English as a Second Language Third edition Coursebook 1 Peter Lucantoni
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521735995 © Cambridge University Press 2009 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2009 8th printing 2012 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-73599-5 Paperback with audio CDs Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
Cover image: © ImageState/Alamy Every effort has been made to reach copyright holders of material in this book previously published elsewhere. The publisher would be pleased to hear from anyone whose rights they have unwittingly infringed. As always, final thanks and all my love go to Lydia, Sara and Emily, who continue to support my efforts – I couldn’t do it without you.
Contents Menu Introduction
Introductory unit: The English language 1
Part 1: The world around us Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3: Unit 4: Unit 5: Unit 6: Unit 7: Unit 8:
Space Living creatures Natural disasters Water Plants Animals The senses Edible plants
11 18 25 33 43 50 57 64
Part 2: Human endeavour Unit 9: Unit 10: Unit 11: Unit 12: Unit 13: Unit 14: Unit 15: Unit 16: Unit 17: Unit 18:
Explorers Jobs Running Sport Science Technology Buildings Wonders of the world Leisure Films
69 77 84 90 95 102 108 114 122 129
Concluding unit: The English language 2
Appendices Appendix 1: Paired texts Appendix 2: Transcripts of accompanying audio CDs
Part 2: Human endeavour
Part 1: The world around us
Introductory unit: The English language 1
In this unit you will: get to know your classmates, think about what you can say and what you would like to say in English, read about where English is spoken, read about different learning styles, look at questions and short answers, listen to a student interviewing a teacher, write an article
Language focus: questions and short answers with do/does
Unit 1: Space
In this unit you will: learn about the planets, read about lenses, look at the passive, do a project on telescopes, read and write about animals in space
Language focus: passive forms
Unit 2: Living creatures
In this unit you will: talk about UFOs and aliens, read about living things, build on your vocabulary, do a project on living things, read and write about turtles
Language focus: word building, signpost words
Unit 3: Natural disasters
In this unit you will: talk about the weather and violent Earth, listen to a news item about hurricanes, read about avalanches, look at the conditional, do a project on the weather, read about Pompeii
Language focus: the 0 conditional for advice and suggestions
Unit 4: Water
In this unit you will: talk about water, read about the oceans, listen to a marine biologist talking about sea monsters, look at superlatives, do a project on your nearest ocean, read about hot and cold places
Language focus: superlatives
Unit 5: Plants
In this unit you will: talk about plants, read about ecosystems, draw an ecosystem diagram, do a project on an ecosystem, read about carnivorous plants
Language focus: imperatives
Unit 6: Animals
In this unit you will: talk about animals, read about elephants in Kenya, listen to a scientist talking about invertebrates, look at question tags, do a project on invertebrates, read about a science fiction novel
Language focus: question tags
Unit 7: The senses
In this unit you will: talk and read about human and animal senses, read about the game of chess, look at comparative and superlative adjectives, do a project on games, listen to an animal scientist, read about Indonesia, write an e-mail
Language focus: comparative and superlative adjectives
Unit 8: Edible plants
In this unit you will: talk about ingredients in food, read about chilli peppers, listen to someone talking about rainforest plants, look at referring words, do a project on food products, read about fish as food
Language focus: referring words
Unit 9: Explorers
In this unit you will: talk and read about famous explorers, read about oceanographers, look at the past perfect, do a project on an explorer, listen to a radio programme about NASA
Language focus: the past perfect
Unit 10: Jobs
In this unit you will: talk and read about jobs, read about jobs 150 years ago, look at word building, do a project on jobs, listen to a careers counsellor
Language focus: word building
Unit 11: Running
In this unit you will: talk about marathon running, read about sports shoes, listen to a report about Maasai warriors, do a project on the Maasai, read about unusual sports
Language focus: -ing forms
Unit 12: Sport
In this unit you will: talk about your favourite sports, read about sports equipment, listen to a triathlete, do a project on sports equipment, read about different holidays
Language focus: signpost words
Unit 13: Science
In this unit you will: talk about science at school, read some scientific definitions, listen to a scientist talking about water, look at word building, do a project about water, read about how to save water
Language focus: word building
Unit 14: Technology
In this unit you will: talk about oil, read about products made of plastic, read about mobile phones, look at question forms, do a project on technology, listen to someone talking about inventions
