@CSUresearch | Winter 2020

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A New Approach to Preventing Falls PG. 7

A Look at School Report Cards PG. 16

Turning Innovative Research into Products PG. 27

Lessons from the Edge of the World PG. 37


THE HUMAN SIDE OF INNOVATION: A team of researchers and students is working with multiple companies and the USDA to develop and implement novel mathematical models to improve food washing systems and reduce the risk of E coli outbreaks.



Introduction from the President Universities are engines of innovation. They play a pivotal role in generating the talent, ideas, scientific discoveries and technologies that lead to the development of new life-saving medications, society-changing technologies and cutting edge industries. At Cleveland State University, we are dedicated to creating an environment that can serve as an incubator for innovation in all its forms. Currently on campus, we are developing the next generation of medical technologies that can improve health care for all; creating new avenues for businesses of all shapes and sizes to utilize and expand applications for university research and implementing novel teaching strategies that improve student outcomes and enhance training for our future workforce. These efforts are particularly crucial given the importance of innovation to the state and national economy. Ohio’s recently announced Intellectual Property Promise highlights the central importance of innovation in driving new product development and business creation, and calls on state universities to stand at the vanguard of efforts to get ideas out of the lab and into the economy. As this edition of @CSUresearch illustrates, Cleveland State is perfectly situated to lead this effort and help develop a strong and vibrant innovation pipeline for the benefit of Ohio and the nation as a whole.

Harlan M. Sands, J.D., M.B.A. President

Cleveland State University




Introduction from the VP for Research Welcome to the 2019 edition of @CSUresearch magazine, a publication dedicated to the research and creativity that drives Cleveland State University to be a leading urban public research institution and makes us a vital asset to Greater Cleveland and the world. This year, we are devoting the entire issue to innovation. At CSU, we strive to provide a best in class university experience for our students and positive impacts on the community through innovative teaching, research, and operations at CSU. The dedication of our faculty and staff to these activities are the foundation for Engaged Learning. Innovation is no accident. At Cleveland State, we foster original ideas that spring from the intellectual curiosity of our faculty, as well as ideas that directly respond to challenges faced by the communities we serve. We also take pride in developing new ways to deliver the education and training needed by the 21st century workforce under our goal of providing value to our students and the modern reality of financial constraints in higher education. In this issue of @CSUresearch, you will have the opportunity to see examples of innovative thinking in all of these areas. From physics professor Jearl Walker’s “Flying Circus of Physics” video series to health sciences assistant professor Karen Keptner’s student service project with the Navajo Nation, our faculty are devising new ways to bring learning out of the classroom and to the community. Learning needs to keep pace with a changing society, and law professor Jonathan Witmer-Rich is using the popular podcast “Serial” to teach his students about criminal justice reform. In the labs, our faculty must continually find different approaches to uncover new insights. Mechanical engineering assistant professor Eric Schearer’s prosthetics research centers on the needs of the person, not simply the device, which has led his research in very different directions. To enhance our ability to move ideas from the lab to the marketplace, we have reimagined our online Innovation Portal to make it easy for businesses to find relevant technologies and developed simple, streamlined licensing paths for industry as part of the Ohio IP Promise. I invite you to enjoy these stories of innovation from across Cleveland State University’s dynamic campus, and to learn more about how we deliver quality education and impactful research and engagement. Sincerely,

Jerzy T. Sawicki, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASME

Vice President for Research D.E. Bently and A. Muszynska Endowed Chair and Professor



Table of Contents


Cutting-Edge Applied Research A New Approach to Preventing Falls Smart and Responsible Cities International Law United States vs. Apple Novel Approaches A New Look at School Report Cards

Out of the Lab and Into Society

The TeCK Fund Fuels Faculty Entrepreneurs CSU Introduces Industry Express Licensing Innovation Portal Launches Alum Selected as Venture for America Fellow CSU Students Revolutionizing Volunteering Faculty Turn Research into Products

New Learning Paradigms


p. 7 p. 11 p. 13 p. 14 p. 15 p. 16

Will Dube Ben Ward DESIGNER


p. 17 p. 19 p. 23 p. 24 p. 25 p. 26 p. 27

Jearl Walker's Flying Career of Physics Growing Young Innovators through Robotics Psychology Faculty Highlights Save the Date!


CSU is an AA/EO institution. © 2019 University Marketing 190148 / 10M


Whether it is

p. 41 p. 44 p. 46 p. 47 p. 48

Tony Carter Brian Hart

Nathalie McClune

p. 31 p. 35 p. 37 p. 39 p.40

Scientific Outreach and Engagement


p. 5

p. 29

Bringing Criminal Justice to Life Teaching in the Ohio Senate Chambers Lessons from the Edge of the World Where Nursing Meets Law Student Service in the Navajo Nation

Research by the Numbers

Jerzy T. Sawicki

research, teaching or engagement, innovation fuels a thriving urban

campus like CSU.

p. 49



Cleveland State works with a wide range of organizations to implement new technologies, legal frameworks and business processes that can address some of the world’s most pressing challenges.


A New Approach to Preventing Falls Smart and Responsible Cities International Law United States vs. Apple Novel Approaches A New Look at School Report Cards



Reducing Fall Risk for MS Patients


Professor Doug Wajda demonstrates a balance training tool in the Human Performance Lab

A new study produced by Cleveland State University has identified a potential link between lower levels of vitamin D and a higher risk for falls in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The research could help improve treatment and reduce injuries caused by lack of balance, which is a key problem for individuals suffering from the disease. The results were presented at the 2018 Annual Conference of Rehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis in Amsterdam. “MS patients suffer from impaired balance and muscle control, which makes walking, standing and even sitting difficult and leads to increased risk of falls and related injuries,” notes Megan Landean, who conducted the research as part of her master’s thesis in exercise science at CSU. “Lower vitamin D levels are common in MS patients so we wanted to assess how this could be impacting balance control. The results suggest a substantial link between the two and could lead to better treatment and a better quality of life for these individuals.” Landean conducted the research through CSU’s Human Performance Laboratory, a nationally-recognized applied research center which utilizes biomechanics, exercise physiology and kinesiology to address a host of diseases, while also improving the design of a wide variety of technologies and products. Landean, in collaboration with her faculty advisor Dr. Douglas Wajda, studied 18 MS patients and compared their Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA), which measures fall continued page 9




