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Chris deLong et al. “AS 15531/MIL-STD-1553B Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus” The Avionics Handbook Ed. Cary R. Spitzer Boca Raton, CRC Press LLC. 2001

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC


Avionics Handbook

The Electrical Engineering Handbook Series Series Editor

Richard C. Dorf University of California, Davis

Titles Included in the Series The Avionics Handbook, Cary R. Spitzer The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition, Joseph D. Bronzino The Circuits and Filters Handbook, Wai-Kai Chen The Communications Handbook, Jerry D. Gibson The Control Handbook, William S. Levine The Digital Signal Processing Handbook, Vijay K. Madisetti & Douglas Williams The Electrical Engineering Handbook, 2nd Edition, Richard C. Dorf The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, Leo L. Grigsby The Electronics Handbook, Jerry C. Whitaker The Engineering Handbook, Richard C. Dorf The Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing, Alexander D. Poularikas The Industrial Electronics Handbook, J. David Irwin The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, John G. Webster The Mechanical Systems Design Handbook, Osita D.I. Nwokah The RF and Microwave Handbook, Mike Golio The Mobile Communications Handbook, 2nd Edition, Jerry D. Gibson The Ocean Engineering Handbook, Ferial El-Hawary The Technology Management Handbook, Richard C. Dorf The Transforms and Applications Handbook, 2nd Edition, Alexander D. Poularikas The VLSI Handbook, Wai-Kai Chen The Mechatronics Handbook, Robert H. Bishop


Avionics Handbook Edited by

CARY R. SPITZER AvioniCon, Inc. Williamsburg,Virginia

CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The avionics handbook / edited by Cary R. Spitzer. p. cm. -- (Electrical engineering handbook series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-8348-X (alk. paper) 1. Avionics. I. Spitzer, Cary R. II. Series. TL695 .A8163 2000 629.135—dc21

00-048637 CIP

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the personal or internal use of specific clients, may be granted by CRC Press LLC, provided that $.50 per page photocopied is paid directly to Copyright clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is ISBN 0-8493-8348-X/01/$0.00+$.50. The fee is subject to change without notice. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, or visit our Web site at Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. © 2001 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-8348-X Library of Congress Card Number 00-048637 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC


Avionics is the cornerstone of modern aircraft. More and more, vital functions on both military and civil aircraft involve electronic devices. After the cost of the airframe and the engines, avionics is the most expensive item on the aircraft, but well worth every cent of the price. Many technologies emerged in the last decade that will be utilized in the new millennium. After proof of soundness in design through ground application, advanced microprocessors are finding their way onto aircraft to provide new capabilities that were unheard of a decade ago. The Global Positioning System has enabled satellite-based precise navigation and landing, and communication satellites are now capable of supporting aviation services. Thus, the aviation world is changing to satellite-based communications, navigation, and surveillance for air traffic management. Both the aircraft operator and the air traffic services provider are realizing significant benefits. Familiar technologies in this book include data buses, one type of which has been in use for over 20 years, head mounted displays, and fly-by-wire flight controls. New bus and display concepts are emerging that may displace these veteran devices. An example is a retinal scanning display. Other emerging technologies include speech interaction with the aircraft and synthetic vision. Speech interaction may soon enter commercial service on business aircraft as another way to perform some noncritical functions. Synthetic vision offers enormous potential for both military and civil aircraft for operations under reduced visibility conditions or in cases where it is difficult to install sufficient windows in an aircraft. This book offers a comprehensive view of avionics, from the technology and elements of a system to examples of modern systems flying on the latest military and civil aircraft. The chapters have been written with the reader in mind by working practitioners in the field. This book was prepared for the working engineer and his or her boss and others who need the latest information on some aspect of avionics. It will not make one an expert in avionics, but it will provide the knowledge needed to approach a problem.

