CGYearlyReport2007-08US

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CognitiveGenesis La Sierra University 4500 Riverwalk Parkway Riverside, CA 92515 p. 951.785.2997 www.cognitivegenesis.org

La Sierra University in partnership with the Office of Education, North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists

Yearly Report 2007-2008

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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Table 12

ITBS Year 1 (2006-7) Year 2 (2007-8) Grade 3-8 Combined Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

NCE Score

Standard Score Mean

CognitiveGenesis Project:

Difference from Predicted Score Mean

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

57.21 54.35 56.07 56.08 53.65 54.66 56.28 55.69 51.74 52.62 49.02 51.57 54.19 55.32 55.42 55.46 55.93 55.30

57.05 54.05 55.84 56.11 53.58 55.09 55.99 55.72 51.55 52.23 48.56 51.18 53.94 55.17 55.18 55.33 55.73 55.11

-0.16 -0.30 -0.23 0.03 -0.06 0.43 -0.29 0.02 -0.19 -0.38 -0.46 -0.39 -0.25 -0.14 -0.24 -0.13 -0.20 -0.19

221.53 220.69 221.11 222.62 223.04 226.30 228.31 225.07 215.01 218.94 211.39 215.11 220.28 223.59 224.78 223.15 223.97 221.52

221.07 219.93 220.50 222.35 222.58 226.60 227.37 224.73 214.64 218.10 210.66 214.47 219.58 223.00 224.11 222.61 223.37 220.94

-0.46 -0.76 -0.60 -0.27 -0.46 0.30 -0.93 -0.34 -0.37 -0.84 -0.72 -0.65 -0.70 -0.59 -0.66 -0.54 -0.60 -0.58

9.01 7.62 8.02 8.36 2.98 5.69 9.88 6.57 4.25 5.77 0.17 3.34 6.53 8.77 7.90 7.72 7.55 6.65

7.80 5.66 6.45 7.34 1.30 4.62 7.41 5.02 2.82 3.53 -1.30 1.63 4.68 7.86 5.79 5.99 5.64 4.90

-1.21 -1.96 -1.58 -1.02 -1.67 -1.07 -2.47 -1.55 -1.42 -2.25 -1.47 -1.71 -1.85 -1.91 -2.11 -1.73 -1.91 -1.75

Assessing Adventist Academics

SecondYearly Report 2007-2008

Robert J. Cruise, Ph.D. Research Director

Jerome D. Thayer, Ph.D. Associate Research Director

Table 13

ITED Year 1 (2006-7) Year 2 (2007-8) Grade 9-11 Combined Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

NCE Score

Standard Score Mean

Difference from Predicted Score Mean

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

59.13 59.07 59.91 58.40 59.34 57.68 54.74 57.27 57.81 58.99 53.53 58.26

58.85 58.78 59.59 58.47 59.27 57.50 55.03 57.22 57.57 59.35 53.39 58.17

-0.28 -0.29 -0.32 -0.08 -0.07 -0.18 0.29 -0.06 -0.24 0.37 -0.14 -01.0

273.22 278.95 276.07 276.44 281.25 274.80 269.52 273.04 276.98 280.17 268.84 276.06

273.02 278.58 275.78 276.82 281.30 274.75 270.49 273.33 276.81 281.22 268.84 276.21

-0.21 -0.37 -0.29 0.38 0.05 -0.06 0.97 0.29 -0.17 1.05 -0.01 0.15

8.14 11.32 9.64 8.02 10.72 6.22 0.98 4.39 7.98 11.65 -0.59\ 7.07

6.06 8.49 7.19 6.56 8.24 3.74 -0.24 2.34 5.19 10.02 -2.93 4.77

-2.08 -2.83 -2.45 -1.46 -2.49 -2.48 -1.22 -2.05 -2.79 -1.63 -2.34 -2.30

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

Elissa E. Kido, Ed.D. Project Director

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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Table 9

ITED 2007 Results Grades 9-11 Combined N = 5,821

Introduction CognitiveGenesis is a research project designed to assess academic performance in Adventist schools and provide answers to questions about the academic quality of Adventist educational programs. CognitiveGenesis is also studying various factors related to achievement, including those commonly associated with achievement and others that may be unique to Adventist education.

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

This is the first large-scale study to assess academic achievement in Seventh-day Adventist elementary and secondary schools. This research initiative will document the academic achievement of approximately 30,000 students in nearly 1,000 schools throughout North America, using nationally-accepted measures of achievement and ability.

Research Questions

58.85 58.78 59.59 58.47 59.27 57.50 55.03 57.22 57.57 59.35 53.39 58.17

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.47 19.35 19.90 20.04 18.54 19.91 19.55 19.44 18.53 19.58 17.01 18.15

66 66 67 67 67 63 59 63 64 68 56 65

ITED 2007 Results Grade 9 N = 3,088

1. How are students in Adventist schools performing academically? 2. How does the academic performance of students in Adventist schools compare to that of their counterparts in public and other private schools?

NCE Score Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

273.02 278.58 275.78 276.82 281.30 274.75 270.49 273.33 276.81 281.22 268.84 276.21

33.66 42.55 36.22 37.02 40.58 37.94 37.94 34.97 41.50 43.28 37.58 34.87

6.06 8.49 7.19 6.56 8.24 3.74 -0.24 2.34 5.19 10.02 -2.93 4.77

25.37 30.54 25.35 32.21 28.84 23.43 28.65 20.68 28.64 29.16 27.79 20.29

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

3. What factors related to students, parents, teachers, and schools are associated with student achievement and abilities?

Research Design CognitiveGenesis researchers at La Sierra University, in partnership with the North American Division (all nine unions and the NAD Office of Education), will collect standardized, nationally-normed test results for all students in grades 3-9 and 11 in every Adventist school in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda (approximately 30,000 students) over a four-year period beginning in the fall of 2006. In addition, they are also using surveys for students, parents, teachers, and administrators to gather information about a wide range of possible relationships with student academic achievement and abilities.

58.32 57.30 58.16 59.67 58.46 56.35 54.72 56.53 55.70 57.26 50.71 56.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 19.53 18.92 18.94 20.04 18.65 19.43 20.46 19.43 18.36 18.99 16.88 17.77

63 62 64 67 66 61 59 61 61 63 51 61

Time Frame for Data Collection

NCE Score Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

263.98 266.95 265.44 270.98 271.84 264.75 262.26 263.92 264.69 269.09 255.25 265.04

29.07 38.32 31.80 35.19 39.06 34.61 37.06 32.25 38.34 39.12 33.76 31.47

5.73 6.30 6.07 10.35 8.56 2.29 -0.42 1.22 2.80 6.16 -7.01 2.77

21.92 27.37 22.04 30.17 27.20 21.36 28.50 18.99 26.64 25.91 26.21 17.83

Standardized Testing Data collection of the achievement and ability scores started in the fall of the 2006-2007 school year and will continue for two more years, ending with the 2009-2010 school year. Four years of testing will provide data to allow researchers to study three years of growth in student achievement and abilities.

