Page 1

E VO LU T I O N S evolutions: a collection of information designs volume 01

introduction to graphic design fall 2012

1


y of time in color, but at the same time it is intriguing

k about looking forward into the future through a

formed lens of color alongside a knowledgeable and

cal understanding of the impact of art and culture. (3)

U.S. Food Administration poster 1918

n o t f o r di s t r ibutio n . n o t f o r s a l e.

Pirate Black Red Orange PANTONE 17-1464 PANTONE 19-4305 Friar Brown PANTONE 19-1230 Radiant Yellow PANTONE 15-1058

Buff Yellow PANTONE 14-0847

Grenadine PANTONE 17-1558

Gloxinia PANTONE 19-3022

Fairway PANTONE 18-6320

Moonless Night Oxblood Red PANTONE 19-4203 PANTONE 19-1524

7553 PANTONE 7760 PANTONE

Apricot Brandy PANTONE 17-1540

Winetasting PANTONE 19-2118

Yolk Yellow PANTONE 14-0846

Burnt Ochre Sunflower PANTONE 16-1054 PANTONE 18-1354 Delft PANTONE 19-4039

Chestnut Aurora Red Dark Green PANTONE 19-5513 PANTONE 18-1550 PANTONE 19-1118

Ensign Blue PANTONE 19-4026

Shale PANTONE 19-3903

Tan PANTONE 16-1334

Violet Storm PANTONE 18-3944

Gray Ridge PANTONE 18-3710

Golden Brown PANTONE 18-0940

Jaffa Orange PANTONE 16-1454 Pink Lavender PANTONE 14-3207 Sycamore Strong Blue PANTONE 14-3207 PANTONE 18-4051

Pompeian Red PANTONE 18-1658

Confetti PANTONE 16-1723

Ad for Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes 19 07

7698 PANTONE Black 6 PANTONE

ar and more specifically why it’s popular, invites us

k at the overindulgences of our own time and what

ollow as a reaction. It is fascinating to look over a

Cover from the Ladies’ Home Journal 1917, Howard Giles

Poster for the U.S. Travel Bureau 1936, Richard Halls

Josephine Baker “La Vie Parisienne” ad 1920

7639 PANTONE

erving color transitions over time, in terms of what’s

“The Flapper” cover of Life magazine 1922, F. Leyendecker

Poster for the National Park Service 1936, Frank S. Nicholson

465 PANTONE

ons from decade to decade provides fascinating

ectives on what may be next in our own time.

Multicolored Bakelite necklace 1937

7760 PANTONE

s how it is placed in a logical order. Tracing color

“Patriot” radio 1939

PARKS & R ECR EATION

Infinity PANTONE 17-4015

portant way in which this time line makes sense, as

Pale Gold PANTONE 15-0927

for understanding the future. This idea represents

Boa PANTONE 17-0625

ory and how color creatively influenced a society is

Edited, art directed and production coordinated by Courtney Hurst.

FA N TA S T I C P L A S T I C

Dusty Pink PANTONE 14-1316

would say that knowing the art and culture at a point

Ancient Harmony no. 236 1925, Paul Klee

ROARING ’20s

Desert Rose PANTONE 17-1927

pening artistically and culturally at that specific time.

WOMEN

Trekking Green PANTONE 19-5411

they operated. (2) Color evolves in a unique way in

culture across the globe and all has to do with what

Several Circles 1926, Wassily Kandinsky

Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2) 1912,

Saxony Blue PANTONE 18-4225

l, and Keith Haring offer up new visions of color, each

ch captures something essential about the world in

Twill PANTONE 16-1108

entury talents such as Robert Rauschenberg, Andy

The Port of La Ciotat 1907, Georges

1930

B A U H A U S

Braque Duchamp Professor Course taught by Assistant WOR LD WA R II of Graphic Design, Courtney Hurst. FIRSTS FOR Grenadine PANTONE 17-1558

y still linger as visual creatives revisit their work. But

1920

Dress Blues PANTONE 19-4024

ssive. The color influences of the early twentieth

CUBISM

Italian Still Life 1914, Lyubov Sergeevna Popova

Medal Bronze PANTONE 17-0942

of the Forties.

change across the decades in aesthetics is also

American Beauty PANTONE 19-1759

was leavened by a bit of lighthearted comedy, but

ealism of the late teens is absent and reflected in the

Rugby Tan PANTONE 15-1315

ermath. World War II’s more somber and dutiful mood

1910

Information designs created by the students of GDES 2230-002: Introduction to Graphic Design studio at Auburn University.

Anthracite PANTONE 19-4007

ic palette at the outbreak of World War I gave way to

sionment with what war could achieve and dismay in

Fluorite Green PANTONE 17-0133

und expressionism in color, too. The chivalrous and

Fusion Coral PANTONE 16-1543

g for personal, bespoke colors that brought out

ndividual potential. Our changing feelings about

Brunette Mirage Gray PANTONE 19-1235 PANTONE 15-4703

ulture

Open Window, Collioure 1905, Henri Matisse

Powder Pink PANTONE 14-1511

lor

T H E FA U V E S

Warm Sand PANTONE 15-1214

TIOn

1900


for faculty, family and friends

3


Evolutions: A Collection of Information Design Projects By the students of Introduction to Graphic Design GDES 2230-002 Copyright Š 2012 by Courtney Hurst and Auburn University Department of Industrial and Graphic Design For more information, please email courtney.hurst@auburn.edu

n o t f o r di s t ributio n . n o t f o r s a l e.


contents Evolution of Communication

6

Evolution of Slang

10

Evolution of Hip Hop

14

Evolution of Listening Devices

18

Evolution of the Novel Evolution of Student Debt

22

Evolution of Color

30

Evolution of Gay Rights

34

Evolution of New York City

38

Evolution of New York Fashion Week

42

Evolution of the Female Body Image

46

Evolution of Baseball

50

Evolution of Prescription Bottles

54

Evolution of Sports Technology

58

Evolution of the Fuel of the Future

26

62

5


the evolution of Communication is the process of conveying information. Almost all species have some sort of communication system. However, successful communication is the trait that has made humans the most successful species. We barely have time to pause and reflect these days on how far communication technology has progressed. Without even taking a deep breath, we’ve transitioned from email to chat to blogs to social networks and more recently to Twitter. While it is amazing to see how far we have come with communication, we have to look at what we are letting die out. It’s hard to imagine communication long before the hustle and bustle of email and text messaging. Technological communication has grown exponentially, leaving snail mail to be a thing of the past. We are

witnessing a breathtaking evolution of new forms of digital communication. More than witnessing, we are facilitating it. All of this is unfolding so quickly that we do not have time to pause and reflect on what is happening. But if the oldest forms of communication are becoming endangered species, then we need to pay attention. Before the invention of the telegraph, our basic form of communication was through hand-written letters. Although snail mail has not gone away completely, mail volume has decreased exponentially due to new ways that people communicate. The Postal Service is losing a staggering average of 36 million dollars per day. As it is exciting to see the new technology that people create today, it is sad to see the classic forms of communication go extinct. See appendix (1)

Levels of intimacy today:

<

twitter

email

text


A look at some numbers:

3000 17 563 tweets tweeted per second

Calls made per day by 18-29 year olds on average

8

million pieces of mail

handled per week

88 112 hours spent

monthly on Facebook

by the average user

texts sent per day by 18-29 year olds on average

emails sent and received daily by average businessmen

See appendix (2)

> letter

phone

talking 7


FACE TO FACE 75% of conversations in the U.S. happen face to face. Face to face conversation tends to be more positive and more likely to be perceived as credible. The human mind is visual by nature and facial expressions in a conversation are key. Though new outlets for communication have evolved, there is no decline in face to face conversation.

2 1

8 social media 175 million people login to Facebook every day. Social Media sites such as Myspace, Facebook and Twitter allow people to be present but not always active in conversation. Approximately 1 in every 13 people on Earth are Facebook users. 48% of those people (age 18-34) check Facebook right when they wake up. 98% of 18-24 year-olds in the U.S. use social media sites.

7

Texting 1983: First commercially available cell phone. 2008: 74 % of all phone users worldwide are texting.

6


Snail mail 1776: The United States Postal Service is founded. Mail volume has dropped from its peak of 213 billion pieces of mail handled in 2006 to 168 billion pieces in 2011 due to the vast changes in the way people communicate. Projections put the volume at 118 billion by 2020.

3

Telegraph 1838: Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first telegram was sent. The telegraph transmits eletric signals over wires from place to place in code which are then translated into a message.

4 Telephone 1876: Alexander Graham Bell is awarded with a patent for the telephone. By 2009, there were a total of nearly 6 billion phone users worldwide.This included 1.26 billion land line subscribers and 4.6 billion mobile users.

5 instant messaging IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply. In 1997, AOL, considered the pioneer of the online community, gave its users the ability to talk in real time with each other through chat rooms and instant messages.

email 1996: Hotmail is launched as one of the first email services. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages

See appendix (3)

9


ION EVOLUT

OF

slang: [noun] 1. very informal usage in vocabulary and idiom that is characteristically more metaphorical, playful, elliptical, vivid, and ephemeral than ordinary language We know slang when we hear it, and we know how to deploy slang in our own speech, because social, aesthetic, and linguistic knowledge guide us. This way, our language renews itself and changes with the times. Slang words show the attitudes of the group or sub-culture that uses them. Slang can appear as a brand new word, a new meaning for an existing word, an abbreviation for a word, or a word that becomes more

HOW WORDS CHANGE

generalized than its former, narrow meaning. By the 18th century, the differences between America and other English speaking countries prompted the evolution of slang. Why use slang? There are many reasons people use slang words and expressions. It can be used just for fun or as a way to be witty or clever. Even if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know it, slang enriches the language (1).

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 0 5 COOL

HIP

RELAX

COOL IT

AWESOME

UNREAL

TO LEAVE

SPLIT


WHO SAID WHAT Grandmom (50’s)

Mom (80’s)

blast party pooper square nerd odd ball no sweat split wet rag

411 air head couch potato glam goth wannabe ralph later

Uncle Ross (90’s) sweet

what’s happening

it's all good livin' large da bomb dawg wassup dude

’s 0 6

’s 0 7

’s 0 8

’s 0 9

W O N

BOSS

GROOVY

FRESH

DA BOMB

SWEET

DON’T SWEAT IT MELLOW

VEG

LOUNGIN’

CHILL

FAR-OUT

GNARLY

RIGHTEOUS

PHAT

DANK

BUG OUT

PEACE OUT

PEEL OUT

BOUNCE

BAIL

11


POPULAR WORDS THROUGHOUT THE YEARS 60’s

blast hip

cool it

party pooper

unreal

split no swea t

10-4

hustle bogu

dude hunk boss far-out bread ut decked o

s slammin'

chick right on flake peace sharp bummed out

tunes

wicked dork nifty mellow out neat-o s u cka

funky

flower power wipe ou

t

50’s

70’s (SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX)


90’s

OMG crunk word

f ly shady

rad

da bomb

burn

bounce

veg out tubular

buzz kill

duh grody airhead wiggin’ out gnarly stoked totally scumbag right eous cowabunga fresh clutch

psych

shawty YOLO

pimp

sweet tool IDK in' mack fratty

dawg

freakin' aw

homeboy

tal

pos going

bling bling wassup your mom as if ...not

diss nd talk to the ha

my bad aiigh t punked l old schoo

boo ya it's all good

80’s

dope BRB

esome

unfriend totes hater

swag

homie straight cougar fugly

LOL

owned cray cray

sick

newbie tweet awk

emo

peeps hot winner fo sho holla TMI

presh legit

e bromanc

NOW 13


HIP HO DJ Kool Hercâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house parties give rise to the first remnants of hip hop culture. These parties spawned both rapping and breakdancing.