CSU'S HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB The highly-regarded applied research center focuses on measuring and improving all aspects of physical activity, from walking to breathing to blood flow.


risk, and vitamin D levels. Subjects who were classified as fallers, based on their PPA score, had lower vitamin D levels when compared to non-fallers, while also being below the recommended Vitamin D level for their age and body type. It should also be noted that many of the patients were already on Vitamin D supplements but still experienced below average levels and higher PPA. Moving forward, Landean and Wajda hope to conduct additional studies with larger patient groups and variable testing times that could account for seasonal changes in Vitamin D levels. They also hope to disseminate the results to other researchers who could use the data to assist in the development of treatments designed to address vitamin D deficiency in MS patients. The project also included Case Western Reserve University, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and the Buckeye Chapter of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

environment to make this dream a reality and I am looking forward to continuing my efforts in a doctoral program and beyond.” Each year, 100 to 150 exercise science students, mostly at the master's level, participate in projects in the Human Performance Laboratory, either as research assistants collecting and analyzing data, or as test subjects. Faculty from across the University also participate in laboratory research, which over the years has included developing better sensors to measure oxygen levels for Top Gun fighter pilots and the design of a garment capable of monitoring physiological functions of astronauts during space travel for NASA. ❚

CSU graduate Meghan Landean

A native of Orono, Maine, Landean graduated from CSU in 2017, currently serves as an adjunct professor in the University’s College of Education and plans to pursue a Ph.D. in exercise science with a focus on multiple sclerosis. “My aunt was diagnosed with MS when I was in elementary school, and I was saddened with how the disease took its course and became determined to find out why,” Landean says. “I decided to focus on MS research to find better ways of treating the disease and reducing the negative impact it has on patients and family members. CSU has provided the perfect



Using Innovation to Create Smart Cities, not Surveillance Cities The rise of “smart” or “connected” cities, which are driven by the enhanced information being collected from its citizens, present a constellation of complex and evolving technological, social, political and legal issues. A number of cities, counties and other government agencies have started to develop new laws, policies and citizen engagement processes to address the privacy and civil liberties concerns these new connected technologies pose. Similarly, law enforcement and other agencies that deploy these technologies at the federal, state and local levels have developed an emerging set of policies and standards regarding the use of these new tools and for analyzing the data collected. CSU’s Center for Cybersecurity and Privacy Protection and the Internet of Things Collaborative, a partnership between Cleveland State and Case Western Reserve University, are examining the core issues that revolve around the critical need to translate a combination of legal, technical and ethical requirements into a working set of policies and procedures that government employees and law enforcement officials at all levels can apply easily. ❚



Balancing Safety and Accountability HELPING CITIES AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (RESPONSIBLY) KEEP PACE WITH EMERGING TECHNOLOGY A unique combination of Cleveland State University law and urban affairs experts are tackling thorny issues related to new monitoring technologies that are becoming more popular with city governments and law enforcement agencies. Professors Brian Ray, Nick Zingale, Joseph Mead, and Jonathan Witmer-Rich, faculty members from the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law and the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, with funding support provided by the Charles Koch Foundation, are conducting research on emerging open data policies and the use of smart policing and surveillance tools, including facial recognition and data sharing. Their research includes informational interviews with several experts in the field, including Ginger Armbruster, Chief Privacy Officer for the City of Seattle, and Brian Hofer, Chair of the Oakland City Privacy Advisory Commission. Both cities have wrestled with the consequences of using facial recognition, reflecting a broader interest to understand best practices for implementing technologies that hold the promise of improved safety for residents, as well as potentially significant privacy concerns. This spring, the interdisciplinary team organized the Facial Recognition and Privacy Workshop, held at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, convening experts from federal, state and local governments as well as civil liberties and privacy advocates to examine the concerns raised by the use of facial recognition and other surveillance technologies. The event drew more than 100 registrants, and brought together a number of civic, corporate, and academic partners together who will continue to help map the future for facial recognition. ❚





Milena Sterio Improving Legal Frameworks Globally Milena Sterio, Professor and Associate Dean of the ClevelandMarshall College of Law, is a leader in international efforts to make legal systems more equal and more effective. For example, she is currently studying the role of women as legal professionals at international criminal tribunals, including judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and victims’ advocates. Her initial findings have shown that women lawyers and judges are under-represented in these tribunals, which creates a risk of undermining the legitimacy of these institutions. She is currently working to disseminate the findings and hopes to work with international institutions to increase access and opportunity for women across the legal system. Sterio has also examined a range of legal issues related to the capture and prosecution of suspected Somali pirates, including the challenge of trying suspects in domestic courts. Her expertise in maritime piracy law has led to her participation with the United Nations Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia. The international organization was established in 2009 to coordinate actions among states and organizations to address and suppress Somali piracy. Her interest in piracy issues in Somalia led to further work with the neighboring nation of Yemen. She provided transitional engagement training for Yemen-based Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) at an event organized by the Public International Law and Policy Group, a Washington D.C.-based NGO, and supported by the U.S. Department of State. As a training facilitator, she conducted learning sessions on the role of women and youth in peace and security issues, which were designed to better assist CSOs in addressing the needs of women and children as part of their operations. The training session was followed by a meeting with CSO leaders and a representative from the Office of the United Nations Special Envoy in Yemen, facilitated by Sterio, to further discuss efforts to improve legal and societal systems nationally. �





The Apple eBooks pricing case provides much more than a basic antitrust lesson CSU Cleveland-Marshall College of Law Professor Chris Sagers’ new book United States v. Apple: Competition in America, published by Harvard University Press, looks at the Apple eBooks pricing case—on the surface, an unsurprising antitrust decision against Apple-but within it, he uncovers a complex and fascinating relationship between the American public and free markets. In the case, United States vs. Apple, the defendants were the Apple computer corporation and several major book publishers. Apple worked with the publishers to coordinate a price-fixing conspiracy to set the retail prices of electronic books. “The Apple case jumped out to me as striking and philosophically important as soon as it was announced, and it has continually fascinated me ever since” says Sagers. “What was so remarkable was that the case was extremely strong on the facts and the law—most antitrust lawyers took for granted that if the government could prove the facts that it alleged, then it couldn’t lose, and indeed it won decisively at trial and on appeal—but to the broader public it was very controversial and the defendants found supporters all across the ideological spectrum.” In the case, the publishers said that they needed to fix the prices of eBooks because Amazon had introduced its Kindle and was selling eBooks at desperately low prices. This was a crucial problem for the publishers, because Amazon was releasing low-priced eBooks at the csuohio.edu/research

same time that the publishers were releasing the same books in new-release hardcover, and the publishers depended very heavily on the revenues they got from those high-priced new releases. Sagers found that people are very concerned with the consequences of competition in those cases where it is still vigorous. Still, although the free market has the potential to yeild discomfort, Sagers believes competition should be permitted to play out, and ultimately, benefits the consumer. “I definitely think Amazon poses serious competitive threats and deserves to be taken very seriously by antitrust law, but I also think the worst possible way to deal with it would be just to create another monopoly at a different level in the chain of distribution,” Sagers notes.

Sagers is a nationally recognized expert in antitrust law. He has testified before

Suprisingly, Sagers also discovered that same arguments in support of the Apple defendants— arguments that the government had it all wrong, and should have permitted this otherwise plainly illegal conspiracy—surfaced all across the political spectrum. Even more illuminating was that the arugments all took the same form.

the U.S. Congress

“All saw vigorous price competition itself as the villain,” he adds. “That seemed deeply telling to me, and indeed I think it reveals a central theoretical tension at the heart of competition policy.”

and National Public

Sagers testified about these and other matters at an Ohio Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on online retail competition, and hopes his work informs efforts to reform laws to meet the new challenges exemplified by the Apple case. ❚

and frequently appears in national and international media, including The New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, CNBC, Fox News, Radio. His articles have appreared in leading academic journals, incuding Georgetown Law Journal and UCLA Law Review.





Innovative sometimes comes from a new approach or viewpoint. These CSU faculty are taking new paths to understanding longstanding issues related to adolescence, school performance, and rehabilitation from injury.

Understanding Healthy Relationships in the HEART Lab

Engineering Driven by Empathy Dr. Eric Schearer, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering, works to bring robotic intelligence to neuroprosthetic devices to reanimate the arms of people with spinal cord injuries. However, he isn’t just working in a lab to create the latest and greatest piece of hardware. He is developing an empathy training program to ensure engineers understand the true needs of people with disabilities. In Dr. Schearer’s view, to create widely-used assistive technologies, engineers must discern how these technologies relate to the broad range of non-technical needs of people with disabilities. So, his empathy training program involves engineering students visiting the homes of people with disabilities along with medical, therapy, social work, and nursing students. Due, in part, to these efforts, Schearer was awarded with a prestigious five-year CAREER award, from the National Science Foundation. ❚



How do relationships during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood shape and impact our behavior? Dr. Liz Goncy, an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology and a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and young adults, is searching for answers. She leads the Healthy Relationships (Heart) lab, where she and her students conduct studies to understand the importance of relationships (romantic, peer, and parent-child) on adolescent and young adulthood outcomes, and how they influence behaviors like aggression, victimization, substance use and delinquency. Not satisfied with just studying behaviors, she is using innovative methods and statistical techniques to develop prevention and intervention programs that will lead to better outcomes. ❚

A New Look at School Report Cards One way to promote good governance of public institutions is to ensure the public has access to information about organizational functions. To that end, states are required to create publicly available annual school report cards for every public school in the country. However, states have a lot of flexibility when determining what material is contained in report cards and how to convey that information. Do these differences influence public perceptions? Jeffrey W. Snyder, an assistant professor in CSU’s College of Urban Affairs, studies whether differences among report cards may alter public satisfaction. In prior work with colleagues, he used a nationally representative experimental survey to understand if different data formats expressing similar information led to different public responses. For example, does someone respond the same way when they are showed school quality expressed as a letter grade, word cues such as “excellent,” or the percentage of students meeting state objectives on their standardized tests? That work found the public expressed different satisfaction when viewing different data formats for high- and low-performing schools, but not for average-performing schools.


As states, districts, and other report card creators have refined their reports, some choose to include a community rating measure that may or may not align with state ratings. The Spencer Foundation funded Dr. Snyder’s current study to gauge whether potentially contrasting state and community ratings create discord in public satisfaction. Using another nationally representative experimental survey, he found respondents have different satisfaction as reports show different school quality and satisfaction may change as different measures show contrasting pictures of a school. For example, the satisfaction for those who view a report showing a “B” rating from both the state and the community is higher than the satisfaction of those who view reports showing a “C” or lower for one of the grades and a “B” rating for the other grade. Cumulatively, the implications of Dr. Snyder’s research are important to consider as states innovate and change their report cards. These decisions may influence public responses in potentially unintended ways simply due to political design decisions rather than substantive changes in school performance. This is especially relevant in Ohio, where state report cards changed to use letter grades in 2018 and ongoing political discussions throughout the state continue to focus on responses to these data and whether these tools need to be revamped. ❚



CSU has established a strong and vibrant innovation ecosystem that assists students, faculty and staff in transforming their ideas into the newest technologies, products and businesses.


The TeCK Fund Fuels Faculty Entrepreneurs CSU Introduces Industry Express Licensing Innovation Portal Launches Alum Selected as Venture for America Fellow CSU Students Revolutionizing Volunteering Faculty Turn Research into Products



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Cleveland State University and Kent State University find that collaboration offers advantages for faculty innovators and startups.

Universities are constantly challenged to do more with less and to be “more entrepreneurial” about providing administrative services, while being asked to offer much more than just a classroom education to their students. Increasingly, universities have also been called on to support entrepreneurship and innovation that translates academic knowledge and technologies to the marketplace. As CSU President Harlan Sands notes, “Our role as an anchor institution requires that we educate a diverse student body, perform cutting-edge research, and drive economic development that enriches both our students and the community.” The TeCK Fund was born from the idea that the strengths of Cleveland State and Kent State are complementary, and that together we could support a robust technology validation accelerator that could create greater impact, and require fewer resources, than individual accelerators on each campus. The TeCK Fund operates via a formalized, sharedresources framework to accelerate commercial development of discoveries originating within

each institution. This mechanism provides preseed funding for both market validation and technical validation of faculty inventions, and serves as an important piece of each university’s entrepreneurship ecosystem. “With the world-class talent on each campus as well as an increasing focus on interdisciplinary research and innovation, universities like Kent State and Cleveland State are becoming powerful engines for technology generation,” explains KSU President Todd Diacon.