Language focus: question forms
Unit 15: Buildings
In this unit you will: talk and read about bridges, read about an hotel made of ice, look at nouns, verbs and adjectives, do a project on buildings and structures, read about films
Language focus: nouns, verbs and adjectives
Unit 16: Wonders of the world
In this unit you will: talk and read about the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, listen to someone talking about them, look at passives, do a project on modern wonders, read about the city of Mumbai
Language focus: passive forms of verbs followed by non-finite verbs
Unit 17: Leisure
In this unit you will: talk and read about free time and digital entertainment, read about fashion, look at modal verbs, do a project on clothes, listen to someone talking about clothes in history
Language focus: modal verbs
Unit 18: Films
In this unit you will: talk and read about the cinema, listen to someone talking about film genres, look at word building, do a project on films, read and write a film review
Language focus: word building
Concluding unit: The English language 2
In this unit you will: talk and read about the importance of vocabulary, read some interesting facts about language, read an introduction to IGCSE, do a review of this Coursebook
Introduction Cambridge English as a Second Language Coursebook 1 is a one-year, theme-based intermediate English course. It is for students who are not yet ready to start a demanding, exam-focused course such as the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in English as a Second Language (E2L). Coursebook 1 is an ideal foundation for studying Coursebook 2, Third edition, which is a two-year exam course for IGCSE which will properly prepare you for the E2L examination. It is assumed that most of you who use this book will be studying English in order to improve your educational or employment prospects, and it therefore includes a broad range of topics and themes relevant to this goal. You will find passages and activities based on a wide variety of stimulating, cross-curriculum topics and about people from all over the world, which I hope you will enjoy reading and discussing. The book is divided into two themed parts: The world around us, and Human endeavour. Each themed part is sub-divided into units, which focus on topics such as Space (Unit 1), Natural disasters (Unit 3), Explorers (Unit 9) and Wonders of the world (Unit 16). Each unit is further divided into seven sections (or eight in Unit 2), which cover all the language skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking, as well as thinking skills, grammar, vocabulary, study skills and research. At the end of each unit, there is a short Review quiz. The book also includes an Introductory unit and a Concluding unit, which focus on important aspects of the English language. I hope you enjoy using this completely new book, and I wish you success in your studies! Peter Lucantoni
In this unit you will: get to know your classmates, think about what you can say and what you would like to say in English, read about where English is spoken, read about different learning styles, look at questions and short answers, listen to a student interviewing a teacher, write an article.
Read the ‘Find someone who ...’ statements below and turn them into questions. Copy the table, then walk around the classroom and find someone in the class who answers yes to each question. Write their name in the second column of your table and then ask a follow-up question. Write the answer to the question in the third column. Try to speak to as many people as possible. Look at the example first: Example: Student A: Do you like playing sports? Student B: Yes, I do. Student A: Which sports do you like playing? Student B: I love playing handball.
Find someone who ... Name
Answer to follow-up question
likes playing sports. doesn’t like speaking in class. loves eating chocolate biscuits. didn’t do the last homework. enjoys coming to English lessons. has a pet at home. doesn’t have any brothers or sisters. supports Manchester United. enjoys speaking different languages. can swim 100 metres. likes Johnny Depp. has been to the beach recently. has got a tattoo. Introductory unit: The English language 1 1
The English language 1
Report back your findings to the class.
What can you say in English? Look at the following list and decide which of the items you can say in English. Be honest! In English I can say ... numbers the months of the year ten animals ten adjectives five sports the time
the colours of the rainbow 15 verbs the days of the week the parts of the body ten adverbs the alphabet
Practise! Go back to the list in Exercise 3. Choose four or five and say the words to a classmate. Don’t write anything!
Here is another list. What can you do in English? Be honest! In English I can ... describe myself describe my family describe my friends talk about my school
talk about what I want to do in the future talk about my last holiday describe the food I like to eat talk about my favourite hobbies
Practise! Go back to the list in Exercise 5. Choose two or three and tell a classmate. Don’t write anything!