1973


OP

The Evolution of an American Art Form

A product of cross-cultural integration, rap is deeply rooted within ancient African culture and oral tradition. Hip-hop is believed to have originated in the Bronx by a Jamaican DJ named Kool Herc. Herc’s style of deejaying involved reciting rhymes over instrumentals. Duplicates of Herc’s house parties soon drifted through innercity Manhattan, spawning many DJ’s and rapper’s who began to progress the genre past it’s original, raw form. Certain groups of ‘B-boys’ as

they were called began getting songs played on the radio, spreading the listening audience even further. In the late 70’s Sugar Hill Gang released “Rapper’s Delight”, the nations first taste at this new genre of music. Although the significance of this is understood today, at the time most considered it an offshoot of disco and not the start of an entire genre in and of itself. Once groups like Run DMC and Public Enemy emerged, it became clear to those paying attention that hip-hop was here to stay.

Run DMC is founded, soon to become one of the most important groups in hip hop history.

1979 Sugar Hill Gang’s “Rappers Delight” becomes the first rap single to top the charts. At the time people viewed the song as an extension of disco instead of a new genre.

1981

Called the “year that rap exploded”, Public Enemy releases “Fear of a Black Planet”, which brought rap to the mainstream.

1988 N.W.A releases their debut album “Straight Outta Compton”, widely regarded as one of the defining albums of the genre.

1990

1993 Wu-tang Clan releases “36 Chambers”, hailed as one of, if not the, most influential East Coast rap album of all time and sets the standard for years to come.

15


At this point in time the genre was generally fun and upbeat, as it provided impoverished youth a chance to express themselves in nonviolent ways. Groups like Public Enemy and Run DMC brought socially conscious hip hop to the forefront. All this changed when N.W.A. hit the scene. Their violent, abrasive lyrics focused on the roughness of street life, glorifying sex, drugs, and partying as a way to deal with the angst of living in poverty. Not only did they put west coast rap on the map, but they also greatly effected how the public views hip-hop even today. Rap, while still amassing a large and loyal following, was not fully recognized as the huge entity it is today until 1990, when Public Enemy released “Fear of a Black Planet”. Many people referred to this as the ‘year that rap exploded’. Nas’ Illmatic came out shortly afterwards, which has since been regarded as the best

in the genre. The violent image that had been accompanying rap since the mid-80’s was cemented with the violent killings of Tupac and Biggie, highlighting the tension in the east coast/west coast rivalry. In the next couple years many of the prominent members of today’s hip hop scene debuted, such as Jay-z, Eminem, 50 cent, and Ludacris. Southern rap, signified by a lack of lyrical substance and a focus on partying, took over in the early 2000’s, which many blame for the decline of rap record sales that started in 2005. 2007 saw interest in rap revitalized, as Kanye West and other alternative rappers like him began innovating the genre and put thea focus back into the lyrical content. This new wave of rappers, such as Odd Future, Kendrick Lamar, and A$AP Rocky, have also utilized the internet to amass a much greater audience for hip hop.1

Tupac is shot and killed while driving in Los Vegas. The exact circumstances still remain a mystery to this day, as the perpetrators were never caught.

1994 “Illmatic”, Nas’ debut album, goes gold and has since been widely regarded as the greatest album in hip-hop.

1994

Jay-z releases his first charttopping single, beginning his utter domination of the rap game that is still continuing to this day.

1997 Biggie is shot and killed in retaliation to Tupac’s death. These murders further solidied the violent image most of the public had of rap music.

1998

2000 Eminem releases “The Marshall Mathers LP”, becoming the highest selling rap album of all time and eventually winning two Grammys.


Top earning Hip-hop artists in 2012

2

110m

45m 35m

38m

27m 10m

Ludacris

15m

20m

20m

Eminem Nikki Minaj Birdman

Drake

Lil Wayne

Kanye

Jay-z

Diddy

2001 Rap sales begin declining, due in part to most popular rap shifting to the “crunk” style, focusing solely on partying.

2007

Dr. Dre

Alternative hip hop, with a stronger focus on the lyrical content, has regained popularity thanks to the internet and a large group of people tired of ‘party rap’. 3

Kanye West releases “Graduation” to immense critical and commercial success, proving there was still a demand for conscious, innovative hip hop.

Southern party rap, pioneered by Lil Jon, becomes popular. Due to it’s shallow lyrical content many hip hop purists condemn

2001

20m

2008

2012

Many rappers begin utilizing the internet, giving away entire mixtapes for free to reach a larger audience.

17


the evolution of how we listen

1948 Introduced by Columbia Records in 1948, the LP (Long Play) was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl â&#x20AC;&#x153;albumsâ&#x20AC;? up to the present. [2]

1887 1877 Thomas Alva Edison created the cylinder phonograph which pioneered the recording and playback of human voice. Used as a recording and playback device, the phonograph traced sound waves on rotating cylinders. However, playback was limited. [1]

Emile Berliner, a German immigrant, patented a successful system of sound recording. Berliner was the first inventor to stop recording on cylinders and start recording on flat disks or records. Berlinerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s disks (records) were the first sound recordings that could be mass-produced by creating master recordings from which molds were made. From each mold, hundreds of disks were pressed.


1965 8-track tapes were the first attempts to bring music out of households onto the streets via automobiles. They are also known as the ‘car audio’.

1966 The cassette tape is introduced in the US. While listeners still favored LP records and 8-tracks, the dawn of portable stereos and SONY’s Walkman made the format popular in the ‘80s.

1998 MP3 players reach the market. The first players had minimal storage capacity but throughout the 2000s flash drive memory was replaced with hard drives in portable MP3 players, allowing for storage of thousands of songs on one device. The iPod coupled with iTunes led the market and revolutionized portable MP3 player style and technology.

1983 CD players and discs hit the market in the US and the rest of the world. Sony “Discmans” replace cassette players. Early CDs had over 70 minutes of audio storage or 650mb of space. The discman could skip tracks easily, contributing to its popularity.

For sources, see appendix

19 19


What's On The Radio? a look into the evolution of radio content

The first major use of radio was for navigation, where it greatly reduced the isolation of ships, saving thousands of lives, even though for the first couple of decades radio was generally limited to Morse code transmissions. In 1917, civilian radio is prohibited by the US government during the onset of World War I. [5]

In December, 1921, the Department of Commerce issued regulations formally establishing a broadcast service. Then, in early 1922, a "broadcasting boom" occurred, as a sometimes chaotic mix of stations, sponsored by a wide range of businesses, organizations and individuals, sprang up, numbering over 500 by the end of the year. Radio ads soon follor and stations become owned by businesses looking to sell products.

In the forties, radio is the voice of the war effort. Entertainers soothe a confused public, news reports inform. Radio unites. With the advent of television, all the big stars and programs and advertisers that made the 1930s and 1940s the â&#x20AC;&#x153;golden age of radioâ&#x20AC;? defect to TV. Radio reverts to playing records.


96

95

%

94

93

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Year This graph illustrates the slowly declining popularity of radio listening in the recent decade.

Radio mimics the jukebox functionality in rock n roll culture by establishing “radio blocks” with predetermined music hours.

Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) was established by the FCC in 1992 by establishing certain segments of radio frequency for satellite broadcast on radio.

HD Radio is introduced. However, HD Radio doesn’t become successful into 2004 when the HD technology becomes more accessable and affordable. [4]

For sources, see appendix

21 21


volution of the Novel

Jane Eyre 1847 To Kill a Mockingbird 1960 Pride and Prejudice 1813

Pride and Prejudice follows the life of Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England.

Wuthering Heights 1847

Jane Eyre is a novel about a girl who was orphaned and sent to a cruel regime at Lowood charity school. She becomes a governess at Thronfield and falls in love with her employer.

Wuthering Heights is a wild, passionate story of the intense and almost demonic love between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, a foundling adopted by Catherine's father.

19th Century

This novel is about children growing up in a southern town and the crisis of conscience that rocked it. This novel deals with racism, kindness and cruelty, and several other touching subjects.

20th Century


The Kite Runner 2003

The Catcher in the Rye 1951

The Hunger Games 2008 1984 1943

1984 was written and published in the 40's but it takes place in a startling vision of the future to come. 1984 follows the life of Winston through a world where the government watches and controls everybody's move.

Harry Potter 2007

The Catcher in the Rye follows a sixteen year old who leaves his prep school in Pennsylvania and goes underground in New York City for three days.

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows is the seventh book in a series that follows a young boy who was told he was a wizard at age eleven. This book takes place in his seventh year of school and instead of attending his studies he goes on a mission to help defeat the dark lord with his two best friends.

The Kite Runner takes place in Afghanistan, following a young boy Amir during the first years of the short-lived republic. His best friend is the son of a servant and this novel follows their forbidden friendship through trials and tribulations.

The Hunger Games is a futuristic novel based in a dystopian government. The protagonist, Katniss takes the place of her younger sister in the annual 'Hunger Games' event where twenty four children fight to the death on live television.

21st Century 23


op Novels by entury 19th Century In decending order of popularity

Pride & Prejudice

20th Century In decending order of popularity

Jane Eyre Wuthering Heights The Picture of Dorian Gray Aliceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Adventures in Wonderrland

Emma Persuasion

Crime and Punishment Frankenstien

Little Women The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Sense & Senasibility

The Count of Monte Cristo A Tale of Two Cities

Dracula Great Expectations

Anna Karenina A Christmas Carol

Les Miserables The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes

To Kill a Mockingbird

1984

The Catcher in the Rye

The Lord of the Rings The Great Gatsby

Harry Potter and the Socererâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Stone The Diary of a Young Girl (Anne Frank)

The Little Prince Animal Farm

The Grapes of Wrath Fahrenheit 451

The Hobbit

One Hundred Years of Solitude The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe

Brave New World

Gone With the Wind Catch-22 The Giver

Of Mice and Men

Lolita

Slaughterhouse-Five Lord of the Flies

East of Eden


Key Genre Categories Romance

21st Century

Life

Fantasy

Adventure

In decending order of popularity

Mystery Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows

The Kite Runner

The Hunger Games

Word Counts

The Time Travelerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Wife A Thousand Splendid Suns Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince

This book size represents 100,000 words.

