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This project is in copyright. La Cúpula Bookstore is available to distribuite it in CD´s and DVD´s It contains 120 pages



This project is dedicated to my son, Rodrigo, whose adventures with colors, graphics, drawings and designs constantly divert and inspire me.



INDEX  Preface………………………………………………………………………………………………………..


 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………...


 Multimedia Projects……………………………………………………………………………………


 Critics Circle………………………………………………………………………………………………….


 Internet Methodology for Teaching and Didactics Applications of Web 2.0……………………………………………………………..


 Organizing Information……………………………………………………………………………..


 Creating Projects…………………………………………………………………………………………


 Multimedia Content…………………………………………………………………………………..


 Multimedia Educational……………………………………………………………………………


 Visual Cues (SEVEN PRINCIPLES)…………………………………………………………..


 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………


 E-graphy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..




PREFACE FOR TEACHERS, LEARNERS AND USERS New technologies, such as Widgets and Adobe allow desktop applications incorporating Multimedia to be created relatively easily using the web. The importance of the WWW as a means of distributing Multimedia has grown, but we also look at other Multimedia formats besides it. We have also emphasized the emerging role of multimedia as an interface to applications and services. Multimedia has increased to be a specialist subject to be studied and accepted part of computing graphics, texts, animation, interaction, audio, etc., so that learners, teachers and users will be up to date for using any kind of computer programs and effects.



INTRODUCTION The Internet was limited both in what it could do and in who used it. Many people had heard the word but did not have a clue what it was. Today, most teachers have not only been exposed to the Internet but also have access at home or at school. In fact, a large number of schools are being retrofitted to place the Internet in every classroom. Even more exciting than this is the newest technology: Wireless; a school can purchase a Portable Classroom, this consists of laptops networked together, allowing students to work at their desks without wires. If the laptops are networked to a printer, students can print from their personal computer to the classroom printer. Image the possibilities.





The most important reason of creating a Multimedia Project is to help users get academic goals. The five useful media are text, graphics, images, audio and video. Links are possible because students store all media on a computer´s disks. Remember, true multimedia not only has to have the five media but also links to interact.

Teachers the same as users recommend to create some or all of sample projects and learn how to put together multimedia projects into the classroom curricula in order to aid students to get selected academic goals. Some of them are higher-order thinking skills, enhancing interpersonal group skills, learning content by constructing and organizing representations of knowledge, and by the way learning how to create effective use of media and computers. Creating a multimedia project can provide students the chance to learn considerably more than they could learn by creating a report that contains text and images or even by creating a videotape that contains all five media, but remember al time to use links to interact with other meaningful information; in which they connect pieces of text that combines hypertext with it, and its combination will called HYPERMEDIA. Hypermedia visualize more relations and organize information in meaningful ways. All of those projects help students to learn and practice a wide variety of methods.

Using multimedia authoring system program can create media, buttons, and links without any problem. Users can choose any desired buttons to see events in any desired order and determine what part will see next for selecting in a sequential event. Multimedia uses computers to help students do activities that were before impossible.



A multimedia project consists of a collection of computers screens containing some or all of text, graphics, images, audio, and video, along with buttons that the user can select with a mouse. It will take the users to different screens.

All the time, users will use the most recently programs in order to get the most important and relevant information and multimedia authoring system for their projects. That evolutions help students to be an excellent, interactive, active and professional creators of using educational multimedia projects, and of course, encourage others to use it.

Creating projects, students are going to achieve and increase their ability to manage all multimedia projects.

Advantages:  It enables student to represent information using several different media.  It enables students to employ hypermedia links to organize information in many meaningful ways.  It involves a sufficiently wide variety of activities and skills that all members of a group can work on effectively over an extended interval

We take as given that students learn better:  If they construct knowledge actively rather than merely receiving information passively  If they learn to work in groups as well as to work alone; and  If they learn by using multiple sensory modalities in addition to using the most important modality, namely writing and reading text. MULTIMEDIA II


We select the following five media:     

Text: Graphics: Images: Audio: Video:

Letters, numbers, and special symbols Lines, circles, boxes and other shapes filled with shades of gray or colors Still pictures with shades of gray or colors Voices, natural sounds, music and sound effects Pictures that appear one after another sufficiently rapidly to give the illusion of continuous motion, without jerking or flickering

Perceiving a subject with both the sensory modalities o hearing and seeing, and seeing not only text but also graphics or images, involves more of the brain that doe using any single medium. Moreover, using more media increases the likelihood that a student will connect a classroom experience to an experience in the wider outside world. Both factors aid absorption and retention.

 From Chapter 7 to 12 describe several roles in this book. Media require consecutively more challenging techniques, hardware, and software. A school might need to add multimedia software such as an authoring system to the students‟ computers. Text is normally the most effective medium for expressing actual facts such as who was involved and what emerged. Graphics, such as timeline and a, are deal for diagrams that show how events speak about one another, such as temporally and spatially. Image adds impact to many events.  Chapter 8 describes, adds the medium of the audio. Audio, students speak into a microphone and the computer converts their voices to digital form. Critics` circle uses digital audio to record and play back the actual voices of several student critics who five their opinions on a selected subject, the critics are the students who create the project, the students can enjoy hearing and seeing themselves o the computer. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA Hypermedia links let students or other users of the project to see and hear critics` opinions in any order and to read and think about the summary whenever they desire.  Chapter 9 describes the Trailers project, in which students use computers not only to record and play digital audio but also to control a laser disc. Trailers involve hardware than does Critics‟ circle. This project uses analog video. The video signal goes directly from the laser disc player to a television monitor, without being converted to digital form and without passing through the computer. In Science Quiz, as describe in Chapter 10, students need access to a video camera and a computer that can digitize video and then record the digital video on the computer´s disk.  Chapter 11 describes the Memoirs project in which student interview adults and create and organize digital video, digital audio, and associated textual information, they would be impossible to achieve without digital video and digital audio.

Because the most important purpose of student-created multimedia projects is not to learn multimedia techniques, but to master subject matter and get additional academic goals readers should think about how differences of this book´s projects will better assist students to get the craving outcomes.

The most important point for teacher is to encourage students to create multimedia projects, in which students are going to learn subject material and expand their ability to investigate and draw conclusions about it. As mention before, each chapter describes specific goals in which corresponds to each project.

Higher-order thinking skills     

Applying complex concepts Understanding and designing navigation and tours through information Presenting information appropriately and effectively Selecting media and using them effectively Using media to exhibit sense of the times, drama, and impact MULTIMEDIA II


Group and interpersonal skills     

Working successfully in a group` Improving interpersonal relationships Planning useful interim milestones Working with members of other groups in the class Interacting with people outside the classroom

Content or discipline  Learning significant facts and concepts in a given discipline  Learning interdisciplinary topics  Understanding and using vocabulary, symbolism, and interpretation

Technical skills    

Learning project planning and execution skills Using an authoring system´s tools Using hypermedia links to organize information Using, text, graphics, images, audio, and video more effectively

This is an important point because with it students feel comfortable, creative, active and professional when they use multimedia projects.

