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CULTURAL RESOURCE STUDY:

BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND JUNE 2011

Prepared for the Majumder Manor Team and the Town of Burlington

10 St. Mary Street, Suite 801 Toronto, Ontario M4Y 1P9


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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


CONTENTS PREFACE

3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL RESOURCES

An introduction to the cultural heritage of Burlington, Newfoundland

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

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1.0 PLANNING 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Planning Framework Local Level Strategies Governing Acts Planning Visions

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL RESOURCES 2.1 Physical Cultural Resources 2.2 Majumder Manor: The Site 2.3 Majumder Manor: Former Schools 2.4 Majumder Manor: Former Orange Lodge 2.5 Back in Time Museum (Former United Church) 2.6 Old Wood Bridge 2.7 Government Wharf 2.8 The Park 2.9 Town Hall (CAP site), Fire Hall, New United Church 2.10 Perry’s Cove 2.11 Mills Cove 2.12 Cemeteries

19 21 22 23 24 26 28 30 32 33 33 33

Intangible Cultural Resources Logging and Sawmills Fishing Coastal Boats Shipbuilding Community Building Building Orientation, Construction Methods and Materials 3.8 House Pulls 3.9 Agriculture, Farming and Maintaining the Land 3.10 Snowmobiling 3.11 Public Activities: Mummering, Parades, Events 3.12 Cook-ups, Drop-bys and Kitchen Parties

35 36 38 39 40 42 45 46 48 50 52 54

4.0 OPPORTUNITIES 4.1 Principles 4.2 Regional Cultural Planning 4.3 Cultural Heritage Infrastructure Strategy

56 58 60

5.0 CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Practicing Community Building

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


PREFACE

Change is inevitable. Burlington, as well as many of Newfoundland’s coastal outport communities continue to evolve and adapt to a changing world. ‘Majumder Manor’, a project proposed by Burlington native Shaun Majumder, represents an important investment in the town, and an opportunity to define and contribute to a vision for how Burlington could evolve. This study has been prepared to assist the Majumder Manor design team and the community of Burlington, as they consider opportunities in their future planning. As heritage architects and planners, ERA Architects has been asked to provide a history on the Majumder Manor site and a cultural resource inventory of Burlington. In many ways we are outsiders to the community. We hope our perspective is helpful to the team and the town of Burlington. Burlington could be broadly characterized as a culture of hard work, resourcefulness, and creativity. A relationship with the sea and the land has led to the creation of unique traditional practices and rituals, a distinct identity, and a deep connection to place. To prepare this report, we have worked closely with members of the community within Burlington. They’ve proven to be the most significant sources of knowledge and insight throughout this process. We would like to extend a special thanks to everyone who assisted our research and analysis including: George Kelly, Alonzo Saunders, James Squires (and wife), Claude Lush (and his daughter and son-in-law), Mani Majumder (and Liesl), Lillian Goudie (and her son), the two fellows on the snowmobiles who greeted us upon arrival, and in particular, to the dozen folks who lifted the “mainlanders” car from the ditch on the side of the road on our visit this past February.

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Culture of Outports In 2010, ERA Architects initiated the “Culture of Outport” project that explores the adaptive reuse of outport communities scattered along the coastline of Newfoundland and Labrador. The project proposes that an understanding of the unique history and character of these communities is essential in order to plan successfully and manage their future evolution, post the 1992 cod moratorium and other restrictions on the traditional fisheries. The Culture of Outport project incorporates ongoing research on the Master Shipbuilders of Newfoundland and Labrador by Calvin Evans. Shipbuilding was generally considered ancillary to the fishing industry but our research reveals the essential role that ship building families played as community builders in many outport communities, especially in the early years. In many ways, shipbuilding has been one of Newfoundland and Labrador’s first creative industries. It is through this project that ERA became involved with the Majumder Manor project and the creation of the document you are reading.

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


PREFACE

Adaptive Reuse of the Outport Outport communities such as Burlington continue to change and adapt to a few major shifts that have occurred within the last 50 plus years including the 1992 cod moratorium, the transportation shift from sea to land, the population shift from rural areas to urban and growth centres, and an aging population. These forces continue to have a profound impact on the cultural and economic sustainability of the town, and pose a threat to the intangible cultural heritage that makes Burlington the place that it is. Burlington as well as Newfoundland’s many outport communities, were established from a sea perspective, and exist because of the once abundant fisheries found in this part of the North Atlantic. Outport communities relied on the sea for their livelihoods, and for their connection to the outside world. Outport communities exist because of the sea, but their existence also depended on a sophisticated relationship with a harsh and unforgiving coastal landscape. From the perspective of heritage professionals, these locally evolved and culturally specific qualities would constitute the intangible cultural heritage of Burlington. UNESCO defines intangible cultural heritage as: “The practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups, and in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity”. Newfoundlanders are a creative and resilient group of people. There are plenty of examples throughout the province to suggest that communities are in search of inventive ways to create new industries and ways of life in response to these major shifts by exploring and diversifying in alternative economies and opportunities (for instance, off-shore oil and gas, largescale harvesting of berries and tourism). In many cases, creative thinkers are rebuilding these communities in the next wave of cultural activity.

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Introduction As part of the process of planning and designing Majumder Manor, The Culture of Outport initiative by ERA Architects had been asked to study the town of Burlington and:

• provide a history of the future hotel site for the design team; • conduct an inventory of the town’s cultural resources, with a focus on the history and role of shipbuilding within the community

Two previous studies on Burlington are referenced throughout the document: History of Burlington: The Lives We Lived (2006), produced by the Burlington CAP Site and Settlement Study: Burlington, Green Bay, Newfoundland by Amelia R. Hodder. This study provides research, analysis, and cultural mapping for two essential audiences: the Majumder Manor design team, and the community within the town of Burlington. Both audiences have similar interests: what can the town’s history tell us about its future?

