Arch 351 Chris Wagner
Project: Chumash Cultural Museum - Fossil Point, Avila Beach, California
1) Part 1: Conceptual Development 2) 2D / 3D Concept Collages 3) Part 2: Research 4) Cultural Matrix 5) Museum Precedent Study 6) continued... 7) San Fran Field Trip: Federal Bldg Presentation 8) continued... 9) Part 3: Design Development 10) Site Visit 11) continued... 12) Site Analysis Powerpoint 13) continued... 14) Initial Overall Site Analysis 15) 3D Site Collage 16) Built Topography Models 17) Overall Site Analysis Development Diagrams 18) Overall Site Plan and Section 19) Relationship Diagrams 20) Volumetric Program Exploration 21) Revised Programs and Matrix
22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42)
Initial Museum Site Plan and Section Initial Gesture Model Program / Floor Plan Development Gesture Model Development
Part 4.1: First Midterm Review Floor Plan / Section / Vignettes Exploratory Model continued... continued...
Part 4.2: Second Midterm Review Floor Plan Elevations and Sections Site Plan / Aerial Views / Int. Perspectives Exploratory Model
Part 5: Final Schematic Design Floor Plan Sections Elevations / Site Plan Interior Perspectives / Aerial Views Exploratory Model continued...
43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58)
Part 6: Presentation Poster Part 7: Arch 341 Project Title Page: Building Analysis Project Original Project Statement Table of Contents Overview of Selected Buildings Design Concept and Expression Site Forces Circulation and Activity Zones Structural System Sustainable System Building Envelope System Longitudinal Section Transverse Section Model Documentation and Works Cited
Part 1: Conceptual Development The
Chumash Indian Tribe can not take place without an explicit connection with nature. The Chumash Indians once inhabited the very land that we â€œcoastal Californiansâ€? now call the coveted Central Coast. They lived lightly on the land, giving back to nature for everything they borrowed, and at all times consciously strove for a harmonious existence. This integral connection to nature is the basis for my own concept ideas about what a Chumash Museum should be. In my two-dimensional collage, concept for a cultural museum representing the
there is an exploration of a building that will focus on the incorporation of natural providence, that is to say the benefits we can reap from wind, water, earth, sun, and the seasons.
envisioned a building with a solid,
earthen core surrounded by circulation and support in the form of lightweight, non-intrusive pathways.
three-dimensional collage continues these themes,
and adds to them, by focusing on the integration of found, natural materials that blend into the site, and the idea of large plazas covered by a light-diffusing outer shell.
client envisioned a long-span open structure with flexible
and along these lines,
that comes along with a long-span
I too system.
will pursue the form and function
2D / 3D Collages The 3D
collage explores the dialogue between
an earthen plaza and a light, tranlucent shell that covers it, providing shelter from the elements, yet allowing penetration of daylight, wind, and breathtaking views.
spaces jut out from
the main core in a lightweight fashion, like the wings of a bird.
The form seeks a relationship with the landscape, with a pronounced aerodynamic shape.
collage explores ideas of natural
relationships, that is to say the potential of integrating all aspects of the natural world into the built environment, hoping not only to be efficient in terms of lighting, heating, cooling, etc. but to reach a state of balance between manmade and natural.
these various elements come into existence, weave together, and are ultimately integrated gives life to the design challenge, and provides sufficient inspiration for process.
Part 2: Research The research process further enhanced a basic understanding of the Chumash Culture, while providing essential inspiration and a foundational background in museum design from a precedent study and field trip. The cultural matrices developed by the studio as a group helped to provide visual
Chumash Indian Tribe. A field trip to San Francisco exposed the studio to high-profile firms and cuttingedge architecture, in particular the San Francisco Federal Building by Morphosis. This building provided inspiration for my own project, in terms of a rational, semi-rectilinear structure covered in an expressive, diffusing skin. Researching a built museum proved to be the most beneficial of the research projects, and I was fortunate enough to learn about a similar project in Massachusetts for the Pequot Indians. This museum inspired me to pursue circulation that linked the service and served spaces, and the public and private spaces as well. Also, it influenced me with its large atrium space, entered from the east, that serves to orient visitors and employees alike, then directs them to their respective spaces. Finally, the museum had a true connection to the landscape, seeking to blend into the treeline, while providing a beacon, or gesture, high into the sky with the viewing tower. reference and more information regarding the
Cultural Matrix One
of the most interesting and well-documented
Chumash is basketweaving. Baskets,
aspects of the
their proficient skills
and weaving in general,
played a huge role in the success of
structures, waterbottles, food-storage containers, and other textiles.
Using native reeds, the chumash could weave intricate, patterned baskets that, when coated with tar, could even hold water! This technology also extends into their water transportation, the
canoes, which were built
as planks, sewn together at the seems, and essentially caulked with tar to prevent water penetration.
interior framework kept these canoes
together, just the tied seams and tar.
