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July 2014

Issue 25

House of Ashes Monique Roffey

New legislation to Combat forced Marriages The Missing Pages in England's History Claudia Jones... visionary & pioneer


Take time and relax The months are moving swiftly and with each day taking us into a new era of the future. Technological developments are so rapid, we barely have time to adjust before an upgraded version is zooming past us, and quietly, we are being left in the past.

carnival costume designer who has a synopsis to his creations. Law graduate S.A. Stephen enlightens us to the new law that came into effect in June against forced marriages. We take a snap shot at the wrist watch. And in keeping with our tribute to those in the Diaspora and in the lead up to carnival we pay tribute to Claudia Jones.

This month we are keeping the pace moderate, laid back even, and not joining the cyber highway and its mega velocity. Let us unwind for a change and read a book (House of Ashes) browse through a magazine or newspaper take in a movie and rejuvenate your body with some well earned relaxation.

As always, we extend gratitude to all those who has given and continue to give their support in making Culturepulse magazine a success. Without your commitment, encouragement and dedication the success of the magazine would not have prospered, serving an ever growing and diverse audience. We are forging new grounds and reaching new readers across the Diaspora with every publication.

Enjoy the short-lived summer, Wimbledon is here so it will most likely rain on your down time now that Andy Murray has been knocked out and any hopes of a British title dispersed, much as the England's first round exit from the World Cup long before Suarez even had chance to sink his teeth into an Italian.

All criticism and recommendations are heeded in improving and pleasing our audience so keep sending your suggestions and comments.

Well, so much for that, what have we stacked up for you this month? Carnival is in the air (Notting Hill) and yes! you guessed it, bacchanal! It seems the LNHCET cannot agree when Notting Hill Carnival really began. So they have set aside three years to celebrate 50 years of Notting Hill Carnival. I scrape for sarcasm here when I say in 2017 it will be 51 years old. Carnival, 50 or not, looks at the evidence and shows that 2014 should be the rightful year to celebrate the golden anniversary of Notting Hill Carnival. Without a doubt daggers of disapproval will be thrown in my direction.

David Kalloo editor

Addicted designer S.A Armstrong gives his synopsis of this year's presentation at Notting Hill carnival of 0Five50, the only


Published by Culturepulse through Issuu.


Editor - David Kalloo

House of Ashes p.4

Advertising and sales - 07920752131 Production and design - Cashewmedia

Forced marriages a thing of the past... p.6


Zero Five Fifty p.9

Time on your hands p.12 twitter: @culturepulse1

Sommelier Awards p.15

Contributing writers:

Notting Hill at 50? p.19

Ansel Wong, Mas Assassin, Nichola MacDonald, Soshina Stephen, Nasser Khan (Trinidad), Caroline Muraldo, Jimmy Kainja (Malawi), Akilah Holder (Trinidad), Tessa Robinson, Pax Nindi, R.Kalloo, D.A.Kalloo, Juliet Davey.

Claudia Jones p.23 Book Review p.29

Photography contributions: Chris Boothman, Linda Kalcov, David Wears and Cashewmedia

NHC, what does 50 years mean? p. 31 The Missing pages of England's History p.33

Culturepulse magazine is developed and produced by Cashewmedia and Culturepulse. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior consent from the publisher. The views expressed by contributors to Culturepulse magazine are not necessarily those of the publisher or the editorial team. Copyright to some contributions are those of the authors and permission for any reproduction or use in any form should be obtained directly from the authors themselves. Culturepulse accepts no responsibility for any inaccuracy by contributors or for advertising content therein.

Cover photo courtesy 3

‘An incrementally powerful reflection on grief, an acute study of a father-daughter relationship. With a compelling account of climate change and a transformative journey’ Independent

House of Ashes

‘The strength of the novel lies in her quiet exploration of both a child and an adult’s attempts to comprehend the loss and catastrophe that nature can impose’

Monique Roffey From the Orange-Prize-shortlisted author of The White Woman on the Green Bicycle, and winner of the 2013OCM Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature for Archipelago, comes an evocative, powerful and important novel based on real events.

Sunday Times ‘Lovely: a novel of sensual, elemental description, soaked in loss and damage and softly haunted by the Caribbean’s bloody history of slavery’ Metro

In Sans Amen tensions are running high. The corrupt government has been ruling over the people too long. One hot evening the Leader, a head of a group of rebels, gathers his followers and tells them that it is time to take back what is rightfully theirs. And so a ragtag collection of men and boys take up arms….

Praise for THE WHITE WOMAN ON THE GREEN BICYCLE: ‘A rich and highly engaging novel’ Guardian ‘Extraordinarily vivid…beautifully observed’ Sunday Times ‘Heart-rendering and thought-provoking’ Elle

Caught up in the madness is Ashes, a bookish man who has been swept up by The Leader’s powerful rhetoric. Now that words have turned to action he is not sure anymore.

‘Earthy, fullblooded…steaming with West Indian heat’ Evening Standard Monique Roffey was born in Port of Spain, Trinidad, and educated in the UK. She has held the post of Royal Literay Fund Fellow at Sussex, Chichester and Greenwich universities. She is the author of the highly acclaimed novels Sun Dog, The White Woman on the Green Bicycle, which was shortlisted for the Orange Prize for Fiction 2010, and the Encore Award 2011, and Archipelago which won the 2013 Bocas Prize for Caribbean Literature.

Trapped inside the government building with the rebels is Aspasia. A politician and a mother, she sees much of her sons in these boys with guns in their hands and power in their eyes. House of Ashes publishes on the anniversary of a coup that which shook Trinidad and Tobago to its core and is to this day, shrouded in controversy.

Monique Roffey House of Ashes |17th July 2014|Hardback £14.99For further information, please contact Hannah Corbett, Communications Director Simon and Schuster on 7316 1942

Praise for ARCHIPELAGO: ‘A bighearted Moby Dick story for our times’ Guardian



Forced Marriage, a thing of the past‌ By Averdine S. Stephen

abuse (taking their wages or not giving them any money) can also be a factor. What does the Law say? Previously, courts have only been able to issue civil orders to prevent victims being forced into marriage. The Law now makes it a criminal offence to force someone to marry. This includes; taking someone overseas to force them to marry (whether or not the forced marriage takes place, marrying someone who lacks the mental capacity to consent to the marriage (whether they are pressured to or not). Breaching a Forced Marriage Protection Order is also a criminal offence. The civil remedy of obtaining a Forced Marriage Protection Order through the family courts will continue to exist alongside the new criminal offence, so victims can choose how they wish to be assisted.