What would you like to be able to say or ask for in English, but think you can’t? Make a list. Example: the words of a song
What stops you from speaking in English? Make a list. Example: being scared of making a mistake
This activity will help you revise verbs and tenses in spoken English. Your teacher will put you into groups. In each group, one student thinks of a verb or verb phrase (e.g. have a shower). The others have to guess what it is by asking questions in which the nonsense verb ‘glug’ replaces the mystery verb. The questions must have yes/no answers. Example: Student A: Student B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A:
2 Introductory unit: The English language 1
OK, I’m ready now. Are you glugging now? No, I’m not. Do you glug every day? Yes, I do. Did you glug this morning? Yes, I did. Can you glug in the classroom? No, I can’t. Can you glug in the bathroom? Yes, I can. Is it ‘wash your hair’? No, it isn’t. Is it ‘have a shower’? Yes!
Reading and speaking 10 In which countries do people speak English as their first (mother) language? Discuss with your classmates and make a list of countries. 11 In which countries do people speak English as their second language? Discuss with your classmates and make a list of countries. 12 You are going to read a paragraph about World English. First, answer these two questions: a How many zeros are there in the number 1 million? b How many zeros are there in the number 1 billion? 13 Now read the paragraph. As you read, use these numbers to complete the gaps: 400
60 per cent
75 per cent
World English There are about (a) ...... languages in the world today and the most important of these is English. For example, (b) ...... of the world’s post and (c) ...... of the world’s phone calls are in English. English is spoken by over a billion people, nearly a quarter of the world’s total population of (d) ...... million. About (e) ...... million people speak English as their first (mother) language, and more than (f) ...... million use it as a second or official language. In many other countries, children at school learn English as a foreign language. It is the language of international business, travel and politics. Adapted from Helping Students to Speak by Paul Seligson (Richmond Publishing, 1997).
Introductory unit: The English language 1 3
14 Look at the map below and check your answers to Exercises 10, 11 and 12. Does anything surprise you?
Adapted from Helping Students to Speak by Paul Seligson (Richmond Publishing, 1997).
15 Look at the map again and answer the following questions: a In which country do most people speak English as a first language? b In which country do most people speak English as a second language? c Which is the most southerly country where people speak English as a second language? d Which is the most northerly country where people speak English as a first language? e Which country has the smallest number of people who speak English as a first language? f Is there a continent in which English is not spoken as a first or second language? g Which continent has the most countries where people speak English as a second language?
4 Introductory unit: The English language 1
Reading and vocabulary 16 You are going to read a text called ‘Your preferred learning style’. Before you read, make sure you know how to find out the meaning of a word you don’t know. Where can you go for help? Discuss the possibilities with some classmates and make a list.
Ways to find the meaning of a word I don’t know ... Ask my friends
17 Before you read the text, look at these words. What do they mean? If you don’t know, use one of the methods you discussed in Exercise 16 to find out. kinaesthetic
18 Complete these sentences using the words from Exercise 17: a ...... learners learn best when they listen to information. b ...... learners learn best when information is written or presented through pictures or diagrams. c ...... learners learn best when they can physically handle something in order to learn about it. 19 Read these questions. Which type of learner does each refer to: auditory, kinaesthetic or visual? Why? a Do you try to remember information by drawing pictures in your mind? b Do you do well in classes where you have to make something? c Do you find yourself reading aloud to understand things better? 20 Read the text on page 6 and check your answers to Exercises 18 and 19. 21 Which of the three learning styles applies to you? Why?
Introductory unit: The English language 1 5
A learning style is a method or way of learning. Your preferred learning style is the way in which you learn best. Three learning styles that are often identified in students are the auditory g style. Read about each of learning style, the visual learning style and the kinaesthetic learnin these learning styles to identify your preferred learning style!
Are you an auditory learner?
Auditory learners learn best when they listen to information. Do you seem to learn best when you take part in class discussions? Do you think that listening to cassettes helps you learn? Do you find yourself reading aloud to understand things better? If yes, you are probably an auditory learner.