Teachers need students make readings and writings for remain critically important points, so that they can introduce hypertext in one way. Teachers discourage students from thinking that they have to use original resources because there are thousands and the main idea or the possible points of view their look for in any one. An advantage of having students create videos and images is that students can find out to identify that these media require not tell the whole story.



It helps and allows students to discover a number of diverse ways in which pieces of data transmit one another, so that, students discover those links useful for create and discover.

Recent students will waste significant portions of their adult lives planning employees, employers, and communities. Creating multimedia projects assist professional students to use media when communication with users, with reasonable size groups, and still with mass audience.

Creating a multimedia project is an authentic cause for employing a significant group of students and produces an authentic result. Therefore, creating multimedia projects give students the chance to learn and practice the skills engage in working together to an general end.

   

Visit a local school or college that uses multimedia. Visit a college or municipal library because contain information on a CD-ROM. Visit a computer store or office supply store because collets literature on some multimedia computers. Visit a video-game room in a mall and try some of the games, so that we observe different uses of users.  Visit a mall, supermarket, airport, or public building that contains a kiosk, that is a computer in a piece of furniture or a display case, because kiosk contains sensitive screens.  Visit a photography store or department in a mall or supermarket and ask for a demonstration of photos.



If we are looking for detail information is not multimedia. Multimedia is something interesting, interactive, attractive, creative and professional. Some examples:  Reading a newspaper identifies places and access for more information.  Thinking about any document in which we resume or autobiography, integrates creating of texts and using a word processors.  Watching several television shows, commercial and news programs, it is not multimedia because we can not interact but have some functions that it can have some attractive and motivating programs.

         

Video camera or camcorder Still camera Digital still camera Audio cassette recorder Video cassette recorder Laser disc player Music system with compact disc-digital audio Computer with a word processor Multimedia computer with audio card and CD-ROM drive Artists ´equipment, such as for oil or watercolor painting





GROUPS CREATE THEIR CRITICS´ CIRCLE Teacher has to divide the classroom into groups of five, each group has to discuss about the movie where everybody has to hear. They begin to create their own multimedia project by modifying the copy of the critics´ circle template provided by the teacher. They have to use three critics in their opinions and each one has a similar use, and then critic checks the results. In the project appears buttons not images, employing a multimedia authoring system´s facilitates to create these pages easy but there are more advanced students that use and modify projects with hard copies and techniques. They can substitute icons by pictures of members from the group for illustrating critics´ opinions and at the end they write summary about the opinions that they present and practice of the activity.

AUDIENCES USE EACH PROJECT A group of people as teachers, staff, parents and students listen to and analyze the critics´ opinions of the movie, read the summaries of the groups and begin to interact with the projects in the welcome page, opinion, and return buttons.

ROLES PEOPLE PLAY IN CRITICS´ CIRCLE PROJECT Teacher selects projects, executes four-step process, facilitates creation. Students create projects in groups, playing the role of critic, image and icon specialist, analyst.

Users enjoy and evaluate the projects. Support staff assists the teacher in setting up equipment and installing templates.

INTERNAL VIEW OF CRITICS´ CIRCLE: Critics´ Circle has different purposes because it uses an image to emphasize that each critic is areal individual whose opinion deserves a respectful hearing, uses text to present a formal analysis and summary, and uses icon buttons that invoke links that go from one page to another and those allow user-driven proceeds through the information fix order and convince users of something.



Meeting goals can symbolize an significant cognitive and interpersonal experience.Using these kinds of projects help to teach contents. This project requires a team effort resulting in a presentation in front of the whole class, because creating critics´ circle contains selecting a division of the group members´ views that correspond to a whole range of opinion and are individually and collectively interesting and connecting.

The project gives the group an opportunity to use multiple media to express, analyze, and possibly reconcile the opinions, members may consider role-playing to present a view different from their own. The project requires students to go through a process that includes brainstorming, exposition with feedback, writing, editing, and publishing or performance; and invokes higher-order or metalevel skills that include recognizing differing points of view and organizing different views into a framework.

GOALS OF CRITICS´ CIRCLE PROJECT: High-Order Thinking Skills: Formulating viewpoints Choosing among different viewpoints Analyzing and meaningfully communicating contradictory opinions Synthesizing and composing a concise summary Articulating and refining an oral statement Imagination and empathy Role playing to cover a range of opinions Group and Interpersonal Skills: Recognizing a spectrum of different, valid opinions on the same subject Working successfully in a group, including choosing roles Noting what different people react to in the selected movie Content Material Learning: Expository writing Deeper understanding of tensions involved in content Dramatic and production values Content of movie or other subject discussed Technical Skills: Recording voice Creating and recording images MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA Linking to provide coherent and logical organization Express opinions in text, graphics, and speech Creating expressive graphic icons Using text for a formal summary of opinions Modifying a template, perhaps following cookbook PRACTICE: Here, we are going to learn the following steps to create this project:

STEP TWO-TEACHER ASSIGNS PROJECT: Announce topic, educational goals, and exhibits Present organizing principle, template, and story board Decide sources of images of critics Suggest subtasks Allot time for completion If learning to deal with differences of opinion is an important objective, teacher should introduce that subject in advance by means of a few examples of role playing with the class. The teacher should challenge the groups to use the media in an effective and appealing way, using symbolic, oral and textual forms. Students should not reiterate the oral opinions but rather distill the essence of how the opinions relate to one another. How much storage space do images and audio occupy? Images are 280 by 280 pixels and has 4 bits so it occupies 39,200B; 320 by 240 by 1 Byte color images occupies 76,800B, etc. two key part of assigning the project are telling students how long they have to MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA complete their work and coaching them on how to allocate the available time among the many tasks that are required for completion. Here teacher can mention that students are motivated and available in creating any kind of projects in which they are going to interact with multimedia sources of graphics.

Here mention the group dynamics are highly variable with teacher´s guidance. And teacher may suggest that students: Add a title page ahead of the welcome page that contains text and images Add appropriate background music Illustrate and annotate the summary page Create links from the summary text to particular critics´ page

Hold a group discussion to brainstorm Select the three critics that involves understandings Rehearse stating the opinions Record each critic´s opinion Design icons that represent the opinions Put in each critic´s image Analyze the arguments and write the summary Assemble and test the complete project

Give the critics´ pages smaller photos to leave room for some graphics or text about the movie. Why did the speaker howl and disrupt the whole class when students tried to record my opinion? That howl is called “Audio feedback”. Students left the amplifier and speaker turned on when someone is trying to record what teacher say into the microphone. What is digital audio and why does this project use digital audio rather than an audio cassette recorder? Why do we scan our photographs and store them inn digital form in the computers? Everything stored on a computer is digital. Users store words and numbers on disks so that users can access them rapidly, edit them, process them, and make accurate copies of them. Users convert sounds and photographs to digital form so that users can store them on the computers and get the same advantage.