The Chumash also made artifacts out of obsidian and seashells, notably objects like mortar and pestels, jewelry, and turtle carvings. These surviving artifacts and baskets are not plentiful, and will not survive indefinitely. The current situation provides more than enough reason for the need of a comprehensive
Chumash Cultural Center
to protect, collect, and
educate all people about the
CHUMASH BASKETS AND ARTIFACTS
CHRIS WAGNER . JAMES ROSS . PAUL RUPPERT
Museum Precedent Study PEQUOT MUSEUM AND RESEARCH CENTER The inspiration for this volumetrically complex museum has many components. The overall concept was to create four unique sectors with appropriate corresponding massing and aesthetic qualities aligned symbolically and literally along the cardinal directions. The main exhibit space is partially buried in the hillside, an organic landform that steps down in terraces, while providing picturesque views of the adjacent swamp and cedar forest. Conceptually, this radial form conforms to the topography of the site both in a vertical and horizontal nature. The outer edge of the form follows the natural inclination of the forest tree line, and the green roof of the structure becomes a mediator between nature and the built environment. The enormous, circular volume is the most prolific of the project’s spaces, and at ground level functions as a ritual gathering space.
and entry. Beneath lies an auditorium, with access from the exhibit space. This dynamic combination of two semicircles, one clad in glass with exposed steel, the other clad in natural wood panels, refers first to the plan of a fortified Pequot village where a massacre took place in 1637, and secondly to the exposed skeletal structural system of a typical Pequot wigwam or longhouse. The next space is the long, rectilinear bar that extends southwest of the site. This is the research center, a linear volume with two stories above ground, and another two beneath. The facade of this bar was inspired conceptually by an abstraction of a wampum belt, with a dialogue between open glazing, and white and black panel cladding. Finally, the observation tower marks the entry to the complex, as well as creating a vertical contrast to the otherwise horizontal nature of the facility as a whole. Symbolizing metaphorically the resurgence of the Pequot tribe, the tower reaches for the heavens.
CONCEPT AND FORM
Mashantucket, Connecticut . 1993-98 . Polshek Partnership Architects The site is located near the south-eastern seaboard of Massachusetts, in the middle of a historic cedar swamp where a Pequot trail once linked the tribal fishing grounds to inland villages. The overall facility size is enormous, at roughly 320,000 square feet, with the museum portion taking up a respectable 85,000 square feet. In an effort to change perspective on the Pequot Tribe, previously known to be near extinction and the driving force behind a successful casino, the architect and client hoped to create a museum and research center to not only share the Pequot Tribe’s history with the world, but also to preserve their own culture, attract more Pequots to come back to their native lands, and ensure a better future for Pequot generations to come. Conceptually, the architects tried to marry the building to the site by making use of a north -facing slope and minimizing the overall building footprint through a balance between building vertically and spreading out horizontally. Each volumetric mass corresponds to a different function, and all relate back in some way to the history, artifacts, and culture of the Pequot. There is a conscious dialogue on the site between respecting nature and the landscape, and building with innovative, modern technology. The building forms, for the most part, attempt to relate to the natural contours of not only the land, but the prevalent vegetation. Great effort was taken to avoid disturbing the inspirational woodlands and nearby swamp, yet at the same time, there was a need to appreciate the stunning vista and admire the undisturbed land, hence the viewing tower.
SITE AND CONTEXT
ACCESS TO THE SITE CURRENTLY EXISTS THROUGH TYPICAL GROUND TRANSPORTATION, WITH BOTH A PUBLIC ENTRANCE THAT SWINGS BY THE CIRCULAR GATHERING AREA VOLUME, AND PRIVATE ENTRANCE TOWARDS THE BACK OF THE RESEARCH CENTER WITH ADDITIONAL STAFF PARKING. HOWEVER, A PLAN YET TO BE REALIZED CALLS FOR A MORE SUSTAINABLE APPROACH, WITH A PROPOSED MONORAIL THAT WOULD WIND SLOWLY THROUGH THE PICTURESQUE WOODLANDS EN ROUTE TO ARRIVE AT THE EASTERN ENTRY POINT NEAR THE IMPOSING VIEWING TOWER.
AS FAR AS BASIC CIRCULATION IS CONCERNED, VISITORS
ARRIVE AT THE GATHERING SPACE (LOBBY) AND CAN CHOOSE TO PROCEED INTO THE MAIN EXHIBIT VOLUME OR THE RESEARCH CENTER. THOSE WHO CHOOSE THE EXHIBIT SPACE FIRST WILL DESCEND A SERIES OF RAMPS AND
/ OR STAIRS WHILE TRAVERSALONG THIS ROUTE,
ING FOUR LEVELS OF EXHIBITS WITH STUNNING VIEWS OUT INTO THE CEDAR SWAMP TO THE NORTH.
THERE IS ALSO PRIMARY ACCESS TO THE AUDITORIUM, WHICH SITS BENEATH THE GATHERING SPACE. THE RESEARCH CENTER
IS THE OTHER MAIN VOLUME, AND CAN BE ACCESSED FROM THE GATHERING SPACE, EXHIBIT SPACE, OR FROM BEHIND IN THE PRIVATE PARKING LOT. THE VIEWING TOWER IS CONNECTED TO THE GATHERING SPACE, AND THEREFORE CAN BE ACCESSED EITHER AT FIRST ENTRY TO THE SITE, OR UPON LEAVING.
