Core Concepts on Gender-Based Violence (Facilitator's Guide)

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GBV Resource Package:

Introduction into GBV Core Concepts, Principles and Approaches Facilitator’s Guide

Athens, Greece December 2017


This training package was developed in support from UNFPA and CRWI Diotima. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent the views of UNFPA, the United Nations or any of its affiliated organizations. Athens, Greece December, 2017 2


Contents Foreword by the General Secretary for Gender Equality, Ministry of Interior

5

Introduction

7

1.

9

Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV)

1.1. Content and Objectives

9

1.2

Exploring Beliefs About Violence: Discussion

23

2.

Types of Gender Based Violence

26

2.1. Basic terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI

44

2.1.1. Homophobic and Transphobic Violence

48

2.1.2 Protection of persons of diverse SSOGI from GBV

53

2.2

GBV, Rape, Torture

55

3.

Signs and Symptoms of GBV

70

3.1. Risk Categories and Vulnerabilities

73

4.

74

Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV

4.1. National GBV SOPs Specific Guiding Principles and Approaches

80

5.

Working with Child Survivors of GBV in Greece

84

6.

Referral: How to’s for Non-Specialized Agencies

104

7.

Communication with GBV survivors

115

8.

The National Response System - Greece

123

List of sources

133

Annex I: Sample Agendas

136

Annex II: Case Studies - Samples

138

Annex III: Survivor – Centred Attitude Scale

143

Annex IV: Handouts

147

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Foreword by the General Secretary for Gender Equality, Ministry of Interior It is a great pleasure for the General Secretariat for Gender Equality (GSGE) of the Ministry of Interior to greet the present edition, thus reinforcing its fruitful cooperation with the UNFPA. The protection of the human rights of women and girl refugees and asylum seekers remains a common goal for both the GSGE and the UNFPA, while both organizations continue their efforts to support and strengthen those women and girls. At the same time, the cooperation of the two organizations clearly demonstrates that in critical global issues, such as the refugee crisis, maximum efficiency is reached with the promotion of synergies and common actions. “Because the massive influx of uprooted refugees in our country, especially women and underage girls, requires that everyone of us join forces and demonstrate our most profound solidarity feelings, defending their fundamental rights every way possible “. To this direction, the GSGE undertook a difficult task for the smoothest possible social integration of women refugees and their children: since December 2016, it coordinates eight (8) competent authorities/entities for the adoption of a common framework of procedures on the identification, referral, accommodation and provision of counseling services to refugee women, victims of potential victims of violence and their children as well as to refugee women who are single mothers heads of households, through the establishment of a project coordination group and the signing of a Protocol of Cooperation. UNFPA contributed to this effort in a catalytic way by sponsoring the event of the official presentation of the Protocol, which was held in Athens on 5/4/2017. More specifically, in the field of gender-based violence, the GSGE provides services to refugee women and their children through the National Network of Structures for the Prevention and Combating of Violence against Women. For the first time, an integrated network of 62 structures (24hour SOS Helpline 15900, 40 counseling centers and 21 shelters for women victims of violence) has been set up and operates across the country (domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment, trafficking). In collaboration with the Local and Regional Authorities as well as with the local Bar Associations, the GSGE through its structures provides safe accommodation, psychosocial support and legal counseling to refugee women who are victims or potential victims of violence or heads of households and their children. Furthermore, the new National Action Plan on Gender Equality 2016-2020 (NAPGE) includes specific actions and initiatives to the direction of combating problems refugee women and their children face during their stay in our country. The GSGE plays a substantive and active role in the UN Refugee Agency’s working group for tackling sexual and gender-based violence. Another example of the GSGE and UNFPA’s productive collaboration was the “Protection Training” seminar, held in the islands of Lesvos and Rhodes on 12-13/12/2016, aiming at training the staff of the islands’ Counseling Centers and Shelters. The training seminar mainly dealt with topics such as coping with gender-based violence under exceptional situations and providing refugees and migrants with guidance for safe sheltering when protection from gender-based violence is needed. We truly hope that the present edition is just the beginning of our collaboration with the UNFPA. There is potential and will to explore new paths of common activities, within the framework of our common vision to facilitate the lives of women refugees and their children that were forced to move away from their birthplaces. Kind regards Fotini Kouvela Secretary General for Gender Equality

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Introduction Welcome to the Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Resource Package: Introduction to GBV Core Concepts, Principles and Approaches - Facilitator’s Guide. This package is a result of GBV capacity building and enhancement efforts that were undertaken in the Greek Refugee Response in 2017, by UNFPA and NGO Centre for Research on Women’s Issues(CRWI) Diotima, with the support of the General Secretariat of Gender Equality of the Ministry of Interior of Greece. Gender power imbalances lie at the heart of the lived experience of women and girls worldwide, at their home communities but also during the migratory routes they might have to take. In light of the so called “refugee crisis” since early 2015, Greece has been the entry gate to Europe for millions of persons (mainly from Syria and Afghanistan). However, after the EU-Turkey common statement, most of the refugees have been trapped in Greece and being left with the choices of “voluntary return” to their host country or seeking asylum in Greece. A steady 35% of the population entering Greece is women/girls, for whom one of the major concerns and /or risks is that they are exposed to GBV. Prevention of and response to GBV is one step towards every person’s right to an independent and autonomous life, the right to their body and the right to self-determination and self-fulfillment. The package is intended to serve as a reference material to the GBV practitioners and trainers, as it includes international guidelines and standards and corresponding national legal framework in terms of prevention and response to gender-based violence GBV. The selected topics have being developed based on feedback from non-governmental organizations with the aim to enhance their response capacity; the modules and sessions were tailored in line with their training needs, as identified through their work with migrants and refugees in Greece. Some of these are: GBV Core Concepts, Types of GBV, Identification of GBV, Safe Referrals, Guiding Principles, and some special focuses on working with LGBTI and children survivors. Topics included serve to provide a solid introduction into GBV as well as the effects it has on persons and societies and the importance of tackling it, regardless of the context. An integral part of this guide is its soft copy with actual slides. The users of this book should feel free to combine the slides into larger or smaller presentations: each group will most likely have different needs and trainers can use this resource material to deliver the information most important and relevant for the work of trainees. Additionally, some slides may be overwhelming for specific training groups, in which case they should be hidden (e.g. not all information on GBV, Rape and Torture – chapter 2.2., is of relevance to non-legal professionals and the trainer should focus in such cases on the response mechanisms). As this resource package is only holding introductory information, its users are strongly encouraged to learn more by referring and deepening their knowledge from the sources listed at the end of this book. CRWI Diotima can be contacted as an expert organization to provide direct delivery of training packages adapted to current needs or to assist with interpretation of specific points in the materials (www.diotima.org.gr). GBV happens next to us, everywhere and at all times. We are hoping that this resource package will bring us closer to meeting the protection needs of survivors, but also contribute to prevention either directly- through training or by raising awareness in both specialized and non specialized professionals. Our ultimate goal with ensuring that information contained here is available to all is to improve lives and become part of the force to end all forms of violence, regardless of its target.

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) 1.1. Content and Objectives The module on GBV Core Concepts is developed to provide basic information and introduce terminology tightly related to protection and GBV. It explains where and how GBV prevention and response fit in the overall protection of beneficiaries, regardless of the context (peace or conflict; in working with refugees, internally displaced persons or with host population). The objective of this module is to familiarize the trainees with GBV through: providing fundamental understanding of “what do we talk about when we address GBV?’’. The module also can serve as a basic introduction/awareness exercise with non specialized agencies and professionals. Time required for module: 1 – 1 ½ hrs.

GBV C ore Concepts Gender, Power and Violence

Slide 1: Cover slide of the Powerpoint Presentation (PPP). The module will: - Explain terms and terminology used for building the understanding of GBV within the system of protection; - Explain the root-causes of GBV; - Explain the basic elements of GBV definition; - Address some attitudes surrounding GBV; - Cover types of GBV. This module was developed based on the UNFPA’s Managing GBV Programmes in Emergencies E-Learning Companion Guide, UNFPA 2012 (available at: http://www. unfpa.org/publications/managing-gender-based-violence-programmes-emergencies).

Objec8ves

01 02 03 04 05 Define the Basic Terminology

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Understand the root causes of GBV

Address some of the aKtudes surrounding GBV

Define GBV

Learn the types of GBV

Slide 2: Objectives of the training – module. The facilitator invites trainees to set additional objectives through self-reflection: identifying their own gaps in understanding GBV. If such are identified, the facilitator should make sure they are listed and visible throughout the training session by writing them down on a whiteboard or flip chart.


1.1. Key Terms and Core Concepts of GBV The key terms and concepts of GBV are the core of this module. It is important therefore to present it in a thought provoking manner. The PPP starts with explaining the concepts as listed below in Slide 3, but must spread further to explain how the concepts are inseparable from human rights protection within given context of Greece.

The Key Terms and Core Concepts • Survivor

• Gender

• Perpetrator

• Consent

• Disclosure

• Gender Based Violence

The Key Terms and Core Concepts SURVIVOR/VICTIM: Person who has experienced gender-­‐based violence. The terms “vic8m” and “survivor” can be used interchangeably. “Vic8m” is a term oUen used in the legal and medical sectors. “Survivor” is the term generally preferred in the psychological and social support sectors because it implies resiliency. PERPETRATOR: Person, group, or ins8tu8on that directly inflicts or otherwise supports violence or other abuse inflicted on another against her/his will. DISCLOSURE: refers to the discovery of a GBV incident. OUen survivors choose NOT TO DISCLOSE GBV or seek help. Why?

Slide 3: The facilitator invites the trainees to explain GBV (if from specialized agencies) in their own words, either through examples or from other sources. Trainees from non-specialized agencies should also be invited to explain what they know about GBV and how they come to know. Some of the key terms listed as a start off. Invite the trainees at this point to try to define each of the terms, if time allows,ask trainees to discuss in pairs, no longer than 5 minutes. Encourage them to think about the term survivor vs. the term victim. The next slides will allow to cross-check their answers.

Slide 4: Slide 4:After determining who is a survivor, trainer is encouraged to open discussion for this slide, by asking trainees questions such as: who can be a perpetrator; if he/she can be a child or a woman in the context of GBV? What are possible obstacles to disclosing GBV? Lead the trainees to understand some of the obstacles (such as: persistent hope that the abuse will stop, belief that the abuse is victim’s own problem; stigma and shame; economic consequence of separation; fear of loss of refugee status with disclosure or jeopardizing asylum claim; lack of awareness of her rights; social isolation etc.). Eventually the discussion should turn to cross checking trainee’s understanding of other terms such as Gender: what is gender? and disclosure. Invite them to explain in their words and through examples from their daily life.

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) The Key Terms and Core Concepts GENDER: refers to the social differences between men and women that are learned, and though deeply rooted in every culture, are changeable over 8me, and have wide varia8ons both within and between cultures. CONSENT: approval or assent aUer though_ul considera8on. INFORMED CONSENT: survivor understands fully the consequences of a consent and agrees freely, without any force.

GBV Core Consepts

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Slide 5: Continuation of key terms and concepts. Better understanding of gender will be provided further in the module; at this point it is good to discuss with the trainees the importance of consent (and its impact on safety and security of a survivor). Highlight the importance of consent for our work with the survivors, as they must be the decision maker in the management of their case and provision of services. Informed consent should be repeatedly requested, as survivors may choose to reject specific parts or even services as a whole.

Slide 6: GBV Core Concepts. Already at this point the trainees can be invited to explain how do they see a relationship, for an example, between GBV and Human Rights, etc. Conclude the discussion by connecting GBV to all concepts around the circle, and by explaining what are Human rights, and what is the definition of harm, power etc.


1. GENDER vs SEX • Gender: -­‐  Changeable over 8me; -­‐  Gender roles, responsibili8es, opportuni8es and privileges, expecta8ons and limita8ons for males and females in different cultures are different. • Sex – biological differences between sexes (female and male). -­‐  Women menstruate while men do not; -­‐  Women develop breasts and can lactate; -­‐  Male have tes8cles.

Sex and Gender

Slide 7: Gender vs Sex. Ask participants what does gender and sex mean, and what are the differences between them. If participants came from specialized agencies, challenge them in understanding of gender roles vs. gender identity. Sex implies the biological characteristics of a human body but does not assume sexual orientation. While Gender is defined as the roles that are given to a person according to his/ her sex. Similar is with gender, as it is rather assigned and does not determine gender identity. Participants should be reminded that in our contact with survivors and in general, with persons of concern, our attitude and vocabulary should remain neutral until the beneficiary gives enough details to understand their identity and relationships.

Slide 8: Sex and Gender. Facilitator to conclude the definitions based on the above discussion.

• Sex = Gender? • Sex = Sexual OrientaMon = Gender IdenMty? • SEX: -­‐  usually assigned at birth, classifying person as female, male or intersex; -­‐  Based on the appearance of the external anatomy, combina8on of bodily characteris8cs (chromosomes, reproduc8ve organs)

Sex and Gender

Slide 9

• Sexual orientaMon: -­‐  Person’s capacity for roman8c, emo8onal and physical feelings for, -­‐  or ajrac8on to, persons par8cular sex or gender. • Gender IdenMty: -­‐  Person’s deeply felt internal and individual experience which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth or the gender ajributed to them by society.

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) 2. Human Rights •  GBV is a violaMon of universal, fundamental human rights – such as?

Slide 10: Human Rights as one of the GBV Core Concepts. The slide aims to explain the existential human rights, and explain how GBV can violates them, implying the gravity of the violence. Before listing the existential rights, invite trainees to think how GBV can affect life or other human rights.

a) The right to life; b) The right to personal security; c) The right to equal protec8on under the law; d) Freedom from torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment, etc.

3. Violence = USE OF FORCE TO CONTROL OTHER PERSON OR THE OTHER PEOPLE; = GBV IMPLIES USE OF ANY OF: a) Force b)Abuse c) Coercion

Slide 11: Violence as one of the Core Concepts of GBV. Explain that violence does not have to be physical in nature. Make sure to define the following forms of violence: a) Force – to cause doing by pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means. b) Abuse – Misuse of power; preventing person to make free decisions, forcing them to act against their will. c) Coercion – forcing or attempting to force another person to engage in behaviours against their will by using threats, verbal insistence, manipulation, deception, cultural expectations or economic power. Refer to the term “power” and the realisation of the above terms to including types of power, levels of interactions etc. This takes you to the next slide.

4. Power •  GBV involves abuse of power. •  POWER = ability, skill or capacity to make decisions and take acMon; physical force or strength. •  NOT ALWAYS PHYSICAL: -­‐ social/community power; -­‐ Economic power; -­‐ Poli8cal power; -­‐ Gender-­‐based power; -­‐ Age related power.

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Slide 12: Power as one of the Core Concepts of GBV. Referring to the definition of power and gender, ask participants if they find that some gender roles are more powerful than others. Discuss with the group what makes one gender role more powerful than others – does it add to the types of power listed in the slide and how. Ask if they know any powerful examples in their country and what are the sources of their power. Coming slides further explain the concept of POWER AS A ROOT CAUSE OF GBV. This part should be included into the training for all, especially for those who are working directly with survivors on GBV. It aims to expand the understanding of power itself, its roots and characteristics (some of which are only listed in the slide above).


Root Causes of GBV Group discussion: what causes GBV in your community? What are contribu8ng factors to GBV in your community?

GBV Tree Verbal abuse DomesMc violence

Examples of GBV

Rape

Dowry abuse

ContribuMng factors

Poverty Lack of educaMon Conflict

Root causes

FGM

IsolaMon Sexual abuse

Abuse of power

• Sexual • Physical • EmoMonal • Economic • Harmful pracMces Disrespect for human rights

Forced marriage

Slide 13: Depending on the number of participants, trainer should divide them in 2 to 3 groups to discuss questions presented on the slide for 5-10 minutes and present their conclusions and points of discussion upon it. The aim is to have the trainees place ‘’power’’ as a root cause of GBV.

Slide 14: GBV Tree - the most used tool to explain the root causes and contributing factors to the incidence of GBV. The facilitator should stress the difference between the two root causes and explain the importance to understand power as a concept and its impact on our work with the survivors. Facilitator should also explain that the list of types of GBV provided in the tree is not exhaustive.’’

Alcohol and drug abuse Lack of police protecMon

Gender inequality

Root Causes of GBV

Slide 15: Answering the questions from slide 13

The cause of GBV is the ABUSE OF POWER. War, poverty, alcohol and drug abuse, injus8ce, poor coordina8on, etc. – these are all the contribuMng factors to GBV incidence.

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) The Concept of Power •  POWER = ability, skill or capacity to make decisions and take ac8on; physical force or strength.

Slide 16: expanding the understanding of role of power in GBV incidence. It is the power that comes (or lacks) with different roles we have, and impacts our vulnerability to GBV (or the other way around – having excess of power can lead to its abuse).

•  All rela8onships are affected by the exercise of power. •  The more power the person has – more choices are available to them: people with less power have fewer op8ons and are therefore more vulnerable to abuse.

Sources of Power

Slide 17-18: Where does the power come from? Trainer should invite the trainees to think of examples of each as listed in this and the next slide.

•  SOCIAL/COMMUNITY POWER e.g. peer pressure and bullying are forms of social power. •  ECONOMIC POWER -­‐ Control of money or of access to goods, services, favours; -­‐ Husband and/or fathers oUen hold the economic power in families; -­‐ In communi8es big business owners can be extremely powerful.

Sources of Power (con8nued) •  POLITICAL POWER -­‐ Elected leaders; -­‐ Power laid in law, which can result in abuse. •  GENDER-­‐BASED POWER -­‐ In most cultures, males are usually in a more powerful posi8on -­‐ than females. •  AGE RELATED POWER

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Slide 18: sources of power continued.


Power and Control

VIOLENCE = POWER + CONTROL

5. Harm

Slide 19: Power and Control. Violence is taking place through abuse of power, overpowering and controlling other persons – either for the purpose of control or maintaining the power. Power and control are the core root-causes of GBV, as they may also be the root causes to disrespect for human rights and to gender inequality which at many times they are considered as root causes of GBV per se.

Slide 20: Harm as one of the Core Concepts of GBV – define what does harm means, and what are its forms using the slides examples.