STEP FOUR-REFLECTION: Students do self-evaluation as they create project Teachers reflect on the project Review any public performances Conduct class evaluation Students and teachers can amend the project with written and spoken comments using a common format for corresponding buttons; during the reflection step, teachers can engage the students in a discussion of the entire activity, process, and content. Students may be especially receptive to discussing the process after the fact, teacher can also encourage the entire class to expound on the total range of opinions expressed in all of the projects that they have seen.





If teachers want to teach with Internet, they have to integrate Educational and Reality Virtual Notions. VIRTUAL REALITY: It is controversial and creates confusion because it is something that is, but in reality is not. Virtual reality is a way thing through electronic means, which gives the impression of being in a real context in which we interact with everything around us. VRML EVOLUTION (VIRTUAL REALITY MODELING LANGUAGE): In 1989, Carey and Paul Strauss Rik started and built three-dimensional graphics, interactive applications and their two objectives were: Building a development environment that allows the creation of a wide variety of applications distributed interactive tree-dimensional graphics. Using this development environment to build a new three-dimensional user interface. The first step was to design and build the semantics and mechanisms for the work platform in 1992, was released on Iris Inventor 3D toolkit today conforms to VRML. In 1994, he release the second major release of Open Inventor and Inventor call created the VRML mailing list or discussion list: “WWW-VRML� which called for to proposals for a formal specification of 3D on the WWW. In VRML 2.0 added the ability to interpolate movement. The languages are Java and Javascript suggested, although it is thought to allow other languages in the future. VRML 3.0: Socialization, the last step in preparation, that is to define interfaces to specify multiuser interaction. There are several standards such as the DIS used in the area of military simulation. VRLM AS A TOOL: It is mentioned as the next dominant technology in the Web and in environments other way around, the aim of this is to present people the scope of VRML, applications and approaches that are currently given. Some of the applications are:



Product Demonstration


Displaying data organized





Virtual laboratories and scientific visualization

PRODUCTS DEMONSTRATION: Now on the Web is normally used for displaying catalogs and specification sheets are different types of advertising literature, although not fully utilized. Interactivity: The user interacts with the product you want to buy Multimedia Interaction: VRML provides the integration of other types of multimedia. Band Width: The transmission time can decrease avoiding the user having to wait long to lose interest. ADVERTISEMENTS: Including banners, which help us to create animated images to attract the interest of users. ARCHITECTURE: So far it has led the architecture with two-dimensional images to display three-dimensional space, which allows users to feel in the demonstrations, interactions and programs using colors, shapes, textures, lights, etc. ART: Here allows users to expand their creativity by giving them useful and easy tools for the best combined performance of concepts. ENTERTAINMENT: Telepong was one of the first electronic games but with the birth of the Web have created many games in which they develop various interactive activities and appearances. WHAT YOU NEED TO BROWSE VRML? At present, browsers need to install updated versions to navigate the world of the Web without any problem. VRML navigate Accessories: For older browsers, there are several types of accessories, designed to navigate virtual worlds such as Silicon Graphics CosmoPlayer. Internet Connection: The VRML was designed to be used over the Internet, using less bandwidth using the resources of the client computer. Team Viewer Requirements: The use of fast computers makes the virtual world is more real and more detail, such as a 75MHz Pentium with 32 MB RAM or equivalent.



Cooperative learning provides a wide range of strategies to promote academic learning through communication and cooperation and mutual help students learn, share ideas and resources and cooperatively plan what and how to study. Cooperative learning requires support, sharing and cooperation become the norm in the classroom.

It can be made using different computational resources such as HTML, Flash, Photoshop, Powerpoint, Frontpage and others. With a good educational purpose is necessary to take into account the following elements: First we have the clarity of how it is produced the so-called Instructional Design, which allows you clarify the steps required to achieve planning effective learning taking into account of Bloom's Taxonomy in their respective areas of development. A Webquest should consider the following steps:







Introduction: Provides students with the necessary information to address the issue. As mentioned the following: Raise expectations Call attention in different ways. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA The topic should be fun The task: It should be interesting to carry it out. Describe what you will be able to make the student to complete the lesson. The process: Describes the steps that students must follow to complete the task. This may include strategies to divide tasks into subareas. That is, it clearly describes the steps necessary to make the learning experience is satisfactory. Resources: They are sources of information that will support tasks. These sources allow you to manage time on the Internet, as the student "is not surfing," just goes right to information. Sources of information may or may not be on the Internet. Council or Address: Explain to students how time management Developing a working guide Rating: You must measure a level of knowledge considering Bloom's Taxonomy. A presentation A product A report of the group A simple Web page with links Conclusion: The conclusion is an opportunity to summarize the experience, to invite reflection on the process, extend and generalize what he learned.

It is a process to analyze the learning needs and goals, developing an effective system to direct results. It gives structure and meaning to educational theory, providing the tools you will need to develop, implement and then evaluate the learning process. This ensures that: Planning occurs prior to development MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA The critical elements of the course are provided A link between learning activities and assessments The course is assessed And their phases are: Goals Learning Objectives Pedagogical Strategies Evaluation-learning activities Resources Implement Assess

And using theories of: Behavioral Cognitivist Constructivist Evaluation: It is to improve educational practices and learning. Types of evaluation methods: MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA Objective selection of supplies Test Performance-based Peer evaluation among Self Implementation: Create listings of the various elements such as guidelines, resources, expected results, and so that will be necessary or helpful in implementing their activities. Evaluate and Review: The assessment should enhance learning outcomes and educational practices. Properly structured assessment, quality improvement program. Two models of assessment: Formative assessment is information collected = or lead efforts to improve instructional or programs. Summative assessment is information collected = to determine the overall effectiveness of a program or student achievement. WebQuest example:



To make a good planning we have: Learning Area The objectives are effectively addressed Assessment tools are appropriate Determine the activities to be

It covers the area subareas intellectual knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING APPLICATION ANALYSIS SUMMARY EVALUATION MULTIMEDIA II


In this domain are based skills, which are behaviors that are performed with precision, accuracy, ease, economy of time and effort.

The degree of internalization is an attitude, or appraisal value revealed in the behavior of one individual, is manifested through the reception, response, recovery, and characterize the organization or value complex securities.

