Page 1


EDITOR IN CHIEF

Copyright © 2012 University of Pennsylvania Press.

Frank Matero

All rights reserved.

University of Pennsylvania

Published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

GUEST EDITOR

David G. De Long University of Pennsylvania ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Kecia L. Fong Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney

Rosa Lowinger Rosa Lowinger & Associates, Conservation of Art + Architecture, Inc. EDITORIAL ASSISTANT

Meredith Keller University of Pennsylvania

Printed in the U.S.A. on acid-free paper. Change Over Time is seeking papers for the upcoming themed issue The Venice Charter at Fifty (Spring 2014). Please visit cot.pennpress.org for a more detailed discussion of this topics and deadlines for submission. Articles are generally restricted to 7,500 words or fewer. Guidelines for authors may be requested from Meredith Keller (cot@design.upenn.edu). None of the contents of this journal may be reproduced without prior written consent of the University of Pennsylvania Press. Authorization to photocopy is granted by the University of Pennsylvania Press for individuals and for libraries or other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transaction Reporting Service, provided that all required fees are verified with the CCC and payments are remitted directly to the CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. This consent does

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

not extend to other kinds of copying for general distribution, for

Nur Akin

advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective

Istanbul Kultur University, Turkey

Erica Avrami World Monuments Fund

Luigia Binda Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Daniel Bluestone University of Virginia

Christine Boyer Princeton University School of Architecture

John Dixon Hunt University of Pennsylvania

Jukka Jokilehto University of Nova Gorica

David Lowenthal University College London

Randall Mason University of Pennsylvania

Robert Melnick University of Oregon

Elizabeth Milroy Wesleyan University

Change Over Time

Steven Semes University of Notre Dame

Jeanne Marie Teutonico Getty Conservation Institute

Ron Van Oers

FALL 2012

UNESCO

VOLUME 2

Fernando Vegas

NUMBER 2

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

ISSN 2153-053X

works, for database retrieval, or for resale. 2013 Subscription Information (USD) Print and electronic: Individuals: $35.00; Students: $20.00; Institutions: $70.00. Single Issues: $10.00. International orders, please add $17.00 for shipping. Electronic-only: Individuals: $31.50; Institutions: $63.00. Subscriptions are valid January 1 through December 31. Subscriptions received after October 31 in any year become effective the following January 1. Subscribers joining mid-year will receive immediately copies of all issues of Change Over Time already in print for that year. Please direct all subscription orders, inquiries, requests for single issues, and address changes to: Penn Press Journals, 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Telephone: 215.573.1295. Fax. 215.746.3636. Email: journals@pobox. upenn.edu. Prepayment is required. Orders may be charged to MasterCard, Visa, American Express, and Discover credit cards. Checks and money orders should be made payable to ‘‘University of Pennsylvania Press,’’ and sent to the address immediately

Change Over Time Running an ad or special announcement in Change Over Time is a great way to get publication, program, and meeting information out to those in your field. Change Over Time is a semiannual journal focused on publishing original, peer-reviewed research papers and review articles on the history, theory, and praxis of conservation and the built environment. Each issue is dedicated to a particular theme as a method to promote critical discourse on contemporary conservation issues from multiple perspectives both within the field and across disciplines. Forthcoming issues will address topics such as Nostalgia, Interpretation and Display, The Venice Charter at 50, and Vandalism. 2013 Advertising Rates Ads are inserted at the back of each issue and on cover 3 (inside back cover). Only cover 3 positioning is guaranteed. Half Page: $200

Full Page: $300

Cover 3: $350

Issue Closing Dates Season & Theme

Reservation Deadline

Artwork Deadline

Publication Date

Spring 2013 Nostalgia

2/14/13

2/28/13

4/30/13

Fall 2013 Interpretation and Display

8/16/13

8/30/13

10/31/13

Mechanical Specifications Half Page: 5¼” x 4”

Full Page: 5¼” x 8¼”

Cover 3: 6” x 8½”

All journals are black and white and printed offset on matte stock. Ads must be emailed as print-optimized PDF files. Images should be scanned at a resolution of 300 dpi. All fonts should be embedded (type I fonts recommended). Halftones are shot at 133-line screen. No bleeds.

above. All address changes and other business correspondence may be sent to the address immediately above. Typographic cover artwork by Kerry Polite. Visit Change Over Time on the web at cot.pennpress.org.

Submission Address and Contact Info Send reservations and materials, formatted according to specs, to: Dave Lievens, Editing & Production Coordinator University of Pennsylvania Press 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4112 Email: lievens@upenn.edu; Fax: 215-746-3636 A complete ad rate card may be downloaded at cot.pennpress.org by selecting the “Advertising” link from the left menu bar.


