Page 1

WILD Ma nh a t t a nism , Unh ing e d.

The series of experiments investigate the parameters built in the key zoning apparatus that govern the form of the buildings, and unhinges them to expand and thicken the streets. The investigations posit the street and its composition as the catalyst, the public as the agent, and the built form as the bi-product. Through the experiments, I seek to challenge the normative understandings of 1. The street as a linear two dimensional element 2. The horizontal and vertical delineation between the public and the private realm, and 3. The boundaries between various stakeholders - the users, designers, and regulatory agencies. I propose an adaptive set of parameters that utilizes and augments the form making devices (zoning resolution, amendment, addendum, and variances) to produce the urban landscape rather than imposing an obdurate masterplan, to prioritize the largest public realm in the urban landscape: the street. This is the beginning of Wild: Manhattanism, Unhinged. In Lab 02, the twenty five iterative models test the variability of the 1916 Sky Exposure Plane and the impact on the street in terms of light and shadow. In Lab 03, nine blocks are modelled to test the maximum variability of the parameters of the sky exposure plane. Conclusion 03-01 explores the possibility of volumetric division of these forms. SEOK MIN YEO


Table of Contents Introduction: Manhattanism and Zoning Evolution | 3 - 15 The Three Laboratories: Unhinging the Device | 18 - 25 Laboratory 00: Expanding the Parameters of 1916 Sky Exposure Plane | 25 - 77 Laboratory 01: Breaking the Street Wall Boundary | 78 - 135

Introduction: Manhattanism and Zoning Evolution

n

Laboratory 02: X Maximum Variability of Parameters | 136 - 161 Preliminary Conclusions and Further Questions | 162 - 171 Bibliography | 173

2

3


The Manhattan Grid and its ability to absorb manic heterogeneity emancipates each block into an Island of its own identity and ideology, inspiring architectural ecstasy.1

Commissioners’ Grid | 1811

1 4

Koolhaas, Rem. 1978. Delirious New York. London: Academy Ed. 5


The Metropolis of Tomorrow, Hugh Ferriss | 1929

Manhattan 1950, Raymond Hood | 1929

Conceptual alternatives of the island by the likes of Ferriss, Hood, Superstudio, Koolhaas & Vrisendorp, and Tchumi contribute to the island as a cultural ideology and a theorem: Manhattanism1

The Continuous Monument: New York Extrusion Project, Superstudio | 1969

The City of the Captive Globe, Rem Koolhaas and Madelon Vriesendorp | 1972

The Manhattan Transcripts, Bernard Tschumi | 1981 6

1

Koolhaas, Rem. 1978. Delirious New York. London: Academy Ed. 7


The City of the Captive Globe, Rem Koolhaas and Madelon Vriesendorp | 1972

The podium - a straight extrusion of the existing formal logic of the grid - is the datum of reliability that act as a stage for expression above. Here I posit that the space in between the podiums, the street, is neglected from this conversation despite being the largest contiguous public realm of the island.

Xtra, Garry Winogrand | 1970

8

9


B = A(x)

D C

A

Comissioners’’ Plan of 1811

1916 Zoning Resolution

No Limitations on Floor Area Ratio

Introduction of Height District & Sky Exposure Plane for Light and Air

Vertical Extrusion of the Grid

10

1961 Zoning Resolution

1975, 2007, 2009 Regulation on Privately Owned Public Space (POPS)

Introduction of Floor Area Ratio (FAR) for Bulk Control

Additional Floor Area Offered with the Provision of Public Space

Parallel to the development of Manhattanism, the physical island evolves through key zoning apparatus that govern the form of the buildings - namely, the Commissioners’ Grid of 1811, introduction of height districts and sky exposure plane through 1916 Zoning Resolution, introduction of block bulk control through Floor Area Ratio of 1961 Zoning Resolution, and continuing updates on regulation of Privately Owned Public Spaces.

11


The Metropolis of Tomorrow, Hugh Ferriss | 1929

This thesis investigation begins from Ferriss’ The Metropolis of Tomorrow, a series of atmospheric charcoal renders produced in 1929, which Koolhaas dubs as the “womb” of Manhattanism. Ferriss’ renders were an imagination of the impact of 1916 Zoning Resolution, which introduced the Sky Exposure Plane and Height Districts to provide “light and air” to the streets as a public health concern in a growing metropolis. What if this moment played out differently, what if there was an alternative womb that conceived the street not as a constrained two dimensional infrastructure to let light into, but as a three dimensional public realm to be designed?