The Book Thief

Life of Pi Harry Potter and the Order of the Pheonix Water for Elephants

The Help

Genre Percentages From the 19th to the 21st

Fantasy 20% Adventure 15% Life 25%

Romance 35%

Mystery 5%

The Road

The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time

Catching Fire

Adventure 4%

Life 39%

Mystery 0%

Romance 9%

Fantasy 48%

The Da Vinci Code

Twilight Middlesex Lovely Bones Extremley Loud and Incredibly Close

Romance 5% Life 30%

Fantasy 45% Mystery 5%

Adventure 5%

25

goodreads.com Source: Source: goodreads.com


27


29


EVOLUTIOn

of color

in Art & culture We see color with everything we are. What starts as a signal

looking for personal, bespoke colors that brought out

passing along the optic nerve quickly develops into an

their individual potential. Our changing feelings about

emotional, social, and spiritual phenomenon that carries

war found expressionism in color, too. The chivalrous and

many layers of vivid meaning. The context within which

patriotic palette at the outbreak of World War I gave way to

color unfurls its rainbow of symbolism and emotion is history

disillusionment with what war could achieve and dismay in

itself. Historians look back in time to explain the intricacies

its aftermath. World War II’s more somber and dutiful mood

of people and their societies. The evolution of color is

often was leavened by a bit of lighthearted comedy, but

happening right before our eyes and it is fascinating. By

the idealism of the late teens is absent and reflected in the

looking through the lens of history, one can relay what was

colors of the Forties.

best expressed with some objectivity through creative,

The change across the decades in aesthetics is also

cultural, and social influences of the time - or in some cases

impressive. The color influences of the early twentieth

what helped create them.

century still linger as visual creatives revisit their work. But

Revolutionary changes occurred in every visual discipline,

late-century talents such as Robert Rauschenberg, Andy

with rules being broken and new ones set in their place

Warhol, and Keith Haring offer up new visions of color, each

at every turn. New materials became available as new

of which captures something essential about the world in

technologies transformed everything from paints to plastics

which they operated. (2) Color evolves in a unique way in

to powder coatings, and changed the nature of making with

every culture across the globe and all has to do with what

new manufacturing processes. (1) In the past, technology

is happening artistically and culturally at that specific time.

simply supported the advancement of the creative

Some would say that knowing the art and culture at a point

disciplines with new materials, but eventually technology

in history and how color creatively influenced a society is

had been so deeply embedded in design that computers

a tool for understanding the future. This idea represents

themselves became design objects and generators of color

an important way in which this time line makes sense, as

palettes. Software was being written to help designers

well as how it is placed in a logical order. Tracing color

began to influence what was created. Apple Computer’s

evolutions from decade to decade provides fascinating

1998 iMac, which incorporated bright translucent plastics

perspectives on what may be next in our own time.

into its outer shell, was another link between color and

Observing color transitions over time, in terms of what’s

technology. This evolution can in some ways be described

popular and more specifically why it’s popular, invites us

as tracing the country’s continuum from handcraft to

to look at the overindulgences of our own time and what

computer, with a great shift in color choices along the way.

may follow as a reaction. It is fascinating to look over a

With color we can trace some of the most important

history of time in color, but at the same time it is intriguing

social changes of a particular point in history. For example,

to think about looking forward into the future through a

women started the twentieth century wearing the pastels

well-informed lens of color alongside a knowledgeable and

and earnest neutrals that outfitted them for a set of defined

practical understanding of the impact of art and culture. (3)

and constraining social roles. By the ’80s, they were


U.S. Food Administration poster 1918

Black 6 PANTONE

Dusty Pink PANTONE 14-1316

7698 PANTONE

Pale Gold PANTONE 15-0927

Boa PANTONE 17-0625

ROARING ’20s

WORL D WA R II

“The Flapper” cover of Life magazine 1922, F. Leyendecker

Josephine Baker “La Vie Parisienne” ad 1920 7553 PANTONE

Poster for the National Park Service 1936, Frank S. Nicholson

Radiant Yellow PANTONE 15-1058

Multicolored Bakelite necklace 1937 Grenadine PANTONE 17-1558

Gloxinia PANTONE 19-3022

Fairway PANTONE 18-6320

Ancient Harmony no. 236 1925, Paul Klee

7760 PANTONE

Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2) 1912, Duchamp

Friar Brown PANTONE 19-1230

Golden Brown PANTONE 18-0940

Gray Ridge PANTONE 18-3710

Burnt Ochre Sunflower PANTONE 16-1054 PANTONE 18-1354

Buff Yellow PANTONE 14-0847

Moonless Night Oxblood Red PANTONE 19-4203 PANTONE 19-1524

Several Circles 1926, Wassily Kandinsky

Winetasting PANTONE 19-2118

Yolk Yellow PANTONE 14-0846

Delft PANTONE 19-4039

Chestnut Aurora Red Dark Green PANTONE 19-5513 PANTONE 18-1550 PANTONE 19-1118

Ensign Blue PANTONE 19-4026

Violet Storm PANTONE 18-3944

Shale PANTONE 19-3903

Tan PANTONE 16-1334

Jaffa Orange PANTONE 16-1454

B A U H A U S

7760 PANTONE

Apricot Brandy PANTONE 17-1540

Twill PANTONE 16-1108

Pink Lavender PANTONE 14-3207

FA N TA S T I C P L A S T I C

“Patriot” radio 1939

Pirate Black Red Orange PANTONE 17-1464 PANTONE 19-4305

1920

7639 PANTONE

Cover from the Ladies’ Home Journal 1917, Howard Giles

Trekking Green PANTONE 19-5411

Grenadine PANTONE 17-1558

Sycamore Strong Blue PANTONE 14-3207 PANTONE 18-4051

Confetti PANTONE 16-1723

Pompeian Red PANTONE 18-1658

Italian Still Life 1914, Lyubov Sergeevna Popova

Desert Rose PANTONE 17-1927

Saxony Blue PANTONE 18-4225

Dress Blues PANTONE 19-4024

FIRSTS FOR WOMEN

Medal Bronze PANTONE 17-0942

American Beauty PANTONE 19-1759

Fluorite Green PANTONE 17-0133

Fusion Coral PANTONE 16-1543

The Port of La Ciotat 1907, Georges Braque

CUBISM

Infinity PANTONE 17-4015

Ad for Kellogg’s Toasted Corn Flakes 1907

Anthracite PANTONE 19-4007

Brunette Mirage Gray PANTONE 19-1235 PANTONE 15-4703

Open Window, Collioure 1905, Henri Matisse

Rugby Tan PANTONE 15-1315

Powder Pink PANTONE 14-1511

T H E FA U V E S

1910

465 PANTONE

Warm Sand PANTONE 15-1214

1900 1930

PARKS & REC REATIO N

Poster for the U.S. Travel Bureau 1936, Richard Halls

31


Pebblecloth 1950 212 PANTONE

A DIFFERENT SPACE

Retroactive I 1964, R. Rauschenberg Colored disco lights in a nightclub 1970 Black 3 PANTONE

340 PANTONE

7416 PANTONE

157 PANTONE

1235 PANTONE

The Foucault Pendulum poster 1972, Vera Neumann Andy Warhol 7752 PANTONE

7621 PANTONE

211 PANTONE

Marilyn 1967, Andy Warhol

2718 PANTONE

121 PANTONE

644 PANTONE

158 PANTONE

Self-Portrait 1966, Andy Warhol

7465 PANTONE

HAPPY AT HOME 318 PANTONE

7744 PANTONE

516 PANTONE

7662 PANTONE

7713 PANTONE

POP ART

John Travolta in a still from Saturday Night Fever

129 PANTONE

158 715 PANTONE

7579 PANTONE

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM

Warm Red PANTONE

301 PANTONE

158 405 PANTONE PANTONE

7654 PANTONE

2718 PANTONE

Warm Gray 1 PANTONE

1960

10103 PANTONE

7740 PANTONE

Composition 1955, Willem de Kooning

Cool Gray 8 PANTONE

2747 PANTONE

129 PANTONE

Apricot Wash Vanilla PANTONE 12-0712 PANTONE 14-1230

1950

1797 PANTONE

Ad for Gibson 600 Electric Range 1950

Silver Pine PANTONE 18-5410

Black 7 PANTONE

Apricot Sherbet PANTONE 13-1031

Ocean Greyness 1953, Jackson Pollock

Linden Green Faded Rose PANTONE 15-0533 PANTONE 18-1629

Pastel Turquoise PANTONE 13-5309

Dress Blues PANTONE 19-4024

“Willie Gillis at the USO” 1942, Norman Rockwell, magazine cover

Leaf Green PANTONE 15-0332

Tan PANTONE 16-1334

WORLD WAR II

Lunar Rock PANTONE 14-4201

Paprika PANTONE 17-1553

Russet Brown Meadow PANTONE 14-6319 PANTONE 19-1338

page from “Color Dynamics” consumer education booklet 1946

Major Brown PANTONE 19-0810

Desert Palm PANTONE 19-0815

THE AMERICAN D R E A M

Lemon Drop PANTONE 12-0736

Recruiting Poster1941, Robert Muchley

Olive Gray PANTONE 16-1110

Blithe PANTONE 17-4336

1940 1 970

COLORS & C O O R D I N AT E S

Cover from Color in Our Daily Lives: A Consumer Guide educational booklet 1975

NIGHT LIFE


COLOR

1990

1980

now

ANIME

170 PANTONE

293 PANTONE

SIGNS & SYMBOLS

From love potions and the magical hour of sunset to witches and warlocks, fantasy and illusion are inspirations

318 PANTONE 382 PANTONE

of everyday life. As the season transitions from the heat homage to a typical spring shade and creates a bridge into the cooling days of fall. Reminiscent of bright green foliage, it provides a perfect accent to every color in the color palette. Like the name implies, Pink Flambé is a delicious,

231 PANTONE

and enticing Tangerine Tango for an ongoing retro feeling. Or, to bring a calming element to the mix, combine these vibrant warm tones with Ultramarine Green, a deep, cooling blue-green. Ethereal Rhapsody is a grayed-down purple that also encourages comfort and serenity with

230 PANTONE

its quiet, muted tone. Honey Gold, a mellow, burnished Cute anime monsters 1990, Bulent Gultek

yellow, suggests the soft-muted tones of sunlight to brighten a fall day. Pair it with sensible and strong Olympian Blue, a patriotic blue that will surely make its way