Familiar Challenges Like most public universities, CSU and KSU have faced the significant headwinds of rising costs, reduced government support for higher education and demographic trends that have led to flat or declining enrollment. The business model of higher education limits the ways in which costs can be contained. Limited resources mean that finding efficiencies is always needed, but you can’t simply cut your way to prosperity. Developing a culture of innovation and supporting entrepreneurial continued page 21




CSU’s Moo-Yeal

faculty can help alleviate these strains by direct value creation through licensing of universityderived technologies and creating successful spinoffs. Both enhance the reputation of the university and can provide experiential learning options and ultimately jobs for students. This in turn helps attract more students to university campuses.

In alignment with the State of Ohio’s technology priority areas, the TeCK Fund focuses on a pipeline of technologies in medical diagnostics, healthcare solutions and best practices, liquid crystals and material science, cybersecurity and mobile authentication, exercise physiology, biology, environmental design, and chemistry.

A Unique Solution

“CSU and Kent State have unique research portfolios that provide significant opportunities for commercialization in a host of fields that are growth areas for the economy,” adds Jack Kraszewski, director of the Technology Transfer Office at CSU.

The TeCK Fund seeks to leverage this opportunity by better utilizing resources and helping to simplify business processes. A crosscampus approach has the obvious benefit of uncovering a larger pool of candidates and a broader portfolio of technologies to potentially receive entrepreneurial support (and ultimately, greater deal flow volume that can attract the interest of investors). This has led to $1.4 million in funding being made available since the TeCK Fund launched in 2017, with significant support from the State of Ohio’s Technology Validation Startup Fund (TVSF) program. Individually, each campus would produce a relatively low volume of activity, so consolidating via the TeCK fund provides an opportunity to spread the costs related to securing the specialty resources needed to assist more faculty entrepreneurs.

Lee (left) with graduate students

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Due diligence is conducted by CSU and KSU staff and a team of external mentors drawn from the networks of each university. Both universities have also used this as an educational opportunity for entrepreneurial-minded business students. On a project by project basis, additional due diligence support includes mentors from JumpStart, a Cleveland-based venture development organization, as well as specific technical experts, or other resources as needed. This combined team brings more experience and

a broader set of perspectives to bear, as well as more eyes to provide oversight to keep projects on track and provide extra assistance when required.

Early Successes Since the launch of the TeCK Fund, both campuses have experienced an uptick in interest from faculty who want to see their discoveries move to the marketplace, or who simply want to utilize entrepreneurial tools to inform how they conduct research. Both institutions are seeing immediate results. Dr. Moo-Yeal Lee, an associate professor of chemical and biomedical engineering at CSU, received funding to help commercialize his technology Miniaturized 3D Bioprinting of Human Cells on a Chip for Disease Modeling. Since then, Dr. Lee’s startup company, Bioprinting Laboratories, Inc. of Pepper Pike, OH, has received an additional $150,000 for the next phase of development and commercialization of his tissue culture-based testing technology.

through their startup company, Torel, LLC, to make and test liquid crystal-nanoparticle sensors to detect toxic gases and vapors. The TeCK Fund support led to a $330,000 GOALI (Grant Opportunities for Academic Liaison with Industry) award from the National Science Foundation to further their research with Merck Materials of Darmstadt, Germany. Merck Materials is the supplier of the liquid crystal materials used for the sensors, and the grant will help develop additional uses for the technology. Steve Roberts, KSU’s Director of Technology Commercialization and Research Finance, sees a bright future. “The TeCK Fund presents both an opportunity to generate more university-based startups and to give them the assistance they need to address real market needs, and in turn have a realistic chance to survive and thrive as businesses." ❚

At Kent State, Dr. Torsten Hegmann and Dr. Elda Hegmann received a TeCK Fund grant KSU’s Elda and Torsten Hegmann




Cleveland State Introduces “Industry Express” Licensing Cleveland State’s Office of Research and its Technology Transfer Office, in consultation with the Board of Directors of the CSU Research Corporation and representatives from CSU’s faculty, have drafted a framework for clear, simple licensing pathways. CSU created “Industry Express” to provide industry collaborators with a clear, simple and cost-effective approach to licensing or owning any IP resulting from sponsored research. The three new pathways are intended to further streamline CSU’s commercialization process and attract additional business investment in facultyled research. CSU developed Industry Express as part of a statewide effort by Ohio’s public universities to support the “Ohio Intellectual Property (IP) Promise.” The Ohio IP Promise, an initiative being led by Ohio Lt. Governor Jon Husted, is intended to strengthen the state’s innovation economy, attract innovative researchers and serve as a magnet for investors and entrepreneurs. “Cleveland State University is committed to enhancing technology transfer, applied research and corporate partnerships for the good of our economy and society as a whole,” notes CSU President Harlan M. Sands. “We are very proud to support the Ohio IP Promise and expand opportunities to get research out of the lab and into the hands of innovators across the state.” ❚



CSU Launches Innovation Portal to Connect Industry with the University In an effort to more easily connect the University with the community and revamp the way it interacts with industry, Cleveland State University has launched a new Innovation Portal—and is inviting businesses, entrepreneurs and inventors to engage with CSU on research projects. The webpage offers a keyword search function that lets users access CSU’s catalog of research results and publications, explore its faculty expertise database and obtain information for partnering with faculty, staff and students at any stage of product development.