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


PREFACE

Burlington: a community

Majumder Manor: a hotel

A proposed eco-luxe hotel within the town of Burlington presents significant opportunities and challenges for the town to consider. Is Burlington as a tourist destination different than Burlington as a livable community? Can the community supplement the offerings of the hotel to provide visitors with an authentic Burlington experience?

In the northern outport of Burlington Newfoundland, Shaun Majumder is building a hotel with an event-based “kitchen party” programming component. The eco-luxe hotel, called Majumder Manor, is intended to stimulate the town’s tourist industry and provide a destination for visitors, particularly the adventurous tourist.

If a culture and leisure industry were to supplant a logging, fishing and shipbuilding industry, adapting the town’s physical built form seems somewhat obvious if we look to Burlington’s older buildings, structures and layout.

This study outlines the evolution of the Majumder Manor site in an effort to understand its value within the town. The design team was quite interested in learning as much contextual information about the town as possible in order to inform its approach to the proposed building’s construction, character and programming.

To truly create an authentic experience within the town of Burlington, it needs to hold value for future visitors and the community must go a little further. As it turns out, the physical cultural heritage resources (buildings, structures, roads) are in fact a product of various interesting intangible cultural heritage resources. These intangible cultural heritage resources take the form of practices, skills, behaviours, economies, ways in which people build, how they exchange skill sets, and how they relate to their environment, which combined, tell a story of how this community tends its land. The preservation of many of these intangible cultural resources from Burlington’s past is critical to the pursuit of a livable and vibrant community for the future. They hold specific value for this place. Many of the community’s historic cultural practices can exist alongside and be supported by new intangible practices, for example introduction of culture and leisure practices of a hotel and kitchen/entertainment centre. This study proposes a Cultural Heritage Development Framework for the town to consider in preparing future planning: its value, its vision, and its priorities. This study identifies a planning context, outlines a planning process, and provides benefits and guidelines for the preparation of an official town plan based on the incorporation of its cultural heritage resources.

Shaun understood that members of his family had been prominent master shipbuilders in Burlington who had built many ships, including the last 3-masted schooner constructed in Newfoundland. The Culture of Outport project was very interested in demonstrating that these master shipbuilders were also community builders – a tradition that Shaun is interested in continuing. Our role has been to undertake research, including a search of St. John’s archives and libraries, and a trip to Burlington in February 2011, and to report our findings to the Majumder Manor team through a series of meetings, conversations, emails and web presentations between January and May of 2011. The team understood the value of the research not as a product but as a process. This study is a culmination and synthesis of our findings. In summary, our contribution to the design team includes: articulating the value of the site and its prominence within the town, and researching and reporting on the role of Shaun’s ancestors as shipbuilders and community builders in the town.

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

1.1 Planning Framework Planning in Newfoundland and Labrador occurs at local, regional, provincial and federal levels. Economic, social and cultural development are co-orientated though a network of legislation, general policies and specific regulations. The effectiveness of planning, however, is largely determined by how well it engages local community values and to the extent the community is able to participate in the process. This chapter highlights some of the key aspects of planning which relate to the Town of Burlington and discusses some key planning documents, including:

Burlington Integrated Community Sustainability Plan (Town of Burlington)

Emerald Zone Corporation Strategic Economic Plan 2008-2011 (Emerald Zone Corporation)

The Urban and Rural Planning Act (Province of Newfoundland and Labrador)

The Municipalities Act (specifically sections relating to heritage)

• Creative Newfoundland and Labrador: The Blueprint for Development and Investment In Culture (2006) • Intangible Cultural Heritage, Newfoundland and Labrador (Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Foundation)

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1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

1.2 Local Level Strategies Integrated Community Sustainability Plan

Regional Planning

Burlington has recently prepared an Integrated Community Sustainability Plan (ICSP). The plan identifies strategic goals and actions relating to the environment, social conditions, culture, governance, and partnerships.

Emerald Zone Development Corporation provides region-wide support for planning around the Baie Verte Peninsula. The Corporation is mandated to provide regional planning for economic and social development, to foster partnerships among government and private sector stakeholders, and to prepare the region to take up economic opportunities.

The ICSP includes a set of vision statements describing what the community aspires to achieve by the year 2020. They are: • Through a combination of municipal policies and public education ensure the protection of the natural environment in and around the community. •

Develop a business friendly environment by reducing barriers for new and existing operations while increasing communication and celebrating local success stories.

• •

Ensure information and adequate social programs are available to residents of all ages. Programming will include recreation, healthy living, education and any other needs as identified by the community, even if they are not municipal services.

Operate the municipality with fiscal responsibility and accountability as well as financial and strategic planning while engaging the public whenever possible.

Celebrate our history, culture and people through programs and events designed to engage residents and visitors alike.

• Engage any and all partners in the community and enhance existing relationships in the region to accomplish goals as identified by council and residents. 12

Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND

The town also is in partnership with the Baie Verte Peninsula Economic Development Association, which similarly supports economic growth and partnerships.


1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

At right: Town map of Burlington

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1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

1.3 Governing Acts Municipal Heritage Protection

Urban and Rural Planning Act

Under the Municipalities Act, municipalities are able to protect buildings or sites valued for representing the community’s cultural heritage. According to the Act, “a building, structure or land designated by council as a heritage building, structure or land shall not be demolished or built upon nor the exterior of the building or structure altered, except under a written permit of the council specifically authorizing the alteration and in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit” (section 200(1)).