Š 2001 by CRC Press LLC


Cary R. Spitzer is a graduate of Virginia Tech and George Washington University. After service in the Air Force, he joined NASA Langley Research Center. During the last half of his tenure at NASA he focused on avionics. He was the NASA manager of a joint NASA/Honeywell program that made the first satellite-guided automatic landing of a passenger transport aircraft in November 1990. In recognition of this accomplishment, he was nominated jointly by ARINC, ALPA, AOPA, ATA, NBAA, and RTCA for the 1991 Collier Trophy “for his pioneering work in proving the concept of GPS aided precision approaches.” He led a project to define the experimental and operational requirements for a transport aircraft suitable for conducting flight experiments and to acquire such an aircraft. Today, that aircraft is the NASA Langley B-757 ARIES flight research platform. Mr. Spitzer was the NASA representative to the Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee. In 1988 he received the Airlines Avionics Institute Chairman’s Special Volare Award. He is only the second federal government employee so honored in over 30 years. He has been active in the RTCA, including serving as chairman of the Airport Surface Operations Subgroup of Task Force 1 on Global Navigation Satellite System Transition and Implementation Strategy, and as Technical Program Chairman of the 1992 Technical Symposium. He was a member of the Technical Management Committee. In 1993 Mr. Spitzer founded AvioniCon, an international avionics consulting firm that specializes in strategic planning, business development, technology analysis, and in-house training. Mr. Spitzer is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He received the AIAA 1994 Digital Avionics Award and an IEEE Centennial Medal and Millennium Medal. He is a Past President of the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society. Since 1979, he has played a major role in the highly successful Digital Avionics Systems Conferences, including serving as General Chairman. Mr. Spitzer presents one-week shortcourses on digital avionics systems and on satellite-based communication, navigation, and surveillance for air traffic management at the UCLA Extension Division. He has also lectured for the International Air Transport Association. He is the author of Digital Avionics Systems, the first book in the field, published by McGraw-Hill and Editor-in-Chief of The Avionics Handbook, published by CRC Press. He and his wife, Laura, have a son, Danny. His hobbies are working on old Ford products and kite flying.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC


Kathy H. Abbott

James L. Farrell

Myron Kayton

Federal Aviation Administration NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

VIGIL, Inc. Severna Park, MD

Kayton Engineering Co. Santa Monica, CA

Christian Favre

Michael S. Lewis

Aerospatiale Toulouse, France

NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

Thomas K. Ferrell

Thomas M. Lippert

Ferrell and Associates Consulting Vienna, VA

Microvision Inc. Bothel, WA

Uma D. Ferrell

Robert P. Lyons, Jr.

Boeing Seattle, WA

Ferrell and Associates Consulting Vienna, VA

United States Air Force Arlington, VA

Douglas Beeks

Daniel G. Baize NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

John G. P. Barnes Caversham Reading, U.K.

Gregg F. Bartley

Lee Harrison

James N. Martin

Rockwell Collins Cedar Rapids, IA

Galaxy Scientific Corp. Egg Harbor Twp., NJ

The Aerospace Corporation Chantilly, VA

Barry C. Breen

Steve Henely

Daniel A. Martinec

Honeywell Monroe, WA

Rockwell Collins Cedar Rapids, IA

Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) Annapolis, MD

Dominique Briere

Richard Hess

Frank W. McCormick

Honeywell Phoenix, AZ

Certification Services, Inc. Eastsound, WA

Ellis F. Hitt

James Melzer

Battelle Columbus, OH

Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. Carlsbad, CA

Peter Howells

Jim Moore

Rockwell Collins Flight Dynamics Portland, OR

Smiths Industries Cheltenham, U.K.