Forced marriages have always been regarded as an execrable practice in the UK. As of 16th June 2014, legislation has enshrined this practice into law as a criminal and indefensible offence, punishable by up to seven years in prison if found guilty and five years for disobeying an FMP Order. So what is a forced marriage? The main legal ingredient of the practice of forced marriages hinges on the absence of consent, unlike an arranged marriage which has the consent as the central element of its practice.

The Implications Forced marriage is "a tragedy for each and every victim", the Home Secretary Theresa May said as she outlined the new legislation outlawing the practice last month.

A forced marriage is where one or both people do not (or in cases of people with learning disabilities cannot) consent to the marriage and pressures of abuse is used to coerced such a union. In the UK, it is viewed as a form of violence against women and men, domestic/child abuse and a serious infringement on human rights.

Many incidents of forced marriages in the UK have gone unreported. This is due largely to the victims giving evidence, particularly where those committing the offence may be those close to them, i.e. family members, and the coercion and pressures that they may be subjected to in terms of withdrawing the complaint. many victims fear the reprisals of being disowned and shunned by their families and loved ones.

The pressures put on people to marry against their will can be physical (including threats, actual physical violence and sexual violence) or emotional and psychological (for example, when someone is made to feel like they are bringing shame on their family) financial 6

These social aspects act as a deterrent in reporting the practices of forced marriage, but one that the legislation aims to extinguish by ensuring victims are supported from the moment they report such an abuse, right the way through the court process and, post-court proceedings in terms of the outcome of a criminal prosecution.

Although the legislation is relatively new (in effect, but not in practice), England and Wales have taken bold steps to declare to the international platforms that forced marriages is not only abhorrent, but the practice and the abuse will not be tolerated.

The Future Human rights organisations, victims and governmental bodies now have a solution and remedy upon which they can rely. The Forced Marriage Unit in particular is a joint Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Home Office unit which was set up in January 2005 to lead on the Government's forced marriage policy, outreach and casework. The FMU operates both inside the UK, where support is provided to any individual, and overseas, where consular assistance is provided to British nationals, including dual citizens.

For further information or to report any such activity or if you are a victim please go to:

The FMU operates a public helpline providing advice and support to victims of forced marriages as well as to professionals dealing with cases. The assistance provided ranges from simple safety advice, through to aiding a victim to prevent their unwanted spouse moving to the UK ('reluctant sponsor' cases), and, in extreme circumstances, to rescue victims held against their will overseas. Email: Twitter: @FMUnit or telephone 020 7008 0151 see also,

The FMU undertake an extensive outreach and training programme of around 100 events a year, targeting both professional and potential victims. They also carry out media campaigns, such as 2012's 'right to choose' summer campaign. A campaign where FMU commissioned three short films to raise awareness amongst young people at risk of being taken abroad for the purpose of force marriage.



Zero Five Fifty As we approach the 50th year of this landmark on the British cultural landscape called the Notting Hill Carnival, and 5 years of the Addicted section partaking in this socio/cultural titan of a celebration with Cocoyea, Addicted celebrates the past and present through the metallic lens of the future, in Zero Five Fifty. Zero Five Fifty, the theme and storyline is inspired by the Afro futurism movement. “literary and cultural aesthetic that combines elements of science fiction, historical fiction, fantasy, Afrocentricity, and magic realism with non-Western cosmologies in order to critique not only the present-day dilemmas of people of colour, but also to revise, interrogate, and re-examine the historical events of the past.� The year is 2114 AD and a group of time travellers in search of the perfect multicultural society travel back through time to experience first-hand, what Notting Hill Carnival was like in its historic 50th year of existence.

across the globe have identified the lotus with many aspects of life. In ancient Egypt it was associated with the sun, beauty, resurrection, and rebirth. In Buddhism it is a symbol of purity in mind speech and body, in Hinduism, beauty and spiritual awakening. It is on this premise that the designer S.A. Armstrong saw inspiration, not only the petals of the lotus flower but also of its life cycle.

The Afrotek time machine transports the group to the heart of the festival in the legendary ADDICTED MAS section whose energy and symbolic golden lotus costumes epitomised all achievements and enlightenment, the utopian existence the travellers were in search of. The future starts now... Zero Five Fifty: The Golden Lotus Design and Inspiration Because the lotus flower grows in murky muddy water, surfaces to bloom during the day, only to return to the murky depths of the mud at night. Cultures

Rhuanne Laslett-Obrien


It was 50 years ago out of the dark racially explosive period of the late 1950s the Trinidad and Tobago's carnival culture made its first appearance in London.

Russell Henderson MBE

By 1964/5 Mrs Rhuanne Laslett-O'Brian (1919-2002) a community activist and Trinidadian musician Russell Henderson MBE started a street parade that became known as the Notting Hill Carnival. Like the lotus, carnival grew out of the impoverished streets of post WW2 West London and the social murk of racism and social ostracising to blossom like the lotus flower into London's most popular social symbol of creativity, beauty and multiculturalism.

The costumes The costumes are made up of three colours: Gold: The 50th anniversary is called the golden anniversary or golden jubilee and in recognition of this milestone year with the main colour in gold. Silver: The hints of silver in the costumes symbolises not only the 5 years of the Addicted presence in Notting Hill but also the chrome of the steel pan instrument that literally paved the way with music for Europe's biggest carnival to take place. Purple/Violet: Thought to be the highest chakra in the human body and symbolises creativity, beauty and inspiration, the very building blocks of our carnival. It is considered to be the colour of royalty, nobility and power. S.A. Armstrong Addicted Designer 10


Time on your hands. By David Kalloo Dress a man in the most exquisitely tailored Saville Row suit with the best silk woven shirt and booted by the finest Italian cobbler, the attire is far from complete without a superbly crafted wrist watch. Wearing an impressive instrument of time keeping compliments the most sophisticated man and the ordinary man in the street.

However, Peter Henlein a German inventor is credited with inventing the first watch, a device then, which had to be hung from a special belt around the waist.

Mechanical time devices in the form of clockwork was invented in 1275 and wearing timepieces came into fashion in the early 16th century. Since then time keeping instruments has undergone tremendous strides and technological advancements into the digital age.