1916 Zoning Resolution

12

13


14

15


SIDEWALK FURNITURE/TREE/ SIGNAGE STREETLIGHT BIKE LANE

PARKING LANE DRIVE/TURN LANE

STREET

EVALUATORS

PEDESTRIAN

MEDIAN

PROGRAM?

ADDITION SUBTRACTION TWEEN

VEHICLE

1916 ZONING PRINCIPLE (SKY EXPOSURE PLANE) STREET WIDTH

BLOCK VOLUME BOOLEAN DIFFERENCE

STREET VOLUME

STREET WALL HEIGHT

SCRAMBLE (SETBACK FROM CORNER)

STREET CENTER POINT

BUILT ENVELOPE

F.A.R SHADOW FLOW HIERARCHY DRAINAGE

STREET ELEVATION

SHARED/AMBIGUOUS SPACE

CORNER FILLET

INTERSECTION

BLOCK CHAMFER

Initial Urban Ecology Diagram | Relationship between Zoning Devices and Stakeholders 16

17


The Three Laboratories: Unhinging the Device

18

19


WILD M anhattani s m , Unhi ng e d .

Thesis Diagram

Commissioners’ Plan of 1811

Amendments (City Wide & Location Specific) + Variances 1916 Zoning Resolution Sky Exposure Plane

The Metropolis of Tomorrow Hugh Ferriss | 1929

1961 Zoning Resolution Floor Area Ratio

1975, 2007, 2009 Zoning Amendment Privately Owned Public Spaces

Wild: Manhattanism, Unhinged is composed of three laboratories:

B = A(x)

D C

A

Sky Exposure Plane Component Specific

Lab 00

1916 Zoning Resolution Sky Exposure Plane | Parameters

Street Width

Street Wall Height Multiplier

Sky Exposure Plane Center Point Bias

Sky Exposure Plane Center Point Elevation

Street Components

Horizontal Shuffle

Vertical Separation

Intersections

Horizontal + Vertical Shuffle

Laboratory 00 : The Sky Exposure Plane, the Street Components, and the Intersections

Fillet

Scramble

Chamfer

Laboratory 01 : A1 - E5 Breaking the Street Wall Boundary to Explore the Relationship of the Urban Form and the Street n

Avenue Section



Street Section

Laboratory 02 : X Maximum Variability of Parameters Creating Differences to Expand and Thicken the Street

Lab 01







 













 

  





 

 

  

 

















200’













Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

 





800’

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 ’

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 ’

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.5



 



The series of experiments investigate the parameters built in the key zoning apparatus that govern the form of the buildings, and unhinges them to expand and thicken the streets. The investigations posit the street and its composition as the catalyst, the public as the agent, and the built form as the bi-product. Through the experiments, I seek to challenge the normative understandings of 1. The street as a linear two dimensional element 2. The horizontal and vertical delineation between the public and the private realm, and 3. The boundaries between various stakeholders - the users, designers, and regulatory agencies.







3/4� = 200’









 



 



  

 

 



100’



50’

Street

Avenue 

Single Block Form Shadow Study

Single Block Form

Aggregate Form

Parameters A & Statistics

Aggregate Shadow Study

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 ’

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 ’

= =

1.0 7.5

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

A1

A1 - E5

The City of the Captive Globe Koolhaas, Vriesendorp | 1972

n









Lab 02

X

Buildings









 





Designers

Sidewalk Cafes | Board of Estimate, Buildings Dept., Bureau of Franchise, City Planning Commission, Dept. of Consumer Affairs Gratings | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority Curbs | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways Art | Art Commission





Zoning | Dept. of City Planning Buildings | Buildings Dept.

Sidewalk

Benches | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways



 



Bicycle Racks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways Food Carts | Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways, Police Dept. Information Kiosks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways Trees | Parks Dept., Dept. of Highways

Architect

Subway Entrance | Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority



Stands | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation



Telephone Booths | New York Telephone Co.