Newfoundland and Labrador’s Urban and Rural Planning Act addresses ways land may be regulated and developed. At a local level, it empowers municipal councils to regulate land development through municipal plan and land use policies.

A council may furthermore establish a heritage advisory committee “to advise the council on regulations made with respect to heritage buildings, structures and lands and the preservation” of designated cultural heritage properties (section 200(1)).

As Burlington has yet to create a municipal plan, authority for land development in the town remains with the Province’s Department of Municipal Affairs. Currently, the town’s authority extends as far as overseeing building permit approvals. When the town establishes its own Municipal Plan, the community can assume a greater role in shaping the way land is used. This will help conserve sites valued by the whole community and will establish strategies for private and public investments according to local priorities. Burlington could consider pooling its resources with neighbouring communities to form a municipal plan within a wider regional planning framework. The Town could also make use of its Integrated Community Sustainability Plan as the foundation for developing its municipal plan. Development of a new plan could qualify for funding through the Provincial-Federal Gas Tax funding agreement.

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND


1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

At right: Map of Emerald Region

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1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

1.4 Planning Visions The Province provides broad policy statements shaping the direction of Newfoundland and Labrador’s economic, social and cultural development. It also administers specific programs supporting planning at regional and community levels. The Province’s Blueprint for Development and Culture is an example of a broad policy statement. The Blueprint makes the case for the Province to prioritize its support for culture (including heritage, arts, and creative professions). It states that the Province will “seek to take a balanced approach to cultural development across a broad spectrum of needs and opportunities”. It recognizes that “heritage organizations and core cultural sites and attractions at the provincial, regional and community levels are also key elements” (p. 15). Specific planning programs of the Province are carried out by the Department of Municipal Affairs and allied departments such as The Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation. The Department of Municipal Affairs’ Municipal Service Centre in Gander reviews development proposals in Burlington. The Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation provides support for cultural tourism, and for community heritage (such as museums and historic sites) and the arts. Its mandate extends to help tourism and cultural industries become economically sustainable. Provincial organizations outside the government structure also provide important support for planning. Notably, the Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Foundation has produced a strategic plan for conserving and cultivating the island’s cultural traditions. Titled Intangible Cultural Heritage, Newfoundland and Labrador, the plan establishes a mission of “safe guarding and sustaining traditional cultural practices, as a vital part of the identities of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians, and as a valuable collection of unique knowledge and customs” (page 6). The Plan proposes to achieve this by supporting “initiatives that will celebrate, record, disseminate and promote our living heritage and help to build bridges between diverse cultural groups within and outside Newfoundland and Labrador” (page 6). 16

Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND

Joint Federal-Provincial programs, should also be considered active in providing policy and financial support for planning community development. These include the Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund (MRIF), The Gas Tax Fund (GTF) and Infrastructure Stimulus Fund. Funding can contribute both directly to planning, such as the establishment of a municipal plan, or to projects coordinated with local planning, such as road building.


1.0 PLANNING AND REGIONAL APPROACH

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At right: Previous planning documents

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

2.1 Physical Cultural Resources This section describes many of the Physical Cultural Resources represented in key maps that quantify and describe the evolution of the outport. Though this is not a complete inventory of each building within the town, these resources focus on community structures that organize the essential identity of the town. As found in many other outports, Burlington’s Old Church Road “main street” shifted to Hwy 413 as a “main street”. The physical cultural resouces reflect this today.

TOW N HA L L

At left: Old bridge, Burlington

school

salmon

school

salmon

church

swimming hole

church

swimming hole

old bridge

burlington day

old bridge

burlington day

government wharf

united church activities

government wharf

united church activities

skating rink

lighthouse

skating rink

lighthouse

church

coastal boats

church

coastal boats

fire hall

lodging

fire hall

lodging

gazebo

orangemen

gazebo

orangemen

fuel

NLSF shelter

fuel

NLSF shelter

park

restaurant

park

restaurant

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1ST SCHOOL

2ND SCHOOL ORANGE LODGE

BUILD NORTH OF THIS LINE

TEL

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

2.2 Majumder Manor: the site This triangular shaped lot is an important site within the town. It has an address on both the main highway leading into town that was formed in the 1960’s as well as on the town’s early 20th century main street. Though there are currently no existing buildings on the site, we know that the school and Orange Lodge had once been built in this location. The site is mostly wooded today but has clearings of exposed rock that run east-west parallel to the highway. General building orientation of both schools that had existed on this site had faced south towards the harbour.

At left: Site and relationship to roadways Below: Oblique Aerial view of site context

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2.3 Majumder Manor: Former Schools United Church School Built in 1900, this centralized school had been designed and built by master shipbuilder William Bartlett from Middle Arm. His brother-in-law was Abraham Mills who essentially initiated schooner and shipbuilding in North West Arm (Burlington). The United Church School was a rectangular plan with two-storey and a shallow pitched slope with a widow’s walk. The top storey was originally a community hall. Greenwood Academy

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Built in 1945 to replace the former United Church School that had been destroyed by fire, this 1-storey wood frame building with gable roof had a rectangular shaped footprint and provided a 2-classroom school. It had 2 equal bays with 2 sets of 3 large sash windows facing the harbour. In 1959 a third classroom was added. Eventually the school was discontinued in this location and students were bused to Baie Verte. The building had been reused as a convenience store in its later years. Greenwood Academy was dismantled and the materials were reused in the community to maintain other structures. 02

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

2.4 Majumder Manor: Former Orange Lodge The Orange Lodge Built in 1941, the Orange Lodge was built to replace a community hall that had been provided in the school until then. The triangular lot on which the Orange Lodge had originally been built faced the road that came up from the wharf. As a large one-storey, gable roof wood frame structure, the Orange Lodge was also used for the occasional square dance, plays, and performances. The building was faced with clapboard and was accessed on the east façade with an elevated porch. As one of the town’s main public buildings, the lodge has cultural value as a part of the town’s evolving formalization of the main street. The building was relocated across the street a number of years ago on the former site of the old post office.