Regardless of educational psychology approaches that support the teaching action, excellent educational use of ICT always enriches the teaching and learning, also located in this information society have been lost rote practice and independent learning and enriching collaborative. Conceptualizing WHAT IS WEB 2.0 and its features? Here are some important channels for the use of this: Synchronous channels, have simultaneous communication. Asynchronous channels: they have to be in simultaneous communication. CONCEPT OF WEB 2.0: It is oriented more to facilitate maximum interaction between users and the development of social networks where they can express themselves and say, seek and receive information of interest, collaborate and create knowledge and share content. Applications for express / create and publish / broadcast. Applications to publish / disseminate and seek information Applications for search / access information. social Networks Other online applications Web 2.0: Calendars, geolocation, virtual books, etc.. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA Educational Implications of Web 2.0: It is a social space horizontally and rich sources of information. Their sources of information and communication channels facilitate learning. With editing applications teachers and students can develop materials individually or in groups. Provides on-line space for storage, classification and publication / dissemination of content. Facilitate learning activities and assessment and the creation of learning networks. Develop and improve digital skills. Provides environments for the development of networks of schools and teachers. Requirements for the educational use of Web 2.0 applications: INFRAESTRUCTURAS: Exige el trabajo individual o en pequeño grupo ante un ordenador y en el ciberespacio para su aprovechamiento y se requiere lo siguiente: En el centro docente En casa El profesorado La ciudad COMPETENCIAS NECESARIAS DE LOS ESTUDIANTES: Los estudiantes serán autónomos en el acceso a la información y para eso se necesitan las siguientes competencias. Competencias digitales Competencias sociales Otras competencias FORMACION Y ACTITUD FAVORABLE DEL PROFESORADO: Los docentes se han de sentir seguros al utilizar la tecnología en su actividad didáctica y se requiere lo siguiente: Competencias digitales generales Competencias didácticas Gestión de aulas con muchos ordenadores Actitud favorable hacia la integración de las TIC

The blogosphere is the set of blogs that has the Internet, where a blog is a personal web space in which the author can write chronologically articles, news, and there are several free weblog servers for example: Blogger Bitágoras WordPress MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA BlogĂ­a It is easy to include text, images, videos, sounds because there are templates. The structure is chronological, offer a syndication service / RSS subscription content so that subscribers can receive information about updates to the blog. A wiki is a website organized by a structure corporate hypertext pages where several people made unauthorized content asynchronously, between some servers free wikis is: Google TiddlyWiki Wetpain Wikispaces Applications and Usage Models Educational Blogs and Wikis: provide sources of information and multidirectional asynchronous communication channels between members of the education community including: Teachers blog or wiki Student blog or wiki Class daily blog Blog or wiki activity book Collaborative work with wikis Blog from the center of the school newspaper Blog of the school The wiki as a digital portfolio The wiki as a shared workspace in the investigations RESOURCE SHARING ENVIRONMENTS Are sources of information worldwide, we serve the best use of resources, including: Virtual books Images Audio Documents, comics, posters Multimedia presentations Videos Social Bookmarks VIRTUAL BOOKS: Environments are books or books published rates for authorized persons, using programs like MyScrapbook and some of which are Storybird, Myebook, etc.


Licda. SILVIA SOWA IMAGES: Allow write, sort and publish. For example: BubbleShare AUDIO: Creating sound files, to download and use at the desired time. Here, there are some examples: Podcasting

MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS They let to keep information in slides as: , slidestory, photoshow, etc. VIDEOS: They are collections of moving images and creating an account, the user can make changes or comments to them, for example YouTube

SOCIAL BOOKMARKS: They keep links for sharing in any other PC

TEACHING APPLICATIONS AND MODELS OF USE ENVIRONMENTS TO SHARE INTERNET RESOURCES: Search for documented information about a topic or find media using to illustrate papers and presentations. Develop audiovisual or multimedia materials and share them online.

COMUNIDADES VIRTUALES These are networks of personal relationships that provide sociability, support, and information including: Collaborative work Learning communities Social networking platforms are Some networks are platforms that are:



Educational models applications and use of social networks: Student Networks Virtual communities of teachers

OTHER WEB 2.O SOURCES Calendars Geolocation News Online Office Personalized portal E-learning platform Whiteboards on-line collaborative Personalized portal Portfolios

WEB 3.0 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES: High bandwidth Unlimited connection to the PC, mobile, affordable Interoperability Intelligent search. We always located Receive information as needed DISADVANTAGES: Labor is confused and leisure time Semantic Web Operating system on the network of Web 4.0 MULTIMEDIA II




Students create a multimedia Project by researching a subject, selecting the pieces of information that they want to include in the Project, representing each piece of information by creating one or more media, deciding how to organize those pieces of information, and implementing the selected organization by creating hypermedia links among the pieces. Meeting the goals of some projects requires students to concentrate on individual pieces of information, students even more closely focused on the information content, you may elect to give the class an actual sample project that uses the organization you selected. The students have to find and then decide how to break up their information to fit the provided organization. Meeting the goals of other projects requires students to focus their attention on determining how different pieces of information relate to one another.

Organizing information can be the students´ major learning experience from creating some multimedia projects. Selecting an organization helps students to understand meaning of, and relationships among, different pieces of information. Creating projects helps students to use information, to answer questions and to explain situations. Students learn to fit new pieces of information and new ways of thinking about information into their existing knowledge frameworks.

Students who create a project not only learn the project´s subject matter but also develop life-long learning techniques. Learning to use hypermedia links to organize information will be important to students throughout their working and personal lives. Research on how students learn indicates that it is important for students to understand how to organize information themselves, both to learn subject matter and to understand how others organize information. Selecting an organization is a matter of deciding which one or more relationships lead to meaningful organizations. MULTIMEDIA II


Such a project requires students to think about how to organize information in a way that is suitable for members of a given audience. The creators can provide ways for a user to add new links or even new pieces of information to the project for other users to see and hear. A project´s creators should think about how to help users avoid getting lost in hyperspace, considering whether a user will understand the project´s organization, that is, whether a user will know how to invoke links to move through the completed project without help from the creators. If a user moves down through more than for levels of menus, the user loses track of the selections he has already made, creators can provide several methods that provide a map of the information leaving footprints or bread crumbs to remind a user that she has already seen a particular screen, checking off options the user has already selected, supplying a checklist on demand, providing landmarks, providing the ability to zoom in or out on paths, and providing the ability to mark a notebook. Students need to remember that a computer allows a user to interact closely with the completed multimedia project. Typical authentic assignments include creating a project that will run on a computer in a public location, such as a school corridor or lobby.