1675 PANTONE

into fall and winter athletic apparel. 528 PANTONE

583 PANTONE

consumers to an enchanting place, free from the stresses of summer, Bright Chartreuse, a vital yellow-green, pays

CHIC OVER GEEK

Rich and robust, French Roast is a tasty, sophisticated hue that is a great alternative to the black and charcoal basics typically worn in the fall. Other staple neutrals include elegant and versatile Titanium, the quintessential cool gray, and Rose Smoke, a veiled rose tone that pairs

528 PANTONE

Breen Deep Forest PANTONE 19-1034 PANTONE 19-6110

well with Rhapsody and Titanium. For nearly 20 years, Pantone, the global authority on color, has surveyed the designers of New York Fashion Week and beyond to bring you the season’s most important color trends. This report

528 PANTONE 528 PANTONE

Polo by Ralph Lauren perfume ad 1980

iMac Circle ad 1999

528 PANTONE

Lady Diana Spencer with her fiance, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, at Balmoral, Scotland 1981

528 PANTONE

528 PANTONE

previews the most prominent hues for fall 2012. (4)

Rich Gold Evergreen PANTONE 16-0836 PANTONE 19-5420

Crimson PANTONE 19-1762

and neutrals, they cleverly manipulate reality to transport

vibrant pink with a bit of heat to it. Pair it with vivacious

361 PANTONE

A R O YA L ENGAGEMENT

191 PANTONE

7480 PANTONE

267 PANTONE

299 PANTONE

Interview magazine cover 1981

Cover of I.D. magazine 1999

107 PANTONE

Black PANTONE

this fall season. With an unexpected mix of darks, brights Untitled 1985, Keith Haring

Fresnel Lens Kleemex boxes 1999

French Roast PANTONE 19-1012

Bright Chartreuse PANTONE 14-0445

Rhapsody PANTONE 16-3817

Olympian Blue PANTONE 19-4056

Pink Flambe PANTONE 18-2133

Titanium PANTONE 17-4014

Honey Gold PANTONE 15-1142

Tangerine Tango PANTONE 17-1463

Ultramarine Green PANTONE 18-3338

Rose Smoke PANTONE 14-1508

33


Chicago

daughters of bilitis

first gay rights organization

vermont

first lesbian rights organization

homosexuality

first state to legally recognize civil unions.

removed from official list of mental disorders

1951

1966

1973

1955

1924

2004

1993

2000

first harry hay

forms first national gay rights organization.

transgender organization established.

donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t ask. donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t tell.

policy instituted.

massachusetts

becomes first state to legalize gay marriage


e

The Public & Their Morals

2001

2002

2003

2004 2005

2006

2007

2008 2009

2010

2011

2012

morally oppose homosexuality morally accept homosexuality Many of us were overjoyed at this time in 2008, when Barack Obama's historic presidency began. But many of us were also, at the same time, despondent: Prop 8 had passed the same night that Obama had been elected, and while the rest of the country was celebrating, we had this private grief to deal with. This year, things look very different. While Obama's victory was still closer than many of us felt comfortable with, we had something of a landslide when it came to marriage equality. Four different states â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, and Washington â&#x20AC;&#x201C; saw voters defend marriage equality at the ballot in an unprecedented instance of the majority voting on the rights of a minority and doing the right thing. In the days after the election, many are wondering whether there's some kind of new era at hand, whether we're looking at the beginning of something different than we've ever seen before. For queer communities, this question is maybe even more urgent. Votes on marriage equality look very different now than they did a few years ago, but does that mean this is change we can believe in?

civil unions

The most obviously important thing to note about these victories is that only three years ago, they seemed impossible. Maine and Washington both had votes on marriage equality in 2009, even more recently than Prop 8, and in both cases voters decided to deny gay citizens the right to marry. We were reminded by a barrage of media sources that when the question of granting gays marriage rights was left up to the public, they had never once decided to extend to us the same rights that straight people enjoy. We were forced to wonder whether winning marriage equality by a vote was not just unprecedented, but impossible. So for even one vote to come out in favor of gay marriage only three years later would have been historic; the fact that all four votes did so is nothing short of incredible. That's something more than worth celebrating. And it seems that these votes really do reflect a measurable difference in how the nation feels about us. While gays and gay marriage have been polling better in general in recent years, and many people notice anecdotal progress, it can be hard to know what exactly that means or why that is. But new studies show that this isn't just a result of younger, more socially progressive people reaching voting age; older people are now saying they feel differently about gays than they did previously, which means hearts and minds are actually changing.

new hampshire

house of rep

legalized in Connecticut.

legalizes gay marriage.

approves bill ensuring equal rights in workplace.

Connecticut legalizes gay marriage.

2006

2009

2008

2005

2007

2008

2010

2009

vermont

civil unions

legalizes gay marriage.

legalized in New Jersey.

proposition 8

California legalizes gay marriage and bans it months later.

washington d.c. legalizes gay marriage.

35


Support For Gay Marriage In Polls

President Obama’s decision to endorse same-sex marriage undoubtedly entails some political risk, but recent polls suggest that public opinion is increasingly on his side. According to surveys included in the PollingReport.com database, an average of 50 percent of American adults support same-sex marriage rights while 45 percent oppose it, based on an average of nine surveys conducted in the past year. This is a reversal from earlier periods: support for same-sex marriage has been increasing, and opposition to it has been decreasing, at a relatively steady rate of perhaps two or three percentage points a year since 2004. It should be remembered that support for same-sex marriage in polls has not necessarily translated into support at the ballot booth. On Tuesday, North Carolina became the latest state to adopt a Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage and did so by a margin of about 20 percentage points, somewhat larger than polls forecast. The North Carolina measure also banned domestic partnerships and other types of civil unions. Still, even if polls have sometimes overstated support for same-sex marriage, and if some of the Americans who support same-sex marriage are less likely to turn out to vote than those who oppose it, the issue now seems to have a bit of wiggle room, with supporters slightly outnumbering opponents in recent national surveys. In addition, there is no longer evidence of an “enthusiasm gap” with respect to

2005

2000

1990

35%

30%

15% 70%

30%

55%

2010

2012 45%

50%

55%

45%

support

oppose

same-sex marriage: an NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll in March found that 32 percent of Americans said they strongly favored same-sex marriage, while 31 percent strongly opposed it. Mr. Obama’s electoral calculation may hinge upon three questions related to the politics of the Democratic and Republican base. Social issues often do more to reinforce the loyalties of each party’s core voting groups than to sway the opinions of swing voters, especially in middling economic circumstances. First, there is the question of how much emphasis Republicans will choose to place on gay marriage, which could motivate their base but increasingly divide Republican voters and independent ones. Next, how much might Mr. Obama’s stance be embraced or opposed by African-Americans, who have more conservative attitudes about same-sex marriage than other Democrats? Finally, could the issue motivate younger liberals and Democrats, who tend to support same-sex marriage, to turn out for Mr. Obama when they might not otherwise? Nevertheless, with the broader shift in public opinion, Mr. Obama is not accepting the same risks by endorsing same-sex marriage that he would have even a year or two ago.

president obama

president obama

officially repeals don’t ask/don’t tell

officially endorses same sex marriage.

maine

legalizes gay marriage.

2011

2012

2010

2012

2012

2012

new york

maryland

legalizes gay marriage.

legalizes gay marriage.

washington legalizes gay marriage.


MO

KY

MI

MN

OH

IA IN

WI

IL

KS

VT

ND

RI

SD

PA

NE

NY

WY

NJ NH

ID AK

ted rights limi

MA MD

s

OR

um ri axim ght

MT

DC

m

WA

ME DE

CA CT

HI CO

WN UT

VA TN

AZ SC

NV NC

NM GA

TX OK

AR

MS

AL

LA

FL

Gay Rights By State

37


EVOLUTION OF THE BITG CTITY

“The city seen from the Queensboro Bridge is always the city seen for the first time, in its first wild promise of all the mystery and beauty in the world.” — F. Scott Fitzgerald,

The Great Gatsby.

Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, waves of new immigrants arrived from Europe, dramatically changing the composition of the city and serving as workers in the expanding industries. Modern New York City traces its development to the consolidation of the five boroughs in 1898 and an economic and building boom following the Great Depression and World War II.

In 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it “New York” after the Duke of York. At that time, African slaves comprised 40 percent of the small population of the city. By 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished

to 200. By 1703, 42 percent of households in New York had slaves, a higher percentage than in Philadelphia or Boston. By the 1740s, with expansion of settlers, 20 percent of the population of New York were slaves, totaling about 2500 people.1

Throughout its history, New York City has served as a main port of entry for many immigrants, and its cultural and economic influences have made it one of the most important urban areas in the United States, and the world.1

Through 1940, New York City was a major destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. For a while, New York City became the most populous city in the world, despite the effects of the Great Depression. The skyscraper epitomized New York’s success of the early 20th century; it was home to the tallest building between 1908 and 1974.1


Population per square mile Source: U.S. Cenus 0 Breau 2000.2 1—50 50—100 100—500 500—1000 1000—2500 2500—5000 >5000

M o d e r n

N e w

Y o r k

To give an idea of most recent trends, in accordance with the Census Bureau, population estimates New York City’s population increased from 8,175,133 in April of 2010 to 8,244,910 in July of 2011. This is an increase of 69,777 residents or about 0.85 percent over the 2010 mark. We see the largest shift in the city’s demographic occurred in Brooklyn, increasing by almost 1.1 percent, followed by Queens that registered an increase of 0.8 percent. Manhattan also showed a substantial increase of 1 percent, however the Bronx [0.5 percent] and Staten Island [0.4 percent] showed the smallest gains over the 15 month period. New York City’s increase since April of 2010 represented 80 percent of the total increase in New York State, which raised the percentage that the city constitutes of the State’s population slightly, from 42.2 to 42.4 percent.info explain graphic. 2

39 39


NEWYORK IN

laYers

Upstate New York is the region of the U.S. state of New York that is located north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. Upstate New York is culturally and economically distinct from the New York City area, characterized both by agricultural and forested rural communities and, along major transportation corridors, by small and medium-sized cities and their surrounding suburbs. In the more mountainous eastern part of Upstate New York, the valleys of the Hudson River were historically important travel corridors and remain so today. Transportation among the county’s of Upstate New York mainly consists of high-speed rails, shuttles, and stretches of highway. The sizes of upstate counties and towns are generally larger in area and smaller in population, compared with

the downstate region. In recent decades, with the decline of manufacturing, the area has generally suffered a net population loss. In contrast, many Amish and Mennonite families are recent arrivals to the area. There is also a significant presence of the indigenous Iroquois American Indians in the region, who have filed land claims against New York State based on late 18th-century treaties.3

The history of New York City’s transportation system began with the Dutch port of Nieuw Amsterdam. The 19th century brought changes to the format of the system’s transporta street grid by 1811, as well as an unprecedented link between New York and Brooklyn, then separate cities, via the Brooklyn Bridge, in 1883. The Second Industrial Revolution fundamentally changed the city - the port infrastructure grew

at such a rapid pace after the 1825 completion of the Erie Canal that New York became the most important connection between all of Europe and the interior of the United States. Elevated trains and subterranean transportation were introduced between 1867 and 1904. 4

The transportation system of New York City is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure. New York City, being the largest city in the United States, has a transportation system which includes the largest subway system in the world, the world’s first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel, and an aerial tramway.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. Interborough Rapid Transit, New York City’s first Subway Company, and the railroads operating out of Grand Central Terminal thrived.5


“I would give the greatest sunset in the world for one sight of New York's skyline. Particularly when one can't see the details. Just the shapes. The shapes and the thought that made them. The sky over New York and the will of man made visible. ... Let them come to New York, stand on the shore of the Hudson, look and kneel. When I see the city from my window — no, I don't feel how small I am — but I feel that if a war came to threaten this, I would throw myself into space, over the city, and protect these buildings with my body.

— ― Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead

41 41


The Evolution { of New York Fashion Week }

Before World War II, American fashion did not get much, if any, time in the spotlight. Instead, the world turned to the fabulously fashionable city of Paris for sartorial inspiration. Fashion magazines such as Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar primarily featured the extravagant attire of the French, even if the styles weren’t readily available to the average American. This all changed in 1943 . Fashion journalists were unable to get to Paris for their biannual style excursions, as France was fighting in World War II. An influential fashion publicist named Eleanor Lambert recognized that this was a crucial opportunity to establish America’s place among the international fashion

community. Lambert pieced together a showcase of American designers for the national and regional media through her work at the New York Dress Institute, a group of clothing labor unions and manufacturers. She called the event Press Week. According to Vanity Fair, prior to Press Week, regional reporters had not been able to cover New York’s fashion scene apart from shadowing buyers in their local stores. In an effort to change that, Lambert offered to pay the expenses of any out-of-town journalists who traveled to New York for Press Week. The event was a huge success, and fashion magazines that were normally filled with French designs, like Vogue, increasingly featured American fashion (1).

Designers Through the Decades { coded by the year of his or her debut }

Pauline Trigere

1942

Ceil Chapman 1950

Oscar de la Renta

Tommy Hilfiger 1984

Marc Jacobs

1986

Kate Spade

1965

1994

Bill Blass

Christian Siriano

1970

2008


1940

The first New York Fashion Week (“Press Week”) was organized by fashion publicist Eleanor Lambert.

1943

1960

1950

Claire McCardell (credited for inventing the American look) introduces “soft parts and pieces,” a revolutionary casual and comfortable approach to fashion design.

1953

Milan Fashion Week was established, joining the Big Four fashion weeks internationally.

1958

At 16 years of age, London-born model Twiggy became internationally known as the world’s first supermodel.

1966

Chrysler and Vogue coordinated the Chrysler Imperial Fashion Show, which travelled to 11 of America’s largest cities.

1956

43


1970

Eleanor Lambert brought five leading American designers to Paris to show with such iconic designers as Dior and Chanel.

1973

At a show in a SoHo loft, pieces of plaster came loose from the ceiling, landing on guests and models as they strutted down the runway.

1980

Calvin Klein was the first brand to launch designer-branded underwear for men.

1982

1990 Supermodel Heidi Klum moved to New York to persue her modeling career.

1993

The event was moved to Bryant Park where it was held inside a series of large, white tents.

1994


NY FW {in numbers}

$20 mil

the estimated amount pumped into the local economy during fashion week.

300 shows in eight days. When NYFW started, it only had one show an hour.

2000

Mercedes-Benz officially became the sponsor of the event.

2007 PETA jumped on the runway to protest Gisele Bundchenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use of fur.

2002

New York Fashion Week was moved to Lincoln Center.

2010 Many designers opted out of their usual Bryant Park tents because of the poor economy and held smaller shows.

2009

232,000 the approximate number of people attending fashion week per year.

250+ designers who showed at New York Fashion Week.

*all numbers pertain to 2011 fall fashion week

45

Timeline sources: see appendix


Before the glorification of skinny there was something called sexy. It’s hard to grasp that once upon a time women were actually celebrated for their natural figures. The unfortunate concept of ‘thin’ was not a sought after trait until very recently. The ideal standard for beauty and body image has undergone many drastic changes throughout the past centuries. Beginning with the age of the Renaissance that brought upon an enlightenment, it also brought upon the idea that full-figured ladies were the epitome of sexiness. This was the only time in recorded history that women were actually celebrated for their feminine bodies.

Yet this brief era ended as the Victorian women of the 1800’s became very body conscious. Sexy now had a new meaning attributed to having the smallest waist line possible. In order to achieve this look, many women wore corsets. Some women were even wound so tight that they could hardly breathe. Ironically, with the dawning of the 20th century women did not want to look like women at all. As women fought for their right to vote, a boyish silhouette became the coveted look of the 1920’s. Women would even bind their chests with strips of cloth to achieve a little boy look.


Between the 1930’s and 1940’s, feminine curves were back—yet in a more body conscious fashion. Scales were first introduced into homes at this time. Due to the creation of scales used in kitchens and bathrooms, women started to pay close attention to what they ate for the first time in history. With the coming of the 50’s and a step back towards the conservative, the hourglass figure was popularized by movie starlets. Women were told to look allure as their primary goal was to catch a man. The sixties followed suit with a rebellious flair, rail-thin body ideal, and enormous doe eyes. The pin-thin body that emerged changed the way women viewed thier bodies forever. By the time of the 70’s the thinking-thin phenomenon was in full force, proving that being thin went in hand with sexuality. Large flowing hair and the beach bronzed look now accompanied the newfound hippie child. The aerobics craze of the 80s brought back an emphasis of fitness for women. The expectation that women were supposed to maintain a certain weight while being toned caused eating disorders to skyrocket. With 90210 and Saved by the Bell, the standards of extreme thinness were once again perpuated onto women. The coveted look of the nineties was strung-out and emaciated, epitomized by models and actresses of the time. Yet, with the dawning of a new century a small amount of hope for women is surfacing. As an era aimed at freedom of expression, the 2000’s have given women more choice than ever before. While the reality remains that women are expected to live up to an impossibly thin body type, the definition of beauty is not so concrete. Still for those wanting to achieve the thin ideal, increasingly drastic measures are being taken—as proven with an evident surge of plastic surgeries across the United States. 2

When corsets rose to fame, many women would even break ribs in an attempt to get their waistlines down to an impossible twelve inches. 2

If Barbie was a real woman, she would have to walk on all fours due to her proportions. Yet this is what American girls ages 3 to 12 are being shown as beautiful.10

Models have made smoking a popular method in trying to control their weight. While it may seem glamourous, 25% of these women will die of a disease caused by smoking.10

47


152,123 6.6 Billion 3.98 Billion 2

The pressure on women to look a certain way is so deeply engrained into our society that it is easy to overlook the impact mass culture has on how women feel about their selves and their bodies. It is important to note that we should never underestimate the media influence on body image. This pressing thin-deal in the media is a constant reminder of the negative image being taught to adolescents in our culture and then continuing to be supported by the rest of our population.7 By watching TV, reading magazines, and surfing the web, we are bombarded with airbrushed images of perfect beauty and thinness. These relentless messages are easily absorbed over time that such

The American woman is exposed to an average of 400 to 600 advertisements per dayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;which totals to about 182,500 ads a year.12

beauty is the norm and that all can achieve it if only they purchase their miracle product, buy certain clothes, or reshape that body part youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve always been self conscious about.13 It is because of these misguided values in our society that 80% of all American women admit they do not like the way they look. Nor does the haunting fact that almost half of nine and ten year old girls have already tried to lose weight lift spirits. It is even more disheartening that at age 13, more than half of American girls are already unhappy with their bodies. This number, however, only increases to 78% by age 17. 10

It is estimated that at any given time, 40% to 50% of American women are trying to lose weight.1

An average of $109 million dollars is spent in the United States every day on diet and weight loss products. This number totals to roughly the same amount the U.S. Government spends on education each year. 9


It has been proven that the amount of time adolescent girls watch TV is directly related with their degree of personal body dissatisfaction and desire to be thin. Not surprisingly, more than 5 million Americans today are affected by eating disorders. The most common and dangerous of these are anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Of those 5 million, at least one thousand of those people will die each year. That should never be the case.10 Yet many women across America have had long and ongoing struggle to accept their bodies as they are and to make their peace with–and possibly even celebrate–food. Still it is understandable there are times a woman’s insecurities outweight her feminist sensibilities. All women need some reinforcement to remind them that looks don’t make the woman.13

A study found that young girls are more afraid of becoming fat than they are of nuclear war, cancer, or losing their parents.

Thankfully, certain companies are seeing this split between the model world and reality. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty launched a novel concept to market to real women with real women. While the campaign received both rave and sour reviews, it regardless shook the beauty industry in a positive way. Soon after the campaign began, the media saw a noticeable shift in numerous other companies also using real women in their marketing strategies. It is because of events like these that the women of today are breathing a sigh of relief. More and more organizations across America are striving to challenge culturally imposed standards of beauty. This counter message against mainstream media is a powerful tool for any woman in guarding herself from being swept up in the magazine, television, and media’s influence. Since we are now living through the first time in over three hundred years that women are celebrating their own natural bodies again, we all really do have something to cheer about. 13

Two out of five women would trade three to five years of their life to achieve their weight goals.

The ‘ideal’ woman portrayed by models, actresses, Barbie and Miss America is 5’5”, weighs 100 pounds, and wears a size 5. 11

49


The Evolution of …

We all look forward to a trip to the ballpark, munching on some Cracker Jacks, and the Seventh Inning Stretch. Baseball has been a part of our country for as long as many of us can remember. Starting out as a small hobby, baseball has turned into one of America’s greatest franchises. There have been many changes and modifications to make America’s Favorite Past Time what it is today. It’s not only the uniforms that have upgraded, this inforgraphic illustrates the rise of baseball from attendance to player’s salary as well. "At present, baseball is caught up in a wave of nostalgic fervor, a postmodernist period, designers might say. Teams are reaching into their pasts for a button here, a belt there, adding pinstripes, abandoning color, rehabilitating long-neglected symbols." By reclaiming these images from their pasts, franchises like the Athletics and Braves reflected the anxiety over this discontinuity by graphically asserting their connections to the past. The standard button-down shirt was replaced in 1971 by both the Cardinals and the Pirates with double-knit, pull-over jerseys. By 1978, nearly every team had espoused the pull-over, sometimes garishly colored. SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (1)

1846: First official game of baseball played

SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (7) & (8)


227% Increase in Attendance

Attendance Per Game

= 2,000 people

= 1958

1958

now

= now

SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (2)

SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (3)

1869: The first professional team is formed. The Cincinnati Red Stockings 1887: Home plate was to be made out of runner instead of marble

1865: Batting Averages are taken into consideration

1867: First curveball thrown by Candy Cummings

1876: The National League is formed

1903: The American League is formed

51


A massive development that took place in baseball was when African Americans gained entry into the league. African Americans had their own major leagues from 1885-1951, and over the years history has shown it was practically an equal of the major leagues, with its own history and such stars as Satchel Paige, Josh Gibson and "Cool Papa" Bell. Just as The United States of America took time to end segregation so did our countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s favorite past time. It was not long until the world recognized some of the greatest basebll players to live. Finally, in 1946, Brooklyn Dodgers general manager Branch Rickey defied the unwritten rule barring blacks from the major leagues and signed Jackie Robinson to a contract. Robinson had only played a year when he had become a star player for the Dodgers. This was a big moment in the Civil Rights movement. Robinson led major league baseball to end segregation and finally allow all colors to take part in the sport.