Sally C. Johnson

Michael J. Morgan

NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

Honeywell Olathe, KS

Aerospatiale Toulouse, France

Ronald Brower United States Air Force Wright Patterson AFB, OH

Ricky W. Butler NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

Christian P. deLong Honeywell, Defense Avionics Systems Albuquerque, NM Š 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Dennis Mulcare

John Satta

Pascal Traverse

Science Applications International Co. Marietta, GA

Zycad, Inc. Dayton, OH

Aerospatiale Toulouse, France

Dennis L. Schmickley

Terry Venema

Boeing Helicopter Co. Mesa, AZ

Zycad, Inc. Dayton, OH

Grant Stumpf

David G. Vutetakis

Zycad, Inc. Dayton, OH

Douglas Battery Co. Winston-Salem, NC

Cary Spitzer

Randy Walter

Airbus Industrie Blagnac, France

AvioniCon, Inc. Williamsburg, VA

Smiths Industries Grand Rapids, MI

Arun Ramakrishnan

Russell V. Parrish NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA

Michael Pecht University of Maryland College Park, MD

J. P. Potocki de Montalk

Jack Strauss

Robert B. Wood

University of Maryland College Park, MD

Zycad, Inc. Dayton, OH

Rockwell Collins Flight Dynamics Portland, OR

Gordon R. A. Sandell

Toby Syrus

Boeing Seattle, WA

University of Maryland College Park, MD

Š 2001 by CRC Press LLC


SECTION I Introduction

Elements Daniel A. Martinec


AS 15531/MIL-STD-1553B Digital Time Division Command/Response Multiplex Data Bus Chris deLong




Commercial Standard Digital Bus


Head-Up Displays


Head-Mounted Displays


Display Devices: RSD ™ (Retinal Scanning Display)

Daniel A. Martinec Lee H. Harrison

Robert B. Wood and Peter J. Howells James E. Melzer

Thomas M. Lippert


Night Vision Goggles


Speech Recognition and Synthesis


Human Factors Engineering and Flight Deck Design



SECTION II Introduction


Dennis L. Schmickley Douglas W. Beeks

David G. Vutetakis

Functions Peter Potocki de Montalk

Boeing B-777: Fly-By-Wire Flight Controls

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Kathy H. Abbott

Gregg F. Bartley


Electrical Flight Controls, From Airbus A320/330/340 to Future Military Transport Aircraft: A Family of Fault-Tolerant Systems Dominique Briere, Christian Favre, and Pascal Traverse


Navigation Systems


Navigation and Tracking


Flight Management Systems


Synthetic Vision

Myron Kayton James L. Farrell Randy Walter

Russell V. Parish, Daniel G. Baize, and Michael S. Lewis


Enhanced Situation Awareness



Steve Henely

SECTION III Certification Introduction

Barry C. Breen

Requirements, Design Analysis, Validation, and

Ellis F. Hitt


Setting Requirements


Digital Avionics Modeling and Simulation

Cary R. Spitzer

Jack Strauss, Terry Venema, Grant Stumpf, and John Satta


Formal Methods


Electronic Hardware Reliability

Sally C. Johnson and Ricky W. Butler

Arun Ramakrishnan, Toby Syrus, and Michael Pecht


Certification of Civil Avionics


Processes for Engineering a System


Electromagnetic Environment (EME)

Š 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Frank McCormick James N. Martin Richard Hess

SECTION IV Software Introduction

Robert P. Lyons, Jr.





J. G. P. Barnes

Thomas K. Ferrell and Uma D. Ferrell

SECTION V Implementation Introduction

Cary R. Spitzer


Fault-Tolerant Avionics


Boeing B-777


New Avionics Systems —Airbus A330/A340

Ellis F. Hitt and Dennis Mulcare

Michael J. Morgan

J.P. Potocki de Montalk


McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Avionics System


Lockheed F-22 Raptor


Advanced Distributed Architectures

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

Ronald W. Brower Jim Moore

Gordon R. A. Sandell


Chris deLong et al. “AS 15531/MIL-STD-1553B Digital Time Division Command/Response © 2001 by CRC Press LLC Avionics Handbook The Richard C....