= a direct consequence of GBV. 1.  Physical injuries (including sexual); 2.  Emo8onal and psychological trauma; 3.  Economic hardship; 4.  Rejec8on and social s8gma.

Defining GBV •  ANY harmful act •  Perpetrated AGINST person’s will •  Based on socially ascribed differences (i.e. gender); •  Violate a number of human rights; •  OUen a criminal act.

Slide 21: Definition of GBV. Bearing in mind the core concepts given in previous slides, one can construct the definition of GBV – as any harmful act perpetrated against person’s will; based on socially ascribed differences (based on gender). As in most of other forms, this form of violence violates a number of human rights, what in Greek context is established through Criminal Code, which criminalizes the worst forms of GBV (Rape, Sexual Assault and Gang Rape).

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) Facilitator may refer to the GBV Guidelines definitions as follows: “Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females. It includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion, and other deprivations of liberty. These acts can occur in public or in private.” (Source:Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action, P:5, available at: http://gbvguidelines.org/en/home/) Slide 22: Defining GBV in Greek Law. Basic laws addressing GBV issues within the Greek framework are presentDefining GBV in Greek Law ed and discussed. Facilitator can ask the participants if they are aware about the legal framework concerning GBV cases, and conclude the discussion by reviewing the •  “Domes8c Violence”: Law 3500/2006 on domes8c mentioned articles in the slide. violence refers to any act of physical violence or illegal violence and threat, or rape, sexual intercourse or other lewd acts due to inability to resist, or sexual harassment commijed within a family. •  Law 3896/Gov.207/8.12.2010.: Defines direct and indirect discrimina8on based on gender, sexual harassment.

Defining GBV in Greek Law (con8nued)

Slide 23:

•  Most categories of SGBV are regulated by Greek Criminal Code (CC). Some of them are: -­‐ Rape: sexual intercourse or other sexual acts because of force or physical violence or threat, including one’s spouse (marital rape); penalty: 5 – 20 years of imprisonment (Ar8cle 336 of CC) -­‐ Sexual harassment and serious offence rela8ng to sexual life (gestures, proposal and indecent acts); punishable with up to 1 year of imprisonment (Art.338)

Defining GBV in Greek Law (con8nued) -­‐ Sexual intercourse and/or other sexual acts perpetrated because of in ability to resist (for reasons related to insanity, consump8on of drugs or alcohol, etc.), including one’s spouse; perpetrators can be punished with up to 10 years of imprisonment.

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Slide 24:


Gender-­‐Based Violence (GBV) GENDER-­‐BASED VIOLENCE (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females. It includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion, and other depriva8ons of liberty. These acts can occur in pub-­‐ lic or in private. Violence against women is “any act of gender-­‐based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women.” The United Na,ons Declara,on on the Elimina,on of Violence against Women (DEVAW, 1993)

Slide 25-26: GBV against other groups. It is important to know that GBV is a form of violence that is based on several concepts (or above described elements), therefore it can be used among men and boys; as well as against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons. GBV has a greater impact on women and girls than on men and boys. But men and boys can also be survivors of GBV, especially sexual violence. In Greece, especially where the media and practice imply high level of attention to survival sex practiced by boys and men migrants – we (humanitarian actors) need to realise that in many cases this type of practice (survival sex) may amount to GBV (because it happens under different types of force or/ and involves minors).

Gender-­‐Based Violence (GBV) GENDER-­‐BASED VIOLENCE (GBV) also includes certain forms of violence against men and boys. GBV against men and boys is: •  Based on socially constructed ideas •  Can be perpetrated by men and by women •  OUen under-­‐reported (fear from repercussions or s8gma)

Gender-­‐Based Violence (GBV) GENDER-­‐BASED VIOLENCE (GBV) also used to describe violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons, and is ‘’driven by a desire to punish those seen as defying gender norms’’ -­‐ OHCHR, 2011

Slide 27: Homophobic attacks take place in Greece as well, and it is our duty to pay particular attention in our response to LGBTI persons while responding to their needs, that the principle of safety and security are priority in all programming and assistance (of course, in line with meeting potential health related needs).

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1. Core Concepts of Gender Based Violence (GBV) 1.2 Exploring Beliefs About Violence: Discussion The next 8 slides explore attitudes and beliefs about gender roles and those related to violence. Facilitator will initiate the discussion by distributing handout # 1 (Annexed. In source referred as Handout 6, available online at: http://www.health-genderviolence.org/training-programme-for-health-care-providers/training-content-12-modules/2-understanding-gbv-definit). He/she encourages the participants to first discuss questions and answers as they are provided in slides 17 – 25. When the discussion ends, facilitator will invite the participants to read the myths from the handout and tell which ones they ‘’hear’’ most often. open discussion and conclusion are made by also explaining why we hold these myths, who benefits the most from it, and how this may maintain power relations and affect GBV.

Agree or Disagree?

Exploring Beliefs About Violence

? Some women ask for or provoke men to rape, beat, or abuse them through their own behavior.

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THE VICTIM

IS NOT TO BLAME FOR THE VIOLENCE


? A man cannot rape his wife.

? Rapists are psychopaths, uncultured and uneducated men.

? Alcohol and drugs are the reason men beat women.

VIOLENCE IS AN ACT OF FORCE, PERPETRATED AGAINST SOMEONE’S WILL

VIOLENCE CAN BE PERPETRATED BY

ANYONE

VIOLENCE IS A CHOICE. DRUGS AND ALCOHOL CAN ESCALATE VIOLENCE, BUT CANNOT CAUSE IT.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence When we talk about types of GBV it is important to note that types can be observed in different ways. This session should be introduced and tailored to the target group – some may need to explore and learn in depth about them (e.g. professionals who work in case managers) while other, non-specialized agencies should be introduced into those as recognized on a national level, with National GBV Standards of Procedure (SoPs).

Types of GBV

Physical violence – Greek Law

Slide 39: Four core types of Gender Based Violence. There are four core types of GBV that apply in all GBV programming and responses / in all contexts. The four types are basic classification which in some other sources the Harmful Traditional Practices is recognised as a fifth form/ type of GBV. As the Harmful Traditional Practices varies according to context, they can be added under any of these categories and limit our classification to basic four as shown on the slides. According to the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (1993) GBV is violence against women that encompasses one taking place within a family (including harmful traditional practices and marital rape); at work, educational or other institutions and state and community. In this source hence, the types are identified by answering the question “who is the perpetrator’’. The Greek law recognises in specific the sexual violence, and the physical violence to an extent,. There is also some reference to emotional and psychological violence (as it will be discussed in the coming slides). Slide 41

•  Serious mental or physical injury due to a physical assault; perpetrators of serious injuries are punished with imprisonment, of two years at least. The same act is punished with three years imprisonment at least, or more, if the perpetrator acted by covering or changing the characteris8cs of his face. (Ar#cle 310 CC, misdemeanour, ex officio prosecuted) •  Slight injury because of a physical assault; perpetrators of slight injuries are punished with deten8on, of up to six months or a fine of up to 3000 euros. (Ar#cle 308 CC, misdemeanour, ex parte prosecu8on)

Physical violence – Greek Law •  Serious mental, physical or psychological injury due to physically assaulted by a member of one’s family; if the acts may put one’s life at risk or cause serious injury, they are punished with imprisonment, of two years at least (misdemeanor, ex officio). If these acts have as a consequence the serious mental or physical injury of the vic8m, there may be punished with imprisonment from 5 to 20 years. (Ar#cle 6 para. 2 and 4, Law 3500/2006, felony, ex officio)

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Slide 42


Physical violence – Greek Law

Slide 43-44-45 Greek Law and violence. When a more in-depth knowledge of the legal framework is required, the participants can discuss provisions in the Greek law as well as which ones they are most familiar with.

•  Physical assault by a member of one’s family, even very slight because of their instant or constant behavior; the perpetrator of these acts is punished with imprisonment, of one year at least. (Ar8cle 6 para. 1, Law 3500/2006, misdemeanour, ex officio) •  Torture or any other inhumane or degrading treatment, as a means of punishment or in8mida8on, or in order to be forced to give informa8on or make a declara8on; Such treatment may cons8tute serious injuries, serious forms of physical and psychological violence, as well as serious offences to human dignity, by using prolonged isola8on, a truth detector, or offences referring to sexual dignity; the perpetrator of these acts is punished with imprisonment, of up to 20 years. (Ar#cle 137A CC, felony, ex officio)

Physical violence – Greek Law

Slide 44

•  Induc8on/ promo8on / facilita8on to pros8tu8on by a third person in order for them to obtain income/ for income genera8on purposes; perpetrators can be punished with imprisonment, of 18 months at least. (Ar8cle 349 para. 3 CC, misdemeanor, ex officio prosecuted) •  Trafficking of human beings for Sexual exploita8on, by being trafficked in or outside Greece, with the use of force or threat or fraudulent means or by taking advantage of one’s vulnerability; perpetrators of these acts are punished with imprisonment, up to 10 years and a fine from 10.000-­‐50.000 Euros. If these acts are linked with irregular entrance, residence or exit from Greece or had as a consequence the serious injury of a person, then the perpetrator is punished with imprisonment of 10 years at least, and a fine from 50.000 -­‐100.000 Euros. (Ar#cle 351 CC felony, ex officio prosecuted)

Slide 45

Emo8onal and Psychological violence – Greek Law

•  Verbal abuse/ Insults of honor; the perpetrator of these acts is punished with imprisonment, up to one year. (Ar#cle 361 para. 1 CC, misdemeanour, ex parte prosecu8on) •  Illegal confinement without one’s consent or deprivaMon of one’s freedom of movement; the perpetrator of these acts is punished with imprisonment, of two years at least. (Ar#cle 325 CC, misdemeanour, ex officio)

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence GBV Across Life Stages

Types of GBV Q: What types of (S)GBV are you familiar with? What types you iden8fy most oUen? How do you iden8fy them? According to NaMonal GBV SOPs: 1.  Rape; 2.  Sexual Assault; 3.  Physical Assault; 4.  Forced Marriage; 5.  Denial of Resources, Opportuni8es or Services; 6.  Psychological/Emo8onal Abuse; 7.  Survival Sex/Sexual Exploita8on; 8.  Human Trafficking.

1. Rape •  Non-­‐consensual, physically forced penetraMon of the vulva, anus or mouth, including with an object. •  Main elements: 1.  Power (exercised through force or threat); 2.  Lack of consent; 3.  Inflic8ng harm; 4.  Penetra8on. •  Think about your role in idenMficaMon of rape: how will you prove it is a rape?

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Slide 46: GBV Across Life Stages. Women and girls are at high risk of GBV at all stages of their lives. As seen in the slide, some types are risk in many stages of life; it is important to note that this is a guidance, not a rule as different types can happen across different life stages and are not strictly ties to it (of course except in case pre-birth, infancy). Facilitator will go through the different staged and reviewe the types of GBV that can affect women and girls.

Slide 47: Types of GBV. This slide is designed based on the National GBV Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs). Ask the participants what types of GBV they are familiar with? or/ and have most often dealt with prior to this training, and after the facilitator shows the list of GBV types. It is also good to ask participants what classification tool they use– if any – and how do they recognize one type of GBV from another. Again, this list is not exhaustive but it captures the most often identified ones. When creating the list, the GBV SoPs relayed on the GBV Information Management System (IMS) Classification tool and added to IMS Classification the Human Trafficking and Survival Sex as context-specific types. Trainer is encouraged to explain that the classification of GBV to 6 basic types was made only for the purpose of facilitating the data collection.

Slide 48: Rape. facilitator to ask participants if they know what is the difference between rape and some other form of sexual violence, for example – sexual assault. Lead the discussion to realise the physical sexual act (penetration) that involves in the definition. It is also important to note that rape is a legal term – establishment that the crime of rape has happened (art.336 of Greek Criminal Code) involves investigation and criminal procedure. Our role in determining if it is a rape or not is limited on the survivor’s claim; we are not to question and push with questions about penetration (with what? Where?) but rather leave the survivor(s) to tell their story in their own pace. We, as responders to GBV do not question survivor’s claim and provide assistance by needs identified together with them.


2. Sexual Assault •  Any form of non-­‐consensual sexual contact other than penetra8on. Examples: -­‐  Unwanted kissing; -­‐  Touching of genitalia and other private areas; -­‐  Ajempted rape; -­‐  FGM. Main elements? 1.  Power 2.  Lack of consent 3.  Inflic8ng Harm 4.  Sexual in nature

Sexual Harassment in Greek Context •

Sexual Harassment and serious offence rela8ng sexual life, because of gestures or proposals for lewd/indecent acts; perpetrators of these acts are subjected to up to one year of imprisonment or a fine (Art.337 para. 1 CC, misdemeanour, prosecu8on aUer a complaint is filed by vic8m).

Sexual Harassment because of humiliaMng oral or physical act, referring to sexual life, by a member of one’s family; perpetrators of these acts may be sentenced to up to 2 years imprisonment (Art.9, Law 3500/2006).

3. Physical Assault •  Why and when do we consider it to be GBV?

Slide 49: Sexual Assault – is a physical act in doing and of sexual nature. If time allows, discuss the legal framework in responding to sexual harassment in Greece – can you report it to police? What would they do? Is it considered as a crime? Another point to discuss is Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) – discuss with participants how much they are familiar with the term and practice and who would be the “at risk groups”: majority of reports about FGM are relating it to population immigrating from East Africa (such as Somalia) and/or West Africa (such as Guinea) and parts of the Middle East (such as Egypt).

Slide 50: Sexual Harassment in the Greek Context. Facilitator to use this slide to open discuss whether all potential instances of sexual harassment are covered by the Greek law laws. Go through the articles and discuss.

Slide 51: Physical assault. Facilitator to use this slide to confirm understanding of relation between gender and power – ask participants in what circumstances physical assault qualify as a GBV.

•  Physical violence not sexual in nature; •  Results in pain, discomfort or injury: -­‐ hiKng; -­‐ Slapping; -­‐ Choking; -­‐ CuKng, burning, shoo8ng; -­‐ Acid ajacks

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence 4. Forced Marriage •  A marriage of an individual against his/her will •  Child marriage (formal or informal union before 18)

Forced Marriage – Greek Law

Slide 52: Forced Marriage. Invite participants to think why child marriage is considered to be forced marriage, leading them to understand the value of informed consent/informed assent and the differences between the two terms. The consent of a child is not considered as a result of their will, as in general it is believed that a child is not mature enough to bring such decision – this especially in case of children below14 years old. For cases between 14 – 18 years old, some laws allow for older minors,the marriage with the consent of parents of both sides. However, in times of crisis, most of the early/child marriages take place as a survival tool (either to reduce number of mouths to feed by marrying off the daughter or by expecting (parents) something in return for the daughter’s marriage).

Slide 53-54: Forced Marriage - Greek Law. Facilitator to go through the Legal provisions in Greece regarding forced and early marriage.

•  Forced Marriage: According to Greek Law, a wedding is valid if the persons to be married give their free consent. A marriage that has been contracted without one’s free will is not valid. •  A wedding that has been contracted because of a threat, decep8on or a fraud can be annulled (Ar8cles 1350, 1372-­‐1374 of the Civil Code). •  The law punishes the perpetrator, with imprisonment, of one year at least, in case one has been abducted or confined against one’s will in order to get married (At.327 of the Criminal Code).

Slide 54

Early Marriage – Greek Law •  Early Marriage: a marriage can only be contracted between persons of 18 years old or above. •  For compelling reasons, the Court may permit the marriage of underage persons by taking into considera8on the best interest of the children, the opinion of the persons to be married and that of their parents/guardians (Ar8cle 1350 Civil Code)

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5. Denial of Resources, Opportuni8es or Services •  Widow prevented from receiving inheritance; •  Earnings forcibly taken by family member or in8mate partner; •  Preven8on to use contracep8ves; •  A girl prevented to ajend school, etc.

6. Psychological / Emo8onal Abuse •  Inflic8on of mental or emo8onal pain or injury: •  Threats of physical or sexual violence; •  In8mida8on; •  Humilia8on; •  Forced isola8on; •  Stalking; •  Destruc8on of cherished things etc. •  It is one of the GBV myths that GBV can only be physical.

Survival Sex/Sexual Exploita8on •  FORCED pros8tu8on or exchange of sexual favours for material resources, services and support; •  Usually targe8ng women and girls who cannot meet their or their children’s basic needs; •  Male adolescents also targeted.

Q: Should pros8tu8on be legalised? Pro and Cons.

Slide 55: Denial of Resources, Opportunities or Services. As noted earlier, GBV does not need to be physical in form. Education for example, is a basic human right provided with, and among others, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1969), which recognises a right to free, compulsory primary education for all. In many parts of the world access to education is often conditioned with gender roles – it is expected to invest in boy’s education, while ignoring girl’s education right, due to the belief that girl’s role is to be married, stay at home, and contribute to her family.

Slide 56: Psychological / Emotional Abuse. is considered as one form of GBV and often precedes other forms of violence, accompanies them but also can remain as stand aloneform of violence. For an example, the physical violence happens after a period of demeaning someone’s appearance, intelligence or other. It is very challenging to identify these types of acts as psychological or/and emotional form of violence, similarly survivors themselves would not report it as such.

Slide 57: Survival Sex / Sexual Exploitation This type is considered as GBV form as long as it involves an element of force, coercion or any other form of violence. facilitator can initiate the discussion with trainees about their opinion: if a woman becomes a prostituteas the only source for feeding her children, is she a GBV survivor? In analysis of such case we could see that the element of force exists through desire to meet existential needs of her children. Invite further the participants to discuss legalisation of prostitution and who does it benefit. In the end, make sure to note that legalisation decriminalises the potential survivors – giving them the freedom to report any form of violence/GBV. Ultimately, for the abovementioned case of the sex worker with children, receives legal protection of her own life, protecting her children as well.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence Human Trafficking ‘’…The recruitment, transporta8on, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduc8on, of fraud, decep8on…for the purpose of ex-­‐ ploita8on.’’ -­‐ Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons

Trafficking Act •  •  •  •  •

Recruitment Transport Transfer Harbouring Receipt of persons

Means •  Threat or use of force •  Coercion •  Abduc8on •  Fraud •  Decep8on •  Abuse of power or vulnerability •  Giving payments or benefits

Purpose •  Exploita8on, including: •  Commercial sexual exploita8on (or pros8tu8on of others) •  Sexual exploita8on •  Forced labour •  Slavery or similar prac8ces •  Removal of organs

Trafficking according to the Greek Law •  Trafficking of human beings for Sexual exploitaMon (Ar#cle 351 CC felony, ex officio prosecuted) •  Being trafficked in or outside Greece, with the use of force or threat or fraudulent means or by taking advantage of one’s vulnerability; •  Perpetrators of these acts are punished with imprisonment, up to 10 years and a fine from 10.000-­‐50.000 euros. If these acts are linked with irregular entrance, residence or exit from Greece or had as a consequence the serious injury of a person, then the perpetrator is punished with imprisonment of 10 years at least, and a fine from 50.000 -­‐100.000 euros.