Fire Hydrants | Art Commission, Fire Dept., Water Resources Trash Receptacles | Art Commision, Dept. of Highways, Sanitation Dept.

Planters | Art Commission, Parks Dept.

=

29.0 °







Mail Boxes | Post Office



Street Lighting | Art Commision, Bureau of Gas and Electricity



Police Call Boxes | Electrical License Board, Police Dept.





Parking Meters | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways



Structural Enginner

Sidewalk Surface | Borough President’s Office, Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority Bus Shelters | Art Commission, Transit Authority





Road Traffic Signals | Art Commission, Dept. of Traffic, Electrical License Board Lighting | Dept. of Commerce and Industry



New York Extrusion Project Superstudio | 1969

Catch Basins | Water Resources Manholes | Dept. of Highways



Fire Alarm Boxes | Electrical License Board, Fire Dept. Telephone Polls | New York Telephone Co.

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.5-0.9 = 0-(-60) ’

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.1-0.5 = 0-(60) ’



Road Markings | Dept. of Highways

Landscape Architect

Underground



Sewers | Dept. of Highways, Water Resources Vaults | Buildings Dept. Utilities | The Bureau of Public Work



Subway | Transit Authority



 Civil Engineer

Regulatory Agencies





Street



Level

B



Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio x

Underground

 A

= 0.5-1.0 = 23.42



A

B

Users Pedestrians, Motorists, Residents, Office Workers, Residents, Tourists

n

Owners, Developers

Single Block Form

Single Block Form Shadow Study

Aggregate Form

Aggregate Shadow Study

Owners

Regulatory Agencies

Users

Designers

Parameters X & Statistics

Section Diagram Expansion of Public Realm

I propose an adaptive set of parameters that utilizes and augments the form making devices (zoning resolution, amendment, addendum, and variances) to produce the urban landscape rather than imposing an obdurate masterplan, to prioritize the largest public realm in the urban landscape: the street. This is the beginning of Wild: Manhattanism, Unhinged.

Ecological Model of the Urban Environment Stanford Andersion | 1975

Manhattan Transcripts Bernard Tschumi | 1981

Parcelization 60% Lot Coverage

Street Level Perspective

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B ui l di ng

Upper East Side Parcel Ownership by Year

20

Street

Rai l road

Subway

Parks

Open Spac e

Anatomy of the Island

21


Typical Avenue Section

Each experiment employs the Sky Exposure Plane of 1916 Zoning Resolution as the primary device, in order to discover a set of urban landscape parameters that prioritize the street.

1916 Zoning Resolution

22

23






= =

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

A1 - E5

x = =

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

1.0 7.5

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

29.0 °

A1

= x = =

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

A

B

Street

Level

nd Undergrou

A

Buildings | Buildings Dept.

Zoning | Dept. of City Planning

Subway | Transit Authority

Utilities | The Bureau of Public Work

Vaults | Buildings Dept.

Sewers | Dept. of Highways, Water Resources

Underground

Road Markings | Dept. of Highways

Telephone Polls | New York Telephone Co.

Fire Alarm Boxes | Electrical License Board, Fire Dept.

Manholes | Dept. of Highways

Catch Basins | Water Resources

Lighting | Dept. of Commerce and Industry

Traffic Signals | Art Commission, Dept. of Traffic, Electrical License Board

Road

Bus Shelters | Art Commission, Transit Authority

Sidewalk Surface | Borough Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Office, Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority

Parking Meters | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways

Police Call Boxes | Electrical License Board, Police Dept.

Street Lighting | Art Commision, Bureau of Gas and Electricity

Planters | Art Commission, Parks Dept.

Mail Boxes | Post Office

Trash Receptacles | Art Commision, Dept. of Highways, Sanitation Dept.

Fire Hydrants | Art Commission, Fire Dept., Water Resources

Telephone Booths | New York Telephone Co.

Stands | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways

Subway Entrance | Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority

Trees | Parks Dept., Dept. of Highways

Information Kiosks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways

Food Carts | Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways, Police Dept.