Are you a visual learner?
Visual learners learn best when information is written or presented through pictures or diagrams. Do you do best in classes in which teachers do a lot of writing on the board, give you clear handouts, and use projectors and TV? Do you try to remember information by drawing pictures in your mind? Do you make written notes about the things you are learning? If yes, you are probably a visual learner.
Adapted from www.how-to-study.com, 13 July 2005.
Introductory unit: The English language 1
Are you a kinaesthetic learner?
Kinaesthetic learners learn best when they can physically handle something in order to learn about it. Do you learn best when you can move about and touch things? Do you do well in classes where you have to make something? Do you learn best when you have an object in your hands rather than a picture of the object, or a spoken or written description of it? If yes, you are probably a kinaesthetic learner.
Your learning style is your strength. Go with it whenever you can! When you can choose a teacher, try to choose one who can help you with your learning style. When you choose a university course and future career, keep your learning style firmly in mind!
Language focus: questions and short answers with do/does 22 There are different ways to form questions in English. In the text you have just read, there are several examples of questions using do. Find them and make a note of them. 23 Look at the text again and complete the rule for making questions with do: Do + ...... + ...... ? When can questions start with does? Whatâ€™s the rule? Does + ...... + ...... ? 24 Time adverbs like always and never are positioned before the imperative verb. Example: Never use your mobile phone when you are driving. In questions involving do/does, the adverb is positioned after the subject and before the main verb. Example: Do you always make written notes about the things you are learning? Does he usually do well in listening tests? Look at the rules again and complete them. Do + ...... (+ ......) + ...... ? Does + ...... (+ ......) + ...... ? 25 What are the short answers to do questions? Answer this question: Do you always make written notes about the things you are learning? Speak to some of your classmates. Did anybody give a different answer? 26 What are the short answers to does questions? Answer this question: Does your teacher always use the whiteboard? Speak to some of your classmates. Did anybody give a different answer? 27 Look at the jumbled words. Rewrite them in the correct order to form questions. a b c d e
your teacher Does use the whiteboard always? sometimes Do to switch off your mobile forget you? listen to cassettes in class often you Do? draw you pictures Do in your mind to remember things usually? ever your teacher ask you to make things in class Does?
Introductory unit: The English language 1 7
28 Look at the questions you wrote in Exercise 27 and answer them. Then ask three classmates the same questions and make a note of their answers. Use a table like the one below. Put for yes and for no.
Classmate 1 Classmate 2 Classmate 3
a b c d e
E CD 1, Track 1
Listening and speaking 29 Yousef is a student at Al-Jaffah secondary school in Doha, Qatar. You are going to listen to Yousef interviewing his teacher, Mr Peter, about different learning styles. Yousef is going to write a report for his school magazine, so he is making notes as he talks. Before you listen, think about the questions Yousef will ask Mr Peter. Discuss your ideas with some classmates and make a list of five questions. 30 Listen to the interview. If you hear Yousef ask Mr Peter one of the questions you thought of in Exercise 29, mark it with a tick. Not all the questions begin with do/does. 31 Your teacher will now give you the five complete questions which Yousef asks. Write them down. Then listen again, and make notes about Mr Peter’s answers. Use a table like this one:
Notes about Mr Peter’s answers
a b c d e
32 Compare your notes with your classmates’. Did you write down the same things or different things? Why, do you think?
Introductory unit: The English language 1
Reading and writing 33 Yousef continued his interview with Mr Peter. Here are the questions he asked, and the notes he made about Mr Peter’s answers, but they are mixed up. Match each set of notes to one of Yousef’s questions.
Notes about Mr Peter’s answers
a Do you believe it is possible to make a connection between our learning style and a teaching style?
A Maybe! Sometimes this may not be possible; remember also we may not be one particular type of learner, may use mix of different learning styles.
b Does it make sense to try to B Absolutely! Need learning change our learning style to match strategies, make us more effective a teaching style? learners, e.g. taking notes, drawing diagrams, using the Internet, etc. c Do you think then that we can learn how to learn?