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

Surveys The surveys for students, parents, teachers and administrators were administered during the same time frame as the standardized testing. The surveys will be collected each year starting in the fall of 2006 and continue for the same time period as the standardized tests.

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

59.44 60.45 61.21 57.12 60.19 58.81 55.37 58.00 59.69 61.71 56.42 60.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 21.47 19.69 20.80 19.97 18.37 20.36 18.47 19.43 18.50 19.98 16.64 18.35

69 68 70 64 67 66 57 65 70 72 63 69

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Table 11

ITED 2007 Results Grade 11 N = 2,733

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Table 10

The major questions that CognitiveGenesis will be answering are:

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

283.22 291.71 287.47 283.41 291.99 286.04 279.79 283.96 290.51 294.93 284.19 288.83

35.53 43.27 37.35 37.92 39.61 38.36 36.77 34.88 40.66 43.67 35.73 34.22

6.43 10.95 8.45 2.28 7.88 5.37 -0.05 3.61 7.90 14.38 1.68 7.04

28.77 33.60 28.59 33.86 30.58 25.47 28.82 22.38 30.53 31.88 28.79 22.55 13


Table 7

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 7 N = 4,102

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

57.21 54.36 56.07 55.38 53.08 55.49 56.26 55.86 52.86 52.92 50.78 52.52 52.46 55.98 56.46 56.57 56.95 55.37

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.80 19.60 20.27 19.84 19.68 19.40 19.33 19.28 18.74 20.11 20.39 19.10 19.52 19.05 20.17 18.56 19.19 18.90

63 60 61 60 56 58 59 60 53 54 47 53 55 59 60 59 60 59

Analysis Schedule

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

240.36 238.41 239.36 241.27 241.00 248.14 247.72 244.53 234.89 238.13 232.17 235.06 236.85 244.05 246.11 244.92 245.53 240.90

28.67 34.84 30.04 32.70 43.83 45.07 44.29 36.46 27.23 36.67 29.83 26.91 35.05 35.91 39.98 33.38 33.96 29.52

7.45 4.84 5.85 6.10 -1.48 4.15 6.49 3.67 3.00 3.51 0.31 2.30 2.59 5.65 6.33 4.66 5.12 4.02

22.21 25.07 21.32 27.63 34.58 34.84 31.68 25.57 17.41 23.57 26.13 16.60 26.44 25.13 27.61 24.09 21.82 17.39

The CognitiveGenesis research team generated a detailed list of specific research questions relating achievement and ability to student, parent, teacher, and school variables. Doctoral students or other researchers who want to study a topic from this research agenda can request the use of the CognitiveGenesis dataset. Currently, eleven doctoral students from La Sierra University School of Education and Andrews University School of Education have requested to use parts of the dataset for their dissertations. At the end of the data collection period, a final report will be written by the research team answering the questions from the research agenda.

Instruments Standardized Tests The standardized tests used to measure achievement in the United States were the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) for grades 3-8 and the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED) for grades 9 and 11. The Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) was used to measure ability for all grades. All of these tests are developed by the same company, Riverside Publishing, and are designed to complement each other. Students in Canada took Canadian versions of these tests revised by Thomson Nelson, a partner company with Riverside Publishing. Survey Development To measure factors that might be related to achievement, four surveys were developed. The process started with an extensive search of previous research to determine what student, parent, teacher, and school variables have been shown to be related to achievement. Finally, educational leaders in the church were asked to consider the resulting list of variables and suggest additions or modifications. From this list, the initial items for the four surveys were created. The surveys were then sent to educational leaders of the church to review and edit. From their suggestions, the research team modified and finalized the final items for each of the surveys.

Table 8

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 8 N = 4,032

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

58.52 55.00 56.82 57.28 56.49 57.01 58.11 58.18 54.33 54.39 50.27 53.46 53.95 55.75 56.83 56.36 57.19 56.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.00 19.39 19.53 19.69 18.90 19.34 18.69 18.78 19.73 19.36 20.94 19.13 19.23 17.68 19.63 17.66 18.40 17.89

67 61 63 62 60 63 62 64 59 55 53 56 56 62 61 60 61 61

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

253.48 251.42 252.45 255.89 260.43 262.93 264.00 260.80 249.50 252.32 243.67 248.49 250.97 255.47 259.28 257.05 258.19 254.39

28.68 37.31 31.14 33.70 45.18 47.32 45.96 37.95 30.71 38.44 34.54 29.92 37.59 35.45 42.07 34.22 35.08 30.44

8.12 4.79 6.13 7.80 1.09 4.44 9.71 5.61 2.08 2.42 -3.06 0.49 2.81 4.25 3.91 3.01 3.21 3.54

22.17 27.19 22.17 28.60 35.61 36.62 33.21 26.86 19.13 24.39 29.45 17.99 28.49 25.70 28.80 25.29 22.51 17.73

To account for differences in developmental levels, two versions of the student survey were developed; one for grades 3-5 and another for grades 6-11. The initial items were submitted to master teachers in the lower grade levels who suggested revisions after testing the items with students.

Data Collection Procedures Testing Each year all unions in the North American Division have a schedule to give standardized achievement and/ or ability tests. Tests published by Riverside and Thomson Nelson have been used for this purpose. To meet the needs of the CognitiveGenesis project, the tests given, the grades tested, and the dates for the testing were standardized across the division. Tests were given in the fall with the answer sheets sent directly to Riverside and/or Thomson Nelson for scoring. When the testing for all Unions was completed, a master database of all test results was sent to CognitiveGenesis for analysis. Surveys Surveys designed by the CognitiveGenesis researchers were given to each student, parent, teacher and administrator in all schools in the North American Division. Each school was responsible for administering all surveys. The surveys were mailed to CognitiveGenesis where they were scanned and processed.

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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Reports

Table 5

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 5 N = 3,648

The testing results each year for all the schools are reported directly to the unions, conferences and schools by Riverside and Thomson Nelson. Each year CognitiveGenesis will prepare a year-end report for the North American Division. During the first two years of the project, members of the CG research team have given an oral report of NAD and specific union results to each union. CognitiveGenesis is not planning to make oral or written presentations for schools or conferences.

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

Communication of the final results of the project will involve publications and presentations within the North American Division, as well as for the larger national and international educational community. These results will include identifying the student, parent, teacher, and school variables most closely associated with achievement and abilities. During the interim, the investigators will communicate yearly findings to Adventist educators at multiple levels for use in system-wide decision-making regarding curriculum, classroom instruction and programmatic changes.

Sample The intent of CognitiveGenesis is to collect data from all students in the NAD (including Canada and Bermuda) in grades 3-9 and 11. This report will describe the results for students from the United States and Bermuda. A separate report will describe the results for Canada. Students in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States, Bermuda, and Canada do not take the same achievement and ability tests. Students in the United States and Bermuda take the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, the Iowa Tests of Educational Development, and the Cognitive Abilities Test, all of which are published by Riverside Publishing. Students in Canada take the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills and the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test, both published by Thomson Nelson. These tests are modifications of the Riverside Publishing tests and are slightly different in content with scores based on distinct norm groups for that country.