Then

Now SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (4)

SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (5)

1918: Star Spangled Banner is sung for the first time at a baseball game

1943: All major league players were ordered to wear protective helmets

1921: Baseball is broadcasted on the radio for the first time 1903: First World Series played

1943: The ball was permitted to be covered in cow hide because of the shortage of horses


Average Player Salary $3,500,000 $3014572

$3,000,000 $2,500,000

$2338385

$2,000,000 $1,500,000 $1,000,000

$968464

$500,000 $369449 $160109

SALARY YEAR

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

SOURCE: SEE APPENDIX (6)

1943: 340 Major league players serve in World War II 1943: A cork center was added to the official baseball

1946:first African American Jackie Robinson signed to the Major Leagues

“It aint over till it’s over.” Yogi Berra

53


SLOAN’S

Evolution of Prescription Bottles Before plastics were widespread, and pharmacies had high-tech equipment to make and store medications, ingredients for medicines, ointments, even posions were stored in ceramic or glass containers, the latter becoming more popular over time as they were more durable and were mass produced.

Adler sought to make good design for good citizenship

The ubiquity and widespread use of the orange prescription bottles has also made them easily recognizable. When people see a small orange cylindrical bottle, they make the quick assumption that the contents are medicines. However, in 2011, Deborah Adler, a 29-year-old graphic designer saw many inconsistances with the industry standard orange bottle. Adler sought to make good design for good citizenship.

1800

As prescriptions become more chemcially based, ingredients had to be stored in large bottles -- “shop furniture” bottles that apothecaries used to hold important chemicals or other elements used in making tonices, medicines and sometimes poisions. However, photochemical reactions would render these ingredients unsuable over time, and so to help preserve them, colored bottles were used.

Amber became a popular color for bottles and jars, because it gave medicines sufficient protection and cost less to produce than other colored glass bottles. As the mass production of prescriptions and prescription containers became distrubted, it’s likely that the reason the popular color of prescription bottles is orange is because it’s a modern-day extension of the amber colored bottle.


AMOXICILLIN 500MG Take one capsule by mouth three time daily for 10 days qty:30 refills:No Dr. Swane

L AC T O S U M

Fee, Lily

RX 4401687-01874 TAKE ONE TABLET BY ONCE EVERY DAY

SONATA

drug exp:07/27/13

(256) 375-4932

10MG

2012 Industry standard From a boom in industrial production, prescriptions become more manufactured and needed to be contained

for use for the general public. The industry standard, plastic orange bottle was designed to be cheaper and give more information on the drugs.

Shop Furniture Bottles The Pure Food and Drugs ACt of 1906 (effective January 1, 1907) imposed regulations on the labeling of products and

their quanity with substances containing alcohol, morphine, opium, heroin, chlorogorm, or acentanilide. Amber glass bottles were formed

to include the label due to the law. Amber was chosen because it gave medicines suffcient protection of chemicals from sunlight.

for tens of thousands of different medicinal products from the 19th century to the Depression in the 20th century. The first recorded

use of molded proprietary embossing on an American made bottle body was around 1809 on a Dr. Robertsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Family Medicine bottle. Most

local druggists concoted their own medicinal compunds; yet, once medicine became more popular there was a need for glass bottle labeling.

1920

1890 Glass Bottles 19th century medicine bottles were made with a generic shape (rectangular with indented panels) and used

ClearRx Created by Deborah Adler in 2012 after she discovered many flaws with the industry standard bottle.

sha.org

(1)

55 55


2012

Adler found many short comings with the industry standard amber, plastic prescriptions. After realizing that her grandmother had been taking her grandfather’s prescriptions for a number of years on accident, Adler started designing a new prescription bottle for her design thesis.

ClearRx

Target packaging champaign Take “Daily” Adler avoided using the word once on the label, since it means eleven in Spanish.

In Adler’s case study she points out shortcomings with the design of the old bottles. Reading the labels on the industry standard amber, plastic prescription bottles is extraordinarily difficult, not just because of small type size and poor print quality… consumers have to turn the bottles in a circle in order to read information…which leads to poor comprehension and retention. The old warnings with blackprint on dark backgrounds lacks contrast making warnings difficult to read. The labels that do have a lot of contrast like “take with food” and “do not take with nitrates” is an improvement... But what’s a nitrate? The graphic icons themselves are misleading.

Easy I.D. The name of the drug is printed on the top of the bottle, so it’s visible if kept in a drawer.

Informational Heirarchy Adler divided the albel into primary and secondary positions, separated by a horizontal line. The most important information (drug name, dosage, intake instructions) is placed above the line, and less important date (quanity, expiration date, doctoer’s name) is below. “Color is for Grandma” Adler and Rosburg developed a system of six colored rubber rings that attach to the neck of the bottle. Family members choose their own identifying shade, so medications in a shared bathroom will never get mixed up.

Adler would go on to design a completely new prescription bottle that focused on design heirarchy to ensure that patients were obtaining the most important information easily. She contacted Target with her concept. Target took the idea and Adler under its wing. Working together, Target refined Adler’s ideas and developed the ClearRx system.

Top 20 Drugs in the US Market Revenue Sales $7 Million $6 Million $5 Million $4 Million $3 Million $2 Million

Lip t Sin or gu lair Ac to Rit s ux an Em bre Zyp l re Lex xa ap ro Ab ilify Ad Nex iu vai rD m isk us Pla vix Cre sto r Hu Ox rrira yC on tin Se roq ue Ne l ul Re asta mi cad e Cy mb alt a Av ast i n Ep og en

$1 Million

pharmacytimes.com

(3)


Information Card A card with morre detailed inofrmation on a drug (common uses, side effects) is now tucked behind the label. A separate, expanded patien-education sheet, designed by Adler, comes with three holes so it can be saved in a binder for reference.

AMOXICILLIN 500MG Take one capsule by mouth three time daily for 10 days qty:30

drug exp:07/27/13

CAUTIONS CAUTIONS

!

Important: Finish all this medication unless otherwise directed by prescriber Take with food or milk Some Medicines May Decrease The Effectiveness Of Birth Control Pills. Ask Your Doctor Or Pharmacist Drink Plenty Of Water While Taking This Medicine

refills:No

Clear Warnings Adler decided that many of the existing warning symbols stuck on pill bottles didn’t make much sense - the sign for “take on an empty stomach,” for instance, looked like a gas tank to her - so together with graphic designer Milton Glaser, she revamped the 25 most important symbols.

Dr. Swane (256) 375-4932

Upside Down Container Klaus Rosburg, a designer hired by Target, came up with the upside-down versoin that stands on its cap, so that the label can be wrapped around the top. Every piece of paper in the package adds up to 1/8th & 1/2 by 14 in perforated sheet, which elimiates waste for pharmacists. Code Red The red color of the bottle is Target’s signature - and a universal symbol for caution. nymag.com

THE DESIGNER

An Interview with Adler MICHAEL SURTEES: From the story in New York magazine, it was written that your grandmother accidentally swallowed pills meant for your Grandfather. How did you turn that issue into something that could be a thesis project for SVA? DEBORAH ADLER: I grew up in a family of doctors, so the world of medicine has always been a strong interest of mine. It was important for me to develop an idea that had substance and would have meaning to my life. When my grandmother made the mistake, it became clear that I had an opportunity to develop an idea that was both close to me and satisfied my need to do something that would in some–way help others. MS: How common is the issue of people taking wrong medication due to not understanding the label? How did you research the problem? DA: It is not such an easy statistic to find. It actually took me a while to learn that errors made at home are indeed a contributing factor to medication errors at large. It was important for me to have a lot of information to back me up because I wanted it to live beyond my final thesis presentation. I did not want to do this unless there was a real need

(2)

for it. I did most of my research by calling experts, reading books and studies, and searching the internet. People seem to be more receptive to students. It turns out that approximately 60 percent of Americans don’t take their medication correctly. MS: There’s the issue that bad design can harm people, did your design process evolve as you worked on the project? How did you go about designing a new understandable label? DA: My main priority was to create a labeling system that makes the medication user’s experience less confusing. I formed an intuitive label that is divided into two categories, primary and secondary. The primary information reflects exactly what the patient wants to know first. The name of the drug, its purpose, dosage and how to take it. The secondary information contains expiration, quantity, name of the doctor, how to reach him, etc. It also includes the drug store, the refill number and the dispensing date. Information Hierarchy—(order, position, type size, contrast, leading, alignment and choice of typefaces) is another important factor to a functional and clear label. These two elements coupled with the consumer’s point of view is crucial to the success of the labels legibility. It will also make drug safety information easier for doctors to find in a short amount of time. Not only did I want the labels to be functional and easy to understand, but it interested me that by understanding adult schemas for taking medication ,the label has the possibility of increasing memory. (4)

57


+Sports Tech A Brief Glance at the Evolution In Sports Technology With Emphasis on Swimming and Track and Field

Swimming There have been many changes to the equipment that swimmers wear in competitions these days. Especially in USA Swimming, you are bound to see vast varieties of competition suits, goggles, and caps because our enormous numbers of elite athletes are sponsored by different companies. These companies all have the same purpose: to make the fastest swimwear possible. Swimming has been one of the most controversial sports when it comes to what an athlete wears. In the beginning of the sport, the controversy was about

modesty, but in the later years it has become a question of how much technology is too much technology. The quest to make the best swimsuits is based on the ideas surrounding hydrodynamics, much like you might test a car or an airplane design on its aerodynamics[5]. The best suit is the one with the least amount of drag, but the advancements begin to outweigh the talent or hard work of the individual athlete. Although other equipment has been advanced in the sport, the addition of goggles in 1976 was seen as a necessity, rather than frivolous excess.