USE / CIRCULATION
PEQUOT MUSEUM AND RESEARCH CENTER The museum is broken up into four distint volumes: the gathering space, the viewing tower, the museum exhibit, and the research center. The gathering space unifies the other three volumes and serves as a reference point for navigation. As well, it contains an elevated, cantilevered dining space (see adjacent picture) and an underground “320-seat auditorium for Native American dance, film, music, storytelling, and conferences”. The viewing tower is attached to this main volume, and rises up 200’ providing a reference point both for musuem guests and potential visitors who can see it from far away. As well, this towering skeletal structure allows for appreciation and education about the surrounding forests. The musuem exhibit space is a series of switchback ramps with multiple entry and exit points, as most visitors will be unable to view the massive exhibit space in its entirety in just one day. By this design, they will have a clear point of reference for when they return. As well, the exhibit space provides circulation, restroom facilities, and access to both the research center and outdoor terraces. The linear research center volume, despite its outward appearance, actually houses the majority of support facilities, including a “children’s library, atrium space, public programs department, administration offices, an archaelogical laboratory, a collection storage and retrieval facility for Native American ethnographic and archeological artifacts, and a twostory, 150,000-volume library and archive of print and electronic materials on Native American topics”.
Mashantucket, Connecticut . 1993-98 . Polshek Partnership Architects THE DIFFICULTY OF MERGING COMPLEX VOLUMES: THE TWO ASYMETRICAL SEMICIRCLES WITH A RECTALINEAR BAR AND AN ORGANIC, RADIAL LANDFORM... an engineers nightmare! RELIANCE ON NORTH LIGHT FOR SOME INDIRECT LIGHTING OF EXHIBITS, RESEARCH LIBRARY SPACE, AND THE MAIN GATHERING SPACE (PLUS IT IS A SUPER VIEW THAT TIES TOGETHER MAN AND NATURE (SKY) AND CREATES A UNITY)....` MULTIPLE ENTRY / EXIT POINTS UNIQUE FOR A MUSEUM, YOU DONT FEEL PRESSURED TO DO IT ALL AT ONCE! MONORAIL WOULD BE A NICE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ADDITION THAT FEW BUILDINGS CAN AFFORD (i.e. GETTY CENTER...)
NORTH LIGHT, LIGHT SHELVES, SMALL FOOTPRINT, ORIENTED EAST TO WEST WITH LONG SOUTH EXPOSURE ...GOOD CAUSE IT IS COLD CLIMATE.... MINIMAL DISTURBANCE OF FOREST PROFILE, WITH EXCEPTION OF VIEWING TOWER, PROPOSAL FOR MONORAIL REDUCES VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND EMISSIONS... PARTIALLY UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS MAKE USE OF TEMPERATURE STABILITY AND ALSO TERRACED EARTHEN ROOFS OF EXHIBIT SPACE HELP NATURALLY INSULATE SPACE WHILE GIVING BACK TO NATURE BY PROVIDING VARIOUS PLANTS, HERBS, FLOWERS, AND BERRY BUSHES. LEFT FOREST INTACT ON ALL SIDES, AND DID NOT ENCROACH ON ADJACENT SWAMP... INTRODUCES EDUCATION AND AWARENESS ABOUT THE SURROUNDING FOREST, IN TURN WILL BE SUSTAINABLE IF MESSAGE IS WELL RECIEVED. WHAT ELSE?? DETAILS, MATERIALS, AND FINISHES SOUGHT TO RELATE TO TRIBE MATERIAL CULTURE, BE ORGANIC AND NATURAL (AT LEAST VISUALLY)... THAT IS TO SAY WOOD, A GREAT RENEWABLE RESOURCE, AND EARTH-TONE COLORS...TO NOT BE AN EYESORE AND RESPECT PEQUOT CULTURE!t
SF Field Trip: Federal Building Presentation San Francisco Federal B ildi Building Morphosis Arch 352 James ross, chris wagner, john vierra, nick seward
Stop Skipped elevators to encourage exercise
Daycare on site
Work out center
Outdoor courtyard on 11th, 12th, and 13th
Hiding mechanical on top of roof with building skin
“Let the materials speak for itself”
Exposed concrete and steel
Composite cement board
Perforated maple panels (lobby entry) – gives warmth
green glass façade
- A unique concrete mix - lowering lighting costs: slag cement
The building deploys an integrated custom window wall to regulate internal comfort standards through natural ventilation, thermal mass storage, t and d both b th passive i and d active ti sun shading
Saves 50% cost in heating and cooling – operable windows and mechanical louvers
Building is thin to allow natural light to penetrate (note the low cubical height)
recycled granite plaza
Recycled rubber for kids playground
Spatial p Experience p Evocative structure: The undulating concrete roof slabs Architecture A hit t iincorporates t art: t The Th giant i t translucent t l t glow l lamps l Entry space verticality: Lobby as a cathedral Blur the line between circulation and gathering space: giant steps The office as a community exchange: three three-story story connecting lobbies Exposed and honest: Materials allowed to show “natural” texture / form hot and cold: Concrete and steel compete with perforated wood panels Daylight to the max: thin building form allows natural daylight to penetrate Garden terrace in the sky: a place to gather / a place to gaze
Part 3: Design Development Design development began with a trip to the actual site for the proposed Chumash Museum. The site is a beautiful location flanked by cliffs on three sides, on the bluff just to the east of Avila Beach. The client, Fred Collins, and developer, Rob Rossi, provided the studio with in-depth history of both the Chumash occupation and significance of the site, as well as the more recent involvement and contamination from the oil industry. This site visit was followed by a series of site analysis projects that helped to develop a clear understanding of the siteâ€™s potential advantages, as well as pitfalls.