56.96 54.03 55.82 57.14 55.35 55.99 55.42 56.55 50.11 51.60 45.30 49.33 54.26 54.43 52.92 54.23 53.59 54.31

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.53 19.84 20.09 19.80 19.55 20.19 20.27 19.17 19.32 20.90 19.67 19.44 19.39 19.76 19.72 18.53 18.70 18.62

64 58 63 64 63 62 59 62 50 50 40 47 59 58 56 60 59 58

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

212.39 212.27 212.34 216.11 217.38 219.90 218.13 217.88 204.53 209.36 198.69 204.18 212.13 214.02 212.41 212.29 212.36 212.15

24.21 29.25 24.95 27.29 37.00 37.07 36.53 29.48 22.15 30.23 20.49 21.20 27.35 30.13 31.47 24.84 25.80 23.35

8.71 6.75 7.56 7.96 3.60 4.57 5.93 5.36 2.78 3.48 -3.20 0.85 4.82 7.49 3.51 6.80 4.90 5.08

19.52 21.67 18.26 23.54 29.58 29.44 27.05 20.89 15.42 20.27 18.14 13.85 21.34 21.67 22.55 18.73 17.27 14.25

Table 6

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 6 N = 3,896

In preparing the test databases, CognitiveGenesis will use all tests from the United States, Bermuda, and Canada, but will maintain two separate databases for analysis: one for the US and Bermuda and one for Canada. The reasons for not combining the scores are as follows:

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

• There is a sufficient difference in content that merging the tests together would create a problem in interpreting some of the scores. For example, the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills battery does not include a Social Studies test. Therefore, any comparisons across tests would have Canadian data included on most tests but not on the Social Studies test and the Composite score. • The norm groups for the tests are different in two ways: 1) The norms are based on students in different countries and 2) the norming on the tests in the United States and Canada was done in different years. Because of this, a percentile score of 50 on a United States test represents a different level of achievement than a percentile score of 50 on the equivalent Canadian test. Equating the two scores would require the assumption that the overall achievement level in the two countries was identical and observed score differences were due to difference in content and norming procedures. • However, if equating was still deemed to be desirable and the results for the two tests were combined, it would still not be helpful for good curricular use of the test results in either the US or Canada. Curricular use of the tests would probably include using item-specific information to identify areas of weakness. Since the tests in the two countries have different items, the item analysis would have to be done separately for each test.

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

Difference from Predicted Score

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

57.05 53.88 55.65 54.24 53.35 54.72 56.01 55.35 50.87 50.31 49.05 50.42 51.76 53.35 54.00 53.94 54.54 53.82

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.61 19.89 20.14 19.39 19.12 20.70 20.66 19.17 19.43 20.31 19.60 19.15 20.02 20.48 20.16 19.50 19.55 19.23

61 59 59 60 59 59 60 59 52 48 49 51 53 58 58 53 57 57

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

227.37 225.38 226.39 226.67 228.64 232.03 234.33 230.42 219.55 221.28 217.32 219.37 223.24 226.67 229.28 227.23 228.26 225.72

26.43 32.72 27.87 29.60 39.77 42.02 42.28 33.19 25.48 33.23 24.52 24.40 32.03 34.79 36.83 30.89 31.26 27.29

6.99 4.96 5.66 5.38 -1.34 2.69 7.17 3.37 1.75 1.43 -2.11 0.29 3.87 7.61 5.21 5.09 4.94 4.13

20.93 24.05 20.21 25.32 32.20 32.37 30.64 23.27 16.93 22.13 20.68 15.30 24.52 24.25 25.17 22.42 19.91 16.24 11


Table 3

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 3 N = 2,832

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

55.14 53.81 54.85 55.52 50.21 53.10 54.36 52.89 51.01 51.46 48.47 50.49 56.07 55.73 55.52 54.48 55.81 55.61

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.41 20.52 19.82 22.04 20.15 19.36 20.84 19.61 19.11 19.53 20.00 18.88 19.37 19.01 21.17 19.97 19.44 19.53

60 62 61 58 44 53 59 54 51 50 45 49 64 63 66 58 62 60

To be included in the test dataset used for all CognitiveGenesis analyses, students needed to complete both the achievement and ability test batteries. The most common reasons students were excluded from the dataset were:

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

179.54 180.52 180.03 179.03 174.65 179.49 181.11 178.57 174.39 176.57 170.67 173.91 181.40 181.81 182.17 178.90 180.52 179.38

20.58 21.93 19.82 19.90 23.70 22.53 25.28 19.08 16.47 20.32 13.83 14.74 19.26 21.85 23.39 16.63 18.40 16.67

7.61 7.26 7.11 8.38 4.32 7.84 9.24 7.29 4.72 5.81 2.77 4.38 8.29 9.27 8.94 7.89 8.25 7.26

16.22 16.47 14.44 16.86 19.96 18.16 19.17 13.66 11.60 14.35 11.59 9.56 14.81 16.29 17.15 12.09 12.32 10.29

1) one subtest was completely missing (the student could have missed school the day that subtest was given) 2) not enough items were attempted on a subtest to get a valid score (the student started the test, but gave up early) 3) the wrong level of the test was taken (many schools gave the grade 2 form to grade 3 students which did not contain some of the subtests) 4) one of the test batteries was not given to any of the students in the school (a possible administrative decision, oversight, or misunderstanding). Many students in self-supporting schools and home schools not directly affiliated with the North American Division took tests that were included in the database sent from the test publishers to CognitiveGenesis. These schools were omitted from the database. Also, schools that were identified by the conference as being “special schools” were omitted from the database. All three of these schools could be classified as “Reservation Schools,” or “American Indian/First Nation” schools. Table 1 describes the number of students who took the standardized tests used in CognitiveGenesis in the fall of 2007. There were 31,155 students who took one of the achievement tests: ITBS (Iowa Tests of Basic Skills) for grades 3-8 or ITED (Iowa Tests of Educational Development) for grades 9 and 11. Of these, 29,434 had complete scores for all tests in the achievement test battery. There were 31,171 students who took the ability test. Of these, 30,107 had complete scores for all the tests in the ability test battery. There were 29,938 students who took both the achievement and ability test batteries. Of these, 27,648 had complete scores for all tests in both the achievement and ability test batteries. The numbers taking tests in each grade in each category is also reported in Table 1.