The firs key is for a teacher to articulate a well-though-out assignment. Six of many suitable types of assignments that you might select are as follows:

State a specific issue and require students to represent all sides. Provide a list of terms and ask students to define them and relate them to one another in appropriate ways.

Phrase the assignment in the form of a question to be answered. Ask the students to explain a given concept by making good use of several media in addition to text.

Challenge students to illuminate a text passage by using hot words that play audio or show images to explain the author´s symbolism or to elucidate obscure vocabulary.


Suggest that students set up a one-screen form that fits a particular spectrum of information and then fill in a few dozen of the screens with specific examples.

Licda. SILVIA SOWA The second key to motivate good organization is for a teacher to demonstrate excellent examples of projects that others have created. Some commercial titles, which adult professionals with large budgets have prepared, may or may not be effective models. The third key to helping students organize information is to encourage the students to unleash their creativity by finding new metaphors for information. Students may decide that the information will appear to be a book, a map a library building, a town, or a picture of an object with hot areas that users can select in order to see and hear more information. The fourth key to good organizations is helping students execute an effective process such as the following:

Understand the assignment. Brainstorm and do research. Select pieces of information to include in the project. Discuss several overall organizations. Select an organization. Decide on a metaphor for visualizing the body of information. Decide on one or more media to represent each piece of information. Prepare scripts and story boards as required. Fill in the organization with the media. Provide links among the pieces of information. Test the result with typical members of the project´s intended audience.



Three buttons take a user quickly from a paragraph that describes an event to one of three other screens. One screen could tell what event happened next, after the original screen´s event. The second screen is a picture of someone who was involved in the event. The third is an oral statement of the event´s historical context. The main screen also has controls to allow the user to go forward and backward in a sequence of screens or to quit, that is, to leave the project altogether. When a button looks like some specially marked text, such as text that is underlined or is a different color is called HOT WORD; select a hot word may displays a box that contains a dictionary definition of the word, may play audio that tells the user how to pronounce the word, may show a picture of whatever the word denotes.

The students who create a project decide whether touring or navigating is optimal for that project´s users and provide corresponding links among the project´s pieces of information, a tutorial builds a subject by constructing a foundation of unique terminology and fundamental concepts, then piles on more complex topic. Creators build a tour by linking each part of a project to the part the creators want a user to see and hear next, thus creating a linear organization. On the other hand, information in an encyclopedia, glossary, or dictionary has no natural order.

Some authoring systems implement hot words as transparent buttons. A user finds a transparent button by moving the mouse pointer over the corresponding part of the screen and seeing the mouse pointer change shape. A project´s creator can include a link that produces a result that depends not only on what button a user just selected but also what buttons a user has previously selected. Linear text or videotape corresponds to a river of information along which users can merely elect to paddle at different speeds. Multimedia corresponds to islands in a sea of information in which users can tour and navigate at will. Touring and navigating have different purposes, as we see next.

It is not true that a user will find that one piece of information makes most sense after reading the preceding piece. As a user takes responsibility for deciding when to see each piece of information, so the user takes responsibility for asking for supplementary explanations of unfamiliar terms and concepts. On the third hand, there is a intermediate case, in between the case where the creators link information into a linear tour and the case where the creator provide links that allow flexible navigation


The most important point about touring and navigating is that neither type of organization is inherent in a particular subject. It may be extremely valuable for someone other than the original creator of a particular body of information to organize that material, either as one or more tours or as navigation.


A typical multimedia project is a group effort, individual members of the group must be able to take responsibility for well-defined portions of the total effort and carry out those portions more or less independently of one another. One useful organization matches topics to students, its won collection of multimedia information, which may be a folder, a card stack, or a book. The remaining individual or subgroup prepares a folder that is composed primarily of links to the other folders, combining those folders into a coherent project. Another useful organization matches media or functions to students.

A teacher suggested that students start to create a project about Shakespeare by drawing a screen similar to the one labeled, each student developed her part as a separate folder that contained text, pictures relevant to the topic, citations, a picture of the creator herself and whatever links she thought were useful within her part of the project. A person who is using the completed project can thus select an icon that looks like a costume to navigate to the part of the project that shows and discusses costumes. Within each part, a user can explore information about the corresponding concept. A user can select another button to return to the beginning of the part. All the screen appear sufficiently similar to form a coherent project yet each screen contains a clue about where the user is within the project´s body of information.

For a project in which a teacher asks students to select a suitable organization, the students might decide that one of these organizations is optimal, might decide to use a combination of several of these organizations or might devise an organization that differs from all of these.



Creators of a project on Hurricane Hugo began by defining three sub-topics of information and assigning one student to plan and create each, they are: Hurricane Hugo, the specific event Hurricane, in general Charlotte SC, effects of Hugo Each creator develop his entire sub-topic, including an independent story board and timeline. After completing their sub-topics, the creators got together and contributed their results to the total project, then decided on desirable links between sub-topics.

A teacher decided to couch a geography lesson as creating a multimedia project for a hypothetical travel agency, students create a project that tourists could use to explore several cities. Next, the students spent considerable time devising a classification scheme for the information. The students designed a tree organization, also known as a hierarchical organization, in which a user first saw a main menu containing three buttons that the user could select to specify a city as indicated. The students found that about half of the users were interested in only one choice and wanted to see information about that choice for each city, the students therefore changed to an organization in which the main menu showed a table of cities and choices. The table organization allows a user to select interesting information easily and quickly. The information did not change between these two organizations. The creators simply added links and a new main menu to make navigation more convenient for all potential users.



Some schools divide two groups of students to prepare multimedia positions for and against for celebrating Columbus Day. The teacher encourages the students to use appropriate media to express their views succinctly. The teacher also suggest that each team present their arguments linearly, in whatever order the student thought would be most convincing and begin to be a suitable polemic.

A teacher and fourth grade class decided to set up a multimedia kiosk to display scanned images of the photos along with additional information. The teacher suggested that the student employ a standard form project and set up the form and prepared the multimedia scripts for the hypermedia links that students would require to link from each form to other screens. The main screen, which a user sees first, is a simple index. It lists names of the photographs´ subjects in alphabetical order. Clicking on any name shows the user the corresponding form. This organization puts all the historical photographs in parallel. A user can select any photograph with equal ease. The important organizational concept here is the common form that all students employ, the teacher also decided that the form will contain common buttons with which a user could go backward in the sequence of items go forward, or go to the Index. They worked with the teacher to implement a find button on the form, so that this button would appear on each screen. When a user selects the find button, the user sees a screen that prompts the user to enter a keyword. The authoring system make it easy to program the find button´s hypermedia link. The students were pleased that even their rather old and slow computer could search information about all 500 photographs in less than a second.