(Dan T. Moore Makerspace), technology spinout and early commercialization (Technology Transfer Office), and small business growth (Small Business Development Center). Building on its experience leading statewide innovation and technology transfer for the Ohio Federal Research Network (OFRN), Cleveland State is also deploying the Innovation Portal to help established companies meet their research and development needs through the school’s broad knowledge base and connections to Ohio’s research institutions. ❚

(This article was originally published by the Greater Cleveland Partnership)

“CSU wants the Innovation Portal to both generate new ideas and to help us connect with the communities we serve,” says Jerzy Sawicki, CSU’s vice president for research. “The Portal’s resources support industry and community innovators from the spark of an idea to launching a product or company with a sound business plan.” With its collaborative approach, the portal ties together a broad range of resources and facilities at CSU that support new idea generation (Weston Ideation Lab), prototype creation


See your ideas come to life at innovation.csuohio.edu




Alum Selected as a Venture for America Fellow Recent mechanical engineering graduate Dan Miller will continue to expand his expertise in entrepreneurship through his participation in the prestigious Venture for America Fellowship program. Venture for America is a non-profit organization that places recent graduates at startups in cities with emerging entrepreneurial ecosystems, forging a community of entrepreneurs committed to building companies that matter. Drawn to mechanical engineering due to his family’s rich military history, Miller knew that he wanted to help veterans returning home from deployment by designing prosthetics. Miller got the chance at CSU through a senior design project mentored by Dr. Antonie van den Bogert, professor of mechanical engineering. Miller and his team modified a passive lowerlimb exoskeleton to reduce energy use and improve mobility for those suffering from a stroke, traumatic brain injury or progressive neurological disorder. The team ultimately created a company to market the device and participated in CSU’s



Startup Vikes contest sponsored by the Monte Ahuja College of Business. The annual business development competition challenges teams of students to create a fully formed business plan over a weekend, with support from faculty, business mentors and alums. Miller’s team won third place in the 2017 competition and then went on to join Cleveland’s Jumpstart program to further develop the business and enhance product development. Miller stresses that these experiences were perfect fits for Venture for America and greatly helped him earn selection to the program. “I received this fellowship because of the opportunities and resources that CSU and the Washkewicz College of Engineering provided me,” Miller notes. Miller has been matched with Gayanga, founded in 2016, a Detroit-headquartered construction engineering technology startup, specializing in eco-friendly demolition, as well as infrastructure, related public works and private sector assignments. ❚

CSU Students Revolutionizing Volunteering A team of student entrepreneurs, including several CSU business students, has earned regional and national notice for their efforts to revolutionize volunteering. The group created the app Vol, which is designed to build communities of service in the digital age. It provides individuals with quick and easy access to volunteer opportunities that can help them acquire marketable skills and make their communities a better place. It also seeks to create a large, distributed network of volunteers that can quickly mobilize around environmental and social issues. The result will be a more connected community, a scalable business platform and an uptick in local cleanup efforts and citizen science. Team Vol, led by CSU student Cameron Tolbert, earned a second-place finish at CSU’s annual Startup Vikes business plan competition, and went on to be selected for the semi-finals of Erie Hack, a national contest designed to accelerate technology solutions to Lake Erie’s most pressing problems.


“The Erie Hack seeks to increase social innovation and community engagement around some of the most pressing environmental problems facing our region,” says Katie Van Dyke, a Startup Vikes facilitator and director of the CSU Small Business Development Center. “We are very proud of Team Vol’s success in the competition and are looking forward to seeing how Cameron and the team continue to develop this really interesting and potentially beneficial product.” “Even though we did not win Erie Hack, our entire journey, from Startup Vikes to now, has been a wonderful experience,” adds Tolbert. Moving forward, Tolbert plans to further improve Vol’s usability and marketability and hopes to enter additional business plan competitions both on the local and national level. CSU also hopes to have multiple student teams enter the 2020 Erie Hack, which will begin in February. ❚

START UP VIKES Check out this annual event! Get more info at: csuohio.edu/ business/ entrepreneurship





Turning Research into Products Dr. Geyou Ao and Dr. William Matcham were selected for focused entrepreneurial and commercialization training through the 2019 I-Corps@ Ohio Program. An initiative of the Ohio Department of Higher Education, it advances the translation of fundamental research to commercial markets. Each selected research team is awarded $15,000 to participate in a sevenweek training program to better understand the market for their technology and develop a commercialization strategy for their product. They join previous CSU I-Corps recipients Ye Zhu (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, or EECS), Wenbing Zhao (EECS), Moo-Yeal Lee (Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, or CBE), and Siu-Tung Yao (EECS).

DR. WILLIAM MATCHAM, an assistant professor in the School of Nursing, is teaming with Dr. Wenbing Zhao (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science) to develop an automated method to objectively assess the performance of students during human patient simulation (HPS) training that incorporates computer vision, predefined rules and a custom-designed debriefing mobile application to give feedback to students.



DR. GEYOU AO, an assistant professor of chemical engineering, is investigating how to commercially develop functional boron nitride nanotubes, which are ideal candidates for a variety of applications, such as protective shields, mechanical and/or thermal reinforcements for a range of composites, self-cleaning materials and medicine.

BioPrinting Labs, Inc., a CSU start-up company created by faculty researcher DR. MOO-YEAL LEE, successfully leveraged a TeCK Fund award for commercial development of miniaturized “cells on a chip” created using 3D bioprinting. This spring, the Ohio Third Frontier Commission awarded Dr. Lee’s Pepper Pike-based spinoff with an additional $150,000 for the next phase of development and commercialization of his tissue culture-based testing technology. Since preclinical evaluations with animal models are often inaccurate due to differences in genetic makeup between animals and humans, there has been an emergence of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques that attempt to replicate tissue structures. Dr. Lee’s technology, developed with support from an NIH grant, is expected to provide more accurate selection of compounds in the drug discovery process prior to human trials. He also leveraged Ohio I-Corps support to develop the business strategy and market analysis that led to the creation of BioPrinting Labs. ❚




Through the development and implementation of novel teaching methods and learning paradigms, Cleveland State is better preparing students for 21st Century society.