Almost 200 years later Jean-Antoine Lepine created a thinner movement called the Lepine Calibre. This enabled watch makers to make watches flatter so they could be carried, concealed in the pocket, hence the term 'fob' watch. However, it was Abraham-Louis Brequet in 1812 who created the first wrist watch for Caroline Murat, Queen of Naples. Later in 1868 Patek Phillippe created a wrist watch for the Countess Koscowicz, of Hungary. It is widely noted that this was the first wrist watch.

Countess Koscowicz, of Hungary watch create by Patek Phillippe in 1868

Over the years, watches have become timely pieces of jewellery designed and crafted by some of the world's most noted signature watch makers to grace the wrist of millions of people across the globe. British secret service agent James Bond never leaves for a mission without his trusted Seiko and Formula One sensation Lewis Hamilton sports a Breitling on his wrist. Breitling patented the world's first stop watch back in 1930. A hundred and fifty years later, Seiko gave the world the first battery powered watch through quartz crystal.

The Swiss watch industry was born in 1541, however, John Calvin of Geneva banned people from wearing jewellery. The ban meant that Swiss jewellers had to migrate in order to practice their craft. Some fled to France and Italy where the art of watch making flourished. It was ironic that the first pocket watch crafted in 1574 by an unknown inventor depicted St. George slaying a dragon on the front set in bronze and, a crucifix on the back.


In 1989 Patek Phillippe, to celebrate its 150th anniversary created the Calibre 89, it is deemed the world's most complicated watch with 33 complications and special features. Not to be out-done Breitling created the emergency watch, equipped with a transmitter that broadcast a distress signal to rescuers. The device helped to save the lives of the crew from the MataRangi expedition after craft broke up and they became stranded in a storm of the coast of Chile.

leading watch makers. This year at the FIFA's World Cup in Brazil, every game played, time will be kept by Hublot. The referee and linesmen of every game will wear a Hublot's Big Bang Unico BiRetrograde Chrono watch with a 45 minute counter on the front. There are 100 limited pieces in rose gold which will set you back a mere £29,300.

Watches became a status symbol with prestigious names such as Rolex, Patek Phillippe, Jaeger-Le Coultre, Vacheron Constantin, Omega, Tag Huer and mass produced fashion watches that includes Casio, Swatch and G-Shock. Designer houses like Dior, Guess, Tommy Hilfiger, Boss, Jean-Paul Gautier, Michael Kors and DKNY all lend their flair and elegance to the revolution and precision of watches today that are not just fashionable but at prices that could help to end poverty in some countries.

For those of you wanting to acquire sophisticated technological innovation and unequivocal precision time pieces such as Jaeger-LeCoultre’s Geophysic 1958 be prepared to part with a cool £13,900 for its pink gold version or a subtle £6,350 in steel. Expect to pay around £6,500 for Seiko High Beat 36000 or if you are the diving enthusiast you might prefer the Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore Diver at £17,400. Maybe you're a man of exceptional taste and style then you could be nudged towards the Ludovic Ballourd upside down watch at a teasingly £46,250. Watches don't have to cost an arm and a leg to look beautiful on your wrist, there are many top brand name watches that look just as exquisite and won't require you taking out a mortgage or staging a smash and grab to get a decent time piece on your wrist. Swatch, Rotary, Casio, Timex and other lesser known brand names offer beautifully crafted watches from prices that start at around £50 and upwards to carry off that elegant gentlemanly finish to your attire. Maybe you fancy popping over to Las Vegas to the Tourneau Time Dome, the world's largest watch store where you can browse in the leisure of your own time and choose an appropriate instrument of time keeping.

International sporting events are seen as a global advertising billboard for many sporting products but none is more prominently positioned to gain worldwide coverage than those charged with the time instruments used at these events. From the Olympics to World Athletic events, Rugby, Cricket, Formula One, Golf and Football are all backed by the world's 13


Alivini Sommelier Awards Ceremony Sunday evening at the Oak Room, in Le Meridien Hotel Piccadilly, took place the diploma presentation ceremony for the Sommelier course as organised by the UK Sommelier Association - AIS UK. A grandiose event which proved to be a great success, witnessed by a full house of invitees, taking in an excellent food and wine tasting, brilliantly orchestrated by Alivini, the Associations principle sponsor. With 67 students from various international backgrounds, having taken the course not only in London, but also in Chesterfield, they were rewarded with their hard earned diplomas, and "crowned" with their gleaming tastevins.

the course, to successfully pass the somewhat gruelling and highly demanding selection process of some of the most eminent restaurants in London. Names such as The Ritz, Aqua Shard, I Quattro Passi, The Savoy, Shangri La, Galvin, The Dorchester, Bugari, Baglioni, Gordon Ramsey, Novikov, Pollen Street Social, Hakkasan, Locanda Locatelli, Texture, Zuma, Roka. These successes are a just reward for the hard work and dedication of the course organisers, Andrea Rinaldi (President, UK

A great number of young adults will, from today, take their first steps into the fascinating but challenging London catering market, however, they will take this on reassured and armed with the high level qualification and education they received from the Italian Sommelier Association didactic.

Sommelier Association) and Federica Zanghirella (Course Director). Both have a passion, charisma and enthusiasm which was naturally transmitted to the students, creating a warm and amiable atmosphere, something that was very evident during the award ceremony. Well done to the UK Sommelier Association for spreading wine culture, not only with technical knowledge but with heart and passion. On the 6th October 2014, a new course, a new adventure, will start with the same zeal and gusto as in previous years

The professionalism acquired during the course, has allowed some of the most talented students, soon after completing 15




Notting Hill Carnival at 50? 'Pepe' Francis said: “This unique event after 48 years continue to grow….” Thus making 2013 the 49th year. Up until then there was never a question of when carnival would celebrate 50 years until the latter part of 2013 when a meeting was held to ascertain the most appropriate date for marking the 50th year of Notting Hill carnival. A spokesperson for the LNHCET earlier this year confirmed that the 50th anniversary of carnival would span 3 years. 2014 marking the year for pan, 2015 for Mas and 2016 for sound systems. Now, my argument with this is such; there are five arenas that collaborate with the responsibility and development of Notting Hill carnival. Why then have specific years for each discipline of carnival art form? And this is the question that cannot be answered by the carnival organisers.