Bicycle Racks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways

Benches | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways

Art | Art Commission

Curbs | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways

Gratings | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority

Sidewalk Cafes | Board of Estimate, Buildings Dept., Bureau of Franchise, City Planning Commission, Dept. of Consumer Affairs

Sidewalk

B

                                                                                               

                                                                                              

Upper East Side Parcel Ownership by Year

 









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Parcelization 60% Lot Coverage

Owners

Single Block Form

Owners, Developers

Pedestrians, Motorists, Residents, Office Workers, Residents, Tourists

Users

Civil Engineer

Landscape Architect

Structural Enginner

Architect

Buildings

Single Block Form

 

 







 





Regulatory Agencies

Single Block Form Shadow Study



Single Block Form Shadow Study

 

Avenue

 

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

 

Street

 

 











Manhattan Transcripts Bernard Tschumi | 1981

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

 

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

 

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

 

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

 



 



 



 



 



 

Avenue Section

Vertical Separation

 

Lab 00 Lab 01

Sky Exposure Plane Center Point Elevation

 

Sky Exposure Plane Center Point Bias



Ecological Model of the Urban Environment Stanford Andersion | 1975





New York Extrusion Project Superstudio | 1969



The City of the Captive Globe Koolhaas, Vriesendorp | 1972







Street Section





Street Wall Height Multiplier

 



Street Width











Sky Exposure Plane Component Specific

 

C





D



A







1916 Zoning Resolution Sky Exposure Plane | Parameters

 



B = A(x)







The Metropolis of Tomorrow Hugh Ferriss | 1929











Designers

Aggregate Shadow Study

Aggregate Shadow Study

Horizontal + Vertical Shuffle

Amendments (City Wide & Location Specific) + Variances

Street Level Perspective

Users

Aggregate Form

n

X

Aggregate Form

Horizontal Shuffle

Street Components

1975, 2007, 2009 Zoning Amendment Privately Owned Public Spaces

 

1961 Zoning Resolution Floor Area Ratio

 









1916 Zoning Resolution Sky Exposure Plane

 

200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Commissionersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Plan of 1811





Thesis Diagram



M a n ha t t a n i sm , Un hi n ged .







WILD

 



Lab 02



Designers



 Regulatory Agencies

 



24 

25

= =

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

29.0 °

S t re e t

Rai l ro a d

Subway

n

= 0.5-1.0 = 23.42

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio x

Parameters X & Statistics

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.1-0.5 = 0-(60) â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.5-0.9 = 0-(-60) â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

=

1.0 7.5

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

& Statistics

Fillet

29.0 °

Parameters A

x = =

x = =

=

Anatomy of the Island

B u i l di n g

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Scramble

Chamfer

Pa r k s

Open Space

Section Diagram Expansion of Public Realm

Intersections


Study 00

Study 01

Sky Exposure Plane

Street Components Laboratory 00: The Sky Exposure Plane, the Street Composition, and the Intersections

26

Study 00+01

Study 02

Component Specific Sky Exposure Plane

Intersections

27


Plane Sk y E xposu re

Bu i l d i n g Enve lo pe

A: Street Width B: Street Wall Height (A * Multiplier Based on Height District) Bâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: Street Wall Height (A * Multiplier Based on Parcel Requirement)

Laboratory 00, Study 00: Expanding the Parameters of 1916 Sky Exposure Plane

C: Street Center Point

B = A(x)