C Yes! Visual learner won’t learn well in traditional lecture, needs handouts, pics, etc.
34 Read the magazine article Yousef wrote after interviewing Mr Peter (page 10). Find and note down the answers to the first five questions Yousef asked (Exercise 31). 35 You are now going to write the rest of Yousef’s article. Before you write anything, look again at the first five questions (Exercise 31) and the answers from Mr Peter, and see how Yousef used them to write his article. Then look at his final three questions and the notes he made (Exercise 33) and write the rest of the article. Use the following phrases to help you: It might be possible to ... It makes sense to ... We can learn how to ... 36 Exchange your writing with a classmate and see if you included the same information in your article. If you did not, why do you think this happened?
Introductory unit: The English language 1 9
WHAT’S YOUR LEARNING STYL
Last week I was lucky enough to interview one of our teachers, Mr Peter. We talked about learning styles and how to find out what our own learning style is. Read on to find out how you can become a better learner! Everybody has their own individual learning style, which we have had since the day we were born. Learning styles have nothing to do with intelligence or with any skills we have learned. They are all to do with the way in which our brain works best. There is no ‘right’ way to learn, because everyone is different, in the same way that different teachers often use different teaching styles. The important thing is to try to understand what our individual learning style is, so that we can benefit from it and
perform better in examinations. And I think that’s something we all wish for! There are three distinct learning styles: the auditor y, the visual and the kinaesthetic, a word which comes from the Greek language. To find out what your particular learning style is, you need to consider the way in which you perform a certain task. The example Mr Peter gave was to think about how we remember a phone number. If we ‘see’ the number in our mind’s eye, or ‘picture’ the number on a piece of paper, we are likely to be a visual learner; if we ‘hear’ the number, we are probably an auditor y learner; and if we dial the number without looking at the phone, we are probably a kinaesthetic learner.
10 Introductory unit: The English language 1
The world around us
Unit 1: Space In this unit you will: learn about the planets, read about lenses, look at the passive, do a project on telescopes, read and write about animals in space.
P N C
R C U R Y A V A A A T J K T E M R R N J R U N H T S T U P R U C B P R H S N S T P L U T O
S M E
Speaking and thinking 1
How many planets are there in our solar system? What are their names? Which ones are the biggest and smallest planets? Discuss what you know with a classmate.
In the wordsearch you will find the names of the eight planets (plus Pluto) in our solar system. The words are written across, down and diagonally. Find the words, then match them to the planets 1–9 in the picture. Use a copy of the table below to record your answers. Don’t worry about the ‘God/Goddess’ column for now.
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9
Unit 1: Space 11
Most of the planets are named after a Greek or Roman god or goddess. Do you know which ones? Here is a list. Match them to the planets and write them in your table. Which planet is not named after a god or goddess? god of farming and agriculture, and father of Jupiter god of the sea god of the sky and heavens, and son of Saturn god of the underworld god of war goddess of love and beauty king of the gods winged messenger of the gods
Listening and vocabulary
CD 1, Track 2
How do you think the planets got their names? Why, for example, is Mercury named after the Winged Messenger? Look at the information in the table and in the picture, and try to guess how the planets got their names.
Listen to Taran, a teenager from Malta, talking about how the planets got their names. Were your ideas in Exercise 4 correct?
If you could choose a different name for planet Earth, what would it be? Why?
Reading and vocabulary 7
Think back to what you heard Taran say in Exercise 5. He explained that some planets were not discovered until telescopes were invented. What do you know about telescopes? How do they work? What are the important parts?
Probably the most important part of a telescope is the lens. What other instruments use lenses? Use the pictures to help you write the names of five more devices. The first letter of each one is given.
12 Part 1: The world around us
c m_________ d c______ l___
These words all have something to do with lenses. What do they mean? Use a dictionary to help you find out. Which of the words do you think you will see in the text? air
10 Read the text about lenses and check your answers to Exercises 8 and 9.
Lenses are of great importance in devices that use light. Optical instruments such as cameras, projectors, microscopes and telescopes all produce images with lenses, while many people use glasses to correct poor vision. Lenses work by refraction, which is the bending of light rays when they leave one transparent material (i.e. a material which does not block light) and enter another. With lenses, the two materials are glass and air. The lenses in glasses and contact lenses are used to help the lens in the eye when it cannot bend light rays correctly.