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07 01_The old school 02_Greenwood Academy school room 03_Panorama of site today 04_The Orange Lodge 05_The Orange Lodge 06_Front entrance to the Orange Lodge 07_The Orange Lodge today 08_Jim Perry 08

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2.5 Back in Time Museum (former United Church) On the former site of the town’s first built landmark, the United Church, now stands the Back in Time Museum. A portion of the original church foundation is still visible on the site. The church was a large wood frame and timber building built in 1922. William Lloyd Mills assisted William Robbins in the construction of the church. The museum is operated by Alonzo Saunders who built the separate structure next to his house. He has also built a lighthouse that serves as a new landmark in place of the former church steeple. The artifacts and photographs displayed in the museum are rare and valuable. The museum provides educational tours to students and is open to the public on a regular basis.

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

01_Interior of the Back In Time Museum 02_Back in Time Museum and lighthouse 03_Former United Church 04_Alonzo Saunder’s lighthouse

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2.6 Old Wood Bridge The old wood bridge was built in 1900 to provide access to the centralized school and to connect the north and south sides of the community. The bridge received grant funds in 1953 and was repaired and upgraded by J.B. Bartlett. In 1960, Premier Joey Smallwood visited Burlington to reopen the bridge in a ribbon cutting ceremony. The bridge was approximately 25 feet wide and spanned approximately 80 feet. Part of the 1953 upgrades likely included new concrete piers and steel beams to span the North West Brook. The wood decking and steel beams have since washed away, but the concrete piers are still visible today.

01_Old bridge under construction 02_The old bridge 03_Joey Smallwood at Ribbon Cutting Ceremony circa 1960 04_Bill Oake, Bert Rideout & Stafford Vokey on the old wood bridge 05_Lodge parade on the old bridge

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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2.7 Government Wharf The Government Wharf was partially constructed in 1952 and completed in late 1953. This substantial wharf was close to 500 feet long and served the community of Burlington and Smith’s Harbour. It was built out from the Thistle premises and complemented their sawmill production facility. The wharf was paid for by a federal government grant of $16,500. Master shipbuilder Abram Mills was the foreman on the project and was assisted by Edgar Rideout. Currently, the wharf has all but sunk. The outline of it can still be seen in the 1998 aerial photo which shows that it is submerged.

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01_Lumber stacked on the wharf by Burlington Stores 02_Burlington’s Government Wharf 03_Lumber by Burlington Stores 04_Building the Government Wharf

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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05_Aerial view of Government Wharf circa 1965 06_Sid Thistle and Gus Thoms with big tuna catch 07_Thistle’s sawmill next to Government Wharf

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2.8 The Park The town’s recent formation of a park serves as a significant attraction for visitors to the town. It accommodates picnics and provides an excellent view of the harbour. It represents one the first transformations of the water’s edge from a place that’s associated with a place of work to a place of leisure. It seems the site was part of the original Vokey property. The town had acquired this portion of land in 1989. From the 1933 aerial photograph of the town, there appears to be a walking path that crosses the site and connects the church with the Old Baie Verte Road.

01_Park site 02_Plan view of park site

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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2.9 Town Hall, Fire Hall, New United Church These recent structures acknowledge part of the town’s shift from sea to land. With the formalization of the highway in the 1960’s and its connection to other communities by land, many of the town’s recently built public buildings address this new access. The Town Hall, which hosts the Municipal Office, Public Health Clinic and Community Centre, and the Fire Hall are located at the top end of the historic main street.

Below: Burlington Town Hall and Fire Hall

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2.0 PHYSICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

2.10 Perry’s Cove Goudie’s Green and the First Methodist Cemetery are located in Perry’s Cove. A brook runs between them and it is believed that this may have been an alternative shipbuilding site for smaller schooners and boats.

2.11 Mills Cove Town of Burlingto

Mills Cove was the major shipbuilding site within Burlington. The former structures no longer exist with the exception of Indian Well. The only remaining features are that of the landscape: shallow sloping fresh water brook, shoreline, deep waters, and protected cove.

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2.12 Cemeteries There are four cemeteries within the town. The United Church cemetery in Mills Cove is the oldest. The second cemetery to be built was for the First Methodist church and is located in Perry’s Cove. The third cemetery, which is shared by the United and Pentecostal churches, is located to the east of the town near an area known as ‘the bog’. In the last decade, a fourth cemetery for the Faith Pentecostal church has also been added to the town.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

3.1 Intangible Cultural Resources This section describes the town’s many Intangible Cultural Resources which are represented by a series of cultural mappings that illustrate these activities’ presence within and relationship to the outport community of Burlington. Though this is not a complete list of all cultural activities within the town, most can be understood within this range: transportation, building practices, public activities, and industrial economies. Many of these cultural practices are described further in Burlington’s historic reference material. We think cultural mapping provides an essential representation of these intangible cultural resources.