By David Kalloo Every year the Notting Hill Carnival, Europe’s biggest carnival, never fails to court some form of controversy and wrangling. This year, it seems the London Notting Hill Carnival Enterprise Trust cannot be precise on what year to celebrate fifty years of Notting Hill Carnival and with that said, they have set aside the next three years to celebrate fifty golden years of carnival. Let us be fair to the LNHCET, there are conflicting accounts as to when Notting Hill Carnival actually began. Many historians, carnivalists and journalists proclaim that Notting Hill Carnival was in fact started in 1959 by Claudia Jones, a Trinidadian activist. Claudia Jones is dubbed the ‘Mother of Carnival’ because of her efforts after the 1958 riots to show the British public that there were many cultural facets to Caribbean people. She organised carnival shows in halls across London to coincide with carnival in Trinidad, utilising the talents of Trinidadians here in the UK. This era with Claudia Jones was marked by the Trinidad and Tobago’s High Commission in London in 2009 when they featured an article in their ‘Mission Newsletter’(July-Sept 2009) proclaiming that ‘This year marked 50th year of carnival in London’. The Trinidad and Tobago High Commission is not the only ones who bestows the accolade to Claudia Jones. Prominent historians and carnivalist also support the idea that Jones started Notting Hill carnival.

Rhuanne Laslett-Obrien

Claudia Jones

There is the question too, that Notting Hill Carnival did not really move forward as a consolidated infrastructure under any umbrella until 1973 when Leslie Palmer sought to bring some coordination to the ‘mish mash’ existence. Through Palmer’s vision we have what could comprehensively be called Notting Hill Carnival. Prior to this there were no bands at Notting Hill carnival, merely individuals with costume pieces and steel pans. The creative concept of an organised carnival was brought together and in 1973 the first complete mas band. Head Hunters,

Before delving further, it should be pointed out here that at the 2013 media launch of Notting Hill Carnival Augustine 19

designed and led by Lawrence Noel, took to the streets of Notting Hill. This in itself promotes another argument to the age of Notting Hill carnival as Palmer in 2013, celebrated 40 years of Notting Hill carnival in an area seen as the birthplace of carnival dubbed ‘under de bridge.’

This is not to say that carnival didn't exist in Britain before. Carnival in Britain can be traced back to Bridgewater carnival of the early 1600s involving floats and a parade. Many of these carnivals took place across Britain, in parishes and villages. Rhuanne Laslett's children's carnival was very much a blue print, of such events. Larry Ford remembers in Trevor Phillips Windrush: The Irresistible Rise of multiracial Britain; 'Mrs Laslett, a charming Polish woman, who used to have a playgroup in Tavistock Crescent, looked after all sorts of kids-black, white, pink, blue- the lot. Well she had a little parade, the trucks for the kids -that was the first. We saw all these trucks going by and all the kids and thought that’s nice. That was the first time I ever saw anything in Notting Hill it was about ‘61 or ‘62.'

I spoke earlier of conflicting accounts on the accuracy of dating Notting Hill carnival and let us be fair in this assessment; Claudia Jones had nothing to do with Notting Russell Henderson MBE Hill carnival, she produced carnival shows such as those produced by the impresario, Sonny Blacks. In my quest for clarity on who started Notting Hill carnival, I went straight to the living sources, namely Russell Henderson MBE and Sterling Betencourt MBE, both of whom attributed the saga's beginning to “around 1964.” Kwesi Owusu, in writing Notting Hill Carnival: ‘De Road is de Stage is de Road’ states: “The first Notting Hill Carnival was held on August Bank Holiday in 1965. It was a small but significant affair which was barely given national media coverage.” This event that Owusu speaks of would in fact be a kiddies carnival organised by Rhuanne Laslett for underprivileged children in the Notting Hill area. It was Mrs Laslett who invited Mr Henderson who conducted Jazz sessions at the Culherne Pub in Earls Court and, it is from this journey through which Notting Hill Carnival was born.

Ford makes no mention of any Caribbean input or participation at this juncture, yet unknowing to almost every West Indian living in London, Claudia Jones was promoting carnival shows since 1959 in the aftermath of the 1958 riots. None of these carnival shows were held in Notting Hill and, these shows were not aimed at West Indians but towards the British to demonstrate the cultural and artistic talents of Caribbean people.


Writing about the 40th anniversary of Notting Hill carnival in Carnival Grooves magazine 2004, this is what carnival enthusiast and historian Michael La Rose said: “ The Notting Hill Carnival has survived 40 years, this fact alone is a testament to the men and women who have stood up for Caribbean Culture…” In the same year Time Out magazine reports on the event; “Forty years of Carnival, the history of trials and tribulations that took Carnival from West London ghetto to the biggest festival in Europe.” The Voice newspaper in 2003 reads “Even as the 39th Notting Hill Carnival unfolds...” I can show many other examples of text where, according to the systematic way of counting that this year 2014 marks 50 years of Notting Hill Carnival full stop.

Henderson, Sterling Betencourt and his brother played at the inaugural Carnival in 1965.” This helps to hinge some of the inaccuracies that surrounds the dates and the testament to those who were there when the first sound of the steel drum rang out in London.

The Colhurne Pub, Earls Court, London

Russell Henderson MBE, an accomplished jazz pianist in a compos mentis state in 2008 when I interviewed him, had this to say: "We spread the word around that we were going to play at the fête and so other West Indians came by. There was myself, Sterling Betencourt and Ralph Cherry went along. This was the first time there was ever any steelband on the streets of Notting Hill. It was not so much a carnival but a fete, with part of the street blocked off. After standing up playing in one place, pan-round-the-neck, I said to the boys, Sterling and Ralph. Dis pan getting heavy standing up one place playing let we make ah rounds. I told Laslett, and the people barring the street. Could you make an opening and we going to make ah block. I told them to let the children on the donkeys and the clowns follow us, we just making a lil block instead of staying in one place on the street. When we started to make the block it turned out to be the longest block, we went all the way down Bayswater." When pressed if Claudia Jones started Notting Hill Carnival, this was

There is a consistency of inaccuracy surrounding when Notting Hill Carnival actually started. Clearly, despite the attestation by Russell Henderson that is was 1964. I understand through some sources that there is a letter dated 1965 inviting Henderson to come along and play his steel pan at the children’s carnival. I have not seen this letter and can only take it on the merit it was given. Pan Podium, a publication dedicated to the steel band here in the UK published in its 2002 Summer/Autumn edition; “ In 1966 Rhuanne Laslett-Obrien organised a festival to help combat the devasting effect of poverty and depravation…” In the same edition in a article (p19) it states “Russ 21

Henderson's response: "I played for Claudia

Put Your Business Here

at some of her shows, but she didn’t start Notting Hill carnaval."