plan and section analysis, initial designs for both the site
as a whole and the museum were developed and revised.
a series of
gesture models and hand-drawings, my initial museum design changed significantly, ultimately leading up to the first midterm design.
diagrams, program revisions and matrices, and three-dimensional blocks helped to develop a more effective design synthesis.
During all of this process, I tried to stay true to my initial conceptual ideas, focusing on a form that would relate well to the landscape, maximize amazing views, and function well in terms of environmental response.
as seen from fossil point
Pacific Ocean (south)
Avila Beach (west)
Pismo / Shell Beach (east)
continued... miscellaneous photos
view north towards rolling hills
existing oil infrastructure
flat pad near fossil point
existing oil infrastructure
Site Analysis Powerpoint SITE LOCATION: GENERAL
SITE LOCATION: SPECIFIC
Fossil Point ((Avila Beach))
The Earth The USA
Chumash Museum and Healingg / Education Center: Site Analysis y
S Luis San L Ob Obispo C County t
FOSSIL POINT, AVILA BEACH, CA CHRIS WAGNER & JAMES ROSS : ARCH 351 YIN : FALL 2007
Natural Features Trees Brush Roads / Paths / Plateaus Beach Ocean
Manmade Features Existing Structure
Main Access Road
S Secondary d Roads R d / Pedestrian P d t Paths P th
Alternate Access / Main Road
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 February
(De egrees Fahhrenheit)
Sun Path Diagram for 36 degrees North latitude
SIZE AND ZONING Total Land: 95 acres (20% Buildable) Zoning: Industrial
Avila Beach (93424) Population: p 797 (2000 Census) Latitude: 35.2 N Longitude: -120. 8 Elevation: 196 ft (Fossil Point Site)
*data sourced from nearest city: Pismo Beach, CA
SOURCES 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)
City-data.com Western Regional Climate Center Online Google Images Onsite Photography Wikipedia.com S t Visit Site V t Experience E & Sk Sketches t h Arch 207 Blackboard References
Initial Overall Site Analysis The
comprehensive site plan
initial site analysis provided a
basic understanding of the site as a whole, while providing the opportunity to start thinking about circulation, structure placement and relationships, views, and climatic response.
site is rather large, it is also precariously steep and jagged, with ackward, man-made plateaus carved out of the bedrock.
sparse, and mostly unnatural due to constraints of the oil depots.
native oaks and chapparal are sparse at best, something reintroduced.
think ought to be existing circulation
still strikes me as
amazing, that up until the site visit,
didnâ€™t know anything existed above the bluff and town of
Avila Beach. Now,
hopefully, there will be an icon of the
designed of course..., a beacon of hope on fossil point
a healing center
Chumash, their land.
for both the now inhabit
and those who existing structure
3D Site Collage The
collage makes explicit the phenomenal views from the site to the west, south, and east.
well, there is an understanding of the prodominant southwest breeze and the location of the sun at both the winter and summer solstices.
placement of the site structures shows an emphasis on seclusion and simple circulation, with the placement of the museum at the
Fossil Point. In this location, the Museum will maximize its views, and be seen from both Avila and Pismo Beach. tip near
Built Topography Maps
Overall Site Topography Map
Museum Site Topography Map
1” = 200’
1” = 25’
Overall Site Analysis Development Diagrams
Outdoor Spaces and Circulation
Natural and Proposed Vegetation Identified Slopes and Elevations
Overall Site Plan (no
overall site plan developed has a major emphasis on a
system of tram and rental centers to keep patrons, guests, and employees from relying on personal vehicular access, and promoting the use of alternate transportation like electric golf carts and bicycles.
large public parking lot
exists just off the main access road, and another small private lot provides space for employees and campers.
site design allows for three distinct areas that break up the three tiers of lodging:
upper-tier lodges face the
ocean, while the middle-tier bungalows are more secluded back near the forest, and finally the camping spots are isolated as far as possible, as to cater to a slightly different crowd.
facilities dot the remaining
landscape and plateau pads, with a natural green garden ahd path space as a central organizing element.
Volumetric Program Exploration
Museum Spaces Matrix Overall Site Program
Museum Initial Site Plan
more in-depth study of the museum site, following initial
relationship diagrams, program requirements and matrices, and volumetric program explorations yields the initial museum design.