school

salmon

church

swimming hole

old bridge

burlington day

government wharf

united church activities

skating rink

lighthouse

halfway bog

church

school coastal boats

salmon

fire hall

church lodging

swimming hole

gazebo

old bridge orangemen

burlington day

fuel

government NLSFwharf shelter

united church activities

park

skating rink restaurant

lighthouse

church

coastal boats

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3.2 Logging and Sawmills The first water-wheel sawmill was built in Burlington in the late 1880s by Josiah Roberts. By 1902 his sons William and Elias had set up the first steam sawmill. By the 1920s there were as many as 7 sawmills operating in Burlington, employing more than 50 men. In 1921 more than 57,000 logs were cut, producing 750,000 superficial ft. of spruce lumber, 10,000 ft. of pine, and 430,000 ft. of other timber. Timber production also included 162 wharf sticks, 43,000 staves, 450,000 wood shingles, 17,000 lathes and 40 fence posts. The value of timber produced in 1920 was $57,000. Much of this was marketed outside the community, and particularly to St. John’s. The harvesting of pit-props, pulpwood and firewood was also carried out within the community. Most saw mills were located along a fresh water brook close to the water’s edge. The Thistle Family were prominent lumbering merchants who moved from King’s Point to set up their sawmill and business at the waterfront near Government Wharf.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES active inactive

Sid Kelly Roberts 4 km

Roberts

Thistle Jenning

Harold House

Goudie

Roberts E.K. Mills Mercer

Mills

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Robbin

Perry Matthews

01_Leander & Roland Young 02_Mills sawmill 03_Boomed wood at Burlington Harbour 04_Log dam circa 1939 05_Joe Martin & William Squires

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3.3 Fishing According to the Baie Verte Peninsula Regional Study 1960, the communities in the region were dependant on fishing until the early 1900’s, but in the 1880’s logging and mining employed more and more men. During the period of this report, the best areas for fishing were region on the east edge of the Peninsula, just north of Nippers Harbour. Contrary to this, inshore fishing was part of everyday life within the community. In 1884 there were 23 fishing crews in Burlington, 20 in the inshore fishery and 3 in the Labrador fishery. By 1891 there were 41 large boats engaged in the inshore fishery and 25 boat owners. The number of “fishing rooms” (plantations) averaged about 25 to 30 during these years. By 1901 about 58 men were engaged in catching fish. By 1911 that number had risen to 63.

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Women in Burlington were largely responsible for curing the fish (i.e. getting it ready for market) when it was brought home by the men. The Census of 1901 noted that there were 58 men catching fish and 50 women curing fish. That statistic is repeated in the Census of 1911 and 1921, though the numbers in the 1921 Census are lower because more men were now involved in the lumbering industry.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

3.4 Coastal Boats According to the study, the terrain of the Peninsula made transportation on land quite difficult, and, until recently, many of these communities relied on connections by sea. Many members of the Burlington community recall coastal boats bringing in supplies and preserves to the wharf, the Burlington Store and other stores. The CNR Coastal Boats regularly took passengers from one outport community to another throughout the year.

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01_Old Navigation Chart, Burlington 02_Garfield Roberts with dried cod 03_Sid Thistle and Gus Thoms with big tuna catch 04_Mike and Stan Dwyer casting caplin 05_Coastal Boat

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3.5 Shipbuilding The men in North West Arm were primarily fishermen. Shipbuilding was an activity ancillary to the fishery; building ships and boats was simply the means of getting to where the fish were. What attracted men to Green Bay were the mighty stands of timber as well as the excitement of building a new community. Eleazer Mills built the last 3-masted schooner constructed in Newfoundland. The Mills were a prominent shipbuilding family. Seven members of the Mills family built 26 ships in Burlington between 1862 and 1948, over a period of 86 years. There were seven other men who built ships in Burlington, one in Smith’s Harbour and three in Middle Arm. No doubt there were many others. Across the Bay in Jackson’s Cove lived Jonas Newell Newhook, one of the most famous of Newfoundland’s shipbuilders, builder of the famous clipper ships Tasso and Fleetwing. In Harry’s Harbour there were six shipbuilders, Including John Evans who built at least eight ships between 1874 and 1906. Other shipbuilding family names in Burlington include Squires, Martin, Larmen, Starks, Perry, Hicks, Rideout, and Dwyer. The Bartletts of Middle Arm also built ships, in addition to the Thomas’ and Robinsons. The Perry family of Southwest Arm built ships as did the Squires in Smith’s Harbour.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES Abraham Mills

STORE

Rabbi 1862 Proprietor 1881

William Bartlett First Trial 1875 George Mills Warwick William 1885

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04 03 SHED

MAX RIDEOUT RESIDENCE

ABRAM MILLS STORE

SAWMILL

SHIPBUILDING LAUNCH

MILLS RESIDENCE, GARDENS, PASTURES + BROOK

Ambrose Millst Contest 1885 Eleazer K. Mills Clara 1899 Pretoria 1900 Myrtus 1902 Rigolet 1907 Will o’ the Wisp 1907 Mildred G. Knight 1909 Chanceport 1916 J.S. Knight 1923 Edna Lousie 1926 Kate and Ruth 1926 Lone Flyer 1927 Lady Bartlett 1928 Bessie Marie 1929 Speed Queen 1930 Elijiah Mills Village Belle 1884 Kathleen 1907 Joseph Mills Lilly Jane 1877

BURLINGTON MILLS SHIPBUILDING SITE

01_Building a schooner at Mills Cove 02_Solomon Giles and Roland Young building a schooner in Mills Cove 03_Lloyd Mills and Roland Young building a schooner at Mills Cove 04_Mills Cove

John R. Bartlett Prize Taker 1911 Abraham Mills Daisy G.S.1922 Miss Rideout 1929 New Adventure 1929 Bette Myrna 1943 Earl Keith 1948 William Francis Bartlett Rattling Brook (half a dozen ships) 1930’s