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Sterling Betencourt MBE in an interview the same year, a man seemingly to have all his faculties said: "It was around 1964 an African fellow, Ginger Johnson who came with elephant foot drums as part of the musical entourage. We spread the word around the pub that we were going to take part in the children’s carnival. A whole lot of other West Indians joined us. The procession started at Portobello Road, the floats some of them were on donkey carts. We continued down Portobello Road, along Great Western Road and into Chepstow Road. Betencourt claims; "This was the first ever carnival route."

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Giving all of this information, it is my view that the LNHCET should have come to a finite decision in selecting a year to officially mark the birth of Notting Hill carnival rather than have a three year period of a 50th anniversary celebration. It is not so much the inaccuracies or the 50th anniversary itself, it is the fact that in the eyes of others it proves evident that as a Caribbean community, after over six decades since the Caribbean Diaspora began, it cannot agree coherently on one of the most important, if not the most significant events showcasing the culture of the Caribbean that has become the biggest cultural event in Europe.

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Having left school she found work in various establishments including a laundry, millenary store and as a salesgirl in a lingerie shop. Claudia married in 1940 to Abraham Scholnick, little is known about her husband or the period of her marriage - the marriage was dissolved in 1947.

Claudia Jones, visionary and pioneer

Claudia's association with the Arts began when she joined a drama group at the National Urban League, an organisation working to increase opportunities for young Negro people. She began to write a 'Harlem journal' that led to a weekly contribution called 'Claudia's Comments'. Having joined the Young Communist League she gave up an opportunity by the Federal Theater Project to work at the Communist Party USA's Daily Worker. She however, continued her stage interest with the National Urban League performing throughout Harlem and Brooklyn.

By David Kalloo

Claudia's journalism career progressed, she joined the Workers editorial team and served as education director for the YPL National Council in New York State. She became editor of YCL's Weekly Review in 1938 and also editor of a monthly journal, Spotlight. In 1945 she became editor of the Daily Worker and in 1947 appointed executive secretary of the National Women's Commission and in 1948 elected to the National Committee of the CPUSA. She toured the US states during the Korean War 'advocating peaceful co-existence'. By 1953 Claudia had taken over the editorial duties of the Negro Affairs Quarterly.

Claudia Cumberbatch Jones was born in Belmont, Trinidad in 1915. She was one of four children, all girls born to Mr and Mrs Charles Cumberbatch. Her parents migrated to New York in 1922 to improve their fortunes and make a better life for their family. Two years later, Claudia and her sisters joined their parents in the US. A few years later while attending Harriet Beecher Stowe Junior High School, her mother died. Her father then lost his job as editor of a West Indian newspaper. Severe hardship befell the family to the extent that Claudia could not afford a graduation outfit to attend and receive the Theodore Roosevelt Award for Good Citizenship. Their apartment in Harlem was so damp that she contracted tuberculosis in 1932.

In 1948 Claudia Jones was arrested and imprisoned on Ellis Island. The US authorities threatened to deport her back to Trinidad as she was not a US citizen. An application for US citizenship was denied because of her affiliation with the

Despite having to take a year out of school to recover from her illness, Claudia graduated from Wadleigh High School. 23

Communist party. She refused to participate in trial deeming the proceeding illegal 'forcing the government to grant an adjournment'.

With little or no money and having to be in and out of hospital she sought refuge with another exile couple in London. The British Communist Party did little or, nothing in helping her find accommodation or financial assistance. This did not stop Claudia from rallying communities urging Africans, Caribbean and Indians to form co-operations to lobby and petitioned the authorities in their plight against racial prejudices. She introduced the Black British audience to African-American writers and artists such a Paul Robeson and his wife Essie.

A deportation order was finally issued in June 1951 and the Protection the American Committee for Foreign Born lodged an appeal. She was again arrested along with 16 members of the Communist Party and released on bail. In October 1951 she was arrested again under the Mc Carran Act and incarcerated on Ellis Island once more. The events had taken its toll on Claudia and after her trail, where she was convicted to a year and a day in prison for 'teaching and advocating to overthrow the US Government by violent means' and accused of being a spy and paid informant, she suffered a heart attack. Claudia was hospitalised for three weeks after being diagnosed with 'hypertensive cardiovascular disease'.

Claudia felt 'disowned by the Communist Party' in the UK, she knew no one except 'a few fellow exiles' and was unfamiliar with the British and Caribbean culture in the UK. In April 1956 she took the bold step to 'despite her illness' to venture out and find herself a flat in a city facing a chronic housing shortage. She found living accommodation in South London and lived there until 1960 when she moved to North London.

The Supreme Court refused to hear her appeal and in January 1955 Claudia was a deportation order was granted and she was eventually deported to Britain in the same year. The Governor of Trinidad expressed concerns that she 'may prove troublesome' and warned the Colonial Office in London that Claudia 'might become a source of infection amongst all Colonials in Britain'.

Her financial situation was so chronic that she approached the CPGB for a loan of ÂŁ30. Despite her health and cash drought Claudia succeeded in founding the first Black newspaper in Britain, the West Indian Gazette, which she described as 'a one leaf flyer' in March 1958. In the same year anti- Black riots engulfed most the British cities including London, Manchester and Liverpool.

Ill health and poverty seemed to have Claudia's consumed life, however, this did not hinder her insatiable appetite in promoting peaceful resistance to racism and applying the use of art and culture as her champion.

Claudia used the machinery of the West Indian Gazette to organise and sponsor carnival shows which she started in 1959, the first of which was held at St Pancras Hall, London. Her objective, to educate the British natives of the wealth of culture and the rich cultural heritage that exists in the Caribbean and in so doing, elevate the those in the Diaspora helping, not only to

Claudia Cumberbatch Jones arrived in Britain in December on a cold miserable day in 1955 and was met by 'a few Communist exiles'. Her outspoken views on racial prejudice may have kept the British Communist Party away as none of its members were there to meet her. 24

rebuild Britain, but also to supplement their families in the Caribbean.

The office of the Gazette was always a cultural centre and 'focal point for Blacks in Britain' attracting a cross-section of Black personalities and international figures when they visited Britain. The office was teeming with people like Norman Manly, Paul Robeson, Cheddi Jagan, Sam Selvon, John La Rose, George Lamming, Jan Carew, William Marshall, Andrew Salkey and Namba Roy to name a few.