Table 4

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 4 N = 3,612

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

56.82 53.03 55.50 57.04 52.01 53.57 55.17 54.57 49.61 52.36 46.95 50.37 55.95 55.90 55.17 56.06 56.10 55.32

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 19.40 20.44 19.63 19.90 19.51 20.74 20.57 19.53 20.83 20.19 17.89 19.10 19.65 19.83 20.75 20.24 20.43 18.95

61 59 60 62 49 53 59 56 50 56 42 49 62 61 61 60 59 61

Table 1

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

197.55 196.55 197.05 199.05 195.69 199.43 201.47 198.92 189.20 195.12 185.65 189.99 198.45 200.27 199.00 198.53 198.78 197.24

21.31 26.12 22.28 23.08 30.69 31.20 31.53 24.71 20.46 25.25 15.40 17.67 23.21 26.60 28.62 23.00 23.80 20.35

7.97 5.96 6.68 8.90 2.86 4.96 6.22 5.55 3.17 5.31 -1.59 2.22 7.05 7.79 7.71 9.50 8.41 6.22

16.77 19.21 16.06 19.77 25.74 24.41 23.80 17.74 14.49 17.70 14.32 11.94 18.42 19.39 20.25 17.24 15.86 12.58

Number of Students Taking CognitiveGenesis Tests - Fall, 2007 Achievement Test ITBS / ITED

10

Ability Test CogAT

Achievement & Ability Tests ITBS/ITED & CogAT

Grade

Partial or Complete

Complete

Partial or Complete

Complete

Partial or Complete

Complete

3

2,966

2,114

3,907

3,542

2,892

1,886

4

4,104

3,927

3,986

3,825

3,984

3,713

5

4,093

3,950

3,983

3,843

3,979

3,753

6

4,292

4,201

4,155

4,053

4,155

3,991

7

4,493

4,367

4,369

4,301

4,366

4,207

8

4,405

4,306

4,277

4,199

4,275

4,128

9

3,577

3,456

3,400

3,337

3,325

3,176

11

3,225

3,113

3,094

3,007

2,962

2,794

3-8

24,353

22,865

24,677

23,763

23,651

21,678

9 & 11

6,802

6,569

6,494

6,344

6,287

5,970

3-9 & 11

31,155

29,434

31,171

30,107

29,938

27,648

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

7


scored well above the national average and well above what would be predicted, based on their ability test scores.

Second Year Results/Findings The second-year of data collection was completed in 2007 with data from about 30,000 students, 14,000 parents, 2,000 teachers, and 700 administrators. Together, the standardized test results and survey responses will provide the basis for establishing an accurate picture of elementary and secondary Adventist academic achievement.

Tables 3-8 report separate results for each grade from grade 3 to grade 8. In a few instances the mean NCE Score was below 50 or the mean Difference from Predicted Score was below zero. The only test that was consistently below the others was Mathematics Computation.

This report only includes the results of the achievement and ability testing. CognitiveGenesis does not plan to report survey results separately. Responses to the survey items will be studied in relationship to the achievement and ability test results and reported in separate documents after the four years of data collection.

The results for Grades 9-11 combined are reported in Table 9. All of the mean NCE scores were above 50, most well above that mark. All but two of the mean Difference from Predicted scores were above zero, most well above that mark. Overall, students in grades 9 and 11 in Adventist schools in the North American Division scored well above the national average and well above what would be predicted, based on their ability test scores.

Tables 2-13 report the CognitiveGenesis achievement test results with three types of scores: NCE Score, Standard Score, and Difference from Predicted Score. NCE (National Curve Equivalent) scores range from 1-99, with a score of 50 representing the average score for the United States norm group for each grade. NCE Scores are expected to stay constant from grade to grade as a student moves through school. Standard Scores are scaled so they change from year to year. There is no simple interpretation of Standard Scores. They are used to measure change from year to year and to compare actual and predicted Standard Scores. CognitiveGenesis will not interpret Standard Scores in this report. Each student is given a predicted Standard Score, based on the student’s ability test scores. If the student’s actual Standard Score is the same as the Predicted Standard Score, the Difference from Predicted Score will equal zero. Scores above zero indicate achievement above predicted and scores below zero indicate achievement below predicted. The average Difference from Predicted Score is zero.

Tables 10 and 11 report separate results for grade 9 and grade 11. All of the mean NCE Scores were above 50. Only three of the Difference from Predicted Scores were below zero. Sources of Information in grade 9 and Mathematics Computation for both grades were the lowest scores. Tables 12 and 13 compare results for years 1 and 2 for grades 3-8 (ITBS) and grades 9 and 11 (ITED). The results for year 2 were very similar to those for year 1. In both years, students achieved both above average and above predicted based on their ability scores. For all tests there was a very small difference from year 1 to year 2 in the mean NCE score, ranging from 0.37 higher for grades 9-11 Science to 0.46 lower for grades 3-8 Mathematics Computation. The mean Difference from Predicted Scores decreased from 1-3 points from year 1 to year 2 for all tests. In analyzing possible reasons for the lower Difference from Predicted Scores, it was found that this was primarily due to an increase in the mean ability scores (CogAT) from year 1 to year 2 while the mean achievement scores remained relatively constant. It will be necessary to wait until testing has been completed in years 3 and 4 to determine whether this trend continues. It has been suggested that the higher mean ability scores may be due to a practice effect since year 1 was the first year the ability test (CogAT) had been given in many unions.

ITBS scores reported for grades 3-8: Composite (all scores combined) Total and subtest scores in: Reading (2 subtests) Language (4 subtests) Mathematics (3 subtests) Sources of Information (2 subtests). Science Social Studies ITED scores reported for grades 9-11: Composite (all scores combined) Total and subtest scores in: Reading (2 subtests) Mathematics (2 subtests) Spelling Revising Writing Material Social Studies Science. Sources of Information.

Table 2

ITBS 2007 Results Grades 3-8 Combined N = 22,122

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

For each of the ITBS and ITED scores (NCE, Standard, and Difference from Predicted scores), the mean and standard deviation is given. The percentile rank equivalent of the mean NCE Score is also given. The results for Grades 3-8 combined are reported in Table 2. All but one of the mean NCE scores were above the norm average of 50, most well above that mark. All but one of the mean Difference from Predicted scores were above the norm average of zero, most well above that mark. Students in grades 3-8 in Adventist schools in the North American Division CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

8

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

57.05 54.05 55.84 56.11 53.58 55.09 55.99 55.72 51.55 52.23 48.56 51.18 53.94 55.17 55.18 55.33 55.73 55.11

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.32 19.92 19.93 20.07 19.55 20.01 20.04 19.30 19.61 20.13 19.89 19.20 19.60 19.34 20.27 19.06 19.32 18.84

63 59 61 60 57 59 60 60 53 54 47 52 58 59 61 60 60 59

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

221.07 219.93 220.50 222.35 222.58 226.60 227.37 224.73 214.64 218.10 210.66 214.47 219.58 223.00 224.11 222.61 223.37 220.94

35.23 39.09 35.82 37.81 46.96 47.85 47.48 41.20 35.20 40.37 35.26 34.28 37.82 39.99 43.53 38.48 39.06 35.53

7.80 5.66 6.45 7.34 1.30 4.62 7.41 5.02 2.82 3.53 -1.30 1.63 4.68 6.86 5.79 5.99 5.64 4.90

20.02 22.94 19.23 24.43 30.72 30.63 28.54 22.29 16.27 21.09 21.65 14.82 23.37 22.72 24.41 21.03 19.07 15.30 9


scored well above the national average and well above what would be predicted, based on their ability test scores.

Second Year Results/Findings The second-year of data collection was completed in 2007 with data from about 30,000 students, 14,000 parents, 2,000 teachers, and 700 administrators. Together, the standardized test results and survey responses will provide the basis for establishing an accurate picture of elementary and secondary Adventist academic achievement.