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3.6 Community Building The Mills premises had 2 houses on their property in Mills Cove. Ambrose Mills built the main house, but in fact, many Mills had lived here. The site also had a sawmill, stores and sheds, a wharf, a launch for the schooners, a bridge over a fresh water brook, a dog-house, a barn, and a series of kitchen gardens and pastures. In addition to their contributions within the shipbuilding industry and their site of shipbuilding production and premises, the master shipbuilders and their families were quite involved in building within the community. Evidence of master shipbuilders as “community builders” exists throughout the town of Burlington. J.B. Bartlett supervised extensive repairs to the main bridge in 1953. Abraham Mills and Edgar Rideout oversaw the reconstruction of the government wharf. William Lloyd Mills assisted in construction of the United Church in the 1920’s. William Bartlett (a master builder from Middle Arm) built the school in 1900. It is worth mentioning that William married Martha Mills, Abraham Mills’ sister. Abraham Mills Sr. was the first Mills master shipbuilder and initiated the shipbuilding industry in Burlington in 1862. Master shipbuilders were able to transfer their skills from the sea to land and contributed to many structures within the community. Elijah Kenneth House invented an aeroplane in Toronto, Ontario in 1913, that he claimed could make an Atlantic crossing.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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01_Building the Government Wharf 02_The old school house 03_United Church circa 1920s 04_Lodge parade on the old bridge

JACKSON’S COVE (other side of Green Bay)

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01_19th century civic buildings orientation 02_Post-Confederation orientation 03_Mills Cove building orientation 04_19th century residences at water’s edge


3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

3.7 Building Orientation, Construction Methods and Materials Built form in an outport community such as Burlington, was often oriented with purpose. On properties of industrial production, such as shipbuilding or sawmill sites, structures are related specifically towards their production requirements (i.e.. connections to fresh water brooks, access to large stands of wood, water’s edge, routes through the community, views over the harbour, etc.). Its also likely that the terrain and exposed rock suitable for creating a stable base informed the building’s orientation as well. Many public buildings would have oriented themselves towards public access. For example the original siting of the Orange Lodge would have greeted the public arriving from the Government Wharf accessing the main road. The long elevations of the United Church and school facing the old main road and the harbour were likely to maximize views. In 1960 a comparison was made between typical outport house construction standards and the Canadian National Housing “Minimum House” Standards. The national building standards compared to Newfoundland local methods of construction and standards was carried out.

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3.8 House Pulls House pulls are very much a building practice tradition within Burlington. There is a record of more than 8 buildings being relocated throughout the town. Buildings and structures were relocated for a number of reasons including making way for road expansions, or to take advantage of a better site. In some cases, buildings had been moved from other communities as part of the Resettlement program of the 1950s and 1960s. The construction of many of the buildings in Burlington made it possible to relocate them. The main structure of the buildings would have been supported on platforms over the uneven terrain by a substructure of posts cut to fit the specific landscape conditions. Buildings were pulled over land or floated across the water.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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Images at left: 01_Moving Vokeys house 02_Towing a house across the harbour

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Map at right: 01_Ruby (Newbury) Perry 02_Michael Dwyer 03_Stanley Dwyer 04_Leander Lush 05_Ross Barlett 06_Mary (Dwyer) Stuckless 07_John Vokey 08_Johnny Newbury 09_Dale Bartlett 10_Orange Lodge

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3.9 Agriculture, Farming, Maintaining the Land According to the 1790 survey of the Geological Surveyor James P. Howley, the soil conditions across the island were notable in their perceived ability to sustain various kinds of crops. Early censuses showed that many households in Burlington maintained their own “kitchen gardens” to grow potatoes, root crops, cabbage, small fruits and by keeping animals which provided meat for the winter and milk and butter in season. In addition to kitchen gardens, domestic premises would also include pastures for growing hay. These zones were sectioned in an orderly fashion throughout the terrain with thousands of linear feet of wooden fences. The fences were used to keep animals out as well as in.

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A variety of berries grow around the town, surprisingly in the same areas of the 1933 and 1984 fire. Blueberries and partridge berries are quite common and can be found almost everywhere the forest fires had burned over. Hundreds of gallons of these berries are picked every year. One of the best spots for bakeapples is on “Half-way Bog”, accessible from Hwy. 410. Burlington had been known to produce its own blueberry wine. 02

Pure Labrador purchases many of Newfoundland’s wild berries every year for their production of local preserves that are sold all over North America. Newfoundland is thought to have some of the most ideal growing conditions for berries throughout the world and the product is comparable to international products out of northern Europe.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

1984 Fire

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1930 Fire

01_Lloyd Mills home at Mills Cove 02_Sheep down by Bonds Roberts 03_Herbert & George Roberts 04_Gertie Young (Mills) at Lloyds Hill 05_Partridge berries 06_Blueberries 07_Bakeapples

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3.10 Snowmobiling Dogs, horses and sleighs were eventually replaced by snowmobiles when it came to traversing the terrain throughout the Burlington area. Thistle’s snowmobile bus was able to move a dozen passengers and get the kids to school during the winter months. Today snowmobiles are the choice of winter mobility. A network of trails covers the eastern half of the Baie Verte Peninsula. Essentially two connected main loops unite seven outport communities on designated snowmobile trails. On the northern loop, four outports are connected: Burlington, Middle Arm, Baie Verte and La Scie. Burlington is located conveniently in the centre of the northern loop, where an essential gas pump station for snowmobilers is located. The southern loop of the Baie Verte Peninsula connects the outport communities of Rattling Brook, King’s Point and Springdale. Baie Verte and LaScie have lodgings on the northern loop and King’s Point and Springdale have lodgings on the southern loop. An emergency shelter has also been placed on the southern loop as well.