D: Street Center Point Height

D

C

A

28

29


Variation: Street Width 30

31


Variation: Street Wall Height Multiplier 32

33


Variation: Sky Exposure Plane Center Point in X-axis 34

35


Variation: Sky Exposure Plane Center Point in Z-axis 36

37


Variation: All Elements 38

39


Laboratory 00, Study 01: Breaking Down the Street into Discrete Components

40

41


Variation: Component Shuffle in X-axis 42

43


Variation: Component Shuffle in Z-axis 44

45


Variation: Component Shuffle in X and Z-axis 46

47


Sidewalk

Tree

Laboratory 00, Study 00 + 01: Sky Exposure Plane Focused on Specific Components

Bike Lane

Parking Lane

Driving Lane 48

49


Pedestrian Focused Sky Exposure Plane

50

51


Variation: Street Wall Height Multiplier 52

53


Variation: Sky Exposure Plane Center Point in X-axis 54

55


Variation: Sky Exposure Plane Center Point in Z-axis 56

57


Variation: Sidewalk Configuration 58

59


Variation: All Elements 60

61


Laboratory 00, Study 02: Putting the Sections Together Scramble, Chamfer, Fillet

62

63


Scramble based on Setback Distance from Corner 64

65


Asymmetrical Scramble 66

67


Chamfer Based on Setback Distance from Corner 68

69


Asymmetrical Chamfer 70

71


Fillet Based on Setback Distance from Corner 72

73


Asymmetrical Fillet 74

75


INTERSECTION

SKY EXPOSURE PLANE

SKY EXPOSURE PLANE (COMPONENT SPECIFIC)

STREET COMPONENTS

B = A(x)

B = A(x)

INTERSECTION

SCRAMBLE

STREET WIDTH

SYMMETRY X=Y

CHAMFER

FILLET

SCRAMBLE CHAMFER FILLET

B = A(x)

D C A

STREET WIDTH STREET WIDTH

ST R E E T WA L L H E I G H T M U LT I P L I E R

CENTER POINT SHIFT IN X-AXIS

CENTER POINT SHIFT IN Z AXIS

ST R E E T WA L L H E I G H T M U LT I P L I E R CENTER POINT SHIFT IN X, Z AXIS

SHUFFLE X-AXIS

S E PA R AT I O N Z-AXIS

SHUFFLE X-AXIS

A

Pedestrian Shuffle

PEDESTRIAN

PEDESTRIAN

PEDESTRIAN

PEDESTRIAN

ST R E E T WA L L H E I G H T M U LT I P L I E R

CENTER POINT SHIFT IN X-AXIS

CENTER POINT SHIFT IN Z AXIS

STREET COMPONENT SHUFFLE

SINGLE STREET COMPONENT S E PA R AT I O N Z-AXIS

A

STREET WIDTH

PEDESTRIAN ST R E E T WA L L H E I G H T M U LT I P L I E R CENTER POINT SHIFT IN X, Z AXIS STREET COMPONENT SHUFFLE

SYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X=Y

ASYMMETRY X≠Y

ASYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X≠Y

SYMMETRY X=Y

SYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X=Y

ASYMMETRY X≠Y

ASYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X≠Y

SYMMETRY X=Y

SYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X=Y

ASYMMETRY X≠Y

ASYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X≠Y

SYMMETRY U N I Q U E VA L U E S X=Y

S I D E WA L K

VEGETATION

BIKE LANE

PA R K I N G

DRIVING LANES

Laboratory 00 Conclusions: 1. Unlocking and adding parameters to the Sky Exposure Plan yields varied and biased street volume. 2. Multiple Sky Exposure Plane can be an added complexity, after the main investigation is over. 3. Setback distance based intersection study is secondary to the primary investigation of how the two perpendicular Sky Exposure Planes - one for the street and one for the avenue - meet. Need to find an evaluative criteria not based on arbitrary setback distance.

76

77


C

D

E

0.0

0.5

Model | 4 Blocks

2000’

B

0.5

1

Center Point Elevation

Center Point Bias

Street Wall Height Multiplier A

Shadow Study | Single Block

800’

Street Wall Height Multiplier

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5 3/4” = 200’

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

-30.0

0.7

1.5

3

-15.0

Center Point Bias

0.6

1.0

2

Section | Avenue

Section | Street

50’

100’

Street

Center Point Elevation

0.0

-30.0

-45.0

Aggregate Shadow Study

Single + Aggregate Form -60.0

0.9

2.5

5

Avenue

-60.0

-45.0

0.8

2.0

4

-15.0

Laboratory 01: A1-E5 Breaking the Street Wall Boundary to Explore the Relationship between the Street and the Urban Form

Street Wall Height = Street Width x 0.5-2.5 Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) = 0.5-0.9 Center Point Elevation = 0-(-60)

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

x = =

2.5 0.9 -60.0 ’

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.3 -30.0 ’

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 31.3

Parameters + Statistics

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width x 0.5-2.5 Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) = 0.1-0.5 Center Point Elevation = 0-(60)