Georgia community wanted visual instructions for the very young, audio instructions for those who learn better with audio, and clear instructions for all. A class accepted this authentic challenge and the teacher and students divided the information into three parts: Part 1: covered catching the bus from home. Part 2: covered catching the bust at the end of the school session. Part 3: covered behavior on the bus and bus safety. They assigned each part to a sub-group of the class, after creating the remainder of the project, the students added material designed to attract user to the kiosk, that is, they created a grabber, that material plays as a continuous loop when nobody is using kiosk. MULTIMEDIA II


The police vocational training class of a mind-west high school developed a set of multimedia competency-based courseware modules. Each possible decision invokes a hypermedia link that lets the user see and hear typical results of that decision, which may call for a further decision , the module eliminates all changes when each new user begins. Developing these modules helped the students who created the modules to become expert in this sort of training , their expertise involved learning to use an organization that is much more flexible than a tree. A tree never allows, any link to run directly from one leaf to another leaf. In general, we do not recommend that students use a general network organization .

A biology class used the organization to create a project that summarized and organized information the students. Han collected about birds. The screen also contains buttons, on which the class agreed in advance, that a user can select to see video of the bird in fling or audio of the bird´s song. Each screen also contains a Return button that a user can select to go back to the main menu.

Eight students created this organization, Figure 5-11, to allow a user to go from a picture of any student to a picture of any other student, at any time, by selecting one button. Each students screen shows eight buttons with the names of all eight students. The students created the eight buttons just once and placed the buttons on a background page so the buttons appeared below all eight pictures. However, this organization is unsuitable for an encyclopedia of birds because a user would confuse the buttons for navigating within the information about one species with the buttons for navigating from one species to another. MULTIMEDIA II


Students who were preparing to sell origami ear-rings at a students fair collected many pieces of information about origami. They used graphics to show how to fold paper to make origami, images to show completed origami figures, audio of an interview to tell about origami´s role in Japanese culture, and text to discuss origami´s place in Japanese history. The students organized themselves into three groups to utilize their prepared material in three different ways to meet three different objectives. Objective was to provide audiovisual aids. The second group´s objective was a standalone kiosk. Meeting this objective required a continuously cycling motivational presentation, an attractor or grabber, that links to a navigation . The third group´s objective was a project relating Japanese historical and modern culture to the complexities of constructing origami. Meeting this third objective required a video demonstration of constructing one origami figure, then a smooth segue into a discussion of the culture. The Origami Ear-rings organization illustrates the important concept that students can organize pieces of information separately creating particular media that represent the information.

Organize information about several women professional in different branches of engineering. Indicate what navigation options you would provide and what unifying visual metaphors would you use. Consider using the Encyclopedia of Birds organization with buttons for different engineering disciplines in alphabetic order.

Devise a concept map that uses timeline to organize information concerning at least 10 major geological events in the earth´s 4.6 billon-year history. Make each event a button. MULTIMEDIA II


Devise an overall visual metaphor to serve as the main menu that users can employ to learn how to use a VCR works by navigation to appropriate information. Consider modifying the Travel Agency Table organization so that each choice becomes a VCR control such as the ¨PLAY¨ button, and each city becomes a task such as ¨PLAY a prerecorded tape.´´ This organization makes it easy for a user to determine the function of a particular button as well as which sequence of button performs a particular function.

Organize a multimedia project summarizing what the class is learning about cell. The Shakespeare organization is one of several good possibilities. In this organization, an image that shows the part of a generalized cell could be covered by invisible buttons. When a user selects one of these buttons, the user sees a screen that contains a detailed description of the corresponding part. .

Organize information derived from a brainstorming session about how pets differ in behavior, appearance, and necessary care. The Travel Agency Tree organization is a possibility. A type of pet could take the place of each city and a characteristic could take the place of each choice.

Organize the many ramifications of the hole in a shooting victim. Indicate what navigation options the resulting project would give the user and what visual metaphor would unify the project. The Hurricane organization is a possibility. This organization´s challenge is to decide on suitable sub-topic and sub-sub-topic such as medical and legal ramifications and ramifications of death, including the funeral´s cost to the family and society.



Set up handbook, in multimedia form, that describes how to use the school´s multimedia equipment. Use appropriate media to explain simple and effectively how to perform a wide variety of tasks. Include at least the tasks of plugging a laser disc player multimedia tasks in the catalog and the ask others what they can contribute or what they need to know to do.

As a role-playing assignment, organize project to apply funding for a research grant. Propose a trip to the Arctic for the purpose of learning about the Sami people. Develop a multimedia presentation of your travel plan why you selected that plan, what you will take, and what you hope to bring back. Remember that the granting agency´s people´s time is limited. You need to attract their attention.

Organize information about the possible choice and outcomes for a group of high school students. The students want to try out their new driver´s licenses by braving cold and hazardous driving conditions to attend a football game in a nearby town. Include the safest choice, staying home, as well as other scenarios.

Decide on a classification scheme such as funny, sad, adventurous, science fiction, mystery, historical, and so on. Include comments on how each story compares to others in the same classification.



The Class Pictures organization´s free navigation may be ideal to allow a user to navigate from any student´s autobiography to any other student´s. However, if the class contains more than about eight students, the Community Photographs organization would probably work better.

Organize many types of information that relate to the very general topic of what happens to garbage after it leaves student´s homes. Select what is important for users to know about garbage in their community from the variety of information from newspaper and other sources. The Shakespeare organization is less applicable that it may first appear; the Hurricane organization may work better. Useful sub-topics include the current situation, future plans, and companies´ products produced or services performed.

Organize information about extracurricular activities for a multimedia kiosk in the school lobby. The Encyclopedia of organization could be suitable. Deciding that basic screens will look similar would allow members of the class to divide up the required work on a continuing basis.


Licda. SILVIA SOWA Benefits of organizing information

Organizing information by relating pieces of information to one another is an essential part of constructing knowledge. Selecting an organization helps students        

to understand meanings of, and relationships among, different pieces of information. to use information, to answer questions, and to explain situations. Understanding the assignment Brainstorming Selecting information Discussing selection of different organizations Deciding the media Prepare scripts and story

Authentic Projects A project‟s creator should think about how to help users avoid getting lost in hyperspace. Here are some tips:      

Providing a welcome screen Do not use more than four levels of menus Providing a map Leaving footprints Providing a set of buttons that appear on nearly all screens Dividing the project into sections

Helping Students Organize Information  Articulating a well thought-out assignment  Demonstrating examples of other projects  Encouraging students to unleash their creativity by finding new metaphors for information. Types of Links Next Event Return Play, stop Hot word (selecting a word may pop up a box with information)






































CREATOR´S VIEW OF PROJECT The creators organize their effort according to the sub topics. The students set up separate sections for these sub-topics. The sections grow as suggestions come in and as students make decisions on attractive icons, backgrounds. Color schemes, and button layouts. The students exchange E-mail about what kinds of navigation and common controls they want.