EDITOR IN CHIEF

Copyright © 2012 University of Pennsylvania Press.

Frank Matero

All rights reserved.

University of Pennsylvania

Published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

GUEST EDITOR

David G. De Long University of Pennsylvania ASSOCIATE EDITORS

Kecia L. Fong Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney

Rosa Lowinger Rosa Lowinger & Associates, Conservation of Art + Architecture, Inc. EDITORIAL ASSISTANT

Meredith Keller University of Pennsylvania

Printed in the U.S.A. on acid-free paper. Change Over Time is seeking papers for the upcoming themed issue The Venice Charter at Fifty (Spring 2014). Please visit cot.pennpress.org for a more detailed discussion of this topics and deadlines for submission. Articles are generally restricted to 7,500 words or fewer. Guidelines for authors may be requested from Meredith Keller (cot@design.upenn.edu). None of the contents of this journal may be reproduced without prior written consent of the University of Pennsylvania Press. Authorization to photocopy is granted by the University of Pennsylvania Press for individuals and for libraries or other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transaction Reporting Service, provided that all required fees are verified with the CCC and payments are remitted directly to the CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. This consent does

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

not extend to other kinds of copying for general distribution, for

Nur Akin

advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective

Istanbul Kultur University, Turkey

Erica Avrami World Monuments Fund

Luigia Binda Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Daniel Bluestone University of Virginia

Christine Boyer Princeton University School of Architecture

John Dixon Hunt University of Pennsylvania

Jukka Jokilehto University of Nova Gorica

David Lowenthal University College London

Randall Mason University of Pennsylvania

Robert Melnick University of Oregon

Elizabeth Milroy Wesleyan University

Change Over Time

Steven Semes University of Notre Dame

Jeanne Marie Teutonico Getty Conservation Institute

Ron Van Oers

FALL 2012

UNESCO

VOLUME 2

Fernando Vegas

NUMBER 2

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

ISSN 2153-053X

works, for database retrieval, or for resale. 2013 Subscription Information (USD) Print and electronic: Individuals: $35.00; Students: $20.00; Institutions: $70.00. Single Issues: $10.00. International orders, please add $17.00 for shipping. Electronic-only: Individuals: $31.50; Institutions: $63.00. Subscriptions are valid January 1 through December 31. Subscriptions received after October 31 in any year become effective the following January 1. Subscribers joining mid-year will receive immediately copies of all issues of Change Over Time already in print for that year. Please direct all subscription orders, inquiries, requests for single issues, and address changes to: Penn Press Journals, 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Telephone: 215.573.1295. Fax. 215.746.3636. Email: journals@pobox. upenn.edu. Prepayment is required. Orders may be charged to MasterCard, Visa, American Express, and Discover credit cards. Checks and money orders should be made payable to ‘‘University of Pennsylvania Press,’’ and sent to the address immediately

Change Over Time Running an ad or special announcement in Change Over Time is a great way to get publication, program, and meeting information out to those in your field. Change Over Time is a semiannual journal focused on publishing original, peer-reviewed research papers and review articles on the history, theory, and praxis of conservation and the built environment. Each issue is dedicated to a particular theme as a method to promote critical discourse on contemporary conservation issues from multiple perspectives both within the field and across disciplines. Forthcoming issues will address topics such as Nostalgia, Interpretation and Display, The Venice Charter at 50, and Vandalism. 2013 Advertising Rates Ads are inserted at the back of each issue and on cover 3 (inside back cover). Only cover 3 positioning is guaranteed. Half Page: $200

Full Page: $300

Cover 3: $350

Issue Closing Dates Season & Theme

Reservation Deadline

Artwork Deadline

Publication Date

Spring 2013 Nostalgia

2/14/13

2/28/13

4/30/13

Fall 2013 Interpretation and Display

8/16/13

8/30/13

10/31/13

Mechanical Specifications Half Page: 5¼” x 4”

Full Page: 5¼” x 8¼”

Cover 3: 6” x 8½”

All journals are black and white and printed offset on matte stock. Ads must be emailed as print-optimized PDF files. Images should be scanned at a resolution of 300 dpi. All fonts should be embedded (type I fonts recommended). Halftones are shot at 133-line screen. No bleeds.

above. All address changes and other business correspondence may be sent to the address immediately above. Typographic cover artwork by Kerry Polite. Visit Change Over Time on the web at cot.pennpress.org.

Submission Address and Contact Info Send reservations and materials, formatted according to specs, to: Dave Lievens, Editing & Production Coordinator University of Pennsylvania Press 3905 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4112 Email: lievens@upenn.edu; Fax: 215-746-3636 A complete ad rate card may be downloaded at cot.pennpress.org by selecting the “Advertising” link from the left menu bar.