This first access, with
concept places the public spaces
along a main
support spaces and an open plaza
between and along the sides.
ancillary spaces are built
into the hillside to provide views to the east and west, while making use of the thermal stability.
Meanwhile, the gallery space and lobby are more pronounced, wave-like forms that roll along the hill in a north/south direction. Referencing early concept ideas, a long-span covering shell covers rational gallery spaces beneath, while providing a dialogue between daylight transitional spaces and darkened gallery rooms.
possibility of underground circulation and
gallery space beneath the central plaza is also explored.
Initial Gesture Model
Program / Floor Plan Development
Initial Revision The
concept is now revised through a series of plan
diagrams and sketches, and is significantly revised, moving the ancillary spaces to relate better to the topography, in a dialogue where the main public space is a wave form in the vertical direction, while the ancillary spaces are organized in a horizontal wave.
Gesture Model Development
Part 4.1 First Midterm Review After
weeks of site analysis and design development, the first official design
concept for the
comes into light.
idea of a wave-form that attempts to mimic the spaces where it dips and undulates.
The design follows the hillside, and create interesting
public spaces are organized to follow
a direct axis through fossil point, and are the most pronounced, expressive buildings.
ancillary spaces hug the edges of the plateau,
carving into the ground in an attempt to disappear into the earth.
central plaza that breaks up the museum experience, allowing for outdoor exhibits and a connection between the public and private circulation paths.
water feature snakes through the site, mimicking the wave-form plan of the ancillary spaces, while providing a visual continuem for guests, which starts at the museum entrance and ends at the fossil point viewing area.
The museum is divided into two separate buildings, the first as a one-story volume, while the second contains a two-story volume with a viewing platform (the reward for making the museum journey / experience). Initial ideas of structure and skin come into play, with a longspan glulam shell that covers thermally-insulated gallery spaces.
Floor Plan . Section . Vignettes scale:
1” = 50’
Section Viewing Platform Perspective
Exploratory Model: 1” = 25’
Part 4.2 Second Midterm Review The
second midterm review sees a significant revision of my original design.
main changes that highlight this new developing design focus on the rotation of the overall building form to perform better in terms of solar gain, daylighting, and relation to the actual topography.
new design has maintained the wave-
form in a sense, but now the public volumes relate well both to their function and program, and to the site as well.
in an east
west direction, the
major volumes provide a sweeping gesture that attempts to continue the pattern of the surrounding hillside, as if the manmade plateaus had never been carved into the site.
well, each volume increases and shifts, creating ample north light
opportunities while providing for the experience of a cave, earth, and sky gallery.
new museum design focuses on the experience of the guest as they travel
through different environments, all enclosed still in a long-span shell above.
ancillary spaces, in the meantime, relate directly to the main public volumes,
almost as if they were pulled, and deconstructed off to the east axis.
of the overall form is broken down, and the smaller buildings attempt to blend into the receding hillside. entire system together.
connecting pathway with a covering trellis brings the
the overall building layout relates to a grid
created by axis lines through fossil point, and a secondary axis that runs through a smaller point, creating a unique thirty-degree shift.
= 1’ - 0”
Sections 1/64” = 1’ - 0”
Site Plan . Aerial Views . Interior Perspectives scale:
1/64” = 1’ - 0”
Exploratory Model scale:
1” = 50’
Part 5: Final Schematic Design The
final schematic design, due to its proximity to the second midterm
review, is really just a refinement of the preceding design.
revisions for this iteration revolve around the development of a more pronounced, appropriate entrance, in terms of paving, pathways, and covering.
The water feature is continued in this new design, and again leads the Museum guests from entry point to the end of the Museum experience, where breathtaking views captivate the moment. Other changes involve simplification of structure and a more in-depth understanding of connections and interplay between the major volumes, as seen in the sections. Overall, this design solution for the Chumash museum is relatively simple in plan, seemingly rational, yet expressive in three-dimensions. Given more time, more revision, I think this design could become something rather moving. Some of the original concepts were lost in the ten-week translation, but that is not to say they could not still be integrated. Some successes already can be seen in the nature connection, implimented through the connecting water pathway, daylighting through north glazing, and scripted view scenes both throughout the museum experience and well into the outdoor plaza beyond.
East Elevation: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”
North Elevation: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”
Site Plan: 1/64” = 1’ - 0”
Southeast Aerial View Northwest Aerial View
Exploratory Model: 1/16” = 1’ - 0”
Part 6: Presentation Poster ...a
synthesis of process featuring the best works of the quarter: Part 1: Conceptual Development
Part 3: Design Development
2D Concept Collage
Fossil Point Vista: East, South, West
Initial Gesture Model
Museum Site Section
Program / Plan Revisions
3D Concept Collage
3D Site Collage
Part 2: Site Analysis
Museum Site Plan
Gesture Model Revision
Part 7: Arch 341 - Building Analysis Project The Arch 341 Building Analysis Project followed the first midterm review, and was a great opportunity to take the design process further, by studying innovations in structure, sustainability, skin, circulation, site, and concept, and then implimenting similar strategies for my own design. I ended up referencing four different, very unique buildings that lent basically the majority of inspiration for my developing design.
chose to synthesize what
had learned from
analyzing these four buildings into a comprehensive proposal for a system that would make up my own building
say, the hypothetical building that closely related to my first midterm design at the time).
even after the sig-
nificant revisions made during the transition to the second midterm review and final schematic design, the core ideas of my building design remain intact, and hopefully, feasible.