Students use networks to access on-line databases for information to include in the magazine. Students use networks to distribute portions of the completed magazine.

A modem means modulator, a modem connects to a local area network that, in turn, connects to several computers. Demodulator is the hardware that allows a computer to send and receive information over the normal vice telephone network.

A formal network such as the Internet facilitates such E mail in three important ways:

Students use networks to communicate with collaborators and other people by way of electronic mail.

Students in two widely separated classrooms cold use modems to exchange E-mail.

Students who collaborate on creating a Research Magazine project employ computer networks in three ways:

PROJECT NETWORKING Students can often reach anyone in the country or even anyone in the world without making a long distance telephone call. Students in one classroom can place messages in a specified electronic mailbox. In many cases, students can connect to a world-wide network without going through the slow part of the telephone network, to achieve high data rates.


Superhighway discussion involve being on-line and using on-line service providers. There is discussion abut the importance of making sure that every school is attached, somehow, to the Information Superhighway by means of some network or gateway to a network. The highway offers the potential of access to vas quantities of information and people all over the world. The information Superhighway is a metaphor that refers to using a computer that is connected in some way to a series of networks to access the computers’ information and using this computer to also send information over these networks to other computers.

Internet is a huge network of smaller networks where people from many walks of life are connected. Other networks such as Prodigy, CompuServe, and America Online have many users and even offer access to each other´s and Internet´s services. Forums, lists, conferences , and user groups are all on line bulletin boards where people can ask questions, answer questions, and make comments for all who participate I those groups to see. E-mail is generally a one-to-one communication from one user to another although several users can be copied. You write a note, submit it, and them come back later for answer. Real time or chat mode is a variation of E-mail in which you send a message to someone whom you expect to read the message immediately and answer the message almost instantaneously.


A video conference uses a television camera that takes mobbing pictures of you and sends them out for another person to see, as you simultaneously see the other person.

Being on-line, means being connected to one of the service providers. A network can help students to find subject matter experts with whom to discuss research activities.


EXAMPLES OF CONNECTING TO INTERNET Many schools have some sort of Internet connection. One common data rate is 9600 bits per second, some schools are involves in pilot projects with telephone companies that provide substantially faster data rates. Example 1 “Our school has Internet access through a local college. We have a 9600 bps modem connected through a direct telephone line to the college´s remote access system. Every student who has access has a private account name. Example 2 The IBM Yorktown Project is a more futuristic pilot project.


One way is to prepare a description, a call for collaboration, following a prescribed template for the Global School Net n line list.

Guidelines are available not only on how to make this description effective, but also on how to design a successful project that involves using on line communications.

THEORY Communication with students in distant cities helps students to deepen their comprehension of a topic. The topic of teenage health issues has the desirable property that students in different state or country have enough problems and solutions in common to make communication easy, yet have enough different problems and solutions to make communication interesting. Students learn more about any such topic when they have the opportunity to see their on problems through other students‟ eyes, and when they have the opportunity to think about other students ´problems. Multimedia is highly desirable for a magazine about teenage health issues because this topic contains many sub-topics that students must see or hear in order to understand fully. Sending multimedia over networks is becoming feasible in the mid-1990s as networks become increasingly capable of carrying other media, in addition to text. Whereas live video conferences may remain expensive and scarce, networks such as Internet are becoming adept at transmitting files that contain audio and video. A file can flow overnight from a sender´s computer´s disk to a receiver´s computer´s disk, so that the receiver can see and hear the results in the morning.



SELECTING OTHER TOPICS You could help students achieve a succession of goals throughout a school year by having the students publish several research magazines on different topics. Although a multimedia magazine cold have popular topics such as school or community events, we suggest selecting fairly serious topics. A magazine should not provide a survey but rather provide in depth information about a particular topic for the users of the magazine.


Identifying a topic´s most important issues.

Focusing on, articulating, and answering questions about the most important issues

Designing a project with acrievable goals

Logical planning and thinking that results in expressible conclusions

Organizing a work effort

Preparing concise questions that can result in good answers

Researching using a variety of possible sources of information, including on line resources.

Selecting information, making conclusions, and presenting effectively.

Group and interpersonal skills •

Working cooperatively and synergistically across geographical regions

Completing a complex project on time

Utilizing different sites ´unique skills and providing for their unique needs.

Facts and pinions on topics selected

Scientific method and thinking

Technical skills •

Difference between technical and economic feasibility

Selection of and use of various delivery options including networking MULTIMEDIA II Construction and assembly of a complex, attractive multimedia project

Licda. SILVIA SOWA Content material learning Working on this project is meant to be both, the student and the teacher interesting and challenging for the students and some suitable topics are as follows: Do you have an energy crisis and, if so what should we do about it? What are our health care responsibilities? How real are environmental concerns for our community? Hispanics are the fastest growing minority. What are their major issues and what impact will they have on society in the United States? Should we be spending money for manned space exploration? Is there computer equity and if not what should we do about it? Should there be universal access to the Information Superhighway and, if so, how should this happen? What role should the United States play militarily? We suggest such subjects of this multimedia on line Our society is now dealing with these current issues. These issues are important for the students, their families, and friends. These issues are multidisciplinary and can be best articulated using media in addition to text. The issues affect people in different parts of the country in different ways and to different extents. Much of what people are discussing about these issues is not yet published. These issues as yet have no well-defined right and wrong answers.

PROJECT Process steps: Mrs. Torres discusses the following items with her class: The importance of the issues discussed possible questions of interest and debate, some facts, and possible sources of reference. The desired output of the project Good methods for collecting results. The time students have available to complete the project. The mandatory requirements of the project. Using E-mail with Internet or an equivalent access facility. The various roles the project requires and who might be interested in some specific roles. Some demos of on-line magazines. Students create project The students brainstorm in small groups.


Licda. SILVIA SOWA Teacher prepares project:  The teacher begins by writing down a brief statement of the project, such as nothing that the class organizes multiple geographically distributed students who will then prepare multimedia magazine on a research topic.  The teacher determines that her class has sufficient skills and equipment, but she notes that she may need to refresh their video skills.  The teacher decides to let the student determine organization and grouping but with her subtle suggestions.  The teacher identifies and refines some of her goals.  The teacher plans to delegate most responsibilities to the student.  Teacher assigns project  The teacher announces the project and demonstrates some possibilities.  The teacher facilitates discussion on possible milestones and them coaches some.  She suggests some sources of reference materials in various media.  She helps the class identify suggested tasks and ways of encouraging and monitoring progress.  Together, the teacher and students create the Assignments.