Tables 3-8 report separate results for each grade from grade 3 to grade 8. In a few instances the mean NCE Score was below 50 or the mean Difference from Predicted Score was below zero. The only test that was consistently below the others was Mathematics Computation.

This report only includes the results of the achievement and ability testing. CognitiveGenesis does not plan to report survey results separately. Responses to the survey items will be studied in relationship to the achievement and ability test results and reported in separate documents after the four years of data collection.

The results for Grades 9-11 combined are reported in Table 9. All of the mean NCE scores were above 50, most well above that mark. All but two of the mean Difference from Predicted scores were above zero, most well above that mark. Overall, students in grades 9 and 11 in Adventist schools in the North American Division scored well above the national average and well above what would be predicted, based on their ability test scores.

Tables 2-13 report the CognitiveGenesis achievement test results with three types of scores: NCE Score, Standard Score, and Difference from Predicted Score. NCE (National Curve Equivalent) scores range from 1-99, with a score of 50 representing the average score for the United States norm group for each grade. NCE Scores are expected to stay constant from grade to grade as a student moves through school. Standard Scores are scaled so they change from year to year. There is no simple interpretation of Standard Scores. They are used to measure change from year to year and to compare actual and predicted Standard Scores. CognitiveGenesis will not interpret Standard Scores in this report. Each student is given a predicted Standard Score, based on the student’s ability test scores. If the student’s actual Standard Score is the same as the Predicted Standard Score, the Difference from Predicted Score will equal zero. Scores above zero indicate achievement above predicted and scores below zero indicate achievement below predicted. The average Difference from Predicted Score is zero.

Tables 10 and 11 report separate results for grade 9 and grade 11. All of the mean NCE Scores were above 50. Only three of the Difference from Predicted Scores were below zero. Sources of Information in grade 9 and Mathematics Computation for both grades were the lowest scores. Tables 12 and 13 compare results for years 1 and 2 for grades 3-8 (ITBS) and grades 9 and 11 (ITED). The results for year 2 were very similar to those for year 1. In both years, students achieved both above average and above predicted based on their ability scores. For all tests there was a very small difference from year 1 to year 2 in the mean NCE score, ranging from 0.37 higher for grades 9-11 Science to 0.46 lower for grades 3-8 Mathematics Computation. The mean Difference from Predicted Scores decreased from 1-3 points from year 1 to year 2 for all tests. In analyzing possible reasons for the lower Difference from Predicted Scores, it was found that this was primarily due to an increase in the mean ability scores (CogAT) from year 1 to year 2 while the mean achievement scores remained relatively constant. It will be necessary to wait until testing has been completed in years 3 and 4 to determine whether this trend continues. It has been suggested that the higher mean ability scores may be due to a practice effect since year 1 was the first year the ability test (CogAT) had been given in many unions.

ITBS scores reported for grades 3-8: Composite (all scores combined) Total and subtest scores in: Reading (2 subtests) Language (4 subtests) Mathematics (3 subtests) Sources of Information (2 subtests). Science Social Studies ITED scores reported for grades 9-11: Composite (all scores combined) Total and subtest scores in: Reading (2 subtests) Mathematics (2 subtests) Spelling Revising Writing Material Social Studies Science. Sources of Information.

Table 2

ITBS 2007 Results Grades 3-8 Combined N = 22,122

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

For each of the ITBS and ITED scores (NCE, Standard, and Difference from Predicted scores), the mean and standard deviation is given. The percentile rank equivalent of the mean NCE Score is also given. The results for Grades 3-8 combined are reported in Table 2. All but one of the mean NCE scores were above the norm average of 50, most well above that mark. All but one of the mean Difference from Predicted scores were above the norm average of zero, most well above that mark. Students in grades 3-8 in Adventist schools in the North American Division CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

8

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

57.05 54.05 55.84 56.11 53.58 55.09 55.99 55.72 51.55 52.23 48.56 51.18 53.94 55.17 55.18 55.33 55.73 55.11

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.32 19.92 19.93 20.07 19.55 20.01 20.04 19.30 19.61 20.13 19.89 19.20 19.60 19.34 20.27 19.06 19.32 18.84

63 59 61 60 57 59 60 60 53 54 47 52 58 59 61 60 60 59

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

221.07 219.93 220.50 222.35 222.58 226.60 227.37 224.73 214.64 218.10 210.66 214.47 219.58 223.00 224.11 222.61 223.37 220.94

35.23 39.09 35.82 37.81 46.96 47.85 47.48 41.20 35.20 40.37 35.26 34.28 37.82 39.99 43.53 38.48 39.06 35.53

7.80 5.66 6.45 7.34 1.30 4.62 7.41 5.02 2.82 3.53 -1.30 1.63 4.68 6.86 5.79 5.99 5.64 4.90

20.02 22.94 19.23 24.43 30.72 30.63 28.54 22.29 16.27 21.09 21.65 14.82 23.37 22.72 24.41 21.03 19.07 15.30 9


Table 3

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 3 N = 2,832

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

55.14 53.81 54.85 55.52 50.21 53.10 54.36 52.89 51.01 51.46 48.47 50.49 56.07 55.73 55.52 54.48 55.81 55.61

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.41 20.52 19.82 22.04 20.15 19.36 20.84 19.61 19.11 19.53 20.00 18.88 19.37 19.01 21.17 19.97 19.44 19.53

60 62 61 58 44 53 59 54 51 50 45 49 64 63 66 58 62 60

To be included in the test dataset used for all CognitiveGenesis analyses, students needed to complete both the achievement and ability test batteries. The most common reasons students were excluded from the dataset were:

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

179.54 180.52 180.03 179.03 174.65 179.49 181.11 178.57 174.39 176.57 170.67 173.91 181.40 181.81 182.17 178.90 180.52 179.38

20.58 21.93 19.82 19.90 23.70 22.53 25.28 19.08 16.47 20.32 13.83 14.74 19.26 21.85 23.39 16.63 18.40 16.67

7.61 7.26 7.11 8.38 4.32 7.84 9.24 7.29 4.72 5.81 2.77 4.38 8.29 9.27 8.94 7.89 8.25 7.26

16.22 16.47 14.44 16.86 19.96 18.16 19.17 13.66 11.60 14.35 11.59 9.56 14.81 16.29 17.15 12.09 12.32 10.29

1) one subtest was completely missing (the student could have missed school the day that subtest was given) 2) not enough items were attempted on a subtest to get a valid score (the student started the test, but gave up early) 3) the wrong level of the test was taken (many schools gave the grade 2 form to grade 3 students which did not contain some of the subtests) 4) one of the test batteries was not given to any of the students in the school (a possible administrative decision, oversight, or misunderstanding). Many students in self-supporting schools and home schools not directly affiliated with the North American Division took tests that were included in the database sent from the test publishers to CognitiveGenesis. These schools were omitted from the database. Also, schools that were identified by the conference as being “special schools” were omitted from the database. All three of these schools could be classified as “Reservation Schools,” or “American Indian/First Nation” schools. Table 1 describes the number of students who took the standardized tests used in CognitiveGenesis in the fall of 2007. There were 31,155 students who took one of the achievement tests: ITBS (Iowa Tests of Basic Skills) for grades 3-8 or ITED (Iowa Tests of Educational Development) for grades 9 and 11. Of these, 29,434 had complete scores for all tests in the achievement test battery. There were 31,171 students who took the ability test. Of these, 30,107 had complete scores for all the tests in the ability test battery. There were 29,938 students who took both the achievement and ability test batteries. Of these, 27,648 had complete scores for all tests in both the achievement and ability test batteries. The numbers taking tests in each grade in each category is also reported in Table 1.