Bringing Criminal Justice to Life Teaching in the Ohio Senate Chambers Lessons from the Edge of the World Where Nursing Meets Law Student Service in the Navajo Nation



Bringing Criminal Justice

to Life


Jonathan Witmer-Rich, associate dean in CSU’s Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, has developed a first-of-its-kind course based on of the popular Serial podcast. The latest season of Serial spent a year in the Cleveland courts and reported on the inner workings of the criminal justice system with a spotlight on several local cases. Witmer-Rich recognized that the podcast could serve as an excellent teaching tool, helping students to examine how the criminal justice system actually functions based on real-life cases. The course—titled “Understanding and Reforming the Criminal Justice Process”—took place during the spring 2019 semester and used the podcast episodes to explore issues such as the power of prosecutors, the costs and fees of the criminal justice process, the distrust between police and some urban communities, accountability for police misconduct and the voice of victims in the criminal justice system. continued page 33






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“As I was listening to the podcast, I realized that it was bringing to life so many of the criminal justice issues our society is grappling with–community-police relations, bail reform, the power of the prosecutor, the problems faced by poor people in the criminal justice system, and accountability for police misconduct,” says Witmer-Rich. “We study these issues by reading statutes and cases, but the Serial podcast is showing the real lives impacted by the day-today operation of the system. I thought it would really capture the students' imagination and passion for justice and fairness.” Each week students listened to one episode of the podcast and read additional materials such as the 2014 Department of Justice Report on the Cleveland Division of Police. The course also featured regular guest speakers—including some of the lawyers and judges featured on the podcast. Witmer-Rich anticipates that using these real-life cases highlighted in Serial to teach criminal justice law will help to bridge students’ understanding of "black letter law"—the rules and doctrines of the criminal system—with how situations actually play out in jails and courthouses. For the main project in the course, each student completed a Criminal Justice Reform study that analyzed one of the problems highlighted on the show and proposed a solution. Witmer-Rich hopes some of the student proposals can be used as a basis for realworld reforms.


Witmer-Rich believes the recent spotlight on the criminal justice system in popular culture— including Serial and the hit Netflix documentary Making a Murderer—may drive students’ interest in studying the law and specifically criminal justice. “I do think the podcast will help inspire students to focus on criminal justice,” he adds. “Recent years have seen a lot of excellent work on important criminal justice issues in popular culture—through TV shows, movies, and documentaries. All of these shows are helping to bring to life the high stakes that play out every day in our criminal justice system—high stakes for victims seeking justice, and for defendants facing years or decades in prison. It is a truly vital part of our legal system, and the more public attention it receives, hopefully the better the system can become.” ❚



In the Senate Chambers



"CSU's mission and vision statement is to encourage excellence, diversity and engaged learning—professor Mead's Columbus Seminar checks all the boxes,” Mary Grace Tokmenko, a student in the 2019 Columbus Seminar course, says. This unique class has been offered at Cleveland State University for more than 35 years. Each spring semester, students head to the Ohio state capital of Columbus during the university’s spring break in order to learn firsthand from government officials. The four-credit, immersive class is geared toward students who want to learn more about state government and policy making from the people who are practicing it as their career.

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“It’s great seeing current senators interact with who could potentially become future senators,” Joseph Mead says of his class’ latest learning opportunity with state lawmakers.

The class sat in on a Senate floor session, during which the controversial Ohio “heartbeat bill” was being debated. Students also heard from two political advocates on the subject.

Last spring, Mead traveled to the state capital with 16 students whose majors varied from law to public administration to nonprofit management and more.

Throughout the week, the students spent time constructing, and ultimately voting, on their own bill. During a committee meeting, each student was assigned a role, such as acting as a senator or an advocate. The class was then given access to the Ohio Senate floor at the end of the week, where they debated, amended and ultimately voted on their proposed bill while following proper Senate procedures.

The group rented rooms in the DoubleTree Hotel in downtown Columbus from March 10-15 and interacted with a wide range of individuals from different branches, and all levels, of government. “By the end of the week, students are exhausted but inspired,” Mead says. The class had the opportunity to speak with Randy Gardner and Michael Duffey, the chancellor and vice chancellor of Higher Education, respectively. During this meeting, the students were able to express what they felt needed addressed in higher education, such as the need for enhanced student access to food pantries.

“This class is designed to help launch our bright students into careers shaping policy and serving the greater good,” Mead says. “It is simply a joy to watch these future leaders get excited about the opportunities that lay in front of them.” “The Columbus Seminar is a glimpse behind the curtain, revealing how the wheels of state government turn,” Tokmenko said. “It will be the most unique—and probably most cherished— memory from your time at CSU." ❚

Other individuals the Columbus Seminar class had the chance to interact with were Ohio Supreme Court Justice and CSU alumna Melody Stewart, Secretary of State Frank LaRose, Dan McCarthy, legislative director for Governor Mike Dewine, State Senators Nickie Antonio and Kirk Schuring, Cleveland State University President Harlan Sands and more. The students also had valuable sessions that explored the workings of the Legislative Service Commission, the Ohio Office of Budget and Management, and the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio, among others.




Going to the Edge of the World to Teach Climate Change Chemistry Professor Mekki Bayachou was covering a section on the physical chemistry of global warming for his Principles of Environmental Chemistry class when a story he was listening to on NPR gave him a crazy idea.

and reached out to the team to try and set up a real-time class discussion with the scientists. Amazingly, despite the communications challenges involved, he was able to get ahold of the mission’s chief scientist, Dr. Rob Larter, and set up a live satellite call-in (sponsored by NASA) with his class. During the presentation last spring, members of the team discussed their efforts aboard the research vessel, the potential negative impacts that could occur as the Thwaites Glacier recedes and potentially breaks down and conducted a Q&A with the class. “This real-time class interaction with NSFfunded scientists on the front lines in Antarctica is a fantastic embodiment of engaged student learning,” says Bayachou. “It really was a once in a lifetime opportunity to illustrate to students the real-world impact of climate change and I am so glad it worked out.”

Professor Mekki Bayachou and class during live satellite call-in from Dr. Rob Larter.