Organising the carnival shows drew resources from a vast array of people she knew and more importantly, who she could call on including; Paul Robeson and his wife Essie, Cy Grant, Edric Connor, Boscoe Holder, Mighty Sparrow, June Baden-Semper, Beryl Mc Bernie, Fitzroy Coleman, Cleo Laine, Pearl Connor and Amy Ashwood-Garvey to name a few. Her circle of professionals did not just stop at artist and entertainers, she had the support of High Commissions and Embassies officials such as the Indian High Commission, Nigeria, Ghana, Haiti, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago.

Claudia's charisma and charm went a long way in helping to establish the success of the WIG and she drew support from both the Black and White sectors, demonstrating her ability in promoting unity. Her influence was such that she had managed to secure from Kew Gardens, palm trees as part of the decor in the presentation of her carnival shows. The absence of any travel documents or passport restricted Claudia's movements thus preventing her from travelling abroad. After several attempts, in 1957 she was granted a temporary passport limiting her to travel only to France where she was invited to holiday with friends. Despite efforts to gain an extension to her passport so she could attend Paul Robeson's 60th birthday celebration in Sofia, Bulgaria, it proved futile.

The West Indian Gazette being the first Black newspaper was not without its problems in a country hinged with racial tensions and prejudices. In an attempt to prevent the paper from progressing, the KKK 'thrashed the Gazette's office'. As if this was not enough, a disgruntled group sought to relieve Claudia as the owner of the West Indian Gazette. However, she survived the attempts by the break-away group as solicitors proved the group had no grounds in challenging Claudia Jones as the rightful owner of the WIG which by now had become the platform that represented the interest of West Indians and the engine for further 'British-West Indian unity'.

Numerous attempts too, by many prominent people on her behalf to the Colonial Office, Passport Office, the Colonial Secretariat and even Dr Eric Williams failed to secure Claudia a passport. Five years later in 1962, Claudia was granted a passport enabling her to travel throughout the 'British Commonwealth and all Foreign Countries'. Having been granted a passport, it enabled Claudia to travel freely and she visited countries such as, USSR and Hong Kong.


Claudia Jones died at her North London flat on 24th December 1964. She had suffered a 'massive heart attack' at the age of 48. She was found in her bed, 'book in hand'. The life of a charismatic 'militant negro' had came to an end. In her nine years in Britain, Claudia had achieved a monumental task of unifying and dismantling racial boundaries. Kwesi Armah, the then High Commissioner for Ghana, paying tribute to Claudia said: "She was a symbol of inspiration to all anti-colonial movements." She was a visionary and a pioneer to not just the Afro-Caribbean community but to all who campaigned for the improvement of immigrants in the UK. Claudia's friend and lover Abhimanyu Manchanda 'bought a burial plot next to the grave of Karl Marx' in Highgate cemetery. What remained of Claudia's possessions was taken into keeping by Abhimanyu Manchanda. Today most of the archives relating to Claudia Jones are either lost or so badly deteriorated that very little written documentation exist on the prolific woman who has made an indelible mark on history in Britain. Essie Robeson in paying tribute to Claudia said: "We women are saddened by the death of Claudia Jones, and will remember with deep appreciation the fine and useful work she accomplished in her lifetime. We salute her with love and respect and grief."

For further reading on Claudia Jones: Claudia Jones: A life in Exile, by Marika Sherwood Claudia Jones: Beyond Containment, edited by Carole Boyce Davies Film Looking for Claudia Jones, Dir. Nia Reynolds



How does the number 4 feature in everyday life? By D.A.Kalloo Here are 22 ways that involves 4

A 4-sided figure is a quadrilateral The 4 points on the compass are East, West, North and South. A sphere has 4 quadrants There are 4 suits in a pack of cards; hearts, diamonds, spades and clubs. A 4-leaf clover is said to be a lucky plant formation There are 4 gospels in the New Testament: Mathew, Mark, Luke and John

There are 4 quarters in one hour The 4th month of the year is April A 4-legged animal is called a quadruped There are 4 players in a game of Bridge 4th July is Independence Day in United States of America '4' is called out when the ball reaches the boundary in a game of cricket 4 times is quadruple There are 4 seasons; winter, spring, summer, autumn EC4 is the postcode for the Press There are '....4 calling birds....' In the Christmas Carroll titled, Twelve Days of Christmas' There are 4 stages of the internal combustion engine: induction, compression, firing and exhaust There are 4 natural elements: fire, air, water and earth Sherlock Holmes' notice of solving a mystery has 4 elements: observation, search, analysis and imagination When something occurs every 4 years it is described 'quadrennial' A 4-poster bed is a type of old-fashioned sleeping accommodation There are 4 cardinal humours that are said to affect the human temperament: blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm

Adapted from Effective Resources for Able and Talented Children (Network Educational Press 1999)


Book review... House of Ashes By Rhianna Kalloo

Monique Roffey's novel, "house of ashes" is a story of attempted revolution and realisation, beautifully influenced by themes of family, religion and morality.

The conflict in expressions of faith and what is deemed righteous is also explored subtly, particularly through Ashes taking young Breeze under his wing when, Breeze realises that he does not know as much as he should about government and coups. Roffey has created a story that is personal and absorbing yet distant and unthinkable, heartbreaking but has the ability to make her readers want to question their own perspectives on government and power. It is a definite must-read for anyone, whether you have knowledge coups and government or not, it is a story that grips you to the very last page.

Inspired by, and alluding to, actual coups staged in the Caribbean, Roffey's story follows a violent coup staged by a group of revolutionaries on the island of Sans Amen, led by the seemingly charming and benevolent Leader, who plans to free the people from the 'oppressive' government. Narrated from two perspectives, that of Ashes, of one of the revolutionaries, and Aspasia Garland, a minster held hostage in their attempted coup, Roffey's narrative is eye-opening, as we learn of Ashes' sense of obligation to the Leader and his group, but also become aware of the blinding to reality and practicality that revolutionary propaganda can instigate. The novel is engaging and full of suspense, with new and unpredictable developments in every chapter, yet thought-provoking and emotional, aided by the narration from Aspasia Garland's perspective and her maternal instincts towards the younger revolutionaries despite the fact she is a hostage in a crisis, but also through Ashes and Breeze, who come to realise their wrongdoings in their involvement in the coup, in particular Breeze - who discovers that the Leader isn't who he thought he was.