Adapted from The Way Things Work by David Macaulay (DK Limited, 1988).
11 Write a short definition for each of these words: a optical b refraction c transparent
Language focus: passive forms 12 Look at these sentences taken from the listening and reading sections in this unit. What do you notice about the verbs printed in green? Can you give the verbs a name? a ... all of the planets, except for Earth, are named after Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus and Mercury were given their names thousands of years ago ... b ... Mars is red in colour and this colour was associated with blood in battles. c Pluto, which is no longer classified as a planet, is the furthest planet from the sun ... d The lenses in glasses and contact lenses are used to help the lens in the eye when it cannot bend light rays correctly. 13 The coloured verbs are all forms of the passive. We use the passive to focus on the person or thing affected by an action, rather than on the person or thing that performs that action (the doer). Look again at the four sentences. Who or what is the person or thing affected by each action? Do you know who the doer is? Unit 1: Space 13
14 How is the passive formed? Copy and complete the following: The passive is formed with the verb to ...... , followed by the ...... of a main verb.
15 Read the following text about lenses and magnifying glasses. As you read, put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form. Then draw some simple diagrams, based on the information in the text.
Convex lens A convex lens is thicker at the centre than at the edge. Light rays from an object pass through it and converge to form a smaller image that (a) ...... (see) on a screen.
Light rays (b) ...... (make) to diverge by a concave lens, which is thicker at the edge than at the centre. A concave lens can therefore be used to produce an enlargement.
Magnifying glass A magnifying glass is a large convex lens. When it (c) ...... (hold) near a small object, a magnified image (d) ...... (see) in the lens. The lens makes the rays from the object converge as they enter the eye. The part of the brain that deals with vision always assumes that light rays arrive at the eye in straight lines. For this reason, the object (e) ...... (perceive) as being larger than it really is.
Adapted from The Way Things Work by David Macaulay (DK Limited, 1988).
14 Part 1: The world around us
Study skills and research 16 Taran said: The other planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, were not discovered until much later, when telescopes were invented. Use the Internet and reference books to find out as much as you can about the history of telescopes, who invented the telescope, how they work, and what they are used for in the modern world. Use pictures and diagrams to illustrate a poster which you can display in your classroom. Be prepared to present your research to your class.
Reading and writing 17 Before humans went into space, animals were used as the first space travellers. Why do you think this happened? Which animals do you think were the first living creatures to travel in space? Choose from this list: cats chimpanzees dogs monkeys mice rabbits
frogs insects snakes turtles
18 Quickly skim the text on page 17 and check how many of the animals from Exercise 17 are mentioned. 19 Look at the 16 words and phrases that appear in bold in the text. With a classmate, try to work out their meanings. Use the context and your dictionary to help you. Unit 1: Space 15
20 Answer these questions about the text: a What information can you find in paragraph 1? b In which paragraph can you find three examples of verbs in the passive? c Scientists wanted to bring animals back to Earth alive. What else did they want? d How did Albert II die? e What is a one-way passenger (paragraph 4)? f Which word in paragraph 5 tells you that something went wrong with the flight plan for Hamâ€™s journey? g How high and fast did Ham travel? h Why was Hamâ€™s space travel so important? 21 Use the information in the text to complete the timeline below. Albert I in space
22 Use the information from the timeline in Exercise 21 to write a paragraph about animals in space.
Review quiz 23 Try to answer these questions without looking back at the unit: a What are the eight planets? b Which of the following gods or goddesses is not connected to a planet? god of war god of the sky god of the sea god of the air goddess of love c Choose two planets and explain how they got their names. d Think of three instruments which contain a lens or lenses. e What is the difference between concave and convex lenses?
16 Part 1: The world around us
(2) Before humans actually went into space, scientists thought that humans might not survive long periods of weightlessness. Because of this, American and Russian scientists used animals – mainly monkeys and dogs, but also mice – in order to test their ability to launch a living creature into space and to bring it back alive and unharmed.