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In addition to the trails, snowmobilers can also access a network of logging roads and highways.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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01_Ken Foster with Golda & Audrey 02_Skidoo riders 03_Stan Dwyer going for a load of wood 04_Saunder’s Snowmobile Repair 05_Noble’s Gas Bar

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3.11 Public Activities: Mummering, Parades, Events Other forms of entertainment in public space included a range of public activities associated with crucial moments throughout the year. At Christmas “mummering” or “jannying” would take people through the town from door to door disguised in wonderful costumes answering questions with strange voices as others guessed their identities. In the summer there were Sunday School Picnics or “garden parties” prepared by the ladies of the church. Ice cream prepared with ice from icebergs (kept by packing in a pile of sawdust) was often served as a special treat.

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Orangemen often paraded through the town in the summer during which the town would shut down - this provided a great way to socialize with your neighbour. This practice has been revived with Burlington Day which is currently hosted in the parking lot behind the town hall.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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01_Parade on the old bridge 02_Abe Mills 03_Funeral Procession 04_Sunday school parade 05_Burlington Day

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3.12 Cook-ups, Drop-bys and Kitchen Parties The tradition of household entertainment continues to thrive, and on a Saturday night makeshift jam sessions still unfold in kitchens, living rooms and basements around the province. http://www.heritage.nf.ca/arts/nfmusic_world.html As a tradition that occurs throughout the province, the “kitchen party� is spontaneous. They often start out with a few folks sitting around with others dropping by unannounced to enjoy drink, song and conversation. In some way the kitchen party is a form of social engagement that provide substitutes for pubs and bars found in larger settlements. The spirit of building community through song, stories and entertainment has been strengthened by natives of Burlington who have gone on to achieve much success and fame. Rex Goudie was runner-up in the Canadian Idol series in 2005, and has shared his talents in song-writing and guitar-playing with several Newfoundland school groups since then. He regularly performs on ship cruises in the Caribbean.

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Shawn Majumder is a successful comedian/actor in Canada and the U.S., and is actively involved in giving back to his hometown community of Burlington.

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3.0 INTANGIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE RESOURCES

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MAP OF BURN AREAS FROM 1933 and 1984 FIRE

01_Rex Goudie, singer-songwriter 02_Shawn Majumder, comedian/actor 03_Roy Bartlett, 1967 04_Screen shot from “Kitchen Party”(*) 05_Screen shot 1 from “Fogo Island Kitchen Party” 06_Screen shot 2 from “Fogo Island Kitchen Party” 07_Cook-up at Bond Roberts (*) Kitchen Party image reference: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Website. http://www.heritage.nf.ca/arts/kitchen_party. html. From Candace Cochrane, Outport: Reflections from the Newfoundland Coast, edited by Roger Page (Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishers, ©1981) 126.

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school

church

old bridge

government wharf

skating rink

fire hall

gazebo

fuel

park

shipbuilding town

kitchen parties

agriculture

1 a livable community first

2 think regionally

3 work with what you’ve got

A vision that prioritizes the needs of the yearround community first is likely to create a vibrant place that will inevitably attract visitors in a way that a singular tourist approach cannot.

A regional approach within the community speaks to a larger audience as part of Zone 11 and the Baie Verte Peninsula. The grouping of communities off Hwy 413 including Smith’s Harbour, Middle Arm and Burlington is a unique scenario within the region.

Making use of your resources is the best way to maintain and preserve them. Encourage and support physical and intangible cultural resources that already exist within the community as part of the town’s future management.

Investing in the town’s cultural resources as part of its future growth will have economic returns salmon swimming burlington united church and social benefits for all. hole

day

activities

lighthouse Central

lodging coastal orangemen Newfoundland attractions include boats museums, and an airport; provincial parks, there are also various networks within the region including boat tours, shipbuilding sites, hiking and snowmobile trails.

Considering the benefits of amalgamating neighbouring municipalities may provide benefits in sharing resources, amenities and funding.

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Cultural Resource Study: BURLINGTON, NEWFOUNDLAND

A number of existing residences built in the

NLSF shelter outport restaurant club repair vernacular style canNLSF continue to be

reused for generations if properly maintained.

Much of Burlington’s unique cultural physical resources include the town’s civic infrastructure elements: the bridge, wharf and park. The Orange Lodge structure is an unused resource and may be appropriate for an expanded museum space. Mills Cove once had a substantial shipbuilding premises. Understanding the interpretation potential for this site may provide another kind of attraction within the town.


school

church

old bridge

government wharf

skating rink

fire hall

gazebo

fuel

park

shipbuilding town

kitchen parties

agriculture

4.0 OPPORTUNITIES

4.1 Principles

salmon

swimming hole

burlington day

united church activities

lighthouse

coastal boats

lodging

orangemen

NLSF shelter

restaurant

NLSF club

repair

4 incremental growth

5 educational opportunities

6 event based activities

As an approach to sustainable development, consider incremental growth.

Another way to support Burlington’s cultural resources is to consider creative educational opportunities within the town and region.

As a way to preserve the town’s cultural resources consider event-based activities. A history of public events, processions, parades or gatherings within Burlington is part of its identity.

Many outport communities share similar questions about their futures, identities and offerings within their communities and region. Many of the cultural practices in Burlington, such as traditional craftsmanship, shipbuilding, fishing can be preserved through educational programs with these communities.

The benefits of year round event-based activities provide a unique glimpse of its identity. In addition to Shaun’s Kitchen parties, annual shipbuilding workshops, Burlington Day, community building, house pulls, snowmobile races, berry picking season, artist festivals, music festivals, local theatre groups and food fisheries can all connect to places within the community.