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‘Exploring the Diaspora’


Notting Hill Carnival, what does 50 years mean? 50 Strong Years. When I reached 50 my friends and family wanted to organise a surprise party but I confused them by claiming I was organising my own surprise Party. It’s a trick that worked because I didn’t want to make a special thing about reaching fifty considering I still felt 36 years old.

as a platform for black people to bang their steel drums and forget that they were ever enslaved. When it became too much for the borough, residents were paid to leave the area during carnival and then some politicians got organisers to the royal family and convinced them to move it to Brixton. Luckily the Carnival is still in its birthplace and has gone through so many challenges apart from the examples I have given. Unfortunately I cannot say, as an organisation, Notting Hill Carnival has made much progress in fundraising, sponsorship, governance and PR. Due to lack of funds for most of the networks who represent the five artistic disciplines in NHC, progress in delivering community related programmes and quality products (in costumes, floats, production of quality carnival tunes etc) has not been great. There need to be strategies for the sector to access the over £90 million which this great Carnival brings into the London economy. Reviewing the organisation every time we have a new Mayor does not help progress in any way. Whilst the world over has respect and praises for Notting Hill Carnival, like Jesus it does not get respect in its own place. Celebrating 50 years of Notting Hill has some benefits if the Carnival sector makes noise about it instead of waiting for the mass media to pick up the fact, otherwise just as I said each carnival year is seen as a special year and to make it even more special the carnivalists have to make the noise first!! Roll on Notting Hill Carnival 50 years in the capital!!!!!

Notting Hill could divert celebrating 50 years by saying this is not the right year to celebrate 50 years but then who has the power to stop this great party taking place. Every year it’s a birthday celebration when you are in Carnival. In the mid 90s when I was setting up Carnivalnet website for the Arts Council, I researched sites relating to Notting Hill Carnival and to my surprise I found over 20 unofficial Notting Hill Carnival sites. Let's face it, Notting Hill is one of the few street party in the world which is expected to happen regardless of any circumstances and, there are people from various backgrounds and countries who will publicise it no matter what. It is one event that doesn’t matter how old or troubled it is. Like most carnival fanatics I know, we will celebrate this event in any year the same way as if it was 50, 100 or a million years old. Once upon a time the Olympics came into London and we were promised healthy funding and sponsorship for Carnival so it could be the greatest show on earth. I was even involved in drafting the Carnival budget for the Olympics and then when the games came into town, I found myself facilitating a Carnival Olympic meeting where the Olympics openly said it had stolen the Carnival money that had been budgeted for. The best opportunity for Carnival would have been during Olympic year and unfortunately nothing spectacular happened so the mas people went back home even more broke than any other year.

Pax Nindi FRSA Global Carnival Chief Executive

History tells us that when this special street party started before it became Europe’s biggest street party, it was seen 31

The Maltese Carnival participates in the Notting Hill Carnival 2014 A number of major groups linked to the London Notting Hill Carnival have invited the Malta Carnival to be their special guests in 2014. This invitation came as a result of a creative partnership between the Carnivals in Malta and London Notting Hill Carnival. The Universal Carnival Queen, Sureya John, crowned in Luton in 2013, headed a performing group of Mas Players from Elimu Paddington Arts Mas Band, Xtreme St Lucia Band and Genesis as they participated in several Carnivals in various cities and towns of Malta. Malta was invited to come to London and experience the London Carnival in August 2014. Under the patronage of the High Commission of Malta in London, His Excellency Mr Norman Hamilton, the visitors from Malta will include the 2014 Queen of Malta Carnival, Ms. Sabrina Spiteri and performers from various Maltese Carnival Companies. They are expected to be joined by Maltese students studying in the UK. Mr Jason Busuttil, Chairman of the Malta Carnival and Mr Francis Ripard who was the liaison for the Notting Hill visitors in March will lead the Maltese delegation to London. Mr Busuttil said: “Our main objective is to promote Malta as a tourist destination, share our experiences with our host and strengthen the partnership with the London Carnival.” Malta’s participation was made possible through the support of the Ministry of Culture and the Malta Council of Arts.


The Missing Pages of England’s History When we watch the World Cup 2014, we see players of African and African– Caribbean descent playing for European teams such as: England, France, Holland and Belgium. We may conclude, — wrongly, that this is a feature of a modern Europe, and is the result of recent immigration policies. This idea is incorrect because it belies an historical reality, which is that Africans have been part of the fabric of Europe for a very long time. The focus of this article is on the Africans who were present in Tudor England (1485-1603), which is a subject I have been researching for over twenty years.

Botolph without Aldgate, London on 22 October 1586. In the same parish there are also baptismal records of ‘Mary Fillis, a black more, being about xx years old and dwelling with Millicent Porter, a seamester,’ on 3 June 1597. And we know that Symon Valencia ‘a Blackamoore’ lived in the same parish at the same time. In Westminster in London, ‘Fortunatus [was] a blackmoor servant to Sr Robert Cecil,’ and he was buried there on 21 January 1602. In Plymouth, St Andrews’ parish, records exist for ‘Bastien, a Blackmoore of Mr William Hawkins,’ buried on 10 December 1583, and ‘Anthony, John, a Neyger’ on 18 March 1587;’ whilst in the same parish, there are baptism records for ‘Helene, daughter of Cristian the negro servant to Richard Sheere, the

There were Africans living in Tudor England, in cities such as: London, Plymouth and Bristol, but also in towns and villages such as Blean in Kent, Hatherleigh in Devon, Holt in Worcestershire and Salisbury in Wiltshire. This population included families with men, women and children. Amongst these people were Catalina de Cardones an Iberian Moor, part of Katherine of Aragon’s entourage, and John Blanke the ‘black trumpeter’ who was living in London in 1507 (his picture is included). This John Blanke had a prominent position on the Westminster Tournament Roll of 1511 which was created to commemorate the birth of Henry VIII’s son. There was also ‘Christopher Cappervert a blackemoore,’ who was buried in St


supposed father binge Cuthbert Holman, illeg.,’ dated 2 May 1593.

of being on the losing side in a war meant that many different kinds of people could become slaves. In other words, the status of being a slave in most countries in the sixteenth century was not based on race. Slaves in Europe were drawn from the people who lived around the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and the Spanish Maine.

This African presence was acknowledged at the time in two letters written on 11 July 1596, another on the 18 July 1596, and a Proclamation in 1601. These documents purport to be in the hand of Elizabeth I, but are in fact written by a collection of men. This includes an English gentleman who had fallen on hard times called Thomas Sherley, with some help by his son, working with a Dutch slave trader called Casper Van Senden; and with some initial assistance by an English politician called Robert Cecil. This Robert Cecil is the same man, ironically, mentioned above, who had an African servant called Fortunatus.