The piece covered the arrival of the science ship and icebreaker Nathaniel B. Palmer to Antarctica where it would be conducting one of the first comprehensive studies of the Thwaites Glacier. The expedition is part of a $25 million, five-year collaboration between the U.S. National Science Foundation and the UK Natural Environment Research Council to collect data and analyze the rapid changes occurring on the glacier and in the surrounding ocean. One of the largest in the world, Thwaites is now melting at a higher rate than previously thought, which could have a significant negative impact on the world’s sea-levels and life on Earth. Bayachou thought the mission would make a tremendous real-world example for his class



The Thwaites has been nicknamed the “Doomsday” glacier because the massive amount of water trapped in it could drastically impact sea levels globally if it fully melted. This could have a range of negative side effects including relatively fast world-wide flooding in coastal areas. The joint US/UK scientific mission on the Nathaniel B. Palmer is designed to measure the current melting of the glacier and assess the impact it is already having in the Antarctic region. “It’s one thing to present material from a textbook or provide statistics on what global warming is doing to the planet, but being able to see it first hand through the eyes of scientists on the front lines gives you an entirely different perspective,” Bayachou notes. “It is my hope this experience will ultimately make my students better scientists and better stewards of our planet.” ❚

The Thwaites glacier in Antartica







Where Nursing Meets the Law CSU is a leader in forensic nursing, a sub field of nursing practice, which seeks to provide specialized support for victims of violence. This includes medical care for patients who are experiencing health consequences associated with victimization or violence, as well as consultation, evidentiary analysis and expert testimony on the impact of violence and trauma for lawyers, social workers and the courts. “Forensic nurses are on the frontlines of efforts to address violence in society,” says CSU assistant nursing professor Maria Kozlowski-Gibson, who spent ten years as a practicing attorney before going into health care. Given the unique skill sets required for this work, CSU’s forensic nursing track, within its Master’s in Nursing program, weaves in courses in law, public administration and public health with advanced nursing instruction and laboratory and practicum work that allows students to get hands-on training with current practitioners. “CSU’s program stood out from the rest because it offered the greatest focus on forensic nursing with an experiential learning component, while still being diversified enough to allow for future career growth in non-forensic areas,” adds Jessica Blahnik, a 2014 graduate who currently serves as chief medical examiner for Marathon County, Wisconsin. Maria Kozlowski-Gibson, brings ten years of experience as a practicing attorney to her current role as a faculty member in CSU’s unique Master’s Degree program in Forensic Nursing.

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CSU’s Forensic Nursing track was ranked seventh in the nation by Nursing School Hub in 2019. ❚

Student Service Trip Enhances Engaged Learning and Community Well-being

Through a unique partnership with the Navajo Reservation, second-year students in Cleveland State University’s Master of Occupational Therapy program have the opportunity to immerse themselves in Native American culture while providing central services to communities in need. For the past four years, OT students have been able to participate in a service learning trip to the Reservation, which is located in New Mexico and Arizona and has been designated as a Healthcare Provider Shortage Area by the U.S. government. “This activity allows our students to gain a first-hand knowledge of the educational and healthcare challenges facing many Americans, provides real world learning opportunities for future occupational therapists and allows CSU to broaden its community outreach efforts,” notes Dr. Karen Keptner, an assistant professor of occupational therapy who organizes the trips and supervises the students in the field. In addition to occupational therapy work in local hospitals, students go into reservation schools to promote social-emotional learning and instruct teachers on how to address sensory processing concerns. Simple but effective environmental adaptations like dimming the lights or placing paper over harsh fluorescents have been well received by teachers and administrators. During the trip, students also get a chance to learn key phrases in the Navajo language, spend time with a medicine man or hatáli, observe a traditional hair wrap called a tsiiyéél and try traditional Navajo cuisine such as New Mexico hatch chile sauce, mutton and fry bread. “When students return they talk about how much they have learned about indigenous culture, specifically the Navajo, and how they wish to advocate for better services and understanding of people who live on reservations,” Keptner adds. “Seeing this society first hand really does transform students’ perceptions in a way we never could in the classroom or even in an engaged learning project in Cleveland. That is what makes these types of service learning projects so central to our overall educational mission here at CSU.” ❚




As a community-focused, public university, CSU is dedicated to expanding knowledge and disseminating valuable insights on a wide range of topics to the general public.


Jearl Walker's Flying Career of Physics Growing Young Innovators through Robotics Psychology Faculty Highlights Save the Date!




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While national TV stars like Mr. Wizard and Bill Nye the Science Guy might have more name recognition, few individuals have done more to popularize science and promote STEM education than Cleveland State’s Jearl Walker. A physics professor in CSU’s College of Sciences and Health Professions for over 45 years, Walker has earned international acclaim for his efforts to promote physics principles to the masses. He is the author of the seminal popular science book The Flying Circus of Physics, has toured the world presenting science demonstrations, including walking on hot coals and swinging from interlocked phone books, and has appeared frequently on national television, including The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson and his own PBS series Kinetic Karnival. Walker’s goal is simple: help other people develop the same love of science and scientific inquiry that led him into the field over a half century ago.

I have always tried to Make someone

“I have dedicated my life to promoting the power and importance of science to our daily lives and I have been very fortunate to have been able to make a successful career out of this passion,” Walker says. “Through my research, education and outreach efforts I try to make science fun and interesting, which is the best way to get other people to pay attention.”


continued page 45



I Love what I Do so


a whole cottage industry which has included national and international tours, multiple books, a long time column in Scientific American and a current YouTube series produced by CSU called the Flying Circus of Physics. On top of these public efforts, he has also played a major role in the development of modern physics education. This includes being the author of the popular college textbook Fundamentals of Physics. The book is now in its ninth edition with Walker at the helm and has been translated into 18 languages and sold more than four million copies worldwide. He has also played a major role in advancing physics education at CSU, including creating a scholarship which provides a $2,000 yearly award to junior and senior level physics majors.

Walker originally developed his unique educational style as a way to keep his students interested in his classes. This led to him developing a series of demonstrations, often tinged with his trademark dry wit, that utilize everyday objects to describe often complex scientific concepts. On top of the abovementioned hot coal and phone book stunts these efforts have included utilizing rolls of toilet paper to explain friction and melting cheese in a microwave to calculate the speed of light. “I have always tried to make people laugh while they learn something,” he adds. Over the years, Walker’s efforts morphed into

“Jearl Walker is a true legend in the field of science education and has also been one of the foremost popularizers of science to the general public,” adds Meredith Bond, dean of CSU’s College of Sciences and Health Professions. “We have been extraordinarily lucky to have him here at Cleveland State for over four decades and I want to personally thank him for all he has done for CSU and for science education in general.” Walker’s efforts have led to a number of significant honors, including being named a fellow of the American Association of Physics Teachers. In addition, CSU’s Outstanding Science Teaching Award is named in his honor. But while some with Walker’s accolades would be plotting their retirement, he shows no signs of slowing down. The latest edition of Fundamentals of Physics was published last year and the fifth season of the Flying Circus of Physics will debut on YouTube later this fall. And Walker is also still teaching a full course load. “I love what I do so why would I ever stop?” ❚

Catch all the episodes of The Flying Circus on CSU's YouTube Channel @ClevelandStateU



Growing Young Innovators CSU Hosts the VEX Robotics Competition

New ideas can come at any age, and Cleveland State is dedicated to helping develop the next generation of innovators. Many of our faculty, staff, and students volunteer their time to support on campus events that let young innovators flex their creative muscles. The VEX Robotics Competition, presented by the Robotics Education & Competition Foundation, is the largest and fastest growing middle school and high school robotics program globally. More than 20,000 teams from 50 countries compete in over 1,700 competitions worldwide. The CSU student branch of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) played host to their first regional VEX robotics competition in 2010, and it has been a continuous success ever since.