(3) As long ago as June 1948, an American rocket was launched into space carrying Albert I, a monkey. In the same month, a second rocket carried another monkey, Albert II, to an altitude of 134 km. The monkey was killed when the rocket hit the Earth on its return. Two months later, the first mouse went into space. Over the next four years, several more rockets were sent into space carrying monkeys and mice.
(4) During the early 1950s, the Russians launched numerous rockets carrying mice, rats and rabbits as one-way passengers for their tests. They needed to collect data to design a cabin to carry a human being into space. (5) Ten years later, the tests continued, with mice, rats, fruit flies and plants travelling into space. In January 1961, Ham became the first chimpanzee to travel in a spaceship. The original flight plan called for an altitude of 185 km and speeds up to 7,080 km/h. However, due to technical problems, the spacecraft carrying Ham reached an altitude of 253 km and a speed of 9,426 km/h.
(6) Ham performed well during his flight and splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean 97 km from the recovery ship. He experienced a total of 6.6 minutes of weightlessness during a 16.5 minute flight. A post-flight medical examination found Ham to be slightly fatigued and dehydrated, but in good shape otherwise. The success of Ham’s flight led directly to the launch of Alan Shepard on America’s first human space flight on 5 May 1961.
Adapted from http://history.nasa.gov, 21 April 2008.
Unit 1: Space 17
(1) The first men and women who travelled in space, in the 1960s, depended on the sacrifices of animals that gave their lives for the advancement of human knowledge. Scientists needed to find out about the conditions in outer space, beyond Earth’s protective ozone layer, about the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, and about the effects of stress on behaviour. Preparations for human space activities depended on the ability of animals that flew during and after the 1940s to survive and thrive.
The world around us
Unit 2: Living creatures In this unit you will: talk about UFOs and aliens, read about living things, build on your vocabulary, do a project on living things, read and write about turtles.
18 Part 1: The world around us
Speaking and thinking 1
What is a UFO? What do you know about UFOs? Do they have a particular shape, colour, size?
What is an alien? Do you think aliens exist? What do they look like?
Here are two sets of answers to the question Are UFOs alien spacecraft? Discuss the answers with a classmate. Which side of the argument do you prefer: No or Yes?
At the moment there is no evidence of intelligent More and more planets are being found outside beings or aliens inhabiting our solar system. our known solar system. We do not know how advanced alien technology might be.
In order to travel at the speed of light, you would need an incredible amount of energy.
All this is true for now, but who knows what could happen in the future?
Photographs of alien spacecraft have been proven to be forgeries, or are too blurred to be used as proof that aliens exist.
There are many thousands of photographs that claim to show alien spacecraft, as well as plenty of statements from eye witnesses.
UFOs could be many things other than alien spacecraft.
Some of the witnesses of alien spacecraft are air force pilots, who are knowledgeable about detecting objects in the air.
So far, nobody has scientifically proven a relationship between strange phenomena and the locations of alien sightings.
Evidence of crashes and burning has been found near UFO sightings.
B CD 1, Track 3
What do you think most UFOs are?
now Vote t Forgeries/hoaxes t Cases of mistaken identity t Alien spacecraft
Listening and vocabulary 4
Some UFOs could be normal everyday objects. Which of these objects do you think could be mistaken for an alien spacecraft? aeroplane balloon bird camcorder Frisbee glider helicopter hovercraft kite tennis ball
Unit 2: Living creatures 19
To travel to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri, would take more than 73,000 years in todayâ€™s fastest rocket.
What do the following words mean? Work with a classmate and use a dictionary to help you. a b c d
e f g h
hover float sightings denied
Look at this information about UFOs. Do you think each statement is true or false? Discuss your ideas with a classmate. Be prepared to say why you agree or disagree with each statement. a b c d e
spotted identified temporarily rare
Nobody has ever seen an alien spacecraft. Some UFOs have been identified as balloons. Atmospheric events have been mistaken for UFOs. Some UFOs have in fact been military aircraft. People use special effects to ‘create’ UFOs.