................. 18307$

CNTS

09-27-12 12:59:26

PS

PAGE iv


Change Over Time AN

INTERNATIONAL OF

AND

THE

BUILT

JOURNAL

CONSERVATION ENVIRONMENT

FALL

................. 18307$

$$FM

2012

09-27-12 12:59:14

2.2 PS

PAGE i


84

Editorial D AV I D G . D E L O N G

ESSAYS

88

Adaptation as a Model for New Architecture in Historic Settings: Some Observations from Rome S T E V E N W. S E M E S

CONTENTS

106 Preservation by Adaptation: Is It Sustainable? GREGORY DONOFRIO

132 Tobacco Row: Heritage, Environment, and Adaptive Reuse in Richmond, Virginia DANIEL BLUESTONE

................. 18307$

CNTS

09-27-12 12:59:16

PS

PAGE ii


88

156 Drawing Identity from Change: Planning for Haverford College NANCY ROGO TRAINER

172 The Importance of Being At-Home: A Defense of Historic Preservation in Algeria

106

DIANA WYLIE

188 A Note on Adaptation in Gardens JOHN DIXON HUNT

132

REVIEW

202 Literature Review NATHANIE L RO GERS

156

172

................. 18307$

CNTS

09-27-12 12:59:25

PS

PAGE iii


................. 18307$

CNTS

09-27-12 12:59:26

PS

PAGE iv


Change Over Time

................. 18307$

HFTL

09-27-12 12:59:19

PS

PAGE 83


EDITORIAL DAVID G. DE LONG University of Pennsylvania

Figure 1. Repurposing. ( J.C. Duffy/The New Yorker Collection/www.cartoonbank.com)

84

................. 18307$

$CH1

09-27-12 12:59:38

PS

PAGE 84


The adaptation of preexisting structures to answer changing needs has enriched human history throughout time. Such structures—whether natural or designed artifacts—provide challenging topography for creative revitalization that can sustain and even enhance historic continuity. Historians, sociologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and others examine its effects from different perspectives. Designers, architects, landscape architects, and planners working within the field of historic preservation deal with its manifestations at scales ranging from buildings and their individual interiors to an urban and even regional scale of cities and landscapes. Schools of architecture might do more to address this issue rather than leaving emerging practitioners less prepared to address design issues of adaptation and the theoretical foundations that underlie them. ‘‘Adaptive use’’ and ‘‘adaptive reuse’’ (seemingly interchangeable in the manner of ‘‘flammable’’ and ‘‘inflammable’’) are terms most often used to describe such work, but of late ‘‘repurposing’’ has gained in popularity. Perhaps it is an apt characterization of more offhand examples, such as the growing numbers of shopping mall conversions recently described in the New York Times.1 Predictably for this journal, submissions deal primarily with built artifacts and designed landscapes, offering critical evaluations that sometimes challenge current practice. Steven W. Semes thus argues persuasively for integrating rather than differentiating additions to historic fabric, using Rome to illustrate his points. The 1964 Venice Charter’s recommended approach of differentiation that Semes cites has been widely incorporated into more recent guidelines, and I agree that it has led to a misuse by those who seek too energetically to register their own imprint. Gregory Donofrio and Daniel Bluestone question adaptations of urban clusters that emphasize material preservation at the expense of cultural values, voicing understandable concerns over a change of character through adaptation that obscures original uses that are themselves historic: Donofrio’s example, a local market in Boston; and Bluestone’s, the tobacco industry in Richmond. Dealing with adaptations of building clusters more through planning than design, and with clusters of a different sort—college campuses, in which historic uses remain more or less intact—Nancy Rogo Trainer draws on approaches developed by her firm, VSBA, LLC (formerly Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates), and uses Haverford College as her case study. Cultural adaptation of a more forgiving, and more profound, sort than questioned by Donofrio and Bluestone is the focus of Diana Wylie’s article on preservation in Oran, Algeria.