Table 4

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 4 N = 3,612

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

56.82 53.03 55.50 57.04 52.01 53.57 55.17 54.57 49.61 52.36 46.95 50.37 55.95 55.90 55.17 56.06 56.10 55.32

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 19.40 20.44 19.63 19.90 19.51 20.74 20.57 19.53 20.83 20.19 17.89 19.10 19.65 19.83 20.75 20.24 20.43 18.95

61 59 60 62 49 53 59 56 50 56 42 49 62 61 61 60 59 61

Table 1

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

197.55 196.55 197.05 199.05 195.69 199.43 201.47 198.92 189.20 195.12 185.65 189.99 198.45 200.27 199.00 198.53 198.78 197.24

21.31 26.12 22.28 23.08 30.69 31.20 31.53 24.71 20.46 25.25 15.40 17.67 23.21 26.60 28.62 23.00 23.80 20.35

7.97 5.96 6.68 8.90 2.86 4.96 6.22 5.55 3.17 5.31 -1.59 2.22 7.05 7.79 7.71 9.50 8.41 6.22

16.77 19.21 16.06 19.77 25.74 24.41 23.80 17.74 14.49 17.70 14.32 11.94 18.42 19.39 20.25 17.24 15.86 12.58

Number of Students Taking CognitiveGenesis Tests - Fall, 2007 Achievement Test ITBS / ITED

10

Ability Test CogAT

Achievement & Ability Tests ITBS/ITED & CogAT

Grade

Partial or Complete

Complete

Partial or Complete

Complete

Partial or Complete

Complete

3

2,966

2,114

3,907

3,542

2,892

1,886

4

4,104

3,927

3,986

3,825

3,984

3,713

5

4,093

3,950

3,983

3,843

3,979

3,753

6

4,292

4,201

4,155

4,053

4,155

3,991

7

4,493

4,367

4,369

4,301

4,366

4,207

8

4,405

4,306

4,277

4,199

4,275

4,128

9

3,577

3,456

3,400

3,337

3,325

3,176

11

3,225

3,113

3,094

3,007

2,962

2,794

3-8

24,353

22,865

24,677

23,763

23,651

21,678

9 & 11

6,802

6,569

6,494

6,344

6,287

5,970

3-9 & 11

31,155

29,434

31,171

30,107

29,938

27,648

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

7


Reports

Table 5

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 5 N = 3,648

The testing results each year for all the schools are reported directly to the unions, conferences and schools by Riverside and Thomson Nelson. Each year CognitiveGenesis will prepare a year-end report for the North American Division. During the first two years of the project, members of the CG research team have given an oral report of NAD and specific union results to each union. CognitiveGenesis is not planning to make oral or written presentations for schools or conferences.

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

Communication of the final results of the project will involve publications and presentations within the North American Division, as well as for the larger national and international educational community. These results will include identifying the student, parent, teacher, and school variables most closely associated with achievement and abilities. During the interim, the investigators will communicate yearly findings to Adventist educators at multiple levels for use in system-wide decision-making regarding curriculum, classroom instruction and programmatic changes.

Sample The intent of CognitiveGenesis is to collect data from all students in the NAD (including Canada and Bermuda) in grades 3-9 and 11. This report will describe the results for students from the United States and Bermuda. A separate report will describe the results for Canada. Students in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the United States, Bermuda, and Canada do not take the same achievement and ability tests. Students in the United States and Bermuda take the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, the Iowa Tests of Educational Development, and the Cognitive Abilities Test, all of which are published by Riverside Publishing. Students in Canada take the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills and the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test, both published by Thomson Nelson. These tests are modifications of the Riverside Publishing tests and are slightly different in content with scores based on distinct norm groups for that country.

56.96 54.03 55.82 57.14 55.35 55.99 55.42 56.55 50.11 51.60 45.30 49.33 54.26 54.43 52.92 54.23 53.59 54.31

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.53 19.84 20.09 19.80 19.55 20.19 20.27 19.17 19.32 20.90 19.67 19.44 19.39 19.76 19.72 18.53 18.70 18.62

64 58 63 64 63 62 59 62 50 50 40 47 59 58 56 60 59 58

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

212.39 212.27 212.34 216.11 217.38 219.90 218.13 217.88 204.53 209.36 198.69 204.18 212.13 214.02 212.41 212.29 212.36 212.15

24.21 29.25 24.95 27.29 37.00 37.07 36.53 29.48 22.15 30.23 20.49 21.20 27.35 30.13 31.47 24.84 25.80 23.35

8.71 6.75 7.56 7.96 3.60 4.57 5.93 5.36 2.78 3.48 -3.20 0.85 4.82 7.49 3.51 6.80 4.90 5.08

19.52 21.67 18.26 23.54 29.58 29.44 27.05 20.89 15.42 20.27 18.14 13.85 21.34 21.67 22.55 18.73 17.27 14.25

Table 6

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 6 N = 3,896

In preparing the test databases, CognitiveGenesis will use all tests from the United States, Bermuda, and Canada, but will maintain two separate databases for analysis: one for the US and Bermuda and one for Canada. The reasons for not combining the scores are as follows:

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

• There is a sufficient difference in content that merging the tests together would create a problem in interpreting some of the scores. For example, the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills battery does not include a Social Studies test. Therefore, any comparisons across tests would have Canadian data included on most tests but not on the Social Studies test and the Composite score. • The norm groups for the tests are different in two ways: 1) The norms are based on students in different countries and 2) the norming on the tests in the United States and Canada was done in different years. Because of this, a percentile score of 50 on a United States test represents a different level of achievement than a percentile score of 50 on the equivalent Canadian test. Equating the two scores would require the assumption that the overall achievement level in the two countries was identical and observed score differences were due to difference in content and norming procedures. • However, if equating was still deemed to be desirable and the results for the two tests were combined, it would still not be helpful for good curricular use of the test results in either the US or Canada. Curricular use of the tests would probably include using item-specific information to identify areas of weakness. Since the tests in the two countries have different items, the item analysis would have to be done separately for each test.