Arch 341: Building Analysis Project
Original Project Statement My building analysis project will consist of four different buildings, which will each be used to represent specific details that I hope to integrate into my own design of the Chumash Cultural Center. Currently, I am working with a significant amount of details, and am estimating that overall there will be anywhere from twelve to eighteen diagrams used to show the six required components for building analysis: design concept and expression, site forces, major and secondary circulation and activity zones, structural system, sustainable system, and finally the building envelope system. My initial reaction is to organize these diagrams in one of two manners: first, to use an 11 x 17 module to group roughly four to six diagrams per page, and then organized them in a vertical relationship for presentation. Viewing from top to bottom, the presentation will feature roughly three to four 11 x 17 pages of diagrams leading up to an 11 x 17 section of my proposed building. This section will be an attempt to best integrate the innovations viewed in the diagram above into a comprehensive scheme. The section will not correlate exactly to my current design, but will be a gesture to the overall ideas that I hope to incorporate into my final revision (i.e. bent glulams supported by CMU bearing / shear wall with tempered, diffused glass and plywood roof, possible addition of expressive roof cladding or green roof, etc.). Finally, at the bottom of this vertical presentation, I will display the finished section detail, again showing the gesture of my conceptual building ideas as displayed in the section cut. If this idea for presentation organization falls through, I am also looking at the idea of a pamphlet that opens up left to right, with diagrams leading to a final section, and then the section cut model displayed nearby. Basically, the two ideas are very similar at the core, but with different ideas about orientation and economy of printing. The
will be using for my analysis project:
1) Zentrum Paul Klee – Renzo Piano Building Workshop Bern, Switzerland Museum showcasing artwork of Paul Klee 2) Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material – Samyn and Partners Marche-en-Famenne, Belgium Facility for forestry research 3) Izumo Sport Dome – Kajima Design Corporation Izumo, Shimane Prefecture, Japan Sport Dome for various athletic events 4) Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center – Polshek Partnership Architects Mashantucket, Connecticut Museum for Mashantucket Pequot culture Each
of these four buildings contains unique innovations that
envision as part of my own design.
The Zentrum Paul Klee
was chosen specifically for its conceptual derivation and
expression, which is an idea of a building that creates space both inside and out through the use of a wave form in section that cuts in and out of the ground. this idea of a waving form for the
Chumash Cultural Center
since day one, and hope to still find a place for it, especially if
file to the actual topography or some other significant factor.
have been playing with
can better relate the swooping forms of the roof pro-
am still very interested in how the ground and waveform can work together to create meaningful, continuous outdoor
As well, I plan to use the Zentrum Paul Klee as reference for the sustainable feature of east / west facing louvers. Like my own project, the Zentrum Paul Klee orients itself (incorrectly) in an elongated from running South to North. This exposes the majority of the building surface area to harsh solar gain and glare in the morning and at sundown. Consequently, there needs to be a design of a solar feature to negate the direct sunlight and solar gain. Finally, I want to reference this building because it addresses the issue of how a waveform roof both becomes a wall and merges with the ground. Although the materiality expressed does not relate to my own project, the overall expression is incredibly relevant. The
Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material, chosen initially as my primary building, now to be used primarily for reference as regards As a structural system, this building incorporates a lattice of bent heavy timbers that interlock through steel connections to form an oval dome. This lattice system is supported intermittently by concrete block walls that break up the overall dome’s span. The form of this building is dissimilar to my own conceptual idea, but my idea is to integrate the ideas about connectivity and breaking up the span, and use a similar system that works well with a one-way system. For skin, the Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material utilizes tempered, radiant glass panels that are attached to the substructure by silicon. These glass panels reflect a significant amount of the solar energy during the summer, although they do not have much capacity to insulate or prevent other methods of heat transfer. Another positive aspect of the panels is the amount of ambient light they transmit into all parts of the facility, a characteristic I hope to take advantage of in my own design. In terms of sustainability, the outside shell of this building does not do much to stop heat gain and losses, as it is an extremely thin composition of glass, silicon, steel mullions, and heavy timber. However, as I just mentioned above, the tempered, radiant glass next building
will analyze is the
structure, skin, and sustainability.
Tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
. . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Selected Buildings Design Concept and Expression Site Forces Major and Secondary Circulation and Activity Zones Structural System Sustainable System Building Envelope System Longitudinal Section Transverse Section Model Documentation and Works Cited
design concept and expression
Zentrum Paul Klee Bern, Switzerland Renzo Piano Building Workshop 1999 - 2005 structural system
building envelope system
Walloon Branch of Reproduction Forestry Material Marche-en-Famenne, Belgium Samyn and Partners Architects 1992 - 1995 site forces
major and secondary circulation and activity zones
Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center Mashantucket, Connecticut Polshek Partnership Architects 1998 structural system
building envelope system
Izumo Dome Stadium Izumo-City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan Kajima Design Corporation 1992
Zentrum Paul Klee
design concept for the
Zentrum Paul Klee
was inspired by the rolling hills of the surrounding countryside.
these rolling forms to extract an idea of a wave form, that when translated into three dimensions, shows the wave form gradually emerge from the flatter surrounding earth of the site. outside, and above ground
this idea, there exists an inherent dialogue between inside and
museum spaces exist with the above ground portions of the wave, while the
underground wave sections create transitional spaces between exhibits as visitors are treated to a view and fresh air. also exists a unique dynamic between how the building meets the ground and how the roof becomes a wall. the building form as a whole would directly penetrate the earth at each juncture.
he allowed the building skin to recede
just before the intersection, while allowing the structural steel columns to continue penetration.
connection between roof
and wall, however, is more veiled, and while the wall and roof appear to come together at the seams from outside, the wall is actually set back rather far from the roof, while a sustainable louver screen acts to reinforce the visual cue.
Site Forces The Pequot Museum
responds to a unique topography on the
eastern seaboard of
site is isolated, and exists
near a historic swamp where old pequot trails still run.
As far as The museum is footprint (given the
the eye can see, there exists a dense cedar forest. placed in a linear direction with a minimal
enormous amount of program space), and is partially built into the hillside for both the private research space and the public exhibit space.
exhibit space makes the most out of its northern
orientation, and has ample glazing to make use of the natural light.
overall profile of the building attempts to stay low to the
ground, to blend in with the tree line of the cedar forest, while allowing the slightest view above.
the giant viewing
tower acts as a symbol and locator of the pequot museum, and pequot museum: site forces response
stands out to viewers coming from a distance.
exhibit space is
organic and conforms to the found topography, and even goes as far as providing a green-roof terrace to blend into the environment, and earthen tones help the building blend into nature. pequot museum aerial views
view of tower
Visitors to the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center have access to the facility from both an outside monorail and vehicular parking. The main entrance for the entire complex (which is 320,000 square feet spread over four stories) is accessed from the east, a gesture towards common Native American practice for building entrance orientation. Private parking and entrance for staff and service members exists on the opposite side of the building, to the west.
Visitors and guests arrive at the large, radial atrium space, seen on the right, and then are given the option to continue into the organic, topography-influenced exhibit space (blue), or proceed into the rectilinear bar space (red), which is the research, library, and administration zone. In this â€œprivateâ€? functional space, circulation follows rectilinear
auditorium beneath orientation space
corridors and moves vertically through a system of staircases and elevators.
are numerous patio
spaces for fresh air and access at all points to both the exhibit space and the orientation space to outside). four story
dining platform above orientation space
the public exhibit space is a
stories underground) winding ramp and
stairway space that spirals downward while following the contours of the land.
space flanks north-
facing glazing and is flexible, with a free plan.
the museum path, frequent exits lead to outdoor patios and even a green-roof terrace on top of the four-story space
exists a dining space, auditorium, elevator and mechanical core, and lobby
info center. exhibit space
Structural System The Izumo Stadium Dome
innovative wood truss dome that was built and then lifted like an umbrella into place.
main analysis here
focuses on the connection between the glulam truss and its translation of forces into the ground through a concrete column.
innovative connection between wall and roof, the
unique system of compression interior of stadium dome
tension heavy-timber posts on a cmu bearing wall, that provides intermediate support to a long-span toroid dome.
toroid dome is formed by weaving
bent heavy-timber together in pairs of two, with bolted steel connections
forestry center: wall-to-post-to-dome connection forestry center structural plan
izumo stadium dome: truss-to-column connection
dome spanning members detailed connection
Sustainable System the first sustainable innovation comes from the
Zentrum Paul Klee, and is the west-facing horizontal louvers
use of to eliminate the
direct penetration of west solar light, as well as shield the gallery space from overbearing west solar gain.
allow enough space between to still provide an important view for guests back out into the
zentrum paul klee: west-facing louvers
west-facing louvers: section of gallery
planted in front of the open glazing spaces block harsh summer rays, while allowing muchneeded winter solar gain.
sustainable innovation is present both in the
Izumo Stadium Dome, which Both make
happen to be very similar buildings.
use of operable
mechanical vents near the
ground level for natural ventilation to cool the spaces in summertime.
well, both have
unique building envelope skins that reflect
forestry center: natural ventilation
izumo stadium dome: natural ventilation and solar reflection
unwanted solar gain, while allowing in diffused natural light.
The Forestry Center
optimal thermal conditions for staff in winter by providing a large thermal mass
within) and heat-retaining panels on the walls.