In Tudor England, Africans were not automatically slaves in fact some came as visiting dignitaries, and were part of nations that in many ways were more sophisticated than Tudor England was. These include people such as John Jaquoah, who was twenty years old and the ‘king’s sonne in Guinnye,’ baptised on 1 January 1610/11 at St Mildred Poultry, London. It also includes Walter Anberey ‘the sonne of Nosser Anberey [a ruler within the kingdom] borne in the kingdom of Dungala in Africa, [who] was baptized upon the third day of February being Shrove Sundaie, in the Eight yeare King James, anno, [1610/11].LMA,’ at All Hallows, Tottenham, London.

These documents state: ‘… that there are of late divers Blackmoores brought into the Realme [England], of which kinde of persons there are all ready here to manie …’ In other words that Africans were not just recent arrivals, but had been present in England long before 1597. The writers also state that these Africans are ‘great [in] Numbers’ and are ‘… fostered and powered here.’ These documents attempted to grant to the men who drafted them the power to treat some or groups of Africans as slaves. And indeed some Englishmen such as Francis Drake, William and John Hawkins, Martin Frobisher, Walter Raleigh were involved in these practices abroad. And they raided some coastal African settlements, — but more often, with religious zeal, and based on economic greed, it was gold and silver they wanted, the people they acquired were collateral.

So Africans were not all slaves in Tudor England and the Englishmen who in the letters and proclamation attempted to treat them as such failed to do so. This is despite as they claimed that ‘All the blackamoores in England are known for their strangeness and not service to the Queen.’ In fact Africans were actively employed by Elizabeth I, ‘who had [her] … favourite little blak mor.’ Many of her advisors and courtiers including Robert Cecil and Robert Dudley also had African servants. These people were a visible and significant presence in Tudor England, so why is it that we still think of this period as one

In the sixteenth century, through the activities of pirates and the machinations 34

‘The original inhabitants of Britain whether indigenous or foreign are like most other countries unknown.’ Richard Cirencester (1335-1401).

where Africans were not part of the fabric of English society? Much of this is to do with the media’s mythologizing of the past. This includes in series such as Simon Schama, et. al., A History of Britain (2 Entertain Video, 2000–2002); The Tudors, (Michael Hirst, et. al., Showtime/Reveille/Working); or in Elizabeth (Polygram, 1998). In these programmes Africans are absent, or are exotic, strange interlopers. A good example of this is the lone African who appears in the film the New World (New Line Cinema, 2005). However, one may forgive television studios and filmmakers for maintaining this charade, since they are producing entertainment. If it was not for the fact that this notion is mirrored by the way that historians also fantasise, marginalise and in some cases retire to footnotes any evidence of an African presence.

Although this is probably true, Africans were certainly part of England’s past, and are an integral element of its future.


History is the means by which we make sense of the present. The detrimental effects of this myth making, is that children in English schools are misled about their country’s past. An understanding that Africans were present in England then, helps us see that an African presence now, is not strange or out of keeping with English identity. It is for these reasons that Narrative Eye, have launched a campaign to the education secretary to have the African Tudors included in the National Curriculum and I support such a campaign. Of course in the past before the British Empire and scientific racism, English historians used to say that there was no racial exclusiveness in Englishness, and that:


Top photo courtesy Cashewmedia , below courtesy



Ron Ramdin’s powerful novel The Griot’s Tale is presently being translated in Spanish by the prestigious Latin American publishers Arte y Literatura and Casas De Las Americas. Director of Rolando Malagon has written to Ron Ramdin stating: ‘The Griot’s Tale is a book that will be welcome by Cuban readers.’ He adds: ‘For the Arte y Literature publishing house, it is a great honour to include your novel in our catalogue…on universal art and literature.’ One of the first readers, a teacher in Linguistics at the University of the Sorbonne in Paris, as well as Book Reviewers and a few readers have described The Griot’s Tale as a ‘masterpiece’. Given that Spanish is the world’s second most spoken language, this translation is fitting and timely. Such a novel deserves the widest world readership. Ron Ramdin’s autobiography TURNING PAGES will be published later this year. He is currently working on his third novel FIELDS OF LILAC


Did you know? Veronica Palm, a Democrat MP said; ‘This is a public health problem and politicians have to take responsibility for.’

Divorce rate in China has jumped 41% since 2013? Experts believe the rapid rate may have been caused by the recently imposed tax of 20 per cent on couples from capital gains from house sales.

Did you know that up to 7,000 people are affected by scammers using cunning software to encrypt your hard drive and then demand a ransom to either restore your files or remove the virus. In many instances demanding up to £500 for the service. Basic rule is not to open attachments and emails you do not recognise. Backing up your files on a separate hard drive should be as relevant as blinking your eyes. Update your antivirus software regularly and report any fraud on 03000123 2040 or

Did you know the United Nations has proposed eating insects to combat malnutrition saying it’s a ‘promising alternative to meat? Did you know that Google, not satiated with its hands in many pies now wants a stake in Virgin Galactic? Virgin Galactic is Richard Branson’s passenger space project. Did you know that the London Borough of Waltham Forest has topped the tables for crime reduction in London? The borough saw a reduction of 87% in gang related violence. Maybe the T&T government should send a delegation there to see how they do it.

Did you know that the European Health Insurance Card is free when travelling to Europe? If you are ever asked to pay for this service, refuse bluntly and go to your nearest Post Office and get it FREE.

Did you know that washing raw chicken can help to spread Campylobacter poisoning? Thoroughly cooking chicken kills campylobacter which can spread when chicken is washed through splashes on other surfaces, clothing, kitchen equipment and your skin. Common symptoms of campylobacter are: irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, abdominal pains and reactive arthritis.

Did you know you could send your comments and suggestions to culturepulse? Send yours to:

Did you know that the Germans now want gender equality traffic lights? Mitte, an area in Berlin wants to introduce a female Ampelmann (traffic light man). A spokeswoman for the district said, ‘we would like the new crossing woman to modern and not wear a mini skirt, pony tails or high-heels. Did you know that Sweden might be the leaders in pioneering the ban on sexism and gender stereotyping in advertisements? 38


For further information contact: 02089044514/07956675412

Zero Five Fifty


July 2014 issue 25  

Exploring the Diaspora

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