A1C5 - E5

78

79




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.5

A1 80

81




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 13.2

A2 82

83




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 17.4

A3 84

85




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 20.1

A4 86

87




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 21.6

A5 88

89




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.6

B1 90

91




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.6 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.4 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.9 14.1

B2 92

93




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.7 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.4 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.8 16.6

B3 94

95




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.8 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.4 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.7 20.4

B4 96

97




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.9 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.4 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 23.3

B5 98

99




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.6

C1 100

101




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.6 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.3 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.8 16.2

C2 102

103




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.7 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.3 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.8 20.3

C3 104

105




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.8 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.3 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.7 26.3

C4 106

107




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.9 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.3 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 31.3

C5 108

109




















 

 



 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.6

D1 110

111




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.6 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.2 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.7 15.2

D2 112

113




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.7 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.2 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.7 19.7

D3 114

115




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.8 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.2 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 26.4

D4 116

117




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.9 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.2 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 32.4

D5 118

119




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

0.5 0.5 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.0 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

1.0 7.6

E1 120

121




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.0 0.6 -15.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.1 0.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 13.8

E2 122

123




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

1.5 0.7 -30.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.1 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 18.6

E3 124

125




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.0 0.8 -45.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.1 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.6 25.7

E4 126

127




















 





 



 

 

 

 







 

 



 









200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Shadow Study | March 21, June 21, September 21, December 21

800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

3/4â&#x20AC;? = 200â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

50â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Street

Avenue

Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.9 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x = =

2.5 0.1 -60.0 â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio

= =

0.5 32.3

E5 128

129


130

131


132

133


Laboratory 01 Conclusions: 1. When the centerpoint of the Sky Exposure Plane goes beyond the established street wall - parcel ownership - boundary, two things happen. 1-1. By carving away the â&#x20AC;&#x153;podiumâ&#x20AC;? at the ground level, sidewalk is expanded: Gained space for the Public Realm. 1-2. Once the Sky Exposure Plane is severely biased - starting with series 3 (i.e., B3 or E3) new floating volumes are created without interfering with solar performance of the street. 2. In other words, once the Sky Exposure Plane centerpoint breaks the street wall boundary, block coverage ratio becomes lower (more open space), and possible Floor Area Ratio rises (more buildable volume). 3. In this experiment, intersections are judged based on the quality of light. When the Sky Exposure Plane is biased, wider range of light condition happens on the street througout the day, compared to the normative model (i.e., A1-A5). 134

135




















 











 

 

 

 







 

 



 



























 





 



 

  



 

 







 

 



 































  

 



 

 

 



n

Laboratory 02 : X Maximum Variability of Parameters Creating Differences to Expand and Thicken the Street









 

 



 









Shadow Study | June 21 0600 to 1800

Sky Exposure Plane Rotation

=

29.0 °

Street Wall Height = Street Width Center Point Bias (North: 1.0, South: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.5-0.9 = 0-(-60) â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Avenue Wall Height = Avenue Width Center Point Bias (East: 1.0, West: 0.0) Center Point Elevation

x 0.5-2.5 = 0.1-0.5 = 0-(60) â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Block Coverage Floor Area Ratio x

= 0.5-1.0 = 23.42

n

X 136

137


138

A1

B1

C1

D1

E1

A2

B2

C2

D2

E2

A3

B3

C3

D3

E3

A4

B4

C4

D4

E4

A5

B5

C5

D5

E5

A1-E5 Aggregate Axonometric | June 21 0600 to 1800

n

X Aggregate Axonometric | June 21 0600 to 1800

139


140

A1

B1

C1

D1

E1

A2

B2

C2

D2

E2

A3

B3

C3

D3

E3

A4

B4

C4

D4

E4

A5

B5

C5

D5

E5

A1-E5 Aggregate Street Shadow | June 21 0600 to 1800

n

X Aggregate Street Shadow | June 21 0600 to 1800

141


View from North West Corner towards Avenue on April 21st 10:00 AM

142

143


View from South East Corner to North West Corner on April 21st 10:00 AM

144

145


View from North East Corner Building to Street Level on April 21st 10:00 AM

146

147


148

149


150

151


152

153


154

155


156

157


158

159


160

161


Typical Avenue Section

Typical Avenue Section - Expanded Ground

Typical Avenue Section - Expanded Underground

162

Typical Avenue Section - Expanded Public Space

Typical Avenue Section - Expanded Underground Public Space

Laboratory 02 Conclusions and Questions: 1. By breaking the podium typology, new opportunities for design emerge. 1-1. Public realm expands on the ground level 1-2. By letting sunlight penetrate deeper into the ground, the street can be thickened to expand the public realm into the underground 1-3. New understanding of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;street wallâ&#x20AC;? is needed 163


