core, and lobby

/

visitor

info center. exhibit space

51)


Structural System The Izumo Stadium Dome

is an

innovative wood truss dome that was built and then lifted like an umbrella into place.

The

main analysis here

focuses on the connection between the glulam truss and its translation of forces into the ground through a concrete column.

Meanwhile,

for an

innovative connection between wall and roof, the

Forestry Center

provides a

unique system of compression interior of stadium dome

/

tension heavy-timber posts on a cmu bearing wall, that provides intermediate support to a long-span toroid dome.

The

toroid dome is formed by weaving

bent heavy-timber together in pairs of two, with bolted steel connections

forestry center: wall-to-post-to-dome connection forestry center structural plan

longitudinal section

izumo stadium dome: truss-to-column connection

transverse section

dome spanning members detailed connection

52)


Sustainable System the first sustainable innovation comes from the

Zentrum Paul Klee, and is the west-facing horizontal louvers

use of to eliminate the

direct penetration of west solar light, as well as shield the gallery space from overbearing west solar gain.

Meanwhile,

the louvers

allow enough space between to still provide an important view for guests back out into the

Swiss

countryside.

In

addition, conifers

zentrum paul klee: west-facing louvers

west-facing louvers: section of gallery

planted in front of the open glazing spaces block harsh summer rays, while allowing muchneeded winter solar gain.

The

second

sustainable innovation is present both in the

Forestry Center

and

Izumo Stadium Dome, which Both make

happen to be very similar buildings.

/

use of operable

mechanical vents near the

ground level for natural ventilation to cool the spaces in summertime.

As

well, both have

unique building envelope skins that reflect

forestry center: natural ventilation

izumo stadium dome: natural ventilation and solar reflection

unwanted solar gain, while allowing in diffused natural light.

The Forestry Center

maintains

optimal thermal conditions for staff in winter by providing a large thermal mass

(cmu

structure

within) and heat-retaining panels on the walls.

The Izumo Stadium Dome

also has vents near

the top of the structure to provide a release for overheating. comes from the

The last sustainable innovation Pequot Museum’s generous

use of north light to effectively light the majority of the exhibit spaces and the orientation space as well.

pequot museum: north light response

53)


Building Envelope System

izumo stadium dome: kevlar fabric detail

Both the Izumo Stadium Dome and Forestry Center exhibit examples of innovative building envelope systems. The Izumo Stadium Dome has a

forestry center: tempered glass detail

revolutionary kevlar fabric that wraps around the radial structural frame.

The

fabric is strong enough to resist snow loads, annual rains, extreme temperatures, and even hurricane-force winds.

It

is attached to the underlying

structure through a ridge-and-furrow system where the ridge component is held in place to a steel connection, while the furrow is pulled inward with steel tensile cables.

Forestry Center

Meanwhile,

the

has a system of

repetitive tempered glass panels which are attached to the substructure with a silicon sealant.

The

substructure is then attached to the intertwined heavy-timber lattice that makes up the primary structure.

54)


Longitudinal Section In

response to the innovations gathered from the four-building analysis,

I have now attempted to create an initial, rather conceptual Chumash Museum. While the exact dimensions of this proposed structure do not correspond with complete accuracy to my current design, the form, spaces, and ideas (and general proportions) have been left as integral components to the design. Influenced by the wave-form derived by Renzo Piano for the Zentrum Paul Klee, I too have set out to integrate a wave-form into my design that corresponds to a different site. My idea for this wave-form is a dialogue between the earth the sky, darkness and light, opaque qualities and transparency, and how this dialogue can relate / innovate all aspects of my first idea for the revision of my

and

55)


Transverse Section design, from structure, to materiality, to the location of glazing, etc.

I

am also planning to provide intermediate space between my

galleries for rest, fresh air, and views-spaces created by the underground movement of the wave-form. the different connections between the roof to the wall, as opposed to the roof to the ground.