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Slide 58-63-: Survival Sex / Sexual Exploitation This type is considered as GBV form as long as it involves an element of force, coercion or any other form of violence. facilitator can initiate the discussion with trainees about their opinion: if a woman becomes a prostituteas the only source for feeding her children, is she a GBV survivor? In analysis of such case we could see that the element of force exists through desire to meet existential needs of her children. Invite further the participants to discuss legalisation of prostitution and who does it benefit. In the end, make sure to note that legalisation decriminalises the potential survivors – giving them the freedom to report any form of violence/GBV. Ultimately, for the abovementioned case of the sex worker with children, receives legal protection of her own life, protecting her children as well.

Slide 59: Trafficking. Discuss with participants the definition of trafficking in the Greek Law, where appropriate. “Trafficking of human beings for Sexual exploitation, by being trafficked in or outside Greece, with the use of force or threat or fraudulent means or by taking advantage of one’s vulnerability; perpetrators of these acts are punished with imprisonment, up to 10 years and a fine from 10.000-50.000 euros. If these acts are linked with irregular entrance, residence or exit from Greece or had as a consequence the serious injury of a person, then the perpetrator is punished with imprisonment of 10 years at least, and a fine from 50.000 -100.000 euros. (Article 351 CC felony, ex officio prosecuted).”

Slides 60-63 are for plenary discussion with the participants (the slides are developed by UNHCR Athens, Greece).


Is this trafficking?

Slide 61 (Source: UNHCR Greece). Facilitator to open discussion with participants.

With the help of a smuggler and for a fee, a person seeks to move irregularly from loca8on A to loca8on B. Before reaching loca8on B, the smuggler takes the individual to an unknown loca8on far off route and tells them that the fee has now increased by $200 due to bribing a policeman at a new check point. The person is told that they can pay the fee only through paid sexual services to a man living nearby.

Slide 62: : (Source: UNHCR Greece). Facilitator to open discussion with participants.

Yes. The act (harbouring), means (coercion) and purpose (forced pros8tu8on) are evident. This is a case of smuggling that became trafficking.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence

Is this trafficking?

Slide 63: : (Source: UNHCR Greece). Facilitator to open discussion with participants.

With the help of a smuggler and for a fee, a person seeks to move irregularly from loca8on A to loca8on B. She realizes half way through the journey that she cannot afford the agreed fee. The smuggler tells her that she can work as domes8c help for his friend for one month to pay the remainder of her way. AUer she begins working, she realizes that she cannot leave the house and is regularly beaten.

Slide 64: (Source: UNHCR Greece). Facilitator to open discussion with participants.

Yes. Although she ini8ally consented to the condi8ons of work, her ability to revoke her consent was removed and the condi8ons of work changed. The act (harbouring), means (decep8on or abuse of power/vulnerability) and purpose (forced labour) are evident.

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THB Na8onal Referral Mechanism •  The Na8onal Referral Mechanism (EMA) is ins8tu8onally established through the Na8onal Rapporteur’s Office -­‐ GG 3003/2016 •  EMA will: -­‐  Collect and refer vic8m protec8on requests detected / iden8fied by the competent public authori8es or other working on recep8on and support of the target popula8on -­‐  Monitor protec8on ac8vi8es related to trafficked persons -­‐  Set up and operate a registra8on system of requests for protec8on that will include progress of all stages (iden8fica8on, referral and monitoring of case management).

THB Na8onal Referral Mechanism •  The Na8onal Center for Social Solidarity (EKKA) has been designated as the na8onal coordina8ng authority and is currently func8onal at its role as such

Slide 65-66: Trafficking of Human Being (THB) National Referral Mechanism. In this context, discuss with participants the definition of trafficking in the Greek Law, where appropriate. According to the law “Trafficking of human beings for Sexual exploitation is defined as: By being trafficked in or outside Greece, with the use of force or threat or fraudulent means or by taking advantage of one’s vulnerability; perpetrators of these acts are punished with imprisonment, up to 10 years and a fine from 10.000-50.000 euros. If these acts are linked with irregular entrance, residence or exit from Greece or had as a consequence the serious injury of a person, then the perpetrator is punished with imprisonment of 10 years at least, and a fine from 50.000 -100.000 euros.” (Article 351 CC felony, ex officio prosecuted)

Slide 66: THB National Referral Mechanism. The presentation should be expanded on the response mechanism for survivors of trafficking on the national level as soon as the SoPs are made available. Facilitator to introduce to participants an overview of the SoPs using the bullet points in the slide.

•  Organiza8onal and opera8onal issues rela8ng to EMA will be jointly handled by the Na8onal Rapporteur’s Office and EKKA •  SOPs are currently being set up within a working group chaired by EKKA. They will include: -­‐ Detailed interview ques8onnaire for the case intake -­‐ Consent related issues -­‐ Data management -­‐ Referral pathways

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence 2.1. Basic terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI The presentation below can be delivered as a sole session on LGBTI; it serves understanding of the terminology and its appropriate use when working with the survivors of homophobic violence. Main source for the slides is the UNHCR Exchange Website (http://www.unhcrexchange.org/topics/15810/contents/188309)

Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI •  Sexual OrientaMon = person’s enduring capacity for profound roman8c, emo8onal, and/or physical feelings for, or ajrac8on to, person(s) of a par8cular sex or gender. It encompasses:

Slide 73-77: Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI. Understanding the terminology in working with survivors of homophobic violence is a starting point in achieving the guiding principles. The slides provide basic definitions, that may further contribute to our understanding of gender identity and gender roles. Source: UNHCR Exchange (http://www.unhcrexchange.org/topics/15810/ contents/188309)

•  Heterosexuality •  Homosexuality •  Bisexuality and, •  Other expressions of sexual orientaMon.

Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI

Slide 74: LGBTI and SSOGI Terminology. Facilitator should go through the definitions.

Lesbian = a woman whose enduring roman8c, emo8onal and/or physical ajrac8on is to other women. Gay = an adjec8ve generally used to describe a man whose enduring roman8c, emo8onal and/or physical ajrac8on is to other men, although the term can also be used to describe women. Bisexual = persons who have the capacity for roman8c, emo8onal and/or physical ajrac8on to person(s) of the same sex or gender as well as to persons of a different sex or gender.

Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI •  INTERSEX = person born with sexual anatomy, reproduc8ve organs, and/ or chromosome pajerns that do not fit the typical defini8on of male or female. •  may be apparent at birth or become so later in life. •  An intersex person may iden8fy as male or female or as neither. •  Intersex status is not about sexual orienta8on or gender iden8ty: intersex people experience the same range of sexual orienta8ons and gender iden88es as non-­‐intersex people.

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Slide 75: LGBTI and SSOGI Terminology. Source: UN Free and Equal.


Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI Gender IdenMty = deeply felt and experienced sense of one’s own gender. •  May or may not be consistent with the sex assigned to them at birth or the gender ajributed to them by society.

Slide 76: LGBTI and SSOGI Terminology. Facilitator provides explanation on the words, for example: Transgender women is identified as women but were classified as males at birth. Transgender is preferred over ‘transsexual’’ as it encompasses transsexual and gender identities. Source: UN Free and Equal. (https:// www.unfe.org).

Transgender = (some8mes shortened to “trans”) is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of iden88es —including transsexual people, cross-­‐dressers (some8mes referred to as “transves8tes”), people who iden8fy as third gender, and others whose appearance and characteris8cs are perceived as gender atypical.

Basic Terminology: LGBTI and SSOGI

Slide 77: LGBTI and SSOGI Terminology.Facilitator go through abbreviations and definitions. Source: UN Free and Equal

• SSOGI = persons of diverse Sex, Sexual Orienta8on and Gender Iden8ty. • LGBTI = an acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex.

Terminology to Avoid

Slide 78: Terminology to avoid. Facilitator to go through the bullet points, and stress that these terminology is important to avoid when working with persons of diverse SSOGI. Source: UNHCR Exchange.

•  Sexual Preference or Behaviour •  Way of Life, lifestyle, agenda or choice •  Not normal, abnormal or unnatural •  Problem or a condi8on •  She-­‐man, He-­‐she or tranny •  Hermaphrodite, homo, fag, faggot or dyke

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence 2.1.1. Homophobic and Transphobic Violence The homophobic and transphobic violence are not a specific type of GBV as per the National GBV SoPs, but the number of reports and requests by the responders/service providers to be trained in the scope of protection of LGBTI indicated a need to dedicate a chapter to this type of violence. In Greece, UNHCR and UNFPA both organized a couple of trainings addressing these topics, yet, UNHCR acts as a lead and the focal point for protecting LGBTI survivors. This subchapter will provide an overview and main points which we need to keep in mind when working with LGBTI persons. For further in-depth training UNHCR should be contacted. Additionally, full Training Package on Protection of LGBTI in Forced Displacement (and the promotional material) is available at on: http://www.unhcrexchange.org/old/topics/15810/contents. The response to homophobic and transphobic violence should not differ from meeting the needs of any other survivor. By respecting the guiding principles for working with any GBV survivor, we should listen to the needs and organize a proper response to LGBTI survivors as for anyone else. It is important to remember before approaching any response, there are some “must know’’ steps that this subchapter will present. This short subchapter will: 1. Explain the homophobic violence in relation to international human rights and in relation to GBV; 2. Explain basic terminology; 3. Explain roles and responsibilities in protection of LGBTI persons. At the beginning, it is important to note that there are no specific human rights for LGBTI persons; instead, as advocates of human rights, we want to reaffirm that human rights are universal and should be protected without discrimination based on the sexual orientation or gender identity. The session will provide also a copy of “Homophobic and Transphobic Violence Handout’’ annexed to this guide.

Homophobic and Transphobic Violence “when the human rights of LGBT people are abused, all of us are diminished. Every human life is precious – none is worth more than another”. Former Secretary General Ban Ki-­‐moon remarks at the High Level LGBT Core Group Event “Leaving No-­‐One Behind: Equality & Inclusion in the Post-­‐2015 Development Agenda (September 2015)

UN Commitment to ‘’leave no-­‐one behind’’: LGBT Core Group aims: -­‐  to ensure a place for SOGI (sexual orienta8on and gender iden8ty) on UN Agenda; -­‐  promote coordina8on and strategizing across countries, and -­‐  prompt awareness of grave human rights viola8ons against LGBT people.

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Slide 79: Homophobic and Transphobic Violence. While UN has no specific tool of protection of LGBTI persons (such as for an example, CEDAW or the Convention on Protection of the Rights of a Child), intending to have equal protection for all, the topic of LGBTI is kept on the UN Agenda through informal working group “LGBT Core Group’’. This group is a network of states and civil society organisations (including the EU), operationally targeting the worldwide persecuted minority (rather than a specific military conflict) and its involvement is not limited to member states. It’s core function is to ensure the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: the YOGYAKARTA PRINCIPLES.


Homophobic and Transphobic Violence is a grave viola8on of Human Rights •  In 2006: Yogyakarta, Indonesia – mee8ng of a group of interna8onal human rights experts in a response to well documented pajerns of abuse; •  The group set 29 principles – Yogyakarta Principles: a universal guide to human rights which affirm binding interna8onal legal standards to which all states must comply. •  In prac8ce, principles are a guide to applica8on of interna8onal human rights law in rela8on to SOGI issues.

Slide 80: Yogyacarta Principles. Homophobic and transphobic violence are grave violations of human rights; or, in other words: sexual orientation and gender identity are human rights. Yogyacarta principles reaffirm the universality of human rights and highlight the need of protecting the LGBTI regardless of the context. There are 29 principles that provide guidance on how the existing tools of protection must expand to LGBTI issues. The following slides provide an overview of these principles (source: http://www.yogyakartaprinciples. org/principles-en/the-yogyakarta-principles-an-overview/

For slides 81-84 the facilitator should decide if they are appropriate to be shown to trainees (based on their profession, interests, and culture sensitivity) and can be hidden in case of limited time for presentation.

Yogyacarta Principles

Slide 81: Yogyacarta Principles 1 – 3. Facilitator to read and discuss were relevant.

•  Acknowledges human rights viola8ons based on sexual orienta8on and gender iden8ty and establishes relevant legal framework in Preamble. •  1 – 3 Principle set the Universality of human rights and their applica8on to all persons. Example: laws criminalizing homosexuality violate interna,onal right to non-­‐discrimina,on – decision of the UN Human Rights CommiVee

Yogyacarta Principles

Slide 82: Yogyacarta Principles 4 – 18. Facilitator to read and discuss were relevant.

• 4 – 11 address fundamental rights to life, freedom from violence and torture, privacy, access to jus8ce and freedom from arbitrary deten8on. E.g. death penalty con,nues to be applied for consensual adult sexual ac,vity between persons of the same sex, despite the UN resolu,ons emphasising the ban of the death penalty in these cases.

• 12 – 18 principles set the importance of non-­‐discrimina8on in the enjoyment of ESC rights, including employment, accommoda8on, social security, educa8on and health. E.g. Girls who display same-­‐sex affec,on, according to the report of UN Special Rapporteur on the right to educa,on, face discrimina,on and expulsion from educa,onal ins,tu,ons.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence Yogyacarta Principles

Slide 83: Yogyacarta Principles 19 – 21. Facilitator to read and discuss were relevant.

•  19 – 21 principles emphasise importance freedom of expression, of one’s iden8ty and one’s sexuality, without state’s interference based on sexual orienta8on or gender iden8ty; rights to par8cipate in public assemblies and otherwise associate in community with others. Example: Par,cipants in Equality March in Poland faced harassment and in,mida,on with comments such as ‘Let’s get the fags’ and ‘We will do to you what Hitler did to Jews’. State interfered with banning the Pride marches, conferences and events. (Spec. Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimina,on, xenophobia and related intolerance , 2006)

Yogyacarta Principles •  22 – 23 are principles seKng the rights to seek asylum for a reason of persecu8on based on sexual orienta8on or gender iden8ty.

Slide 84: Yogyacarta Principles 22 – 29. Facilitator to read and discuss were relevant. There are no examples given to the last group of principles; the trainees should be invited to think of examples of violations of each of the group and what form it can take.

•  24 – 26 include the rights of persons to par8cipate in family life, public affairs and the cultural life of their community, without discrimina8on based on their sexual orienta8on or gender iden8y. •  27 recognises the right to promote human rights without discrimina8on based on sexual orienta8on or gender iden8ty; obliga8on of states to protect human rights defenders working on these areas. •  28 – 29 affirm the importance of holding violators accountable.

Homophobic and Transphobic Violence are Gender Based Violence •  Homophobic and Transphobic Violence = Violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender people. •  Diverse SOGI oUen seen as defying gender norms; Violence against diverse (real or perceived) SOGI is con sidered as GBV; It is driven by a desire to punish those seen as opposing gender norms.

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Slide 85: Homophobic and Transphobic Violence is GBV - Facilitator to explain and conclude discussion that this is based on (real or perceived) gender discrimination; it is a grave violation of human rights and causes harm.


Slide 86: Examples of homophobic violence. Encourage participants to discuss why the examples amount to GBV and what type of GBV they represent. •  Example: Viola8ons against lesbians inseparable from their sexual orienta8on: mul8ple rape of a lesbian in Zimbabwe, arranged by her own family in an ajempt to ‘cure’ her of her homosexuality. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Commission on Human Rights, 31 January 2002

In April 2017, there was a wave of reports of deten8on and extra-­‐judicial kill-­‐ ings of gay men by Chechnya’s security forces. The killings also take form of honour killings which are ‘par8cular danger in this kind od society’…’ although male homosexuality is now legal in Russia, a law in 2013 which banned propaganda for LGBT lifestyles in Russia has been used to silence the voices of gay people.’

On Honour killing professor Dan Haeley, Oxford University, explains: ‘Most honour killings we know about are directed against women but here they would be meted out by other family members and that is because they would find it hard to stand up in their own communities having a visibly or known gay person in their family circle and family counts for a great deal in that society.’

Maj Pickles. ‘Analysing homophobic violence in Chechnya’. Oxford Arts Blog April 2017.

2.1.2 Protection of persons of diverse SSOGI from GBV The following presentation is addressing basic elements of protection for LGBTI, based on Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies (GBViE) Minimum Standards. It is important to remind the trainees that in the Greek context, UNHCR is a focal point to providing response to homophobic violence and should be approached with requests for in-depth training. The information provided here is only complementary, and it serves to our understanding of the complexities and challenges faced in GBV Protection.

Protec8on of persons of diverse SSOGI from GBV •  LGBTI considered to be among most marginalized groups also in emergency response •  LGBTI must be included in all stages of (GBV Minimum standards) designing GBV preven8on and response programmes: ENSURING PARTICIPATION in:

Slide 87: Protection of persons of diverse SSOGI from GBV. It is noted that in Greek context, plenty of migrants claim asylum based on their gender identity and risks that coming out bring – given that Europe is considered to provide equality and protection especially when it comes to SSOGI. The slides provide a reminder of the stages of responding to GBV in Emergencies, calling for inclusion of all marginalized groups. What is it then that makes LGBTI marginalized?