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4.2 Regional Cultural Programming

Nippers Cove Smith’s Harbour Harry’s Harbour Jackson’s Cove Rattling Brook

King’s Point

Hotels and Lodging Connections

Boat Tours

Throughout the Baie Verte Peninsula there are half a dozen lodging facilities. The majority of these accommodations are in the community of Baie Verte, towards the southern portion of the region and towards Notre Dame Bay. A destination hotel in Burlington would be the only hotel along the east side of the peninsula.

A series of boat tours could offer visitors a tour of Green Bay and its communities. Connections to seven other outport communities are accessible in short and long duration trips.

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4.0 OPPORTUNITIES

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Snowmobiling Treks, Races, Tours

Shipbuilding Site Tours

A network of snowmobile trails is well defined in the region. Burlington is quite centrally located and provides additional offerings to the snowmobiling culture. Currently Burlington offers a gas pump station and informal repair at Saunder’s Repair Shop. Winter activities could include races or tours.

Though Burlington produced most of the ships in the region, there is an understanding of the many other outports that built ships as well. Historically, almost 20 other outport communities had been hosts to shipbuilding sites. A shipbuilding site tour with markers at each site would offer a unique interpretation of Burlington and other outports within the region.

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4.3 Cultural Heritage Infrastructure Strategy A few strategic investments in cultural heritage resources within the town centre could go a long way towards redefining a livable community that enhances an authentic experience for visitors and acts as an amenity for local and regional cultural tourism. These community building projects are sizable investments. They are ambitious without an economic business model that could support them. They require discussion and planning within the community. Incremental progress could be considered for each. Together they form a comprehensive range of experience and benefits for hotel and community programming.

majumder manor

Majumder Manor presents many opportunities to support the cultural resources within the town and support the community. It is a major contribution. The community can play a significant role in managing the hotel within its collection of existing physical and intangible resources, particularly in its endless possibilities for programming.

the old wood bridge

A future project that would improve the setting for the hotel and enhance connections in the community would include reinstating the old wood bridge. Its completion would create a “loop” in the original form in which it historically existed in the town. Even as a footprint, this connection could do much for a pedestrian friendly condition at the mouth of the brook.

the park

The town owns a portion of land at the water’s edge that has been informally used as a picnic area for visitors and members of the community. It’s an exciting use and represents the essence of incremental growth. Opportunities to enhance the park could provide a formal gathering place within Burlington for both the community and its visitors.

the burlington wharf

This mighty wharf was once the largest in the entire region and serviced ships and boats for generations. Reinstating the wharf would require a real need within the community. Its revival would offer a full experience for visitors of potential boat tours.

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4.0 OPPORTUNITIES

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burlington skating rink day

old bridge

lighthouse

5.0 CONCLUSION

5.1 Practicing Community Building united church activities church

government wharf

skating rink gazebo

church

school fire hall

lodging church gazebo

school old fuelbridge

school fuel

park

church school

lighthouse fire hall shipbuilding town

coastal boats gazebo

salmon lodging fuel

old bridge church

salmon kitchen parties

coastal boats The proposed plan for Majumder Manor is a significant investment in the town’s heritage infrastructure and can feature many of the outport community’s intangible cultural resources and practices.

agriculture

swimming hole salmon

Built on the former United Church School site, the proposed hotel will accommodate 6 rooms and kitchen facilities for entertainment and social functions. orangemen

burlington hole day swimming

The design by Acre Architects Inc proposes a contemporary form inspired by traditional building types, practices and materials. Its scale and mass is in keeping with the scale of building that had historically existed on the site and has the qualities that would be expected of landmark structures NLSF within shelterthese communities.

NLSF shelter orangemen government old bridge wharf

restaurant NLSF club repair swimming united church dayactivities orangemenhole burlington park

church old bridge skating rink wharf government

skating rink government fire hall burlington day united lighthouse church activities NLSF shelter wharf

fuel

park

shipbuilding town government wharf church rink skating park

kitchen agriculture parties united church activities coastal boats lighthouse restaurant

fire hall

gazebo

skating rink

fire hall church

park lighthouse

fuel

Located at the intersection of Hwy 413 and Old Church Road, the lodging site is addressed by both the 19th century and post-confederation infrastructure.

shipbuilding townboats lodging coastal

kitchen parties

The hotel is intended to provide accommodations for local, regional and international visitors particularly the adventurous tourist who wishes to explore the outport community and all its stories.

restaurant The substantial investment incorporates the values of Burlington’s cultural heritage resources and offers a new economic generator for the town to consider future investments. The combination of this new use within the outport and its cultural program opportunities is expected to be an effective fuel move towards Burlington’s adaptive reuse. kitchen gazebo park shipbuilding town

parties

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5.0 CONCLUSION

The Majumder Manor project is unique and promises to bring a new economic base to the town. As such, it represents an opportunity for the community to come together and forge a broader vision for the future of Burlington. Since the report had been initiated, the town has established a heritage committee which includes: George Kelly, Nelson Matthews, Bruce Austins, Sharon Windsor, Rudy Norman, Bob Welshman, Tonya Chipp, Crystal Bowers, Alonzo Saunders and Bonnie Young. Further discussion of these potential opportunities by the heritage committee and the community could result in a vision of the town’s future. A vision plan that re-enforces the rich cultural heritage of Burlington would need community approval. An official town plan would assist the community in securing further support from public and private partners in a future cultural resource management plan.

INVENTORY ANALYSIS CULTURAL MAPPING

PHYSICAL CULTURAL RESOURCES

CONSIDER FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE AND REVITALIZE

INTANGIBLE CULTURAL RESOURCES

SUPPORT, ENCOURAGE AND PROGRAM

CULTURAL RESOURCE STUDY

BURLINGTON OFFICIAL PLAN: A CULTURAL RESOURCE PLANNING + MANAGEMENT VISION

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Cultural Resource Study: Burlington, Newfoundland