1896

1924

1936

1968

Swimming is added as an Olympic Sport. Men wore short-sleeved body suits. [2]

Competitors begin to wear one-piece tank suits. American Johnny Weissmuller is the first man to break a minute in the 100 meter freestyle. [2]

The Berlin Games saw the first bare-chested shorts design. The following year, men earned the right to swim topless in the US. [2][3]

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 59.0 [6]

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 57.6 [6]

Less becomes more as the suits get smaller and smaller for men. The belief was that the fabric made the athlete slower. The trend of the brief, or what people term the â&#x20AC;&#x153;speedoâ&#x20AC;?, continues to be a popular trend even today and was worn in the Olympics up to 2000. In fact, Mark Spitz won 7 gold medals in this suit. [2]

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 1:22.2 [6]

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 52.2 [6]

1:23

1:00

59

58

57

56

55


Technology Doping: The Polyurethane Suits When has technology gone too far in the advancement of sports? That was the big question that doomed the polyurethane suits, when NASA helped produce a swimsuit for Michael Phelps to take the Beijing Olympics by storm. Previously, advancements had been made to produce a material affecting the surface area of a swimmer’s body in otder to reduce drag. There had also been a move to use suits that compress a swimmer’s body to be more hydro-dynamic as well as conserve energy in the muscles. However, the amount of compression and added buoyancy of the “tech” suits made it possible to for the suits to replace true athletic ability. Because of this unfair advantage and its limited availability due to its cost, the suits were banned from competition. [4][5][7]

1976

2000

2008

2012

Goggles are introduced to the sport of swimming. This invention helped American Jim Montgomery become the first man to break :50 in the 100 m freestyle. [8][10]

The full body suit was given the seal of aproval in 2000, however, in 2004, Michael Phelps made the suit widely popular in the US with his continued success whilst wearing these suits. [1][9]

Olympic swimmers broke 25 world records at Beijing. To put that number into perspective: the only Olympics in which more marks fell was at the Montreal Games in 1976 (30), the first Olympics where goggles were used. [8]

With the ban of the polyurethane suits in 2010, competition suits contain less fabric than they had in the entirety of the previous decade. Subsequently, the average times become slower. [7][9]

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 49.99 [6]

54

53

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 48.17 [6]

52

51

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 47.21 [6]

50

49

Gold Medal (100m freestyle): 47.52 [6]

48

4759


+Sports Tech A Brief Glance at the Evolution In Sports Technology With Emphasis on Swimming and Track and Field

Track

The Track

There are many advances in track that have helped the athletes become better and faster. While the object of changing suits in swimming was to reduce the drag produced by water resistance, the changes in technology for track are based on reducing the energy wasted on each stride of the race. The major advances in track equipment range from something as simple as the weight of a shoe, to the material of the track itself. Each innovation made is geared towards encouraging the springing movement in the mechanics of running.

When Britain’s Roger Bannister first broke the four-minute mile in 1954, he did it on a gravelly cinder track. That might not be the oldest of technologies – grass predated it – but it’s certainly one of the simplest. In the 1970s, McMahon got to wonder how tracks could be designed to maximize the spring-like power of muscles, ligaments, and tendons. He and his colleagues watched runners on test tracks covered in materials ranging from wood to foam rubber. Then they created a mathematical model of running, based on such factors as how long the foot remained in contact with the ground, and how far the body travelled while it was there. He found that there was a delicate balance between a track that’s too firm and one that’s too hard, and track manufacturers are continually looking for the optimum performance zones within the limits set by the IAAF standards. [6]

The Record Setter While America has been extremely dominant in track, there is one unique advancement in the 100m dash that can stand as a catalyst for the evolution of the sport who hails from Jamaica. Usain Bolt has been setting records and winning international gold since he burst on the scene in 2008. His talent has helped reduce the average of the times (of the top 25) in the men’s 100m dash by 1.4%, which may seems insignificant, but when you consider that the average rate of improvement per year is about 0.01194 seconds, it becomes a more meaningful value. A better way to look at this strange occurrance would be to say that it’s as though every other sprinter raised their game in order to compete with him. In other words, the spirit of competition is still a huge factor in the advancement of any sport. [1]

1994

1968

10 15

10 10

10 05

World Record Progression in the last four decades

[7]

10

1988 1983

June 1991

9 95

1996

Aug 1991

99

9


The Shoes Since the start of the Olympic Games in 1806, track runners have always worn track spikes. While this is not a new innovation, this is still an important starting point when looking at equipment for running. The purpose of the spikes are to increase friction and reduce the amount of energy lost to the ground. This increases the length of a runnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stride and, in turn, saves energy throughout the duration of the race. The big advancement in track shoes was the discovery that a lighter shoe would increase the speed of the runner. According to famed running coach Jack Daniels, a runner expends 1 percent more aerobic energy for every 100 g of weight on a shoe. That seemingly slight difference is significant. A researcher at the Nike Research Laboratory calculated that shaving 4 oz. from a

2005

1999

85

98

shoe would mean a faster marathon time by up to 3 minutes. By comparison, using the illegal, performance-enhancing drug EPO saves a marathoner just over 3 minutes. Shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t that mean that it would be better to run barefoot? Running without shoes has recently become a popular trend, however, research has shown that wearing 150g shoes created a 2.1% decrease in oxygen consumption as opposed to racing barefoot, representing a performance advantage. The science behind the shoe is to find a light enough model to increase aerobic capacity, but retain enough traction with the track to increase the stride of the runner [2][3][4][5].

2007

9 75

2009

97

9 65

96

9 55

61


Algae

Evolution of the Fuel of the Future

An increase in foreign dependency and the negative impact they have worldwide has compelled researchers to search for alternative fuel sources to replace fossil fuels and sustain U.S. oil necessities. Many promising substitutes have developed over the recent years, the most intriguing, long-term solution being the extraction of biodiesel from algae plants. Algae have a number of beneficial qualities: it can be produced in mass quantities, is non-seasonal, consumes CO2, requires minimal land use, can grow in mucky water, and is a renewable energy source. Unfortunately, current methods of cultivating the biofuel prove to be too costly in comparison to fossil fuels. However these fuel reserves are running out and eventually a transition needs to be made. We need to investment in researching cheaper ways to harvest fuel from algae over other biofuels. Compared to other biofuels, algae possess many superior qualities such as: more oil production per acre, they require less land area, they absorb CO2 emmissions, and they do not compete with agriculture. Explore this infographic to learn more about our possible future fuel!


1950

1970

1996

2007

Earliest mention of algae as potential biofuel originated from a 1950s MIT report concerning a rooftop project where algae was cultivated in bulk

After the energy price spike during the 1970s the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) were federally funded $25 mil to research methods of algae cultivation

Funding program pulled in 1996 due to federal budget costs

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 provided new funding for algal research and development through National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

2008

2009

2010

2011

Indicating a growing interest, the DOE held algal biofuels work shop in 2008

Continental Airlines flew a test flight of a 737 in 2009 with one engine running on oil from algae finding that it produced less emissions and provided similar flight quality to traditional fuels.

In 2010, Darpa announced that it had been able to extract oil from algae at the cost of $2 a barrel

Darpa said they would begin testing the process in 2011, with the aim of being able to produce cheap fuel from algae by 2013

Land Area Required to Displace 15% of US Transportation Fuel (MM Acres) TR

EE FA RM

500

IN G

AE

CHGRASS

CORN

ST

150

CORN

7

SWIT

ALG

O

FO

R

ST

RE

WASTE

Algal biofuel is key in meeting the 36 bil gallons per year goal set for biofuels in 2022 by president

In 2009, Exxon dedicated $600 mil to a five to ten year project expected to produce 2,000 gallons of biofuel per acre

VE

2022

In 2010, Federal and nonfederal matching funds of $78 mil were allocated to commercialize algal biofuels

70

90 90

63

see appendix 1, 2


How It Works Algae cosumes CO2 and releases oxygen back into the atmosphere during the growth process

CO2

Algae use photosynthesis to capture sunlight energy to produce oxygen and carbohydrates, creating a natural biomass oil product

SUN

O2

O2

O2

Starting from seed through extration, the process is about 14 days on average

OILGAE

Power Plant

Cultivate

Harvest and Extract

Algae farms could be located near industrial pollution sources, such as power plants, because algae take carbon dioxide from the air while growing. Every gallon of algae oil takes in 13 to 14 kg of CO2

Algae can be grown in a number of devices such as photobioreactors, closed ponds or, shown here, open ponds

The algae is harvested and oil is extracted from algae biomass. It is then concentrated and prepared for processing and refining.

14,400 square miles

CO2 emissions each year (Million tonnes) 1 tonne = 2,204 lbs

would be required to produce

in the U.S. This is roughly the

12

1,163

size of the state Maryland.

2,134

on-road transportation needs

2,581

enough biodiesel to replace all

7 20

13

Million barrels

20 mil

The U.S. consumes of the

Coal

Natural Gas

Renewables

85 mil barrels of oil

consumed globally per day, but processes less than

7 mil

barrels per day, leaving it with a net production deficit of

85

Liquid Fuel

The primary fuel sources emit approximately

5,890 mil tonnes

of CO2 emissions per year

13 mil barrels

see appendix 4,5


Burning freshly produced algae oil releases only what it absorbed in the first place, resulting in a balanced “carbon neutral” effect. This makes algae oil the environmentally-friendly oil.

1,985 million tonnes of CO2 are emitted each year due to transportation. Using the biodiesel harvested from algae to power our cars and planes will significantly reduce this large number.

Refine

Drop-in

Algae is then processed at a refinery just as traditional crude to make all three major distillates – gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. These can be used to run cars, fly planes, and heat homes.

The end result is a complete drop in replacement fuel that is ASTM certified see appendix 3

Why Algae? No need for nutrient-rich land. Algae farms can use land that is otherwise unsuitable for convenional agriculture. This means growth won’t complete with food production, unlike corn or soybeans

5,000

Oil Yield of Most Common Biofuels: Gallons per 1 acre

635

Algae is not picky about water quality, it can thrive in saltwater and even wastewater from treatment plants, so large-scale algae production need not further tax our already over-subscribed fresh water resources

127

48

A renewable energy. Algae use photosynthesis to capture sunlight energy to produce oxygen and carbohydrates, creating a natural biomass oil product. Algae provide security by creating a sustainable pathway to energy independence. It can significantly reduce the amount of fuels we import.