1.  Planning (rapid needs assessments, FGDs..); 2.  Design (consulta8on, seKng priori8es, project design..); 3.  Implementa8on, and 4.  Monitoring and Evalua8on.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence Specific Risks faced by LGBTI in context of migra8on •  Lack of access to safe and •  Physical or sexual violence appropriate housing •  Being compelled to conceal •  Transgender persons may be at high their sexual orienta8on/gender iden8ty because of fear of abuse, risk having the miss-­‐match of gender iden8ty and appearance from those violence or loss of assistance in official documenta8on •  Rejec8on (family and community..) •  Forced marriage •  Prejudicial public services Lack of access to food, including by •  Evic8ons from homes being removed from food queues or •  Severe psychological effects (like PTSD, depression or anxiety) rela8ng turned away at the delivery points to past experiences of violence Reliance on survival sex •  Criminaliza8on of consensual same-­‐sex rela8ons and associated risks of arrest, etc./discriminatory laws and prac8ces

Ac8vity •  Consider what are specific risks for LGBTI person Group 1: …in the family Group 2: …in their community (school, work, religious community) Group 3: …in accessing public services •  Explain how in Greek context these risk can be mi8gated. (10 minutes)

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Slide 88: Specific Risks faced by LGBTI in context of migration. Facilitator should mention that this list of risks is not exhaustive and the participants should be invited to think of the specific examples and how it may impact their response. Most important to note is that the protection depends very much on the laws and practices of the host country and population, that we must bear in mind – is the accommodation protecting them from the threatening environment, be it family, refugee community they belong to; or the state they are residing in.

Slide 89: Activity. Brainstorm with the participants what particular risks there are for LGBTI groups? After discussion the participants should be invited to refer to the National GBV SoPs which hold a list of LGBTI organizations providing different services for this targeted group.


2.2 GBV, Rape, Torture The training session on GBV, Rape and Torture was developed upon a request of some partners who identified increasing number of torture claims, and at the same time needed a clarification on how and when to distinct GBV from torture. This session is not part of the usual training package delivered by UNFPA, and can/should be adapted to context and request, especially to legal aid providers. In reality, if a torture act took a form of GB, such as rape that can be used as a tool of torture, our approaches and responses should follow the same line of GBV interventions. This means, the response should include holistic approach while respecting the guiding principles, and provision of services without discrimination. The implication of rape as a tool of torture are mainly directed to legal services, since ‘torture’ itself is used as a legal term. The module provides overview of GBV in relation to torture and aims to: • Explain what is torture; • When and how GBV can amount to torture; • How do we respond to torture; and • what does a torture claim mean for service providers.

Slide 90: Rape, GBV and Torture. Facilitator to open discussion with trainees how when GBV incident amounts to torture?; what do the disclosures claim – rape or torture means? What should be the immediate reaction in a capacity of specific service provider for the act?

Rape, GBV and Torture GB in IHRL and IHL; Case studies

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence GBV Is a severe viola8on of human rights Type of GBV Rape

Violated Right

Protected by*:

Freedom from torture, or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, the right to life

CAT, UDHR, 1969 Covenants, CEDAW, DEDAW

Sexual Exploitation

Human dignity and physical integrity

CEDAW, CAT, DEDAW

Violence based on Sexual Orientation

Right to live free from discrimination, and the right to equality, including equal protection of the law

UDHR, 1969 Covenants, ECHR, DEDAW

Confinement

Cultural, political and public participation; education; access to public services

1969 Covenants, Convention on the Rights of the Child

Domestic Violence

Life and equality; including equal protection under the law

UDHR, CEDAW, 1969 Covenants, Convention on the Rights of the Child, DEDAW

FGM/C

The highest attainable standard of physical and mental health

CEDAW, UDHR, CAT, DEDAW

*Only universal, interna,onal HR sources referred to, not exhaus,ve list.

Slide 91: GBV is a severe violation of human rights. The basic to our understanding of GBV in relation to torture is to acknowledge that GBV, just as any other act of torture, violates universal and inherent human rights. Violated rights means there are international mechanisms of protection, such as: 1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)- 1948: protecting the right to life, freedom, equality, nondiscrimination; from slavery; equality before the law; access to justice; right to seek a safe place to live and freedom to move; right to a nationality. 2. 1969 Covenants: right to life, freedom of speech (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights); right to health, to education, adequate standard of living; family life (international Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). 3. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)- 1979: non-discrimination; sex stereotypes; sex trafficking; promotes participation of women in public life, rights to nationality; education, employment and health; special protection for rural women; equality in marriage and family life and equality before the law. 4. Convention against Torture (CAT)- 1984: aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; requires states to take steps to prevent torture on their territory and forbids states to transport people to any country where there are reasons to believe they will be tortured (nonrefoulement). 5. Convention on the Rights of a Child (CRC)- 1989: right to life, their own name and identity, to be raised by their own parents, be protected from exploitation, have their privacy protected and forbids capital punishment for children. Obliges states to take measures to protect children from all forms of physical and mental violence. 6. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (DEVAW)-1993: encompassing all forms of GBV, regardless of context (war/peace) or setting such as in the family (marital rape, sexual abuse of children, dowry related violence); in general community (rape, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in school or elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution); violence perpetrated or condoned by the state wherever it occurs. 7. 1995 Beijing Platform for Action expanded the DEVAW and included: violation of the rights of women in situations of armed conflict, including systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy; forced sterilisation, forced abortion, coerced or forced use of contraceptives; prenatal sex selection and female infanticide. Minorities and indigenous, refugee and migrant, elderly and disabled women recognized in particular.

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Torture •  General defini8on – Conven8on against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment of Punishment (CAT) 1984: •  “…any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is inten8onally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person informa8on or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has commijed or is suspected of having commijed, or in8mida8ng or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimina8on of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the ins8ga8on of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person ac8ng in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanc8ons.” -­‐ CAT, Ar8cle 1(1).

Torture •  InternaMonal Humanitarian Law Sources: 1. 1863, Lieber Code, Art. 16: Military necessity does not admit of cruelty -­‐ that is, the inflic,on of suffering for the sake of suffering or for revenge, nor of maiming or wounding except in fight, nor of torture to extort confessions. It does not admit of the use of poison in any way, nor of the wanton devasta,on of a district. It admits of decep,on, but disclaims acts of perfidy; and, in general, military necessity does not include any act of hos,lity which makes the return to peace unnecessarily difficult.

Torture •  InternaMonal Humanitarian Law Sources: 2. 1945 The Charter of IMT at Nuremberg, Ar8cle 6b and 6c – defining war crimes and crimes against humanity, includes ill-­‐ treatment of civilian popula8on and of prisoners (as War Crimes); ...extermina8on, enslavement, deporta8on and other inhumane acts upon civilians (CAH).

Slide 92: Torture. Facilitator to encourage groups to discuss the term based on the definition and present their opinion (possibly make 3 groups, depending on the number of trainees). Facilitator can use the following points to start discussion: • What is torture? • Who should be involved as perpetrator? • What about non-state actors or State agents/organisations, such as paramilitary groups or mercenaries? • Are they bound with the International Human Rights Law (IHRL) and the International Humanitarian Law (IHL)? And if so, how do we make them respect IHL and IHRL? • Can you identify any similarities between GBV and Torture?

Slide 93-97: Torture. Sources. The following slides can be hidden depending on the composition of the group. Facilitator is recommended to keep them as part of the session and if trainees have a legal background and are providing legal services. Trainer is further encouraged to explain that International Humanitarian Law should be respected in both international and national conflicts. Now, the question is, what is international humanitarian law? Very often we would hear from humanitarians that they are working on international humanitarian law. This is wrong. Humanitarian law is the law of the war, establishing protection of the civilian and other non-military groups INSIDE a war. This implies investigation and prosecution of the war crimes, and certainly does not relate to the work of humanitarians for an example, in natural disasters.

Slide 94: Torture. War crimes and crimes against humanity. War crimes: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) –art.8 defines war crimes as grave breaches of Geneva Conventions (1949), that are committed “as a part of a plan or policy, or as apart of a largescale commission of such crimes”. Crimes Against Humanity (CAH): are crimes committed as part of “a widespread or systematic attack against civilians during peace or war time” (including disappearances, killings, enslavement, deportation and mass, systematic rape). (Definition taken from Amnesty International - https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/ international-justice/?gclid=Cj0KEQjw1ufKBRDYrqLzrY3 dy88BEiQAPI_r4RWKYYbeBb_qa0a8HEupz6VIQ_7XMpuI Ka2DsT15V04aAujz8P8HAQ )

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence Torture

Slide 95: Torture. Defining torture according to Geneva Conventions (Cont’d).

• InternaMonal Humanitarian Law Sources: 3. 1949 Common Ar8cle 3 of Geneva Conven8ons: prohibi8ng ‘’ cruel treatment and torture’’ and ‘’outrages upon personal dignity, in par8cular humilia8ng and degrading treatment’’ of civilians and persons hors de combat.

Torture • InternaMonal Humanitarian Law Sources: 4. 1949 Common Ar8cle 3 of Geneva Conven8ons: prohibi8ng ‘’cruel treatment and torture’’ and ‘’outrages upon personal dignity, in par8cular humilia8ng and degrading treatment’’ of civilians and persons hors de combat. Addi8onal Protocol I ( Art.75(2)) and Addi8onal Protocol II (Art.4(2)) of 1977 strengthen the prohibi8on of torture and outrages upon personal dignity, of humilia8ng and degrading treatment.

Torture • InternaMonal Humanitarian Law Sources: 4. Torture, cruel treatment and outrages upon personal dignity, in par8cular humilia8ng and degrading treatment, cons8tute war crimes in non-­‐interna8onal armed conflicts under the Statutes of the Interna8onal Criminal Court, of the Interna8onal Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and of the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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Slide 96-99: Torture. Further definition of torture. If we think of all of types of GBV and its manifestations, it is should be clear now why torture can be defined as a form of GBV, or at least be placed on a same level in sense of protection and prosecution of war crimes and; crimes against humanity. Yet; it took more time to recognise rape per se as a violation of international humanitarian law.

Slide 97: Torture. Additionally, many states prohibit torture and other inhumane and degrading treatment through their national laws. It is also upheld in national and international case law; especially valuable contribution being made with the practice of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).


ICTY

Rape and torture •  Torture can take form of rape or other gender based violence •  Each mount to crimes against humanity •  Rome statute, defining CAH, lists torture and rape, sexual slavery, en forced pros8tu8on, forced pregnancy, enforced steriliza8on, or any other form of sexual violence of similar gravity.

Slide 98: ICTY. Short movie by UN ICTY, explaining the importance of recognition of GBV (rape) as a tool of torture and instrument of war, that may amount to crimes against humanity. Available on: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAvweCH49YU. Facilitator to initiate a feedback from participants following to the movie.

Slide 99: Slide 10: Rape and Torture. Rape and sexual abuse can be a tool of torture, but rape does not have to be a form of torture in order to constitute the CAH (meaning, they can be brought as a charge before the ICC or other international instruments of protection as a per se form of CAH). The following side will show more information to how we expand the target of these convention to all genders.

•  As a form of torture oUen, but not only, executed against LGBTQI popula8on

UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2016): •  “We have a tendency to regard viola8ons against these [LGBTQI] groups as ill-­‐treatment even where they would more appropriately be defined as torture.” •  women make up between 2% and 9% of the prison popula8on in most of the world’s prisons. Of those women, up to 80% are mothers and yet most jails are typically designed for men.

Slide 100: UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2016). The expert recommends that, where possible, non-custodial sanctions be given to help protect women, and in particular mother and child – especially since the majority of crimes committed by women tend to be non-violent in nature. • States have an obligation to reform their laws in this respect.

•  “Denial of safe abor8on services in some instances such as cases where the life of the mother is endangered, foetal impairment, or where the pregnancy is the result of rape and incest can also amount to torture or ill treatment of women”, he furthermore said.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2016):

“States must finally implement their heightened obliga8on to prevent and combat gender-­‐based violence and discrimina8on perpetrated by both State and private actors against women, girls and persons who transgress sexual and gender norms,”

Slide 101: UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2016). The expert recommends that, where possible, non-custodial sanctions be given to help protect women, and in particular mother and child – especially since the majority of crimes committed by women tend to be non-violent in nature. • States have an obligation to reform their laws in this respect.

UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, 2016: “Don’t Downplay gender-­‐based violence”. Available at: hjp://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=17187&LangID=E Photo Amnesty Interna8onal

Torture and Gender

Slide 102: Torture and gender. Men and boys can also be victims/survivors of GBV as a form of torture. Facilitator can encourage the trainees to explain why the picture in the slide is an obvious display of GBV or/and torture.

•  Experience of torture can be 8ed to one’s gender •  Rape and other forms sexual violence (according to interna8onal law), against both sexes, can cons8tute a form of torture •  The forms of torture can be gender specific (gender roles and inequali8es)

Gender sensi8ve interpreta8on of torture •  Sexual violence as a form of torture is any act or threat of sexual nature by which severe mental or physical pain or suffering is caused to obtain informa8on, confession or punishment of a vic8m or third person, in8midate her or a third person to destroy, in whole or in part, na8onal, ethnic, racial or religious group. •  Used in order to (against all genders and sexes) humiliate and/or to emasculate the vic8m, while simultaneously enhancing perpetrators’ masculinity by asser8ng power and dominance. •  OUen described as a strategic weapon of war

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Slide 103: Gender sensitive interpretation of torture. Facilitator to explain that CAT lacks the gender perspective; it does not provide gender lens in its definitions – this gap is being addressed with other mechanisms which are still not achieving the impact of CAT. Facilitator initiate a discussion on Comparing the definition above to GBV one – what are the differences?


Case studies and Discussions

Slide 104: Case Studies and Discussions. If time allows, dedicate 15 minutes to answering these questions together with the trainees.

•  Without sharing confiden8al data, try to explain: •  What cases of torture did I meet? Why do I believe it is torture? •  Where did the torture take place? •  How can 8me of incident define the response needed? •  What are the gaps in exis8ng services in my country?

Assessing the Needs •  Remember the guiding principles: DO NO HARM. “Vic,ms should be treated with humanity and respect for their dignity…ensure their safe-­‐ ty, physical and psychological well-­‐being and privacy, as well as those of their families.” -­‐ GA Resolu8on 60/147 of 16 December 20015 IniMal assessment: 1.  Be prepared: know your target popula8on, their background and partners that may support mee8ng the needs; know what cons8tutes torture and common problems reported by survivors. 2.  Create safe space for the story to be told – tes8mony is a vent and poten8al evidence. 3.  Build trust. Explain what it is that you are doing and why; how you may be able to help? 4.  Iden8fy poten8al immediate risks; e.g. health risk, risk of self harm. Extend the assessment to the family members. 5.  Are specialist skills and experience needed for the (part) of the assessment?

Assessing the Needs 6.  7.  8.  9.

Note what further assessment is required and iden8fy follow up needs. Provide survivor with the informa8on about (accessing) the health services in Greece Provide informa8on about legal aid and social services. Make sure to have a consent if the referral is to be made. Inform survivor of the consequences of such referral, i.e. if health services – what tests doctor may do. 10.  Documenta8on: make sure to keep notes and share with the survivor if they request; make them accessible in case of future need. Record all relevant details, that survivor is ready to share with you (do not pressure for informa8on).

Slide 105: Assessing the Needs. As in the case of GBV, when working with torture survivors, we must ensure safety, security, respect and confidentiality environment when they are disclosing their stories. Cases of torture are different from each other, and while in some cases the survivors are eager to vent and have an opportunity to provide a testimony, others may take longer time to feel ready to speak about it. When interviewing a survivor, make sure to show respect; avoid interruption during the interview, no shocks, do not blame him/her, remain calm and professional. (Source: https://www.freedomfromtorture.org/sites/default/files/documents/identifying_survivors_of_torture_and_assessing_their_health_ needs_-_2010.pdf)

Slide 106: Remember that Victims of Torture often have an impaired ability to recall incident details. Therefore;all communications around the incident should be led very carefully and in line with the survivor’s readiness to talk about it.

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2. Types of Gender Based Violence Slide 107: Response. Ask participants: what is their experience on torture in their country? What are the needs of survivors of torture and how different are they from those of GBV Survivors? Generate discussion.

Response •  Medical/Health – especially immediate health REHABILITIATION risks should be iden8fied; •  Psychological – oUen needed therapy for PTSD; •  Social – does the survivor need to re-­‐establish family connec8ons, or – are family members impacted? Does survivor have a suppor8ve community? Adequate shelter and community integra8on may be decisive in process of rehabilita8on. •  Legal – those claiming they are survivors of torture have the rights in line with na8onal and interna8onal laws. It is the right of a survivor to have an access to relevant informa8on concerning viola8ons and repara8on mechanisms.

What is YOUR EXPERIENCE?

Repara8on = a right of a vicMm to: a)  Res8tu8on (re-­‐establishing status quo, or situa8on that existed before the wrongful act). Restoring individual’s liberty, legal rights, social status, family life and ci8zenship; return to one’s place of residence; restora8on of employment and property. (E/CN/4/2000/62)

Slide 108: Reparation. Facilitator to sense the meaning of reparation and compensation among participants. He/ she can ask:is it possible to undo the pain? (Source: E/CN/4/2000/62: The right to restitution, compensation and rehabilitation for victims of gross violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms - Final report of the Special Rapporteur)

b)  Compensa8on – for the damage suffered – to the extent possible, f or the physical and mental harm, lost opportuni8es (educa8on, social benefits..), material and moral damages, costs required for services etc.

Repara8on c)  Rehabilita8on – extended interpreta8on from medical and psychological to legal and social services; d)  Sa8sfac8on and Guarantee of Non-­‐Repe88on

Slide 109: Facilitator to continue the discussion about rehabilitation, emphasising that timing of incidents and reparations can be a political issue. A report by University of Essex highlights that the reparation claims may harm the peace building processes and may be perceived as politically motivated claims or biased; or if it is in development stage, should the reparation be given priority over the running water and electricity? (Source: Adverse Consequences of Reparations, available at https://www. essex.ac.uk/tjn/documents/Paper_6_Adverse_Consequences.pdf ) It is possible to find state to be responsible as it failed to protect from such harm (even when the execution was by the non-state actors acting on its territory).

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Poten8al obstacles to repara8on: Objec8ve •  Timing of incidents and repara8ons; •  Form of repara8on – some survivors do not want to assign cash value to their suffering; the form should always be culturally and poli8cally sensi8ve. •  Who is to pay for compensa8on? (especially if incident took place in COO involving non-­‐state actors); •  Social marginalisa8on and exclusion; •  Certain groups oUen excluded from repara8on policies (women, indigenous); •  Lengthy procedures.