I

Finally, I

was influenced by

have designed a continuous roof that

meets the ground, with skin receding just before the earth, while on the sides the wall connection

(structural) indents, with a (brise-soliel) feature that provides a transparent connection from the roof to the wall, wall to the ground. As regards site forces, I am considering an idea of lowering my building partially into the ground, and matching the vertical profile of the site with my own roof profile, However, at the tip of fossil point, I will elevate the tip of the museum into the sky, creating a gesture for the resurgent Chumash culture. As the site, Avila Beach, is a temperate, comfortable location year-round, I am only most concerned with integrating natural ventilation that blows off from the ocean. In terms of circulation, I am exploring a dialogue that, like the pequot museum, will separate public and private spaces, yet tie them together with an orientation volume. I also am interested in portraying the private, functional spaces as rational, simple volumes, while expressing the museum space as an organic, dynamic form (i.e. the wave-form). For the structural system, I have chosen to integrate long-span glulams with a cmu / heavy-timber sun-shade

system that provides intermediate support, a thermal mass, and direct light control.

Where

the glulams

connect to the ground and transfer the forces, an engineered concrete anchor and foundation will accept the loads and transfer them to the surrounding soil.

As

well, steel connections will be the

transition between the cmu wall to the timber frame, and between the timber frame and long-span glulams.

56)


Model Documentation

As

regards sustainability,

I

and

Works Cited

will be focusing on the integration of prevalent north-lighting on all parts of the roof that

feature a north-facing curve.

Operable / mechanical louvers will provide natural ventilation through the building in both For the building envelope, I will include tempered glass skylights which will allow daylight to penetrate the gallery and lobby spaces, and will be operable to allow for stack ventilation during summer months. A brise-soliel curtain wall system will keep east / west sunlight from directly entering the museum spaces, while allowing ventilation and diffused light. Above the gallery spaces, a kevlar fabric screen will be dropped down from above, further diffusing light from above and around, while masking mechanical equipment in the exposed rafters. a longitudinal and transverse manner.

1) Stungo, Naomi. Wood: New Directions 2) Strauss, Susan,

and

Sean Sawyer,

in

eds.

Design

and

Architecture. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001.

Polshek Partnership Architects 1988-2004. Princeton Architectural P, 2004.

3) Renzo Piano Building Workshop. <http://rpbw.r.ui-pro.com/>. 4) Samyn

and

Partners. <http://www.samynandpartners.be/>.

5) Kajima Design. <http://www.kajimadesign.co.uk/kajima_design/project/izumo.htm>. 6) Polshek Partnership Architects: <http://www.polshek.com/>. 7) Ching, Frank,

and

Cassandra Adams. Building Construction Illustrated. 3rd

ed.

Jon Wiley

and

Sons, 2000.

57)


Conclusion To

begin,

I

and

must admit

Final Thoughts I

was skeptical, to say the least, when

was going to do another

However,

Chumash Museum,

throughout these last ten weeks

and in fact,

I

I

for the second quarter in a

I

I row!

learned that

have really enjoyed the project

am grateful for the chance to learn from past mistakes, and

develop ideas into a field where

I

had previous experience.

What

really made

the project meaningful for me was the involvement and enthusiasm of the clients and developer, in particular the passion of

Fred Collins. As

well,

I

was fortunate enough to receive consistent, daily critique and direction that, although difficult to accept at times, proved an essential foundation to many of my successful ideas.

Again, I

What

can

I

say, we had a pretty good time overall!

was fortunate to be in the presence of good friends, who didn’t let

me take architecture too seriously every day, and offered support in so many ways, whenever

I

needed it.

My

critiques of the class structure would have

to be that the second midterm review was somewhat overkill, unnecessary, and seemed to kill our studio’s momentum into the final few weeks. the numerous requirements at the end begin to seem like busy work the poster and book are one in the same).

Overall, I

As well, (for me,

am very content with

this quarter’s experience, and look forward to seeing the real world progress of this come.

Chumash

dream

-

both next quarter, and into the years that

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Arch 351 Final Book