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

Difference from Predicted Score

6

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

57.05 53.88 55.65 54.24 53.35 54.72 56.01 55.35 50.87 50.31 49.05 50.42 51.76 53.35 54.00 53.94 54.54 53.82

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.61 19.89 20.14 19.39 19.12 20.70 20.66 19.17 19.43 20.31 19.60 19.15 20.02 20.48 20.16 19.50 19.55 19.23

61 59 59 60 59 59 60 59 52 48 49 51 53 58 58 53 57 57

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

227.37 225.38 226.39 226.67 228.64 232.03 234.33 230.42 219.55 221.28 217.32 219.37 223.24 226.67 229.28 227.23 228.26 225.72

26.43 32.72 27.87 29.60 39.77 42.02 42.28 33.19 25.48 33.23 24.52 24.40 32.03 34.79 36.83 30.89 31.26 27.29

6.99 4.96 5.66 5.38 -1.34 2.69 7.17 3.37 1.75 1.43 -2.11 0.29 3.87 7.61 5.21 5.09 4.94 4.13

20.93 24.05 20.21 25.32 32.20 32.37 30.64 23.27 16.93 22.13 20.68 15.30 24.52 24.25 25.17 22.42 19.91 16.24 11


Table 7

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 7 N = 4,102

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

57.21 54.36 56.07 55.38 53.08 55.49 56.26 55.86 52.86 52.92 50.78 52.52 52.46 55.98 56.46 56.57 56.95 55.37

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.80 19.60 20.27 19.84 19.68 19.40 19.33 19.28 18.74 20.11 20.39 19.10 19.52 19.05 20.17 18.56 19.19 18.90

63 60 61 60 56 58 59 60 53 54 47 53 55 59 60 59 60 59

Analysis Schedule

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

240.36 238.41 239.36 241.27 241.00 248.14 247.72 244.53 234.89 238.13 232.17 235.06 236.85 244.05 246.11 244.92 245.53 240.90

28.67 34.84 30.04 32.70 43.83 45.07 44.29 36.46 27.23 36.67 29.83 26.91 35.05 35.91 39.98 33.38 33.96 29.52

7.45 4.84 5.85 6.10 -1.48 4.15 6.49 3.67 3.00 3.51 0.31 2.30 2.59 5.65 6.33 4.66 5.12 4.02

22.21 25.07 21.32 27.63 34.58 34.84 31.68 25.57 17.41 23.57 26.13 16.60 26.44 25.13 27.61 24.09 21.82 17.39

The CognitiveGenesis research team generated a detailed list of specific research questions relating achievement and ability to student, parent, teacher, and school variables. Doctoral students or other researchers who want to study a topic from this research agenda can request the use of the CognitiveGenesis dataset. Currently, eleven doctoral students from La Sierra University School of Education and Andrews University School of Education have requested to use parts of the dataset for their dissertations. At the end of the data collection period, a final report will be written by the research team answering the questions from the research agenda.

Instruments Standardized Tests The standardized tests used to measure achievement in the United States were the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) for grades 3-8 and the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (ITED) for grades 9 and 11. The Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) was used to measure ability for all grades. All of these tests are developed by the same company, Riverside Publishing, and are designed to complement each other. Students in Canada took Canadian versions of these tests revised by Thomson Nelson, a partner company with Riverside Publishing. Survey Development To measure factors that might be related to achievement, four surveys were developed. The process started with an extensive search of previous research to determine what student, parent, teacher, and school variables have been shown to be related to achievement. Finally, educational leaders in the church were asked to consider the resulting list of variables and suggest additions or modifications. From this list, the initial items for the four surveys were created. The surveys were then sent to educational leaders of the church to review and edit. From their suggestions, the research team modified and finalized the final items for each of the surveys.

Table 8

ITBS 2007 Results Grade 8 N = 4,032

NCE Score Mean

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

58.52 55.00 56.82 57.28 56.49 57.01 58.11 58.18 54.33 54.39 50.27 53.46 53.95 55.75 56.83 56.36 57.19 56.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.00 19.39 19.53 19.69 18.90 19.34 18.69 18.78 19.73 19.36 20.94 19.13 19.23 17.68 19.63 17.66 18.40 17.89

67 61 63 62 60 63 62 64 59 55 53 56 56 62 61 60 61 61

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

253.48 251.42 252.45 255.89 260.43 262.93 264.00 260.80 249.50 252.32 243.67 248.49 250.97 255.47 259.28 257.05 258.19 254.39

28.68 37.31 31.14 33.70 45.18 47.32 45.96 37.95 30.71 38.44 34.54 29.92 37.59 35.45 42.07 34.22 35.08 30.44

8.12 4.79 6.13 7.80 1.09 4.44 9.71 5.61 2.08 2.42 -3.06 0.49 2.81 4.25 3.91 3.01 3.21 3.54

22.17 27.19 22.17 28.60 35.61 36.62 33.21 26.86 19.13 24.39 29.45 17.99 28.49 25.70 28.80 25.29 22.51 17.73

To account for differences in developmental levels, two versions of the student survey were developed; one for grades 3-5 and another for grades 6-11. The initial items were submitted to master teachers in the lower grade levels who suggested revisions after testing the items with students.

Data Collection Procedures Testing Each year all unions in the North American Division have a schedule to give standardized achievement and/ or ability tests. Tests published by Riverside and Thomson Nelson have been used for this purpose. To meet the needs of the CognitiveGenesis project, the tests given, the grades tested, and the dates for the testing were standardized across the division. Tests were given in the fall with the answer sheets sent directly to Riverside and/or Thomson Nelson for scoring. When the testing for all Unions was completed, a master database of all test results was sent to CognitiveGenesis for analysis. Surveys Surveys designed by the CognitiveGenesis researchers were given to each student, parent, teacher and administrator in all schools in the North American Division. Each school was responsible for administering all surveys. The surveys were mailed to CognitiveGenesis where they were scanned and processed.

12

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

5


Table 9

ITED 2007 Results Grades 9-11 Combined N = 5,821

Introduction CognitiveGenesis is a research project designed to assess academic performance in Adventist schools and provide answers to questions about the academic quality of Adventist educational programs. CognitiveGenesis is also studying various factors related to achievement, including those commonly associated with achievement and others that may be unique to Adventist education.

Mean Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

This is the first large-scale study to assess academic achievement in Seventh-day Adventist elementary and secondary schools. This research initiative will document the academic achievement of approximately 30,000 students in nearly 1,000 schools throughout North America, using nationally-accepted measures of achievement and ability.

Research Questions

58.85 58.78 59.59 58.47 59.27 57.50 55.03 57.22 57.57 59.35 53.39 58.17

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 20.47 19.35 19.90 20.04 18.54 19.91 19.55 19.44 18.53 19.58 17.01 18.15

66 66 67 67 67 63 59 63 64 68 56 65

ITED 2007 Results Grade 9 N = 3,088

1. How are students in Adventist schools performing academically? 2. How does the academic performance of students in Adventist schools compare to that of their counterparts in public and other private schools?

NCE Score Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

273.02 278.58 275.78 276.82 281.30 274.75 270.49 273.33 276.81 281.22 268.84 276.21

33.66 42.55 36.22 37.02 40.58 37.94 37.94 34.97 41.50 43.28 37.58 34.87

6.06 8.49 7.19 6.56 8.24 3.74 -0.24 2.34 5.19 10.02 -2.93 4.77

25.37 30.54 25.35 32.21 28.84 23.43 28.65 20.68 28.64 29.16 27.79 20.29

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

3. What factors related to students, parents, teachers, and schools are associated with student achievement and abilities?