SubjecMve •  Harm or re-­‐trauma8sa8on (seKng un realis8cally high expecta8ons for survivors; too restric8ve process of claiming repara8ons; using ‘’vic8m” instead of ‘’survivor’’, the process of claims etc. •  Differen8a8on between vic8ms; •  Lengthy procedures; •  Guilt and shame.

Slide 110: Potential obstacles to reparation.Ask trainees to compare obstacles to reparation GBV with obstacles in reparation torture. If time allows, divide trainees to groups.

Slide 111: Last slide of the session – dedicate time to take questions and provide clarifications.

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3. Signs and Symptoms of GBV The presentation on signs and symptoms of GBV includes an overview of most commonly identified symptoms of GBV, as well as the risk categories indicating the high risk of GBV. The list is not exhaustive and serves rather as a general frame of indicators that may help front line workers to identify potential survivors. The main source of the information in this presentation comes from the International Rescue Committee (IRC) Handbook “Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse” (2012), aiming to help understanding the risk groups and guide in identification of potential survivors.

Common Signs and Symptoms of GBV

Some of the Disclosure Scenariost •  Family members disclose an incident to you without the knowledge of the adult survivor. What do you do? •  A woman comes to you and tells that she fears telling you her story because she does not want her family to find out. •  In a focus group discussion (FGD), women tell you about the case that ‘’everyone knows’’ about. •  You receive informa8on that the child perpetrator lives with the survivor.

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Slide 112: Common signs and symptoms of GBV. Considering that most of the trainees in Greece have already worked with survivors, facilitator should discuss the most common signs and symptoms they have faced using the following questions: what is your experience in dealing with GBV cases? How do you get to understand that someone is a survivor of GBV? What do you look at when a person is in front of you? Do they always disclose their cases?

Slide 113: Some of the Disclosure Scenarios. In most of the cases, we receive information about survivors or incidents through survivors, their relatives/friends, or through referral from other organisation. The way we receive the information determines our approach – facilitator should discuss how to act in each of the situations. Sometimes it is challenging to receive direct information, or disclosure that GBV is happening, this can be due to some reasons, such as:maybe the survivor is denying the incident -as a psychological defense mechanism- although we may suspect that something has happened and that there is more details. What makes us suspect?


Slide 114: What is your experience? Facilitator to open discussion on signs and symptoms of GBV from trainees experiences. Facilitator should guide the trainees to identify physical/ visible and non-visible / psychological signs and symptoms of GBV.

YOUR EXPERIENCE?

Common Signs and Symptoms of GBV According to Age Infants and Toddlers (0-­‐5):

Younger Children:

•  Similar reac8ons to children 0-­‐5, and addi8onally: •  Fear of par8cular people, places or ac8vi8es, or of being ajacked •  Behaving like a baby (weKng the bed or wan8ng the parents to dress them); •  Suddenly refusing to go to school; •  Touching their private parts a lot •  Avoiding family or friends, or generally withdrawing to themselves •  Refusing to eat or wan8ng to eat all the 8me

•  •  •  •

Crying, whimpering, screaming more than usual Clinging or unusually ajaching themselves to caregivers Refusing to leave ‘’safe’’ places Difficulty sleeping or sleeping constantly Losing the ability to converse, losing bladder control, other developmental regression Displaying knowledge or interest in sexual acts inappropriate to their age

Common Signs and Symptoms of GBV According to Age ADOLESCENTS (10-­‐19) •  Depression (chronic sadness), crying or emo8onal numbness; •  Nightmares or sleep disorders; •  Problems in school or avoidance of school; •  Displaying avoidance behaviour, including withdrawals from family and friends; •  Self-­‐destruc8ve behaviour (drugs, alcohol, self-­‐inflicted injuries) •  Changes in school performance; •  Exhibi8ng ea8ng problems; •  Suicidal thoughts or tendencies; •  Talking about abuse, experiencing the flashbacks.

ADULTS •  Flashbacks; •  Nightmares; •  Emo8onal numbing; •  Avoidance of reminders of the trauma; •  Depression, suicidal thoughts; •  Difficul8es with peer rela8onships; •  Self-­‐destruc8ve behaviour (ex. Changes in work performance, abandonment of friendships, neglec8ng caretaking responsibili8es, self-­‐harm)

Slide 115: Common signs and symptoms of GBV According to Age. When the disclosure is missing we should still be ready to recognize some of the most common signs and symptoms of GBV. The list provides common signs and symptoms of GBV According to age. This list is not exhaustive, and of course, as every person is different – some survivors may not show any symptom, others may show more than one sign at once. Very often, at least a pair of signs and/or symptoms would be identified. Among young children and infants these are the most commonly identified ones. Facilitator to go through the list.

Slide 116: Common Signs and Symptoms among Adolescents and Adults. The slide provides a list of common signs and symptoms based on evidence and practice. Especially in these age groups, the coping mechanisms are diverse and some types of GBV are very difficult to identify looking while only for the symptoms. It is important to keep an open mind and look also beyond this list, especially in cases of survivors who faced the incident(s) some time ago. Facilitator to go through the list.

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3. Signs and Symptoms of GBV 3.1. Risk Categories and Vulnerabilities Reflec8ng on Some of the General Risk Categories and Risk Indicators Children and Adolescents: •  Separated and Unaccompanied •  Orphan •  Adolescent parent •  Child headed household •  Early marriage •  Early pregnancy •  Forced labour •  Unsafe living condi8ons •  Engaging in survivor sex

Women and Girls: •  Woman (single parent, widow, abandoned older woman) •  Unsafe in home or community •  Trafficked person •  Threat of rape or violence •  Engaging in survival sex •  FGM •  GBV (threats or Survivors)

Reflec8ng on Some of the General Risk Categories and Risk Indicators Health and Disability: •  Persons with chronic illness •  Person with other serious medical condi8on impac8ng ability to func8on independently •  Intellectual disability •  Visual and/or hearing impairment •  Physical disability •  Mental illness •  Drug / alcohol abuse / addic8on •  Bodily injury or phycological trauma

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Older People: •  Unable to care for self on a daily basis •  No family support •  Grandparent or older person-­‐headed household

Slide 117-118: :Risk Categories and Indicators. This slide helps us to facilitate our program planning and sensitise our approach to different risk categories. The groups listed are at heightened risk of any type of violence and abuse - early identification of their protection needs, especially protection from GBV can be a life-saving intervention. Facilitator to go through the list.

Slide 118: Additional vulnerabilities/risk categories. Facilitator to go through the list.


4. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV The guiding principles for working with survivors are the core rules we - GBV responders, must know at all times and implement in all stages of our work. This module is one of the two main modules (first being the Core Concepts) that build basic knowledge about GBV protection and response. The Goals of this module are: • To learn about the guiding principles; • To realize what is their importance in working with GBV survivors; • To understand their application in different stages of responding to GBV. Main source of the information provided in this module is the E-learning Companion Guide:“Managing Gender-based Violence Programmes in Emergencies”.

Guiding Principles in Working with GBV Survivors

•  •  •  •

Confiden8ality Respect Non-­‐discrimina8on Safety and Security

Respect •  Uphold the rights, dignity and choices of a survivor •  Respect is a human right; all survivors must be treated with dignity and respect •  All disclosures of abuse must be heard with respect and believed •  We have a responsibility to: -­‐  hold the perpetrator responsible for the abuse NOT A SURVIVOR; -­‐  Maintain non-­‐judgmental manner; -­‐  Do not laugh or show any disrespect for the individual or her culture, family situa8on; -­‐  THE STATUS OF THE VIRGINITY OF A SURVIVOR SHOULD NOT BE DISCUSSED

Slide 120: Guiding Principles in Working with GBV Survivors. Four guiding principles in working with GBV Survivors. Facilitator can encourage participants to provide definition of each principle or give an example what does it mean in our work with GBV cases. The next slides will provide full explanation of each.

Slide 121: Respect. Respect as a guiding principle in working with GBV survivors. Facilitator is advise to go through each point in the list and provide some examples of its application

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4. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Non-­‐Discrimina8on

Every adult or a child, regardless of her/his sex, should be accorded equal care and support. Vic8ms / survivors of violence should receive equal and fair treatment regardless of their race, religion, na8onality or sexual orienta8on.

Safety and Security •  SECURITY: basic enMtlement, a right guaranteed by art.3 of UDHR 1948 -­‐  Associated with exercise of liber8es; -­‐  Protec8on against harm (including arbitrary ar rest or deten8on); -­‐  Accessing rights (services) without any threat

Slide 122: Non-Discrimination.Facilitator can invite one of the participants to read the slide and definition which is straight forward. Encourage a discussion about the challenges in practice, for an example, if we are providing safe shelter to GBV survivors, do we include male survivors in this service provision?

Slide 123: Safety and Security. Though there is a difference between the two terms safety and security, when working with survivors we must make sure they are both applied. Facilitator to go through the definitions, and clarify that it is our duty to ensure safety and security are ensured, even in situations when the survivor may appear unconcerned to it.

•  SAFETY = awareness + preparaMon. -­‐  personal -­‐  confiden8ality

Confiden8ality •  Protec8ng the confiden8ality of the survivor and ensuring informed consent. •  Share only the necessary informa8on, as requested and as agreed by the survivor, with those actors involved in providing assistance. •  The confiden8ality of the perpetrator should also be respected. •  Informa8on about survivors should never be shared if it includes the individual’s name. •  Informa8on concerning the survivor should only be shared with third par8es aUer seeking and obtaining the survivor’s (or their parents’, in the case of children) explicit consent in wri8ng.

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Slide 124: Confidentiality. Through discussions with different trainees in Greece, it seems that confidentiality is one of the greatest concern of caseworkers – not understanding how far-reaching is the obligation to protect confidentiality. Facilitator to start with explaining the meaning of confidentiality and its limitations in application. It is important to explain that confidentiality is tightly connected to consent for service provision. The next slide is an example of a consent form.


Slide 125: Example of consent form (Source: GBV Information Management System). Maintaining confidentiality means not disclosing information without a consent. Note that the form is also confidential. This implies our obligation to keep even this form in a secure, locked place. There should also be a plan in place how to destroy any document related to the survivor or incident in case of an emergency. Consent is a living protection tool: it constantly needs to be reinforced at each stage of service provision or it can be initially partial and later expanded to full service. For an example, a survivor might want to access medical services limited only on physical health, and deny psychological support.

Confiden8ality •  All wrijen informa8on must be maintained in: Secure, locked files. •  If any reports or sta8s8cs are to be made public, only one officer in the organisa8on should have the authority to release the informa8on. •  Only general informa8on about the vic8ms/survivors can be shared. •  Any iden8fying informa8on (name, address, etc.) should be removed.

Always EXPLAIN confiden8ality “It is important for you to know that I will keep what you tell me confi-­‐ den8al. This means I will not tell anyone what you tell me or any infor-­‐ ma8on about your situa8on, unless you ask me to, or it is informa8on that I need to share because you are in danger. I may not be able to keep this informa8on to myself, and I will explain why. The 8mes I would need to share informa8on you have given me is if: •  If I find out that your life is in immediate danger. •  If you tell me you have made plans to seriously hurt yourself •  If you tell me you have made a plan to seriously hurt someone else”

Slide 126: Example of consent form (Source: GBV Information Management System). Maintaining confidentiality means not disclosing information without a consent. Note that the form is also confidential. This implies our obligation to keep even this form in a secure, locked place. There should also be a plan in place how to destroy any document related to the survivor or incident in case of an emergency. Consent is a living protection tool: it constantly needs to be reinforced at each stage of service provision or it can be initially partial and later expanded to full service. For an example, a survivor might want to access medical services limited only on physical health, and deny psychological support.

Slide 127: Explaining confidentiality. Facilitator to go through the slide and add that there is one additional exception that is not mentioned in the above explanation: situations where there are threats of ongoing violence or harm to a child. Need to protect children overrides the confidentiality. Can you think of any such case?

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4. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Confiden8ality – Greek Law •

Certain professionals in Greece are bound by the principle of professional confiden8ality: social workers, psychologist, doctors, den8sts, lawyers. The viola8on of this obliga8on is punishable by law, although there are excep8ons that permit to the breaching of this obliga8on to remain unpunished (Ar8cle 371 CC, please see below).

•  •

Ar8cle 371 Criminal Code – Viola8on of Professional Confiden8ality Specific provisions Ar8cle 6 para 1(e), PD 23/1992 regarding confiden8ality and social workers, Ar8cle 9 Law 991/1979 on confiden8ality and psychologists and Ar8cle 13 para 3, Law 3418/2005 on confiden8ality and doctors.

An excep8on to this obliga8on of confiden8ality is required by Ar8cle 12 of the Conven8on of the Council of Europe for the protec8on of children from sexual exploita8on and abuse (Lanzarote).

Similar provisions exist in ar8cles 27 and 28 of the Council of Europe Conven8on on Preven8ng and Comba8ng Violence against Women and Domes8c Violence that Greece has signed but not ra8fied yet.

Group Ac8vity •  A woman, along with her children, has been severely beaten by her drunken husband. In agony and scared, they come to seek refuge in your office. The woman starts to explain that all the food and non-­‐food items distributed by NGOs are being diverted by her husband for gambling and drug purposes. She and her children are malnourished and subjected to daily bea8ng and humilia8on. She cannot appeal to her community, as her husband is the son of the powerful clan chief of the refugee camp. You indeed no8ce that the mother and the children are in great shock and in need of immediate medical assistance. •  •  •  •

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Group 1: what ac8ons are needed to ensure confiden8ality? Group 2: how to ensure respect while assessing this case? Group 3: what ac8ons are needed to ensure safety and security? Group 4: How to ensure non-­‐discrimina8on in managing this case?

Slide 128: Confidentiality-Greek Law. The slides presentation should be followed with the discussion – Facilitator to invite participants to discuss for 20 minutes in small groups the relation between mandatory reporting (of child and adult survivors, depending on the time available) and professional confidentiality. Give each group time to report back their findings

Slide 128: Group Activity. Case Study. Facilitator to go through the activity instructions, divide the group into small groups and assign each group one question, the group work continues for 20 minutes. Groups report back in plenary. Facilitator to conclude adding from his/her side any gaps.


4.1. National GBV SOPs Specific Guiding Principles and Approaches National GBV SoPs, as a product of a national GBV Working Group, build on the aforementioned guiding principles, and add those that are context relevant and can strengthen guidance for diverse organizations working in Greece. This session- if time allows- should be added to the one on the four guiding principles (chapter 4), reinforcing their importance and expanding their importance in our approaches to survivors.Additionally, it is important to note that the following session is intended for the GBV-specialized agencies as it elaborates approaches in working with specific vulnerabilities (children, persons with disabilities).

GBV SOP Specific Guiding Principles/Programming •  All agencies working with Survivors will 1.  Engage the community in preven8on of GBV and promo8on of gender equality; 2.  Ensure equal par8cipa8on of women, girls, men and boys; 3.  Ensure a wholis8c approach in response and preven8on; 4.  Ensure accountability at all levels; 5.  Operate in line with interna8onal human rights standards and na8onal legal framework;

Slide 130: GBV SOP Specific Guiding Principles / Programming. Facilitator can ask an open question of what are the principles that guides us in developing programs? following to that the facilitator can go through the principles: community participation; equality; accountability, holistic approach; respect for human rights and national laws; Code of Conduct and provide some examples. He/ she can ask participants: how many of them have signed Code of Conduct? Does it mention Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PSEA)?

6.  Code of Conduct

When working with Persons with Disabili8es, addi8onally: •  Ensure person’s dignity, autonomy, freedom to make one’s own choices and independence is respected; •  Guarantee full and effec8ve par8cipa8on and inclusion; •  Respect the difference and acceptance of persons

Slide 131: Working with Persons with Disabilities. TheNational GBV SoPs guiding principles specific for working with persons with disabilities. The principles implementation ensure inclusion and not only availability but also accessibility to services for this group. Facilitator to encourage participants to think how these SoPs impacts practically our operation and programming? For an example – access to information about GBV?

with disabili8es as part of human diversity and humanity; •  Ensure equality an equal opportuni8es; •  Ensure availability / access to services; •  Respect evolving capaci8es of children with disabili8es.

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4. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV When working with Child Survivors: •  Promote Child’s best interest; primarily – physical and emoMonal safety; •  Comfort the child – service providers must be trained in how to handle a disclosure of abuse appropriately; •  Ensure appropriate confiden8ality: abide the na8onal laws related to sharing informa8on; important to consult a child and/or parent or caretaker. •  In cases where wishes of a child cannot be respected, the reasons should be explained to a child; •  Involve child in decision making (in line with his/her level of maturity and age); •  Strengthen children’s resilience

Slide 132: Working with Child Survivor. The National GBV SoPs guiding principles specific for working with child survivors. Facilitator to explain the principle of “Child’s best interest” is central to good care. A primary consideration for children is securing their physical and emotional safety.This can be done through evaluating the consequences of actions with participation from the child and his/her caregivers, while choosing always the least harmful course of action. For national laws – it is an obligation to report sexual or other forms of serious abuse with the public prosecutor. Resilience: try to identify child’s ability, capacity and strength to heal and involve caregiver/parent when possible in the healing process. Factors which are promoting child’s resilience should be built upon with the service provision.

A presentation focusing only on the work with child survivors of GBV can be found further in this resource package (see page 75).

Approaches •  HUMAN RIGHTS BASED APPROACH PoCs in Greece are ‘’rights holders’’. The approach seeks to meet the needs as their rights.

•  SURVIVOR-­‐CENTERED APPROACH Ensure smooth access to services based on the needs of the survivor; ensure suppor8ve environment in which Survivor’s rights are respected and (s)he is able to re-­‐take control over her/his life. It is based on the 4 basic guiding principles.

•  COMMUNITY BASED APPROACH PoCs should be leaders and key partners in developing strategies related to their assistance and protec8on.

•  AGD APPROACH All persons of concern, different ages and gender and other diversity, enjoy rights equally and par8cipate fully in decision making processes and beyond.

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Slide 133: Approaches. Before revealing the explanation of each approach ask the participants to take 5 minutes and write their own understanding of the approaches. Ask them to explain if they can think of any other approach that they apply in their work in their own words (e.g. do no harm approach, humanitarian approach etc.) and invite also for explanations through examples.


5. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV This session addresses non – specialised personnel and aims to offer a basic introduction of child protection as applied to minors who have survived GBV. This session could be delivered to all professionals who might come in contact with child survivors. The basic objectives of this session include: • Familiarize the participants with the Greek legal framework regarding child survivors • Reflect on the additional guiding principles of working with child survivors • Address the issue of mandatory reporting in cases a child is involved in an GBV incident

Slide 134

Working with Child Survivors of SGBV

Slide 135

Acts rela8ng to children which are punished under Greek law •  Sexual harassment (if survivor is below 12), including by a member of one’s family Ar#cle 337 para. 2, CC and Ar#cle 9, Law 3500/2006 •  Sexual intercourse (below 18 if unable to resist) or below 15 •  Sexual intercourse or other sexual acts with children younger than 12 years old are punished with at least ten years imprisonment, and with up to ten years imprisonment if the child/ vic8m is older than 12 but younger than 14 years old (felony, ex officio). The act is also punished with at least 2 years imprisonment, if the child/ vic8m is older than 14 but younger than 15 years old (misdemeanor, ex officio). Sexual acts between children are not punished unless one is at least three years older than the other. The act is not persecuted in case of marriage between the two persons, un8l the wedding is annulled. (Art. 339 CC) Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

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5. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Acts rela8ng to children which are punished under Greek law

Slide 137-138: Specific mention of law provisions for the protection of child SGBV survivors

•  Trafficking of children -­‐ Art. 351 para. 4 CC •  Early marriage (below 18 years old)-­‐ Art. 1350 Civil Code: According to Greek law, a marriage can only be contracted between persons of 18 years old or above. For compelling reasons, the Court may permit the marriage of underage persons, by taking into considera8on the best interest of the children, the opinion of the persons to be married and that of their parents/ guardians. •  Child pros8tu8on -­‐ Art. 349 para. 1 and 2 CC Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Key Considera8ons for at-­‐risk groups

Key Considera8ons for at-­‐risk groups

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Slide 137

Slide 138 While childhood can be considered a vulnerable period for humans, specific vulnerabilities are associated with different subgroups children might belong to (Source: IRC’s Caring for Child Survivors Handbook, 2012). This categorization of vulnerabilities can be used during the risk assessment stage to help professionals identify additional harmful factors that might put the children in danger of (re)experiencing violence.


Working With Child Survivors – Guiding Principles

Slide 139

•  Promote the child’s best interest: Service provider must evaluate the posi8ve and nega8ve consequences of ac8ons with par8cipa8on from the child and his/her caregiver (as appropriate). The least harmful course of ac8on is always preferred. All ac8ons should ensure that children’s rights to safety and ongoing development are never compromised. •  Ensure the safety of the child: Ensuring the physical and emo8onal safety of children is cri8cal during care and treatment. All case ac8ons taken on behalf of a child must safe guard a child’s physical and emo8onal wellbeing in the short and long terms. •  Comfort the child: Service providers are trained in how to handle the disclosure of abuse appropriately. Service providers should believe children who disclose abuse and never blame them in any way for the abuse they have experienced. A fundamental responsibility of service providers is to make children feel safe and cared for as they receive services. Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Working With Child Survivors – Guiding Principles

Slide 140

•  Ensure appropriate confidenMality: Ensure1) the confiden8al collec8on of informa8on during interviews; 2) that sharing informa8on happens in line with Greek laws and policies and on a need-­‐to-­‐know basis, and only aUer obtaining permission from the child and/or caregiver; 3) and that case informa8on is stored securely •  Involve the child in decision-­‐making: Children have the right to par8cipate in decisions that have implica8ons in their lives. The level of a child’s par8cipa8on in decision-­‐making should be appropriate to the child’s level of maturity and age Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Working With Child Survivors – Guiding Principles •  Treat every child fairly and equally (principle of non-­‐discriminaMon and inclusiveness): All children should be offered the same high-­‐quality care and treatment, regardless of their race, religion, gender, family situa8on or the status of their caregivers, cultural background, financial situa8on, or unique abili8es or disabili8es, thereby giving them opportuni8es to reach their maximum poten8al. No child should be treated unfairly for any reason.

Slide 141 All basic national actors have adopted these guiding principles for working with child survivors, proposed by the SGBV Working Group. Even though the aim of this presentation is more general, participants can discuss the BIA and BID and whether they are common practice among actors active in the field of child protection.

•  Strengthen children’s resilience: Factors which promote children’s resilience should be iden8fied and built upon during service provision. Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

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5. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Understanding Resilience in Children •  Resilience: The fact that a child is influenced by the quali8es and en vironmental factors that enable them to recover and develop posi8vely despite adversity and trauma8c experiences

Slide 142 Resilience is integral in the migratory journey of children and adults alike. Invite participants to discuss their experiences with resilience exhibited by minors they have worked with.

•  Internal and External Support Factors: -­‐ Good rela8onship with at least one care giver -­‐ Posi8ve Paren8ng -­‐ Educa8onal opportuni8es and social rela8onships -­‐ Posi8ve interac8on with a case worker or other service provider

Slide 143

Communica8ng with child survivors •  Be nurturing, comfor8ng and suppor8ve •  Reassure the child •  Do no harm: be careful not to trauma8ze the child further •  Speak so children understand •  Help children feel safe -­‐ tell the child the truth -­‐ even when it is emo8onally difficult Source: Caring for Child Survivors (CCS) of Sexual Abuse Guidelines – IRC/ UNICEF

Communica8ng with child survivors •  Tell children why you are talking with them •  Use appropriate people – ask the child if they prefer to speak to a female or male trained staff when possible •  Pay ajen8on to non-­‐verbal communica8on •  Respect children’s opinions, beliefs and thoughts Source: Caring for Child Survivors (CCS) of Sexual Abuse Guidelines – IRC/ UNICEF

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Slide 144


Slide 145

Communica8ng with child survivors: Crea8ng a safe and suppor8ve environment 1.  Choose a safe loca8on: A child-­‐friendly atmosphere can include child-­‐ friendly toys and materials or a space to sit comfortably on the floor 2.  Explain who you are 3.  Obtain permission: talking with children about sexual abuse requires permission from them and their caregivers. However, permission can depend on the child’s age and circumstances. 4.  Maintain equality Source: Caring for Child Survivors (CCS) of Sexual Abuse Guidelines – IRC/ UNICEF

Communica8ng with child survivors: Crea8ng a safe and suppor8ve environment 5.  Explain what will happen: also explain what the child’s rights are during the session 6.  Explain the process 7.  Talk with the child with trusted adults

Slide 146-147 While many of the communication techniques utilised for adults are applicable to child survivors as well, professionals should make sure to use age appropriate language when working with minors, in order to ensure their equal access to information and give them the opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings. The facilitator should also bring some attention to the tendency of younger children to interpret things literally, which needs to be taken into account when wording statements that could be heard as promises of help.

8.  Do not make promises you cannot keep Source: Caring for Child Survivors (CCS) of Sexual Abuse Guidelines – IRC/ UNICEF

Slide 147

Special Procedures for Child Survivors •  When a professional becomes aware of a suspected or actual serious incident of abuse or neglect of a child/children, his/ her responsibility is to inform the competent State authori8es: the Police (Department of Children’s Protec8on) or the Public Prosecutor.

Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

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5. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Special Procedures for Child Survivors

Slide 148

•  Professionals should be cognizant of the fact that some perpetrators are family members. When there are suspicions about it, the child should therefore be interviewed when no other family member is present; however, the parents/guardians must be informed that an interview is going to be conducted. In cases where parents/care givers are not implicated in the suspected abuse or SGBV incident, it is good prac8ce to speak to the parent/s with the child together as well as speaking with the child on his/her own to elicit his/ her understanding of the situa8on and views about what they want to happen next. Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Slide 149

Special Procedures for Child Survivors – Informed Consent •  Consent of the parent or main caregiver should be sought to inves8gate cases of alleged abuse involving children in the first instance. If parents/ care givers consent, further inves8ga8on can be ini8ated. If parents or main caregivers do not consent to a further inves8ga8on, the Public P rosecutor should be informed according to the ‘Protocol on the Inves8ga8on, Diagnosis and Response to the Abuse and Neglect of Children’ by the Ins8tute of Child Health (pages 19-­‐26) •  Informed consent from the child (and/ or their parent/ caregiver) should be in wrijen form. Usually, 15-­‐18 years olds are considered mature enough to give informed consent; ideally suppor8ve and non-­‐offending parents/caregivers should also give consent Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Special Procedures for Child Survivors – Informed Consent •  For younger children, decisions should be made on a case-­‐by-­‐case basis. When children are too young (usually under 15 years) to consent, their informed assent should be sought (i.e. willingness to par8cipate in services) while a parent or caregiver gives consent. Even with very young children (i.e. under 5 years old), efforts should be made to share and explain informa8on in an appropriate format. If there is no parent/ caregiver, or they are implicated in the abuse, a trusted adult (iden8fied by the child) who can be safely brought into care and treatment decisions should be approached to give consent, or, if there is no such person, the caseworker can give wrijen consent, no8ng the reason why on the form Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

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Slide 150


Special Procedures for Child Survivors – Informed Consent •  If a child under 15 does not assent but caregivers do OR if both the child and caregiver do not consent OR the child above 15 does not consent, the caseworker in consulta8on with his or her supervisor, needs to decide on a case by case basis and based on the child’s age, level of maturity, cultural and tradi8onal factors, presence of caregivers (suppor8ve), and the urgency of care needs, whether it is appropriate to go against the wishes of the child and/or caregiver to proceed with case management and assist the child in his or her best interests.

Slide 151 National SOPs pay special attention to the issue of consent and assentas provided by minors. Invite participants to discuss their attitudes around children’s decision-making abilities and how these attitudes might affect professionals when seeking consent or assent.

Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Mandatory Repor8ng

Slide 152

•  Teachers/ Professionals in the field of educa8on have an obligaMon to report any case of student (child) who has been subjected to domesMc violence. It should be noted that these professionals are not supposed to inves8gate/ confirm these allega8ons and conclude whether the child has been subjected to violence/ abuse or not, before repor8ng it. Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Mandatory Repor8ng

Slide 153

•  ArMcle 23 para. 1 of Law 3500/2006 provides that professionals in the field of educa8on have an obliga8on to inform the director of the school unit, whenever they are informed or they iden8fy that a student has been subjected to domes8c violence. The Director of the School Unit is obliged to inform immediately the Public Prosecutor (ac cording to Ar8cle 37 of CCP) or report it to the nearest police sta8on. The same obliga8on applies for the professionals in the field of educa8on and directors in private schools, as well as all competent staff in nursery/ pre-­‐school units. When teachers (professionals in the field of educa8on) do not report to the Director of the School or the lajer does not report to the Public Prosecutor, they commit a disciplinary offence and they can be subjected to disciplinary sanc8ons (Ar#cle 107 para.1, 109 and 110 of Law 4057/2012). Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

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5. Guiding Principles for Working with Survivors of GBV Mandatory Repor8ng •  Greece ra8fied the Conven8on of the Council of Europe for the protec8on of children from sexual exploita8on and abuse (Lanzarote) with the Law 3727/2008, which permits to professionals having a duty of confidenMality to report to the competent authoriMes, whenever there is a reasonable ground to believe that a child has been vicMm of sexual exploitaMon or abuse. Law 3727/2008, Chapter A, Ar8cle 2 para. 3 provides that:

Slide 154 21 On top of the general confidentiality obligations and exceptions, Greek law offers special provisions aiming at quicker responses and resolution of child related SGBV cases.

“It is permiVed to those who have an obliga,on for confiden,ality and are in contact with chil-­‐ dren in the framework of their work, to report to the competent authority, regardless of the above obliga,on (of professional confiden,ality), any situa,on for which there are reasonable grounds to believe that a child is a vic,m of sexual exploita,on or abuse”. Source: GBV Standard opera,ng Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece

Addi8onal Resources Protocol on the Inves8ga8on, Diagnosis and Response to the Abuse and Neglect of Children (available in Greek) hnp://www.0-­‐18.gr/downloads/protokollo-­‐eyreMrio-­‐ kakopoiisis/Protocol_ICH_06.2015.pdf

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Slide 155 The module includes a mention of the Protocol onthe Investigation, Diagnosis and Response to the Abuse and Neglect of Children that can be a valuable resource for field professionals that might work with minors. It is available in Greek and it aims to promote a coherent and multidisciplinary approach by providing workable guidelines for professionals who work with children or specifically deal with child survivors or domestic violence.


6. Referral: How to’s for Non-Specialized Agencies This session is a beginner session – basic ‘how to’ in case of identification of GBV. It is intended for both beginners and nonspecialized service providers to give them a general guidance and understanding what to do when faced with the possible case. Naturally, this session should be delivered only if we are sure that the participants know and understand the guiding principles (or the session could be delivered after the one presented in chapter 3 – guiding principles). Objectives of the session therefore are: • To explain in general terms how the referral is made; • Ensure accountability of the humanitarian workers by ensuring they are prepared to face this type of cases. This session was mainly delivered to non-specialized service providers and mixed groups (when it would partially serve as a re-fresher).

Slide 156 Title slide – good point to ask participants what did they do / what would they do when the case is disclosed. Highlight the importance of application of the guiding principles through discussion with the trainees.

Referral:

How To’s

Roles and Responsibili8es of General Service Providers •  All Actors coming into contact with GBV survivors are responsible for knowing the referral pathways and the forms of assistance available for the survivors

Slide 157 The slide provides obligation to know, be prepared, when working with potential survivors in no matter what capacity. When deployed to specific field, it is our duty to understand what is the protection environment; what organisations are on the ground and what services are available for different needs.

•  Non – Specialised actors should not interview survivors or respond directly •  The wishes of the survivor must always be respected as to where or with whom to seek help. S/he should not be urged into a par8cular course of ac8on;

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6. Referral: How to’s for Non-Specialized Agencies Roles and Responsibili8es of General Service Providers •  Non – Specialized actors should ask the survivor’s consent to contact focal point on the GBV referral pathway to facilitate the contact between service provider and survivor •  All informa8on should be kept confiden8al, even if family or community members request feedback on support given.

How to conduct GBV Referral

Slide 158: Roles and Responsibilities of General Service Providers. Facilitator to explain thateven though as a nonspecialized service provider (for an example, an accommodations officer), we should not interfere and interview about details of the incidents, it is important that we are able to show respect – not abruptly interrupt the disclosure, but rather in the right moment explain your limited capacity to respond to GBV, followed by the explanation who may be able to help. Even the little information we are presented with imposes and obligation to keep it confidential, sharing it as a referral to a specialized agency only with a consent of the survivor.

Slide 159: How to conduct GBV Referral. The 7 steps of GBV referral are basic framework of a referral. Regardless if we are GBV specialized agencies/ professionals or not, the attitudes and approaches explained in these steps are important to know, in order to be able to mitigate the risks of any mistake and further risk exposure. STEP 1- Comfort and reassure the Survivor. If the case is being disclosed to us directly by the survivor, the first rule is always to comfort the survivor. Facilitator to go through some examples in the slide and ask participants of other sentences that can be used.

How to Conduct a GBV Referral

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Slide 160: STEP 2- Explain Confidentiality. As explained in the guiding principles, confidentiality is our responsibility and obligation. Even if we are not specialized service provider, we should be able to assure the survivor that information shared with us, no matter how little it may appear - will be kept confidential. As a specialized service provider, explaining confidentiality must be part of our introduction talk with survivor.


How to Conduct a GBV Referral

How to Conduct a GBV Referral Understand What Happened STEP 4

•  Nature of the GBV incident (ie. what happened?) -­‐  Do not need to ask many details about the violence

Slide 161: STEP 3- Gain Informed Consent. Consent is a part of application of the principle of confidentiality. At this point it’s expected that the survivor is with the specialized service provider. Consent should be given in a written form, in the language that the survivor understands. In case the survivor is in too much distress, we must give them time to calm down, make sure they understand the referral and its consequences, then take a consent. In obvious situation of medical emergency, and acting in good faith, we will make sure that the survivor is taken to a hospital even if it was not possible to obtain consent (for an example – survivor is unconscious).

Slide 162: STEP 4- Understand What Happened. When recording the incident, we must keep in mind that it is important to distinguish clearly what the survivor stated about it, and what we believe/our assessment is. It is important to know if there was physical force and penetration considering the implications for the provision of medical assistance (especially for PEP treatment, this is an opportunity for facilitator to explain in short about PEP). Facilitator can go through the points in the slide.

-­‐  Crucial to find out if physical force was used and whether there was vaginal/anal penetra8on -­‐  Immediate medical care and treatment is highly indicated in these circumstances

How to Conduct a GBV Referral

Slide 163

Understand What Happened STEP 4

•  Date(s) of the last incident. -­‐  Essen8al to analyzing the urgency of a medical referral and for accuracy informing survivor regarding medical op8ons -­‐  Different medical treatments are available depending on the date of the last incident

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6. Referral: How to’s for Non-Specialized Agencies How to Conduct a GBV Referral

How to Conduct a GBV Referral

How to Conduct a GBV Referral STEP 6 Safety risks for children may be hidden. The caseworker should evaluate the safety of the client’s child with the goal of answering these ques8ons: •  Is there evidence that the caregivers cannot or will not protect the child? •  Is the child safe at his/her place of residence? •  Can the abuser easily access the child where he/she lives? •  Is the child fearful of family members or does he/she indicate that he/she does not want to return home? •  Have any other safety risks become apparent during the assessment interview?

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Slide 164 STEP 5- Share Information About Services. When we are seeing that the survivor is ready to proceed and receive services, we should inform them what of these services are available; how are they provided and what are the consequences. For an example, if it is a survivor of rape, they should know that the medical exam will most likely include exam that may make them feel uncomfortable. Or if the case is referred to police – we should explain that police may ask questions that make them feel uncomfortable just the same. Facilitator to note that in this slide, health service acts as stand-alone service. Why is that? one can say that health is the first response to GBV, and even more – one that conditions all of the others. Facilitator explain about the referral importance, types of responses (health, legal/justice, psychological, and security) as a holistic response to GBV survivors

Slide 165 STEP 6- Ask About Immediate Safety Needs. Facilitator to mention some questions that can lead us while assessing safety and security such as: Is it safe for a survivor to go home? Where do they feel safe? Are the children safe? Try always to understand if there is a potential risk for children, as their safety is priority in all cases. Ask participants if they have examples.