Last spring, 128 students across 32 teams from 10 different high schools and middle schools in Ohio designed robots to carry out specific tasks on a playing field, like climbing small pedestals, throwing plastic balls or flipping plastic disks across the field. These games help develop interest and important skills in a range of fields including mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering, and computer science. CSU IEEE student officer Jacob Richey led the planning of this year’s event, with support from IEEE President Brighid Rancour and Vice President Mark Travis and the guidance of electrical engineering associate professor Lili Dong. The next VEX robotics competition will be held in spring 2020. �





New Perspectives Through the Lens of Existential Psychology Dr. Kenneth Vail, an assistant professor of psychology, is bringing together new audiences to highlight the relevance of existential psychological perspectives to areas of “mainstream” social and personality research that might not have traditionally considered themselves from those perspectives. Existential psychology deals with the consequences of humans’ awareness of their impermanence (including fear of death), their freedom and autonomy, feelings of isolation and strivings for a sense of meaning and significance. Dr. Vail was the lead organizer of the 1st Existential Psychology conference at the 2019 meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) in Portland, OR. Through the conference, he and his colleagues welcomed social and personality psychology researchers from “traditional” domains of psychology like politics, religion, close relationships, sex, identity, cognition, and emotion, to deepen their understandings of those topics from existential perspectives.

CSU Professor Contributes to Stand Up Science Dr. Robert Hurley, assistant professor of psychology at CSU, got the unique opportunity to teach science in an unusual venue and make people laugh thanks to standup comic Shane Maus. Hurley, an expert in cognitive neuroscience, was featured in the Cleveland stop of Maus’ national comedy tour Stand Up Science. The two-hour performance seeks to present often complex scientific concepts in an easily-understandable and fun way, allowing audiences to laugh and learn something at the same time. Hurley was one of several local guests who presented their research and discussed why it matters to society. “Stand-up comedy and science have a lot in common,” Maus says in the description for Stand Up Science. “They both reveal truth, change our perceptions and challenge the status quo.”

The event was well received, and Dr. Vail is again the lead organizer of the Existential Psychology conference at the 2020 SPSP meeting in New Orleans. ❚



"It was an interesting experience as a researcher,” Hurley adds. “Delivering a science talk on a night club stage forces you to think about how to communicate complex ideas to the public, in a way that's not only understandable but hopefully entertaining. I would recommend other scientists try speaking at forums like Shane's if they get the chance. I had a great time." ❚

SAVE THE DATE Join us September 3, 2020 from

11 a.m. to 2 p.m. for the Undergraduate Student Research Poster Session in CSU’s Student Center Atrium.



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Research by the Numbers New Faculty

Research Funding

$84 Million in total research expenditures for 2018, equaling CSU’s record level of annual research spending. CSU ranked #166 nationally in the NSF’s Higher Education Research and Development (HERD) Survey, and #5 in Ohio.


Cleveland State welcomed 50 new faculty members to our university family from a wide variety of disciplines, adding to CSU’s already considerable roster of innovators and knowledge creators.



A new study by The New York Times and the Urban Institute found that CSU’s graduation rate is 7 percentage points higher than would be expected when compared to other schools with similar populations. This is higher than all other Ohio public universities included in the study.

Social Mobility

#134 CSU was ranked #134 in the nation in social mobility in the latest edition of U.S. News and World Report’s guide to the Best Colleges and Universities in the U.S. This brand new ranking was created to highlight the universities that are best supporting upward mobility for their students.

Connect with research at Cleveland State University www.csuohio.edu/research



CSU Distinguished Faculty Awards for Research



Moo-Yeal Lee

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering

Patricia Stoddard Dare

Social Work

Hanz Richter

Mechanical Engineering

Milena Sterio


Bibo Li

Biology, Geology & Environmental Sciences

Zhiqiang Gao

Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences

Anton Komar

Biology, Geology & Environmental Sciences

Katherine Judge


Daniel Simon

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Christopher L. Sagers


Amin Zhou


Samantha Baskind


Siu-Tung Yau

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Justin Clement Perry


Xue-Long Sun


Christopher A. Mallet

Social Work

James Lock


Mary Ellen Waithe


John A.C. Greppin


Barsanjit Mazumder

Biology, Geology & Environmental Sciences

Crystal M Weyman

Biology, Geology & Environmental Sciences

Dena S. Davis


Angelin Chang


John F. Oprea



Miron Kaufman



Leo W. Jeffres


Orhan Talu

Chemical & Biomedical Engineering

Michael Kalafatis


Catherine Hansman


Andrew Rindfleisch


Jerzy T. Sawicki

Mechanical Engineering


The online Masters of Science in Nursing program has been ranked 45th nationally and number 3 in the state of Ohio, in U.S News & World Report's 2018 list of Best Online Degree programs








The Urban Planning & Policy program, housed in Cleveland State’s Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, was ranked #5 in the country by U.S. News & World Report.








Through the annual Startup Vikes competition, organized by CSU’s Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, students, alumni, and community members can build a new business in 52 hours over a single weekend.



Donate to support research at CSU www.csuohio.edu/support-research


Cleveland State University Office of Research 2121 Euclid Avenue Parker Hannifin Hall, 2nd Floor Cleveland, OH 44115-2214



While serving as an associate professor of mechanical engineering at Fenn College in the 1950’s, Albert Lord

worked with NASA’s Lewis Research

Center to conduct important research on jet engine and rocket technology

that contributed to the success of the

U.S. Space program. He also partnered with LRC to form the first student

chapter of the American Rocket Society in the state of Ohio in 1957.

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