Microalgae

Oil Palm

Canola

Soy

18 Corn

The green slime is non-seasonal. Unlike row crops, algae growth is not dependent on a particular season. Algae crops grow wherever there’s plenty of sunlight and warm temperatures. Algae are inherently carbon neutral and can clean the environment by taking CO2 from the air as part of their growth process. Algae farms could be located near industrial pollution sources, such as carbon-producing power plants, and help clean the air by consuming CO2 as they grow

see appendix 6

65


n o t f o r di s t r ibutio n . n o t f o r s a l e.


sources Erica Russi: The Evolution Of Communication

Jarrett Rogers: The Evolution Of How We Listen

(1) http://readwrite.com/2007/05/30/evolution_of_communication http://dailyinfographic.com/the-evolution-of-communication-infographic (2) http://pewresearch.org/databank/dailynumber/?NumberID=1353 http://www.digitalbuzzblog.com/facebook-statistics-stats-facts-2011/ (3) http://inventors.about.com/od/bstartinventors/a/telephone.htm http://www.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/NewMedia/SocialMedia/ SocialMediaHistory.html; http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.com/238 -how-much-mail-is-sent-each-day.html; http://computer.howstuffworks. com/e-mail-messaging/ainstant-messaging1.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Telephone

(1) http://library.thinkquest.org/08aug/01589/mediaplayers_history.html (2) http://www.voices.com/articles/audio-recording-technology/cd-historytimeline (3) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/555393/soundrecording?anchor=ref527424 (4) http://stateofthemedia.org/2008/radio-intro/audience/ (5) http://www.californiahistoricalradio.com/radio-history/100years/

Avenley Horner: The Evolution Of The Novel (1) Goodreads.com

Virginia Nelson: The Evolution Of Slang (1) Slang: The People’s Poetry-Michael Adams (2) History of American Slang http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/slang/ history-of-american-slang-words.html (3) Slang of the Fifties http://www.fiftiesweb.com/fashion/slang-c.htm (4) Slang Words in the 1960’s http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/slang/ slang-words-in-the-1960s.html (5) In The 70’s http://www.inthe70s.com/generated/terms.shtml (6) 80’s Slang http://www.liketotally80s.com/80s-slang.html (7) Terms of the 90’s, Slang of the 90’s http://www.inthe90s.com/generated/ terms.shtml

Chris Adams: The Evolution Of Hip Hop (1) D, Davey. “The History Of Hip Hop Pg 1.” The History Of Hip Hop. DaveyD, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.daveyd.com/raphist1.html>; Fabian, Jefferson. “The Evolution of Hip-hop Today.” The Crimson White. The Crimson White, 24 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://cw.ua. edu/2011/08/24/the-evolution-of-hip-hop-today/>. (2) Greenburg, Zack O’Malley. “Cash Kings 2012.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 05 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/ sites/zackomalleygreenburg/2012/09/05/cash-kings-2012-hip-hops-topearners/>. (3) Adaso, Henry. “Hip-Hop Timeline: 1925 -Â Present.” About.com Rap / Hip-Hop. About.com, 2010. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://rap.about.com/ od/hiphop101/a/hiphoptimeline.htm>; Alexander, Bey. “Hip Hop’s Musical Evolution.” Www.oneanta.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http:// webserver1.oneonta.edu/faculty/bealt/alexander.htm>

Erin Osborne: The Evolution Of Student Debt (1) http://www.randomhistory.com/1-50/032loan.html (2) http://www.asa.org/policy/resources/stats/default.aspx (3) http://www.newyorkfed.org/studentloandebt/ (4) http://trends.collegeboard.org/college-pricing

Anne Krepps: The Evolution Of Color (1) - PANTONE The 20th Century in Color, By Leatrice Eiseman and Keith Recker, Chronicle Books - San Francisco; page 6 (2) - PANTONE The 20th Century in Color, By Leatrice Eiseman and Keith Recker, Chronicle Books - San Francisco; page 7 (3) - PANTONE The 20th Century in Color, By Leatrice Eiseman and Keith Recker, Chronicle Books - San Francisco; page 8 (4) http://renaissancedesignstudio.com/Color_Trends.html, Renaissance Design Studio, Inc. website

Justin Brown: The Evolution Of Gay Rights (1) www.autostraddle.com (2) www.nytimes.com (3)www.guardian.co.uk

67


Briana Hess: The Evolution Of New York City (1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_New_York_City http://www.aafny.org/cic/briefs/indianamer.pdf; http://www.census.gov/ census2000/states/ny.html Graph-Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties of New York: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (2) “U.S. Census Bureau Census 2000” New York City Department of City Planning: NYC Population Projections by Age/Sex and Borough, 2000-2030 (3-5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_in_New_York_City

Ashley Burrow: The Evolution Of New York Fashion Week (1) Skarda, Erin. “A Brief History of New York Fashion Week.” NewsFeed A Brief History of New York Fashion Week Comments. N.p., 9 Feb. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://newsfeed.time.com/2012/02/09/a-brief-historyof-new-york-fashion-week/>. Timeline Sources: Thomas-Bailey, Carlene. “New York Fashion Week in Numbers.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 16 Sept. 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/fashion/fashionblog/2011/sep/16/new-york-fashion-week-numbers>; “Fashion Week Timeline.” Pretty Little Fashion. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. <http:// prettylittlefashion.wordpress.com/2011/01/23/fashion-week-timeline/>.

Kaela Brinkman: The Evolution Of Body Image (1) “11 Facts About Body Image.” Do Something. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-body-image (2) “A Timeline of Sexy Defined Through The Ages.” StyleCaster News. 19 Mar. 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://news.stylecaster.com/timeline-sexydefined-through-ages/>. (3) “Body Image Timeline.” TheSite.org. 17 Mar. 2009. Web. 22 Nov. 2012. <http://www.thesite.org/healthandwellbeing/wellbeing/bodyimageand selfesteem/bodyimagetimeline>. (4) “Demand for Plastic Surgery Rebounds.” Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics. 4 Apr. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <http://www. cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics.com/statistics.html>. (5) Dreisbach, Shaun. “Exclusive Body-Image Survey: 16,000 Women Tell Their Body Confidence Secrets.” Glamour Magazine, 23 Mar. 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.glamour.com/health-fitness/2009/03/women-telltheir-body-confidence-secrets>. (6) Kendall, Pat. “The Female “Image Ideal:” Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.” The Female “Image Ideal:” Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Colorado State University, 6 Oct. 1999. Web. 18 Nov. 2012. <http://www. feministezine.com/feminist/anorexia/Anorexic004-ImageIdeal.html>. (7) Kovar, Allie. “Effects of Media on Body Image.” Health Psychology Home Page. Vanderbilt University, 30 Apr. 2009. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. <http://healthpsych.psy.vanderbilt.edu/2009/BodyImageMedia.htm>. (8)“Media’s Effect on Body Image.” Teen Health and the Media. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://depts.washington.edu/thmedia/view. cgi?section=bodyimage>. (9) “Media Influence on Body Image Statistics.” Weight Loss & Diet Statistics. 10 June 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.<http://www. eatingdisorders411.com/body-image-statistics.html>. (10) MomGrind. “Women and Body Image: Ten Disturbing Facts.” Blogger For Hire RSS. 2012. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://momgrind. com/2009/01/28/women-body-image/>. (11) “What Real Women Look Like: Body Image Statistics.” My Body

Gallery. University of Colorado, Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http:// www.mybodygallery.com/news-29------body-image statistics.htm>. (12) “Women in Advertisements and Body Image.” Womeninads.com. Web. 20 Nov. 2012.<http://womeninads.weebly.com/ statistics.html>. (13) “Women, Websites, and Body Image.” A New Edition for a New Era. Our Bodies Our Selves, Jan. 2005. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www. ourbodiesourselves.org/book/companion.asp?id=1>.

Laura Heilbrun: The Evolution Of Baseball (1) Sarah Ballard, “Fabric of the Game,” Sports Illustrated April 5, 1989: 108 (2) “MLB Ballpark Attendance.” Ballparks of Baseball. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ballparksofbaseball.com/attendance.htm>. (3) Barra, Allen. “How Baseball Has Changed in 50 Years.” Http://www. online.wjs.com. N.p., 8 Apr. 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB123914799247399059.html>. (4) “San Diego Sports History: Baseball.” San Diego History Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sandiegohistory.org/collections/sports/ baseball.htm>. (5) Kendrick, Scott. “A Brief Illustrated History Of Baseball.” About.com; Baseball. N.p. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <baseball.about.com/od/baseball12/ss/ baseballhistory_4.htm>. (6) Brown, Maury. “How Much Have MLB Salaries Risen When Accounting for Inflation.” The Biz of Baseball. Business of Sports Network, 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2012. <http://www.bizofbaseball.com/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5035:how-much -have-mlb-salaries-risen-when-account-for-inflation&catid=26:editorials& Itemid=39>. (7) Young, Geisler. “Baseball Rule Change Timeline.” Baseball Rule Change Timeline. Baseball Almanac, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. http://www.baseballalmanac.com/rulechng.shtml?utm_source=REFERENCES_R7 (8) Burns, Ken. “Timeline of Baseball.” PBS. WETA, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/baseball/timeline/page9.html>.

Erin Albright: The Evolution Of Prescription Bottles (1) www.sha.org/bottle/medicinal.htm (2 ) nymag.com/nymetro/health/features/1700/ (3)www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/issue/2011/may2011/top -200-drugs-of-2012 (4) designnotes.info/?p=237

Micah Lawrence: The Evolution Of Sports Technology Swimming: (1) http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2009/07/the_evolution _of_olympic_swimw.html (2) http://elupton.com/2009/10/swim-suits-stats/; http:// (3) www.swim-shop.com/swimming/speedo-history.php (4) http://www.mundomaterial.eu/en/2008/08/20/olympic-materialsspeedos-swimsuit/ (5) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/48210560/ns/technology_and_scienceinnovation/t/olympic-swimsuits-turn-athletes-barracudas/#.UJp2JbTC644 (6) http://www.databaseolympics.com/sport/sportevent. htm?sp=SWI&enum=120 (7) http://engineeringsport.co.uk/2012/10/05/top-5-olympic-sportsthat-have-been-influenced-by-technology-number-4-swimming-textile-


advances-in-swimsuits/ (8) http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2008/olympics/2008/08/19/lzr.racer. suit/index.html (9) http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/7/prweb9665766.htm (10) http://www.jimmontgomeryswim.com/about.php Track: (1) http://engineeringsport.co.uk/2012/07/15/sprintings-latestperformance-enhancer-usain-bolt/ (2) http://www.ehow.com/about_6796427_history-track-spikes.html (3) http://www.livestrong.com/article/365597-the-effects-of-shoe -weight-on-running-speed/ (4) http://www.livestrong.com/article/107768-effects-running-spikes/ (5) http://runnersconnect.net/running-training-articles/science-of -racing-flats/ (6) http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/2139/full (7) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s_100_metres_world_record _progression

Laurie Simpson: The Evolution Of The Fuel Of The Future (1) climate.org (2) sapphireenergy.com (3) thedaily.com (4) sustainawatt.blogspot.com (5) sapphireenergy.com/FAQ (6) algae.ucsd.edu

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Evolutions: A Collection of Information Designs  

A Collection of Information Designs by the students of Introduction to Graphic Design GDES 2230-002. Course taught by Assistant Professor Co...

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