Research Design CognitiveGenesis researchers at La Sierra University, in partnership with the North American Division (all nine unions and the NAD Office of Education), will collect standardized, nationally-normed test results for all students in grades 3-9 and 11 in every Adventist school in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda (approximately 30,000 students) over a four-year period beginning in the fall of 2006. In addition, they are also using surveys for students, parents, teachers, and administrators to gather information about a wide range of possible relationships with student academic achievement and abilities.

58.32 57.30 58.16 59.67 58.46 56.35 54.72 56.53 55.70 57.26 50.71 56.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 19.53 18.92 18.94 20.04 18.65 19.43 20.46 19.43 18.36 18.99 16.88 17.77

63 62 64 67 66 61 59 61 61 63 51 61

Time Frame for Data Collection

NCE Score Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

263.98 266.95 265.44 270.98 271.84 264.75 262.26 263.92 264.69 269.09 255.25 265.04

29.07 38.32 31.80 35.19 39.06 34.61 37.06 32.25 38.34 39.12 33.76 31.47

5.73 6.30 6.07 10.35 8.56 2.29 -0.42 1.22 2.80 6.16 -7.01 2.77

21.92 27.37 22.04 30.17 27.20 21.36 28.50 18.99 26.64 25.91 26.21 17.83

Standardized Testing Data collection of the achievement and ability scores started in the fall of the 2006-2007 school year and will continue for two more years, ending with the 2009-2010 school year. Four years of testing will provide data to allow researchers to study three years of growth in student achievement and abilities.

Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

Surveys The surveys for students, parents, teachers and administrators were administered during the same time frame as the standardized testing. The surveys will be collected each year starting in the fall of 2006 and continue for the same time period as the standardized tests.

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

59.44 60.45 61.21 57.12 60.19 58.81 55.37 58.00 59.69 61.71 56.42 60.29

Standard Score

Standard Percentile Deviation Rank 21.47 19.69 20.80 19.97 18.37 20.36 18.47 19.43 18.50 19.98 16.64 18.35

69 68 70 64 67 66 57 65 70 72 63 69

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Table 11

ITED 2007 Results Grade 11 N = 2,733

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Table 10

The major questions that CognitiveGenesis will be answering are:

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

NCE Score

Difference from Predicted Score

Mean

Standard Deviation

Mean

Standard Deviation

283.22 291.71 287.47 283.41 291.99 286.04 279.79 283.96 290.51 294.93 284.19 288.83

35.53 43.27 37.35 37.92 39.61 38.36 36.77 34.88 40.66 43.67 35.73 34.22

6.43 10.95 8.45 2.28 7.88 5.37 -0.05 3.61 7.90 14.38 1.68 7.04

28.77 33.60 28.59 33.86 30.58 25.47 28.82 22.38 30.53 31.88 28.79 22.55 13


Table 12

ITBS Year 1 (2006-7) Year 2 (2007-8) Grade 3-8 Combined Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Capitalization Punctuation Usage/Expression Language: Total Concepts & Estimation Problems & Data Interpretation Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Maps & Diagrams Reference Materials Sources of Information: Total Composite

NCE Score

Standard Score Mean

CognitiveGenesis Project:

Difference from Predicted Score Mean

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

57.21 54.35 56.07 56.08 53.65 54.66 56.28 55.69 51.74 52.62 49.02 51.57 54.19 55.32 55.42 55.46 55.93 55.30

57.05 54.05 55.84 56.11 53.58 55.09 55.99 55.72 51.55 52.23 48.56 51.18 53.94 55.17 55.18 55.33 55.73 55.11

-0.16 -0.30 -0.23 0.03 -0.06 0.43 -0.29 0.02 -0.19 -0.38 -0.46 -0.39 -0.25 -0.14 -0.24 -0.13 -0.20 -0.19

221.53 220.69 221.11 222.62 223.04 226.30 228.31 225.07 215.01 218.94 211.39 215.11 220.28 223.59 224.78 223.15 223.97 221.52

221.07 219.93 220.50 222.35 222.58 226.60 227.37 224.73 214.64 218.10 210.66 214.47 219.58 223.00 224.11 222.61 223.37 220.94

-0.46 -0.76 -0.60 -0.27 -0.46 0.30 -0.93 -0.34 -0.37 -0.84 -0.72 -0.65 -0.70 -0.59 -0.66 -0.54 -0.60 -0.58

9.01 7.62 8.02 8.36 2.98 5.69 9.88 6.57 4.25 5.77 0.17 3.34 6.53 8.77 7.90 7.72 7.55 6.65

7.80 5.66 6.45 7.34 1.30 4.62 7.41 5.02 2.82 3.53 -1.30 1.63 4.68 7.86 5.79 5.99 5.64 4.90

-1.21 -1.96 -1.58 -1.02 -1.67 -1.07 -2.47 -1.55 -1.42 -2.25 -1.47 -1.71 -1.85 -1.91 -2.11 -1.73 -1.91 -1.75

Assessing Adventist Academics

SecondYearly Report 2007-2008

Robert J. Cruise, Ph.D. Research Director

Jerome D. Thayer, Ph.D. Associate Research Director

Table 13

ITED Year 1 (2006-7) Year 2 (2007-8) Grade 9-11 Combined Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Reading: Total Spelling Revising Writing Material Concepts & Problems Computation Mathematics: Total Social Studies Science Sources of Information Composite

NCE Score

Standard Score Mean

Difference from Predicted Score Mean

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

Year 1

Year 2

Change

59.13 59.07 59.91 58.40 59.34 57.68 54.74 57.27 57.81 58.99 53.53 58.26

58.85 58.78 59.59 58.47 59.27 57.50 55.03 57.22 57.57 59.35 53.39 58.17

-0.28 -0.29 -0.32 -0.08 -0.07 -0.18 0.29 -0.06 -0.24 0.37 -0.14 -01.0

273.22 278.95 276.07 276.44 281.25 274.80 269.52 273.04 276.98 280.17 268.84 276.06

273.02 278.58 275.78 276.82 281.30 274.75 270.49 273.33 276.81 281.22 268.84 276.21

-0.21 -0.37 -0.29 0.38 0.05 -0.06 0.97 0.29 -0.17 1.05 -0.01 0.15

8.14 11.32 9.64 8.02 10.72 6.22 0.98 4.39 7.98 11.65 -0.59\ 7.07

6.06 8.49 7.19 6.56 8.24 3.74 -0.24 2.34 5.19 10.02 -2.93 4.77

-2.08 -2.83 -2.45 -1.46 -2.49 -2.48 -1.22 -2.05 -2.79 -1.63 -2.34 -2.30

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

Elissa E. Kido, Ed.D. Project Director

14

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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CognitiveGenesis La Sierra University 4500 Riverwalk Parkway Riverside, CA 92515 p. 951.785.2997 www.cognitivegenesis.org

La Sierra University in partnership with the Office of Education, North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists

Yearly Report 2007-2008

CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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CognitiveGenesis - Yearly Report 2007-2008

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