Slide 166 STEP 6- (Cont’d). Facilitator to continue that the most sensitive part of our work is the work with child survivors. There are many risks, and obligations to approach the case with special care and minimize the likelihood of the incident to occur again, as well as mitigate the risk of re-traumatisation. If available in your referral network, the child protection case should be referred to specialists (bearing in mind the need for informed consent/assent), given that it is in most of the cases – in the best interest of a child.


How to Conduct a GBV Referral Refer to External Safety and Support Stractures STEP 7

•  Informa8on submijed by referring organiza8ons will only be submijed in the agreed-­‐upon format and will not contain any iden8fying informa8on of survivors or agencies.

Slide 167: STEP 6- (Cont’d). Facilitator to continue that the most sensitive part of our work is the work with child survivors. There are many risks, and obligations to approach the case with special care and minimize the likelihood of the incident to occur again, as well as mitigate the risk of re-traumatisation. If available in your referral network, the child protection case should be referred to specialists (bearing in mind the need for informed consent/assent), given that it is in most of the cases – in the best interest of a child.

•  All survivor-­‐specific informa8on that can lead to iden8fica8on of the survivor will not be shared, e.g., name, ini8als, sub-­‐county, date of birth, etc.

How to Conduct a GBV Referral Refer to External Safety and Support Stractures STEP 7

•  The standard form should be used aUer the survivor has agreed to access services and has signed the consent form

Slide 168-169: STEP 7- Refer to External Safety and Support Structures (Cont’d). Facilitator to go through the points.Further, the information should be shared through agreed forms upon the consent of a survivor. Not only should the form be password protected (electronic form/ soft copy) but as much as possible we should use codes for specific vulnerabilities which would be known only to the caseworkers and direct service providers

•  The form is password protected and sent to the service provider by email. •  Form is used by organiza8ons part of an agreed informa8on sharing protocol.

Refer to External Safety and Support Stractures

Slide 169 STEP 7- Refer to External Safety and Support Structures (Cont’d).

STEP 7

BEST PRACTICE “OrganizaMons will ensure that all data is safe and secure and will implement appro-­‐ priate procedures to maintain confiden8ality of the data. Organiza8ons will submit a Word document in ‘read only’ form and will employ pass-­‐ word protec8on. The password for these submijed files has been agreed among all agencies. Any informa8on protected in the computer will be saved in a computer with ac8ve an-­‐ 8viruses and have passwords. Access to these data will only be allowed for case man-­‐ ager and service provider.” Excerpt, Inter Agency Standing Opera,ng Procedures for Preven,on of and Response to GBV and Child Protec,on in Jordan. 2013, pp.131

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6. Referral: How to’s for Non-Specialized Agencies CONSENT

Slide 170-172 Consent. In this slide the facilitator should reaffirm the importance of an informed consent as a condition for any referral. He/she should go through bullet points.

•  Crucial for referrals. •  Special ajen8on to be paid to how the informa8on is provided to and by the survivor (power and control) •  Wrijen consent agreement must include ALL of the following: α) The reason for the interview / subject majer; β) The personal, possible upseKng nature of the ques8ons that may be asked;

CONSENT

These slides can be hidden, but if a facilitator is not sure that everyone among the trainees has the same level of understanding of the principle of confidentiality, the slides should be presented. In most of the trainings delivered in Greece, a question what to do when a person refuses a referral even if it is almost of a life-saving importance for them comes almost in each training. The rules about consent and grounds for its breaches are very clear.

Slide 171 Consent (Cont’d). The elements of an informed consent, making sure that the survivor is aware what action is triggered with their agreement to access the services on their behalf or personally.

c)  Poten8al risks/benefits of the par8cipa8on; d)  Precau8ons being taken to protect the confiden8ality; e)  Whether informa8on will be shared/how and with whom/ survivor’s right to put restric8ons on how the in forma8on (s)he provides will be used; f)  Right to refuse to take part in interview or to refuse to answer some ques8ons.

CONSENT •  Read the consent agreement out loud in the survivor’s language and make sure that survivor understands the content of agreement; •  Correct miss-­‐understandings; •  Do not make any promises unless you are certain that they will be honoured!

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Slide 172 Consent (Cont’d). Last slide of this presentation.Facilitator can close the discussion by any further unsolved notes or questions


7. Communication with GBV survivors The following module covers basics on communication with GBV survivors. It is designed for both specialized and non-specialized agencies who may encounter the need to communicate with survivors. This module aims to: • • •

Sensitize persons working in the field of refugee settings; such as: social and health professionals, case managers, etc.; Provide some tips on communication that helps build the trust upon direct disclosure of survivors; Ensure survivors are treated with respect through communication with different service actors, regardless of their expertise.

Slide 181

Communica8on with Survivors Tips, dos and don’ts

Disclosure and Approaches •  Direct disclosure: survivor directly shares informa8on about the abuse with a service provider (or parent shares with the service provider because the child has told them) •  Indirect disclosure: a witness to sexual abuse shares informa8on with a third party •  Voluntary: survivor readily shares the informa8on with another person •  Involuntary: the informa8on about incident is shared against the will of the survivor •  Disclosure is a process. (Especially child) survivors may not share all informa8on at firs; rather their stories merge over 8me.

Slide 182 Disclosure and Approaches. The disclosure modalities:It is important to understand and be able to measure our response on the basis of the disclosure we receive. Facilitator can initiate a discussion for sensation of participants reactions, like: What do we do if a concerned neighbour reports the yelling and noise from a neighbouring tent? Do we approach the victim/survivor directly? The answer will depend on our skill(s) to assess the need for intervention, but also the response program existing on the site of the report. It is important also to highlight that the disclosure is a process, and it may take days to understand the story or for a survivor to feel comfortable to tell the actual story. Giving them the time they need to tell it is part of respect and it is one of our guiding principles. Facilitator to go through points in the slide.

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7. Communication with GBV survivors Essen8al 8ps: •  Be ready/prepared – be aware that GBV is happening everywhere and all the 8me; acknowledge GBV and your capaci8es •  Ensure (emo8onal and physical) Safety of a survivor: •  Explain who you are •  Same sex interviewer •  Room arrangement is important in suppor8ng the comfort level. Eg. Talking with a person from behind a desk implies a posi8on of authority which may impede trust. •  Ensure eye contact while talking to a survivor;

Slide 183: Essential Tips. Before going through the slide, facilitator can ask what are some communication tips come to their mind?After he/she can provide the tips. In all cases, as so far indicated – we must be prepared when entering the field, we should expect all kinds of cases and reports; these can easily be reports about GBV incidents. We should be aware as well of the environment are approaching – does it provide safety for the person reporting? The rest of the tips as mandatory introduction, same sex interviewer, privacy etc. – are all contributing factors to establishing safety and relationship of trust with the potential survivor.

•  Privacy: where the survivor can talk freely without fear of being overheard. Choose a safe loca8on! •  Body language and posturing

Essen8al 8ps: •  Ac8vely listen: words, tone of voice and expressions used for what is not said.

Slide 184: Essential tips. Facilitator can open a discussion using the case with the group, give few minutes to read the scenario, and then ask the following questions: What went wrong? Why they did not see Miriam again? What should be done to make sure our communication does not raise risk for the survivor?

•  DO NO HARM! If a child is a survivor, make sure to not to trauma8ze child further. Miriam had three sons, a fact that should have ensured her a high status in her family. However, her unemployed husband constantly beat her. “I have tried every which way to please him, but nothing works,” she said. The beat-­‐ ing was so severe once that she almost died. Since then, he abused her but he did not beat her. The day aUer the team’s interview, he beat her up se-­‐ verely again, aUer a gap of three years, for speaking to the team. The team was, of course, never to see her again.

Safe environment is crucial! Safety is also established with your approach and aqtudes: Keep calm once person approaches you with the disclosure; do not panic! Do not seek help while the survivor is talking to you; Take what they say seriously, even if it involves someone you feel sure would not ‘’harm a fly’’

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Slide 185: Safe environment is Crucial. Another reminder:facilitator to expand on creating safety of a person through other guiding principles.


Safe environment is crucial! •  Safety is also set with your approach and aKtudes: -­‐ Look at the survivor directly – even with interpreter

Slide 186: Safe environment is Crucial (Cont’d). Further on safety. Facilitator can discuss each point with participants, otherwise they can discuss in pairs. facilitator can conclude at the end through following questions: Why are these points are important? consequence of each, how do they impact communication and what could be potential obstacles

-­‐ Do not appear chocked -­‐ Let them know that you will need to tell someone else -­‐ Assure them they will not be blamed for abuse

Safe environment is crucial!

Slide 187: Safe environment is Crucial (Cont’d). Facilitator to continue on the same modality

•  Safety is also set with your approach and aKtudes: -­‐  Never ask leading ques8ons (example: ‘’Isn’t it right that Mr. Smith was always ‘aUer’ you? vs. ‘’Tell me about your rela8onship with Mr. Smith’’); never push for an informa8on! -­‐  Try not to repeat the same ques8on (especially when working with children);

Safe environment is crucial!

Slide 188: Safe environment is Crucial (Cont’d). Safety Facilitator to continue on the same modality.

•  Safety is also set with your approach and aKtudes: -­‐  Do not fill in words, finish their sentences or make assump8ons; -­‐  Make sure to dis8nguish what the survivor said from the conclusions you may have made – accuracy is paramount at this stage; -­‐  Let the survivor know what you are going to do next (also if you are talking to a minor!)

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7. Communication with GBV survivors DO USE THESE WORDS OF SUPPORT: IF POSSIBLE

Slide 189: Communication Tips. The slide provides Tips of possible words and closes on verbal communication that ensure trust and well-being of a survivor.

1.  Repeat the last few words in a ques8oning manner 2.  I believe you 3.  I am going to try to help you 4.  I will help you 5.  I am glad that you told me 6.  You are not to blame 7.  You did the right thing by telling me 8.  I will keep this a secret and tell only to those who must know in order to help you 9.  Bring the survivor to get external medical and legal help immediately

Slide 190: Role Play - Case Study - Jamila’s Story.

Case Study

Role Play/Case study – 30 min. Report in plannery: 5-10 min for each group

JAMILA’S STORY Group 1:Interview (and understand the story) Group 2:Interven8ons/Referrals Group 3:What affect does Jamila’s experience have on her and her family?

Instructions: Divide participants into three groups. In the first group one person should play Jamila and should be given a text with Jamila’s story. Another should play an interviewer, without any knowledge of Jamila’s story and aims to find out what has happened to her. The rest in the group should observe and create a list of what went good/ wrong anything. Before the groups start to present, ask them about the feeling acting the role of survivor, interviewer. It is crucial to mention that when providing any comment we are not judging the person who took the role, but the role itself. When the first group gets time to report, first the interviewer should tell what (s)he found out, then “Jamila’’ should add what details were not disclosed in the interview (if any). at the end the observers should provide any comments/ observation. Group 2 and 3 should discuss the tasks as given in the slide. Jamila’s story: Jamila is 34 years old and has just arrived in a refugee camp near Amman after fleeing fighting in her village in Iraq. Her husband Ahmed chose to flee after Jamila was kidnapped and held for 19 days. She was 9 months pregnant. During this time, Jamila was raped. Although she was returned last week, Ahmed knows this was a message to him and that he had to leave. He fears that if this happened again she would not be returned, or that he would be kidnapped too and their two young children would be orphans. Jamila is ashamed about what has happened, is having problems eating and sleeping, and has become quiet and withdrawn; she does not want to spend time with anyone except her children. She becomes nervous when she sees men in uniform. Jamila has pain in her lower abdomen and worries she has lost her baby. Ahmed does not know that Jamila was raped. He keeps asking her why she is so quiet. Jamila is too scared to tell her husband; she is afraid that he will leave her if he finds out what happened.

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DO NOT: 1.  You should have told someone before

Slide 191: Communication Tips DON’TS.The slide provides some closes that may do not maintain respect or trust for survivors, which need to be careful from using the, when dealing with GBV survivors.

2.  I cannot believe, I am shocked! 3.  Oh, that explains a lot 4.  I will not tell anyone else 5.  Why? How? When? Who? 6.  Make promises that you cannot keep 7.  Confront the offender 8.  Wash or fix the survivor if they had been abused

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8. The National Response System to GBV The aim of this module is to familiarise local and international staff with the existing response system in Greece, and the specifically mentioned provisions for the refugee survivors or persons in risk of experiencing Sexual and GBV (SGBV), or female led single headed families.

The Na8onal Response System The Protocol of Coopera8on

Slide 192: The National Response System. Greece has an established protection system for women experiencing GBV. The system was originally established to cater to the needs of Greek Nationals or migrants whose current residence is in Greece. Counsellingcenters, that can be found all around Greece (namely: Athens, Piraeus, Drapetsona, Peristeri, AnoLiosia, Chalandri,Lamia, Irakleio, Patra, Ioannina, Tripoli, Komotini, Kerkyra, Larissa, Mytilini, Kozani, Syros, Sykies, Alexandroupoli, Arta, Veroia, Zakynthos, Theva, Kavala, Kalamata, Kastoria, Katerini, Argostoli, Korinthos, Kos, Preveza, Pyrgos, Rethimno, Rodos, Serres, Trikala, Florina, Chios, VassilikoEvoias). These locations act as points of first contact but can also offer information, guidance and consistent support to survivors. Counselingcenters are also the first step for the entrance of a survivor at a Shelter, when a woman / girl and her children need to be removed from the perpetrator. Slide 193

What was already in place – The na8onal response system for SGBV •  25 Municipal Counseling Centers for Women* •  15 Counseling Centers of the General Secretariat for Gender Equality* •  19 Municipal Shelters for SGBV survivors and single parent families* •  2 Shelters for SGBV survivors and single parent families operated by the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity (E.K.K.A.) * *All counseling centers and the 19 Municipal Shelters are under the scien,fic supervision of the Re-­‐ search Center for Gender Equality (KETHI)

What is the Protocol of Coopera8on •  The Protocol was presented in April 2017 and sum -­‐  marizes the adop8on of a common framework of -­‐  procedures for the -­‐  iden8fica8on, -­‐  referral, -­‐  accommoda8on and -­‐  provision of counseling services and ac8vi8es to refugee women, survivors or persons in risk of violence and their children, as well as to refugee women who are single mothers heads of households •  The Protocol also outlines the communica8on and responsibility lines between all actors that might be come involved in an SGBV case

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Slide 193: What is the Protocol of Cooperation. Even though refugee female survivors were already occasionally accommodated in the existing national response system, the protocol aims to formalize the way that they will receive services. Moreover it aims to present the referral pathways, adapted to the actor identifying each case. Facilitator can invite participants to discuss their experience with the public-sector CounselingCenters and Shelters.


Actors that signed the Protocol

Slide 195: Actors that signed the Protocol. A variety of State actors endorsed the Protocol and by signing it, they undertook discreet responsibilities. Facilitator should go over the list.

•  the General Secretariat for Gender Equality, Ministry of Interior •  the General Secretariat of Recep8on, Ministry of Migra8on Policy •  the General Secretariat of Public Health, Ministry of Health •  the Ministry of Na8onal Defense •  the Research Centre for Gender Equality •  the Associa8on of Greek Regions •  the Central Union of Greek Municipali8es •  the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity (E.K.K.A.) •  the Hellenic Agency for Local Development and Local Government

The Protocol’s objec8ves

Slide 196: The Protocol Objectives. Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any.

1.  Providing accommoda8on in 21 Shelters, in the context of the tasks of the General Secretariat for Gender Equality and the Research Centre for Gender Equality, the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity and the local government, for refugee women vic8ms or poten8al vic8ms of violence or single mothers heads of h ouseholds and their children (up to the age of 18 years old for girls and up to 12 years old for boys) in order to ensure for them a safe accommoda8on and meet their nutri8onal needs; 2.  Providing counseling services (social and psychological support and/ or job counseling), in case interpreta8on or intercultural media8on is available.

The Protocol’s provisions

Slide 197

The signing en88es undertake the responsibility to: •  Disseminate the informa8on of the offered services to other actors and directly to the refugee populaMon of concern, to whom they will also present the terms of use. •  Inform and provide guidance and training to the staff of the structures (Counseling Centres, Shelters and the SOS Helpline 15900) about the iden8fica8on, the referral procedures, the accommoda8on, protec8on and support of beneficiaries refugee women and their children, as well as the legal framework regarding asylum seekers and refugees

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8. The National Response System to GBV The Protocol’s provisions

Slide 198: The Protocol’s Provisions. Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any.

The signing en88es undertake the responsibility to: •  Inform and provide guidelines about the iden8fica8on, the referral, procedures, the accommoda8on and support of beneficiaries refugee women and their children to the staff of the Recep8on and Iden8fica8on Service (RIS) and of the Open Temporary Recep8on Structures and the Open Temporary Accommoda8on Structures as well as planning trainings on preven8ng and addressing gender-­‐based violence incidents against female refugee popula8on.

The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step

Slide 199: The Protocol Objectives. Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any.

1. IdenMficaMon: •  Where: Takes place at the RIC, in the Open Temporary Recep8on Structures and the Open Temporary Accommoda8on Structures •  Who can do it: Competent state authori8es’ officials and /or cer8fied NGOs ac8ve within these structures, who recommend the referral. NOTE: When a survivor is iden8fied outside the above men8oned structures , the state authority officials or cer8fied NGOs, which are in coopera8on with the General Secretariat for Gender Equality, may refer the incident to the local Counseling Centres or the Municipality’s Social Services.

The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step 2. Referral to the Counseling Centers of the Network of structures under the General Secretariat for Gender Equality or to the Municipality’s Social Services or to the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity (E.K.K.A.) •  Who can do it: a)  the Head of the Recep8on and Iden8fica8on Centre b)  the Head of the Open Temporary Recep8on Structures and the Open Temporary Accommoda8on Structures, through a referral note.

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Slide 200 The Protocol Step- By- Step (Cont’d). Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any.


Slide 201

The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step •  Escor8ng is the responsibility of the referring actor and when not possible, the escort of women beneficiaries is ensured by the officials of the Counseling Centres/ intercultural mediators or Municipality’s Social Services or the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity, in coopera8on with the recep8on structures or en88es.