DE LONG

................. 18307$

$CH1

09-27-12 12:59:39

PS

85

EDITORIAL

PAGE 85


Newer examples of adaptation suggest an approach more sympathetic to original use than those earlier examples cited by Donofrio and Bluestone. Recent articles have illustrated works of adaptation through insertion, an approach leaving the historic shell of a structure, and sometimes the sense of its original use, untouched. For example, a new structure inserted within an historic pavilion in Mexico City, designed by Enrique Norten of TEN Arquitectos, has been effectively adapted as the Chopo Museum, enriching the history of a 1902 pavilion originally erected in Germany, then moved to Mexico, where it became the national Museum of Natural History and underwent other changes before its most recent conversion.2 In Paris, an even gentler insertion within Charles Garnier’s Opera (1860–75), a new element reportedly fully removable from its historic setting, houses L’Opera Restaurant, a use that complements the opera itself. Designed by Odile Decq Benoit Cornette Architectes Urbanistes, it was completed in July 2011.3 Fully contained within an historic shell that remains untouched, it contrasts with their work in Rome that Semes describes. Elsewhere, newer adaptations of commercial or industrial buildings suggest that concerns of Donofrio and Bluestone are being addressed, with those buildings’ original functions not only acknowledged, but even celebrated. In Basel, a former gas station and automobile shop has been adapted as a gallery known as the Von Bartha Garage, its original signage and gas pumps left as a record of its former use. Designed by Voellmy Schmidlin Architektur, it opened in 2011.4 Adaptations of industrial sites to public parks have commanded much recent attention, especially the celebrated High Line in New York City, designed by James Corner Field Operations in collaboration with Diller Scofidio  Renfro and Piet Oudolf’s firm in the Netherlands, Buro Happold. As Martin Filler has recently written, this intervention ‘‘agrees with the bold industrial character of the existing structure.’’5 Nearby, the Brooklyn Bridge Park honors its industrial origins through an adaptive design by Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates. Valkenburgh is quoted as saying that ‘‘one big distinction between ‘landscape architecture’ of the nineteenth versus twenty-first centuries is how much we accept the imprint of prior habitations.’’6 John Dixon Hunt touches on this aspect of landscape adaptation, but more importantly broadens the discussion not only of the adaptation of landscapes, but of adaptation itself. He reminds us that adaptations cannot be narrowly confined—they are more universal in nature. He helps us to understand that even new construction on undeveloped sites constitutes an act of adaptation of buildings (or gardens) to land. The iconic American architect Frank Lloyd Wright well understood this, as Fallingwater (1934–37) dramatically illustrates. There, as elsewhere, Wright adapted his design to the site not in a manner that imitates the nature of its setting, but rather clarifies its underlying structure.7 Nathaniel Rogers, in his literature review that concludes this issue, focuses on additions as a critical aspect of adaptation. He thus links back to Semes’s article that begins this issue, but expands the discussion by raising questions that challenge a single point of view. Together these two accounts might help structure an architectural curriculum more sensitive to historic values.

86

CHANGE OVER TIME

................. 18307$

$CH1

09-27-12 12:59:39

PS

PAGE 86


References 1. Stephanie Clifford, ‘‘How About Gardening at the Mall?,’’ New York Times (February 6, 2012), A1, A3. 2. Beth Broome, ‘‘Restoration, Renovation & Adaptive Reuse: Chopo Museum,’’ Architectural Record 199 (February 2011): 70–75. 3. Naomi R. Pollock, ‘‘A Feast for the Phantom,’’ Architectural Record 199 (October 2011): 70–77. 4. Aric Chen, ‘‘Shifting Gears,’’ Interior Design 82 (August 2011): 164–71. 5. Martin Filler, ‘‘Higher and Higher’’ (review of High Line: The Inside Story of New York City’s Park in the Sky by Joshua David and Robert Hammond), The New York Review of Books 68 (November 24, 2011): 16–19. 6. Sarah Amelar, ‘‘Brooklyn Bridge Park: Designers Transform a Defunct Shipping Complex and Reconnect a City with its Waterfront,’’ Architectural Record 199 (January 2011): 82–89. 7. As I argue in ‘‘Frank Lloyd Wright: Designs for an American Landscape, 1922–1932,’’ David G. De Long, editor, Frank Lloyd Wright: Designs for an American Landscape, 1922–1932 (New York: Harry N. Abrams in association with the Canadian Centre for Architecture, the Library of Congress, and the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation: 1996), 15–133; especially 119–20.

DE LONG

................. 18307$

$CH1

09-27-12 12:59:40

PS

87

EDITORIAL

PAGE 87


Change Over Time

UPCOMING ISSUES Nostalgia SPRING 2013

Interpretation and Display FALL 2013

The Venice Charter at 50 SPRING 2014

Vandalism FALL 2014

Climate Change and Landscape SPRING 2015

Integrity FALL 2015

National Park Service Centenary SPRING 2016

02

9 772153 053004

FALL 2012

2153-053 X

2.2

Change Over Time

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSERVATION AND

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

FALL 2012

Profile for Change Over Time Journal

2.2 Adaptation  

A selection from Change Over Time's issue on Adaptation.

2.2 Adaptation  

A selection from Change Over Time's issue on Adaptation.

Advertisement