Listen to an expert, Baruti Umangwa, being interviewed about UFOs. Listen for the objects in Exercise 4 and number them in the order the expert mentions them.
Listen again and check whether the statements in Exercise 6 are true or false.
Reading and vocabulary 9
In Section A you talked about aliens. Now you are going to read about living things. Before you read, find out what these words mean. Try to find a picture of each one on the Internet, or in an encyclopaedia or other reference book. atoms organs
molecules cells embryo foetus
organism tissues toddler adolescent
10 Look at this list of adjectives taken from the text. Each word has a similar meaning to one other word in the list. What are the two matching pairs? uniform
11 What is life? While it is hard to give a clear definition of life, most biologists agree that living things have many characteristics in common. If something has these characteristics, it is considered ‘living’. Here are six basic characteristics of living things. What do you think they mean? adapted to its environment organised reproductive
developmental homeostatic responsive to stimuli
12 Skim the text on page 21 and match each of the six characteristics to a suitable paragraph (1–6).
20 Part 1: The world around us
(2) Living things do things that keep them in a constant, relatively unchanging state called homeostasis. For example, your body has systems that keep your body temperature constant: you shiver if you’re cold, sweat if you’re hot.
(3) Living things make copies of themselves.
(4) Living things grow and develop from smaller and/or simpler forms. For example, a human begins life as a fertilised egg, developing into an embryo, foetus and then a baby. Subsequently, the baby grows into a toddler, adolescent and adult.
(5) Living things respond to changes in their environment. For example, if a stimulus causes you pain, you respond by moving away from that object. If you place a plant near a well-lit window, the branches or leaves grow towards the light (phototropism). For protection, some animals change colour to hide in their surroundings (camouflage).
(6) The characteristics of a living thing are suited to its environment. For example, the fins of a dolphin are flat and adapted for swimming. The wing of a bat has the same basic structure as the bones in a dolphin’s fin, but has a thin membrane that enables flight.
Adapted from http://science.howstuffworks.com, 25 April 2008.
Language focus 1: word building 13 The following sentences are taken from the text you have just read. Look at the words printed in green – they are all adjectives. Use the words to help you complete the table below. Then choose your own words from the text and add them to the table. Remember that you may not be able to complete all the parts of the table. The cells in an organism can be either uniform or specialised for various functions. Living things on Earth are quite diverse ...
vary diversity uniformly specialise
Unit 2: Living creatures 21
(1) Living things are made of atoms and molecules that are organised into cells. The cells in an organism can be either uniform or specialised for various functions. Also, the cells can be organised into tissues, organs and systems. Living things on Earth are quite diverse in their organisation and complexity.
Language focus 2: signpost words 14 Effective writers and speakers use signpost words (linking words) to show the reader or listener in which direction they are going. Examples: firstly, although, furthermore With a classmate, think of more signpost words and copy and complete the picture. Try to write something in each space on the signpost. 15 Different signpost words give different information to the reader or listener. Example: firstly tells us when What do although and furthermore tell us? Copy and complete the table below, adding the signpost words you thought of in Exercise 14.
16 Re-read the texts in this unit, and read the transcript on pages 150â€“1. Find examples of signpost words and add them to your table from Exercise 15.
Study skills and research 17 In Exercise 9 you looked at some scientific words. Find out what these words are in your own language: atoms molecules cells
22 Part 1: The world around us
organism tissues organs
18 You are going to research some animals and find out how they demonstrate three of the characteristics of something â€˜livingâ€™. Choose any three living things, and copy and complete the table below. Look at the example for guidance.
eggs develop into fish
Responsive to stimuli
some fish can change colour to hide
Adapted to its environment
fish breathe in water using gills
19 Choose one of the living things from Exercise 18. Design a poster for your classroom noticeboard. Use the information you have researched, and include pictures and other visuals.
Reading and writing 20 You are going to read a newspaper article about sea turtles in India. Before you read, look at the pictures, which illustrate the life cycle of the turtles. With a classmate, decide what happens in the cycle. A
Unit 2: Living creatures 23
Preview Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language: Coursebook 1 with CDs (third edition)