Slide 202

The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step •  If an NGO is involved, the NGO staff: a)  informs the competent state authority, b)  gets in contact with the staff of the competent Counseling Centre within the bounds of the par8cular geographic territory or the local Municipality Social Service or the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity, in order to check the Shelter accommoda8on availability,

Slide 203

The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step •  If an NGO is involved, the NGO staff: c)  facilitates the obligatory medical assessment, in coopera8on with the competent state health care authori8es (municipal or public units, aUer an available place in accommoda8on has been secured d)  undertakes the transporta8on of the woman and her children, in the presence of an interpreter/cultural mediator, for the arranged appointment with the Counseling Centre or the local Municipality Social Service or the Na8onal Centre for Social Solidarity. In case the NGO may not assist in the transporta8on of the woman and her children, the transporta8on is made by the Municipality or the Region or with the assistance of ΚΕPΟΜ.

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8. The National Response System to GBV The Protocol Step-­‐By-­‐Step •  When a survivor and her children referred to a shelter by a Counseling Center or by the Municipality Social Service or E.K.K.A, the referring staff have the responsibility to: a)  provide the refugee woman who is to be hosted in the shelter with counseling services, in accordance with the applicable scien8fic standards, with the assistance of an interpreter b)  check availability in the shelter, before the referral of the woman who is to be hosted, inform about the accommoda8on request and no8fy the iden8fica8on en8ty c)  inform the Municipality Social Service about the imminent accommoda8on in the shelter, so that the social service may arrange the transporta8on of the woman to the shelter, d)  inform ΚΕPΟΜ in case refugee women or their children leave the Shelter.

Slide 204: The Protocol Step- By- Step (Cont’d). Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any. As identification of cases might take place at various points during a refugee’s journey in Greece, procedures are specified, to address this reality.

* NOTE: When a survivor is referred to one of the E.K.K.A. Shelters, the procedure fol-­‐ lowed is that described at their internal regula8on

Services offered at the Shelters a)  informa8on on the hos8ng condi8ons based on the Rules of Procedure, b)  food c)  safe accommoda8on for women and their children, and d)  counseling services, in case interpreta8on or intercultural media8on is ensured. NOTE: The accommoda8on of women of the target group is

temporary (up to three months, with the possibility to be ex-­‐ tended under certain condi8ons)

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Slide 205 Services Offered at the Shelters. Facilitator should go over the list, and provide answers for questions if any.


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List of sources 1. Literature, Guides, Reports Gender Based Violence Information Management System (GBVIMS). Available at: http:// www.gbvims.com/ and the GBVIMS tools: http://www.gbvims.com/gbvims-tools/ IASC. Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action, 2015. Available at: http://gbvguidelines.org/en/home/ Iliff, Fiona, Fabien Maitre-Muhl and Andrew Sirel, 2011. Adverse Consequences of Reparations. University of Essex. Available at: https://www1.essex.ac.uk/tjn/documents/ Paper_6_Adverse_Consequences.pdf IRC 2012. Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse – Guidelines for health and psychosocial service providers in humanitarian settings. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/ pacificislands/IRC_CCSGuide_FullGuide_lowres.pdf Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, 2010, London. Identifying Survivors of Torture and Assessing Their Health Needs: A Practical Guide. Available at: https:// www.freedomfromtorture.org/sites/default/files/documents/identifying_survivors_of_ torture_and_assessing_their_health_needs_-_2010.pdf REDRESS Trust, 2003. Reparation for Torture: A Survey of Law and Practice in Thirty Selected Countries. Available at: http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/AuditReportText.pdf UNFPA. Managing Gender-based Violence Programs in Emergencies, 2012. Available at:https://www.unfpa.org/publications/managing-gender-based-violence-programmesemergencies UNFPA. Minimum Standards for Prevention and Response to Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies, 2016. Available at: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/GBVIE.Minimum.Standards.Publication.FINAL_.ENG_.pdf UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Report January 2016. Available at: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/ G16/000/97/PDF/G1600097.pdf?OpenElement

2. Conventions and declarations Council of Europe. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1950. Available at: http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf Council of Europe. Convention for the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse, 2012. Available at: https://rm.coe.int/168046e1e1 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. Available at: http://www.un.org/en/ universal-declaration-human-rights/ UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1969. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/ Documents/ProfessionalInterest/ccpr.pdf

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UN Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1969. Available at: http://www. ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979. Available at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ CAT.aspx

3. National Laws and Protocols Greek Civil Code, Available in Greek at: http://www.ministryofjustice.gr/site/kodikes/%CE%95%CF%85%CF%81%CE%B5%CF% 84%CE%AE%CF%81%CE%B9%CE%BF/%CE%91%CE%A3%CE%A4%CE%99%CE%9A%CE %9F%CE%A3%CE%9A%CE%A9%CE%94%CE%99%CE%9A%CE%91%CE%A3/tabid/225/ language/el-GR/Default.aspx Greek Criminal Code, Available in Greek at: http://www.ministryofjustice.gr/site/kodikes /%CE%95%CF%85%CF%81%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%AE%CF%81%CE%B9%CE%BF/%CE%A0 %CE%9F%CE%99%CE%9D%CE%99%CE%9A%CE%9F%CE%A3%CE%9A%CE%A9%CE%94% CE%99%CE%9A%CE%91%CE%A3/tabid/432/language/el-GR/Default.aspx GBV Standard operating Procedures, Greece – SGBV working group Greece Law 3500/2006, «For combating domestic violence», Available in Greek at: http://www.isotita.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/N-3500-2006.pdf Law 3727/2008, Available in Greek at: https://www.lawspot.gr/nomikes-plirofories/nomothesia/nomos-3727-2008 Law No 3896/2010 (Government Gazette, Series I, No 207, 8.12.2010), Available in Greek at: http://www.ggka.gr/epagelmatika/nomos%203896_2010%20(isotita).pdf Protocol Cooperation, General Secretariat for Gender Equality, 2017. Information in English Available at: http://old.isotita.gr/en/index.php/news/661 Protocol on the Investigation, Diagnosis and Response to the Abuse and Neglect of Children, 2015. Available in Greek at: http://www.0-18.gr/downloads/protokollo-eyretirio-kakopoiisis/Protocol_ICH_06.2015. pdf

4. Websites Interagency Gender Based Violence Case Management Guidelines, 2017. Available at: https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/operations/cameroon/document/interagency-gender-base-violence-case-management-guidelines

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Annex I: Sample Agendas Below is a sample agenda for the training of non-specialized agencies, to help facilitator organize sessions, topics and their flow. Timing Topics 09:00 – 09:30 Welcome and introductions 09:30 – 11-30 Introduction to gender based violence -Types of GBV -Exploring prevalent beliefs about GBV 11:30 – 11:45 Break 11:45 – 13:30 GBV guiding principles and core concepts -Guiding principles (adult and child survivors) -Consent and confidentiality 13:30 – 14:30 Signs and symptoms of GBV -Risk Categories and Vulnerabilities 14:30 - 15:30 Lunch 15:30 - 16:30 Working with adult survivors of GBV -Communication 16:30 – 17:30 The Greek National Response system Two agendas below are to provide a guidance on organization of GBV training for the specialized agencies. Of course, the agendas are to serve as a general orientation and can be changed depending on the need, or be combined with other trainings (for an example, protection training). - Agenda I (one-day training) Timing 09:00 – 09:30 09:30 – 11-30 11:30 – 11:45 11:45 – 13:30 13:30 – 14:30 14:30 - 15:30 15:30 - 16:30 16:30 – 17:30 - Agenda II (two-day agenda)

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Topics Welcome and introductions Introduction to gender based violence -Types of GBV -Exploring prevalent beliefs about GBV Break GBV guiding principles and core concepts -Guiding principles (adult and child survivors) -Consent and confidentiality Signs and symptoms of GBV -Risk Categories and Vulnerabilities Lunch Working with adult survivors of GBV -Communication The Greek National Response system


Day 1 Timing 09:00 – 09:30 09:30 – 11:30 11:30-13:00 13:00 – 14:00 14:00 – 15:30 15:30-17:00

Topics Welcome and introductions Core Concepts of GBV -Exploring prevalent beliefs about GBV Guiding principles for working with survivors of GBV -National SOPs Lunch Types of GBV Signs and symptoms of GBV -Risk Categories and Vulnerabilities

Day 2 Timing 09:30 – 11:00 11:00 – 12:00 12:00-13:00 13:00-14:00 14:00 – 15:30 15:30-17:00

Topics Communicating with adult survivors -Confidentiality and reporting -Do’s and don’ts -Working with LGBTI/SSOGI survivors -GBV, Rape, Torture Lunch Working with child survivors of GBV in Greece -Legal Framework -Communication Skills -Special Considerations The National Response System -Interconnecting the referral pathways -Mainstreaming protection

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Annex II: Case Studies - Samples Case studies and activities below are included to serve as a general guidance and to give an idea or inspiration in developing activities for the specific trainings. Trainers are invited to use the case studies from their own, real-life situation (of course with respect of confidentiality and consent of the survivor to use the case for such purpose).

Chapter 2.2. 25 yo of Roma origin was two and a half months pregnant when the police came into the Roma settlement in Aspropyrgos, conducting a large scale police operation/search. She noticed the police officers taunting her relative (female) who is disabled, and she approached to support her and protect her. As she approached, the police officer who was conducting the search forcefully pushed her back while the other one kicked her in the back, in spite the fact that she had shouted that she was pregnant. She felt an intense pain in the abdomen and started bleeding right there. Although her bleeding was obvious to everyone, she was not taken to hospital. 1. What are the immediate needs? 2. How would you conduct the referral? 3. Is this a case of torture? Explain. Imani is a 25 y.o. woman with 3 children. She is originally from Afghanistan but has been in Italy for over 10 years. She is married to David, who is also a migrant. They started a business together and are doing well, but after some time, for no obvious reason, David became aggressive, he locked her in her room after beating her. As she was screaming, the oldest child came in, and David hit him as well. The neighbours heard the screams and called the police. Daid gave himself in, and was, upon court ruling, held in prison for 1 year, and another 3 years he was under house arrest. He served the last three years in an NGO facility which provided such service, given that he was not allowed to be close to his family. During this time, he called her in more occasions, and have had the staff of the facility call her and blackmail her – they tried to pressure her to arrange meetings between David and children calling upon their impact on the court system. She felt scared through out and felt the state is not protecting her well. 1. Is she a survivor? 2. What vulnerabilities do you identify in this case? 3. What should be the response? 4. Can the case amount to torture? Explain. Adam, 23 y.o. was in a club one night when masked men came in and started a search of all persons in a bar while threatening with guns. He realized the men are the informal organisation supporting the ultra-right party in his COO, who are famous for their homophobic views. In panic, Adam and his partner Baker did not manage to run, and eventually got pushed into a truck and driven away by to a location that they do not know. When

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they arrived there, the members of this group, still under masks, gave them electric shocks, called them names and demanded to hear names of other gay people he knows. Sometimes they were beating him just for fun. Eventually he tells you a story that they also assaulted him with a rifle gun. After 2 months, the same way they brought him in, and in a hurry, they put Adem in a truck and left him on a dirt road where he was found by the villagers. 1. Identify the vulnerability and risks in this case 2. Identify immediate needs; 3. Is this a case of torture? Explain.

Chapter 2, Chapter 6 The case study below can be used to practice interview (roleplay), identification of risks and/or vulnerabilities, as well as to exercise needs assessment and referrals in the existing framework. I was born in Nigeria. My parents left to find work when I was young so I was raised by my grandmother. My grandmother became ill and I was sent to the orphanage at the age of 8. Leaving the orphanage was hard. I did not know what to do. A guy I met said there were jobs in Germany. I could work as a waitress. He would get me an apartment above the restaurant with some other girls. He would pay to get me set up. I could pay him back later. Could I trust him? I heard some bad stories about girls leaving for Germany. But, it wouldn‘t happen to me. I met the owner of the restaurant/bar. He said that he would pay me € 2 an hour and deduct my rent for the apartment. I worked until 2am every night. Guys at the bar liked me. The owner said I could earn more money if I danced, so I did. Then, I was told that I had to have sex with men, if I wanted to keep my job. I didn‘t want to, but what could I do? I didn’t know how to get out. He watched me and the other girls all the time and said that if we did something stupid, we would be in trouble. One girl tried to run away. She came back with bruises. No money, no one to talk to, no chance to escape. A part of me died every night. • Identify the type of GBV experienced by the narrator. Justify your answer. The police surprised us and took us to jail. When questioned: No, I am not a prostitute. No, I do not have any documents with me. No, I am not an illegal worker. No, I do not know what I am. Help me. I was brought to a shelter and told that if I cooperated with the police to help put the owner in jail, I could stay there until the trial was over. If not, I would have to go back to Nigeria. • You are working for an organization that offers case management to SGBV survivors. The survivor is referred to you. What are the immediate needs of the survivor? • What would you include in an initial assessment? Source: Adapted from “Case Studies: Learning Resources for Service Providers and Researchers”, S, Tucker & M, Martyn & Beje-


naru, Anca & G, Brotherton & S, Gahleitner & C, Gunderson & Rusu, Horatiu. (2011). Victims of Violence, Exploitation and Trafficking: Service User Perspectives.

and 2000 are men. You need to organise GBV response urgently as reports of violence keep increasing – already 143 registered case, including 40 cases involving children.

Chapter 2, 3.1., 4, 6

Jamila is 34 years old and has just arrived in a refugee camp near Amman after fleeing fighting in her village in Iraq. Her husband Ahmed chose to flee after Jamila was kidnapped and held for 19 days. She was 9 months pregnant. During this time, Jamila was raped. Although she was returned last week, Ahmed knows this was a message to him and that he had to leave. He fears that if this happened again she would not be returned, or that he would be kidnapped too and their two young children would be orphans. Jamila is ashamed about what has happened, is having problems eating and sleeping, and has become quiet and withdrawn; she does not want to spend time with anyone except her children. She becomes nervous when she sees men in uniform. Jamila has pain in her lower abdomen and worries she has lost her baby. Ahmed does not know that Jamila was raped. He keeps asking her why she is so quiet. Jamila is too scared to tell her husband; she is afraid that he will leave her if he finds out what happened.

• How will you organise a GBV response keeping in mind survivor centred approach? • How will you make sure the cases are reported and identified with full respect of guiding principles (confidentiality, respect, non-discrimination, safety)? • What other actions will you consider taking given the increased volume of reported cases? Huda is a young Palestinian refugee woman who lives with her husband and five children in a camp (in central Greece). Her husband is unemployed and drinks alcohol excessively. He treats Huda badly, hitting and beating her and the children on a daily basis. Whenever things get out of hand, Huda leaves home and takes refuge at her parents’. Her husband had forbidden the children from leaving with their mother as a way to pressure Huda and punish her for leaving the house. Huda always goes back to him for the sake of the children. Every time she reconciles with him, he forces her to have sex without protection, often resulting in a new pregnancy. Although the family needs the money, the husband forbids her from working whenever they fight because of the evident signs of beating on her body and his fear of her talking to other people and exposing his behaviour. After hearing a lecture on sexual and reproductive health by the local NGO you are working for, Huda started talking about her domestic problem with you, and she asked for support and advice. The last time she left home, her husband forced their eldest daughter to quit school in order to take care of her siblings and other domestic matters.

Chapter 3, Chapter 6

• Identify the types of violence experienced by Huda • Perform a risk assessment with Huda

The case below is used for both needs assessment through interview practice (role play; in what case 2 volunteers would act an interview - one being Jamila and other and other a service provider); the case is also used inviting trainees to explain what needs to be done to maintain guiding principles (in 4 groups – each group would explain how one of the guiding principles would be implemented); responding to the needs – services and referrals recommended.

A hotspot at an Aegean island, which was meant to temporarily host newly arrived individuals, has now become overcrowded. Conditions are awful; girls must travel long distances inside and outside to fetch water, latrines are poorly constructed, women and girls are barely represented in any communication with the authorities. Your organisation just got a small grant to organise the GBV prevention activities. • What are the risk factors? • What are the possible prevention actions? • Which actors have the primary responsibility to ensure women’s security in the camp?

Multi-chapter case study/activity Following the previous incident the NGO’s social worker intervened, convincing the husband to allow the daughter to return to school. The social worker then persuaded Huda to return home under a set of conditions established to ensure her security. The social worker discussed the possibility that the father may behave aggressively towards his daughter and sexually assault her whilst he is under the influence of alcohol. The mother’s presence at home could help deter such behaviour. The social worker also spoke to Huda’s relatives, asking them to monitor the situation daily and intervene to provide security for Huda and her children.

Chapter 4.1 • Would this classify as a Survivor Centered Approach? National GBV SOPs Specific Guiding Principles and • Identify potential risks/concerns relating to abuse addressed Approaches towards the children. You are a protection team working in the refugee camp with 7000 persons. Out of that number 5000 are women and children

Adapted from Reach Out Refugee Protection Training Project

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Annex III: Survivor – Centred Attitude Scale Trainers are encouraged to hand out a survivor-centred attitude scale at the begging of their training, for all the trainees to complete individually. The same ‘’test’’ should be repeated again at the end of their training on GBV (source: Inter-agency GBV Case Management Guidelines, 2017, page 193). Invite the trainees to calculate their scale and keep the results for them-selves. They should do their own calculations and keep the scores for thems selves, comparing after the final one. As a trainer you aim to increase their scores by the end of the training, as the greater scores indicate greater preparedness and understanding of working with survivors.

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Below is the snap from the Inter-agency GBV Case Management Guidelines, explaining how and when it is to be used, and what the results indicate. Also, the scale is presented below in this package. It is an interesting way to understand who the trainees are, but also, usually after they see the increase in scale at the end of the training, the trainees realize how important the approaches, attitudes and interpersonal skills and qualities are for the effective provision of services to survivors.


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Annex IV: Handouts Chapter 1

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Annex IV: Handouts Chapter 2

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Annex IV: Handouts Chapter 3

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Chapter 4

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Annex IV: Handouts Chapter 4, 6 and 7

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GBV Resource Package:

Introduction into GBV Core Concepts, Principles and Approaches Facilitator’s Guide

Athens, Greece December 2017


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