A

B

C

D

E

Parcel COV = 0.6

Laboratory 02 Conclusions and Questions: 2. Detailing the beyond the block requires a study of parcelization, referring back to other zoning devices of Manhattan, 1961 Zoning Resolution regarding Floor Area Ratio 164

165


Buildings Zoning | Dept. of City Planning Buildings | Buildings Dept.

Sidewalk

Designers

Sidewalk Cafes | Board of Estimate, Buildings Dept., Bureau of Franchise, City Planning Commission, Dept. of Consumer Affairs Gratings | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority Curbs | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways Art | Art Commission Benches | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways Bicycle Racks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways Food Carts | Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways, Police Dept. Information Kiosks | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways Trees | Parks Dept., Dept. of Highways

Architect

Subway Entrance | Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority Stands | Buildings Dept., Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Dept. of Highways Telephone Booths | New York Telephone Co. Fire Hydrants | Art Commission, Fire Dept., Water Resources Trash Receptacles | Art Commision, Dept. of Highways, Sanitation Dept. Mail Boxes | Post Office Planters | Art Commission, Parks Dept. Street Lighting | Art Commision, Bureau of Gas and Electricity Police Call Boxes | Electrical License Board, Police Dept. Parking Meters | Art Commission, Dept. of Highways

Structural Enginner

Sidewalk Surface | Borough Presidentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Office, Buildings Dept., Dept. of Highways, Transit Authority Bus Shelters | Art Commission, Transit Authority

Road Traffic Signals | Art Commission, Dept. of Traffic, Electrical License Board Lighting | Dept. of Commerce and Industry Catch Basins | Water Resources Manholes | Dept. of Highways Fire Alarm Boxes | Electrical License Board, Fire Dept. Telephone Polls | New York Telephone Co. Road Markings | Dept. of Highways

Landscape Architect

Underground Sewers | Dept. of Highways, Water Resources Vaults | Buildings Dept. Utilities | The Bureau of Public Work Subway | Transit Authority

B

eet Str

Regulatory Agencies

Civil Engineer

vel

Le

nd

u ro

erg

d Un

A

Users Pedestrians, Motorists, Residents, Office Workers, Residents, Tourists Owners, Developers

A

166

B

Laboratory 02 Conclusions and Questions: 3. New block and formal typology questions the relationship and boundaries between various stakeholders: Regulatory agencies, designers, and users. Previous vertical striations between the private and public realm, between architects and landscapes, and the planar understanding of ownership is called into question. This requires further investigation in reference to Privately Owned Public Spaces regulation. 167


Reference Volume

= = =

Volume 06 = 3,160,000 ft3

Volume 03 = 9,600,000 ft3

Volume 05 = 9,600,000 ft3

Volume 02 = 9,600,000 ft3

Volume 04 = 9,600,000 ft3

Volume 01 = 9,600,000 ft3

100% Block COV, 5 Floors 200’ x 800’ x (12’ x 5) 9,600,000 ft3

Laboratory 02 Conclusions and Questions: 3-1. Modelling the block as equal volumes - in this case five floors of 100% of the block footprint - begins to question the normative division of ownership. Ownership can be divided in three dimensional volumes rather than in planar parcel divisions. 168

169


Building

Subway

170

Street

Parks

Railroad

Open Space

Laboratory 02 Conclusions and Questions: 4. A city is ultimately designed by the needs and negotiations between the various stakeholders, rather than through a singular design will. I have proposed a method to discover an adaptive set of parameters that utilizes and augumets the form making devices (zoning resolutions, amendments, addendums, and variances) to produce the urban landscape rather than imposing an obdurate masterplan, to prioritize the largest public realm in the urban landscape: the street. How can this now respond to the anatomy of the city? 171


Bibliography

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