The Izumo Stadium Dome
also has vents near
the top of the structure to provide a release for overheating. comes from the
The last sustainable innovation Pequot Museumâ€™s generous
use of north light to effectively light the majority of the exhibit spaces and the orientation space as well.
pequot museum: north light response
Building Envelope System
izumo stadium dome: kevlar fabric detail
Both the Izumo Stadium Dome and Forestry Center exhibit examples of innovative building envelope systems. The Izumo Stadium Dome has a
forestry center: tempered glass detail
revolutionary kevlar fabric that wraps around the radial structural frame.
fabric is strong enough to resist snow loads, annual rains, extreme temperatures, and even hurricane-force winds.
is attached to the underlying
structure through a ridge-and-furrow system where the ridge component is held in place to a steel connection, while the furrow is pulled inward with steel tensile cables.
has a system of
repetitive tempered glass panels which are attached to the substructure with a silicon sealant.
substructure is then attached to the intertwined heavy-timber lattice that makes up the primary structure.
Longitudinal Section In
response to the innovations gathered from the four-building analysis,
I have now attempted to create an initial, rather conceptual Chumash Museum. While the exact dimensions of this proposed structure do not correspond with complete accuracy to my current design, the form, spaces, and ideas (and general proportions) have been left as integral components to the design. Influenced by the wave-form derived by Renzo Piano for the Zentrum Paul Klee, I too have set out to integrate a wave-form into my design that corresponds to a different site. My idea for this wave-form is a dialogue between the earth the sky, darkness and light, opaque qualities and transparency, and how this dialogue can relate / innovate all aspects of my first idea for the revision of my
Transverse Section design, from structure, to materiality, to the location of glazing, etc.
am also planning to provide intermediate space between my
galleries for rest, fresh air, and views-spaces created by the underground movement of the wave-form. the different connections between the roof to the wall, as opposed to the roof to the ground.
was influenced by
have designed a continuous roof that
meets the ground, with skin receding just before the earth, while on the sides the wall connection
(structural) indents, with a (brise-soliel) feature that provides a transparent connection from the roof to the wall, wall to the ground. As regards site forces, I am considering an idea of lowering my building partially into the ground, and matching the vertical profile of the site with my own roof profile, However, at the tip of fossil point, I will elevate the tip of the museum into the sky, creating a gesture for the resurgent Chumash culture. As the site, Avila Beach, is a temperate, comfortable location year-round, I am only most concerned with integrating natural ventilation that blows off from the ocean. In terms of circulation, I am exploring a dialogue that, like the pequot museum, will separate public and private spaces, yet tie them together with an orientation volume. I also am interested in portraying the private, functional spaces as rational, simple volumes, while expressing the museum space as an organic, dynamic form (i.e. the wave-form). For the structural system, I have chosen to integrate long-span glulams with a cmu / heavy-timber sun-shade
system that provides intermediate support, a thermal mass, and direct light control.
connect to the ground and transfer the forces, an engineered concrete anchor and foundation will accept the loads and transfer them to the surrounding soil.
well, steel connections will be the
transition between the cmu wall to the timber frame, and between the timber frame and long-span glulams.
will be focusing on the integration of prevalent north-lighting on all parts of the roof that
feature a north-facing curve.
Operable / mechanical louvers will provide natural ventilation through the building in both For the building envelope, I will include tempered glass skylights which will allow daylight to penetrate the gallery and lobby spaces, and will be operable to allow for stack ventilation during summer months. A brise-soliel curtain wall system will keep east / west sunlight from directly entering the museum spaces, while allowing ventilation and diffused light. Above the gallery spaces, a kevlar fabric screen will be dropped down from above, further diffusing light from above and around, while masking mechanical equipment in the exposed rafters. a longitudinal and transverse manner.
1) Stungo, Naomi. Wood: New Directions 2) Strauss, Susan,
Architecture. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001.
Polshek Partnership Architects 1988-2004. Princeton Architectural P, 2004.
3) Renzo Piano Building Workshop. <http://rpbw.r.ui-pro.com/>. 4) Samyn
5) Kajima Design. <http://www.kajimadesign.co.uk/kajima_design/project/izumo.htm>. 6) Polshek Partnership Architects: <http://www.polshek.com/>. 7) Ching, Frank,
Cassandra Adams. Building Construction Illustrated. 3rd
Final Thoughts I
was skeptical, to say the least, when
was going to do another
throughout these last ten weeks
and in fact,
for the second quarter in a
have really enjoyed the project
am grateful for the chance to learn from past mistakes, and
develop ideas into a field where
had previous experience.
the project meaningful for me was the involvement and enthusiasm of the clients and developer, in particular the passion of
Fred Collins. As
was fortunate enough to receive consistent, daily critique and direction that, although difficult to accept at times, proved an essential foundation to many of my successful ideas.
say, we had a pretty good time overall!
was fortunate to be in the presence of good friends, who didn’t let
me take architecture too seriously every day, and offered support in so many ways, whenever
critiques of the class structure would have
to be that the second midterm review was somewhat overkill, unnecessary, and seemed to kill our studio’s momentum into the final few weeks. the numerous requirements at the end begin to seem like busy work the poster and book are one in the same).
As well, (for me,
am very content with
this quarter’s experience, and look forward to seeing the real world progress of this come.
both next quarter, and into the years that
Published on May 2, 2010