We can order multimedia content from catalogs and magazines replace content with other teachers and students, and check content our of local libraries. Students can use existing multimedia as material of:

Ideas and techniques for using multimedia effectively in their own projects,

Subject area information such as historical timelines, that they can include in their projects Clip images and other clip media

Reference materials to be used much as they use library books

CATEGORIES OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENT A particular piece of multimedia has a type, a purpose, and a primary subject, just as a particular point on the earth has a latitude, longitude and an altitude. A template is an existing multimedia title that the creator has made available for us to modify, so that we can change the material in the template to create our own project. Multimedia is something interactive that shares most control with the creator. A closed title is one that we can observe and learn from, but we cannot make changes. An extendible title contains a built-in terms for us to increase more information, but not to delete data that is present. MULTIMEDIA II


TYPES OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENT Part of some complete content Template Extendible title Partially open title Closed title Mathematics Science History


Media clip On-line book General reference Sales Public information Focused reference Education and training Games and edutainment Computer mediated instruction


SOURCES OF MULTIMEDIA CONTENT Multimedia content„s division method. Students can acquire multimedia content on CD-ROM Discs, Diskettes and Laser Discs from catalogs, book stores, software companies, and specialized multimedia companies.

WAYS STUDENTS CAN USE MULTIMEDIA Students can occupy many types of existing multimedia as sources of media clips for use in their projects. Many authoring systems provide long lists of format conversion tools, called filters, that help students use image clips in special formats. Students can even capture video by using a scan converter to change the computer screenâ€&#x;s moving picture to analog video and using a second computer to redigitize that video. A template is a multimedia projects that happens to satisfy two criteria, and a creator may develop a title focused on a specific reference, using some unique authoring system.

















Mannington provides a kiosk that allows user to choose floor converging materials. Buick and Ford advertise in magazines that they will mail a diskette to a potential customer on request. Cola-cola and Shell Canada have produces multimedia titles that users can interact with information about the companies products. Blockbuster video rental stores include multimedia movie stations that help customers select movies. TRANSACTION STATIONS The Tulare County, Florida welfare department provides clients interact with the kiosksÂĄ multimedia content to get information about services. The Oregon Motor Vehicle Bureau kiosk that use multimedia to help people apply for driverâ€&#x;s licenses and registrations without waiting to talk. Walt Disney World provides info9rmation kiosk in which users can get information and make reservations. Delphi Photo provides kiosk that help customers specify how they want the company to process their films. AUGMENTATIONS OF EXISTING APPLICATIONS Some versions of Lotus 1=2=3 allow users to annotate a spreadsheet by recording an oral comment about a cells number or formula. Lotus Freelance Graphics Reassess 2 for Windows provides an animated tutorial that demonstrates how to use the program to create presentations. Microsoft Word allows users to import pictures, audio and even video into text documents.

TRANSACTION STATIONS: Here, students are going to discover into kiosks sources. MAGAZINES AND BOOKS: Students demonstrate excellent stories and publishing magazines when they use this way of multimedia. EDUTAINMENT: Users win game by using critical reading skills to recognize important events. STUDENT-CREATED PROJECTS: Students play an important role in this substantive and attractive multimedia projects.

COPYRIGHTS AND ETHICS They must be aware of important legal and ethical issues. Remember that neither legalities nor ethics are exclusive to copying and using multimedia, but it is extremely easy to create either great copy those originals. Repurposing means using the work for some purpose that the works creator did not intend.

COPYRIGHTS: Copyright law protects works that are expressions of ideal in all forms, including print, videotape and multimedia.

ETHICS: Whenever ours students copy or paraphrase a significant part of someone else job rather than creating their own, they should put in a citation that gives recognition to the supply. MULTIMEDIA II


REQUESTING PERMISSION TO USE CONTENT: We discover ourselves in the location of ask for

permission to use a copyright owner‟s job. We should ask for written permission to copy parts of a job into our multimedia project, if we intended to show the project in public.






EVALUATING EXISTING MULTIMEDIA CONTENT: We will require calculating multimedia content. Some useful evaluation criteria follow may be important to our picky situation. We can add or delete criteria, and then restructure the consequential list according to how important each point is for us, as we can apply.

PERSONAL COLLECTION: Consider getting on some of the major multimedia content provider„s catalos mailing lists.

TECHNIQUES FROM OTHERS: Examine critically the ways in which the creators used media to reach their goals, be sure that we can explain the function, benefits, and limitations of different media. We will want to tell the authoring system that we are creators rather than users. Using the authoring system to experiment with changing the title is the ultimate form of interacting with the title we and our students can learn a lot in that way.





Multimedia Educational materials are those with an educational objective. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIMEDIA TEACHING MATERIALS  According to its structure  According to their conception of the Learning  Other Classifications In response to the structure of materials can be modified and in which innovative activities can be attached, and which can be extended to classify features in:      

Fitness Programs Tutorials Simulators Databases Builders Programs Tools, etc.

But with more detail may include:  MATERIALS MANAGEMENT TRAINING: Reach behavioral approaches (providing questions and exercises with answers).  EXERCISE PROGRAMS: The structure is linear (not propose any exercise self-correcting, or reinforcement of any kind, for the student to formulate their own thoughts or point of view).  Tutorial Program: Here expert tutorials are used because students use intelligence techniques.  DATABASES: Use the selective behavior to solve problems.  PROGRAM BOOK OR STORY TYPE: Displays information in a book or story.  Conventional databases: The user extracts information from files, maps or graphs, etc..  EXPERTS DATABASE: This is when existing information is collected from a specific topic.  SIMULATORS: where information is transported in an interactive where students learn in a meaningful way.  Physical-mathematical models: This is where information presented numerically or graphically.  SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS: Here are used strategy games and adventure. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA  BUILDERS CREATIVE WORKSHOPS: Use the constructivist approach.  SPECIFIC BUILDERS: They use mechanisms of action.  PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE: They use symbolic discarding the language laboratories LOGO.  TOOL PROGRAMS: Provides instrumental environment.  UTILITY PROGRAMS: These are used in the workplace.  AUTHOR languages and systems: They are used by teachers without much technological knowledge.

According to their conception of the Learning Here identifies several constructivists. It can be classified as:  BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE: Explain the learning from common law and mechanisms for users.  Operant conditioning: It's where the mechanism applies stimulus-response-reinforcement.  Trial and error with REINFORCEMENTS AND REPEAT: When something goes wrong is repeated.  ASSOCIATIONS: Use the method of association (rote memorization).  EDUCATION PROGRAMS: These mechanisms are effective when the information is concrete.  PROCESAMENTO THEORY OF INFORMATION:'s where cyber studies of the fifties and sixties. Consider these steps:               


Cognitive Approach: CONGNITIVISTA PSYCHOLOGY: Cognitivism is based on the theories of information processing and learning that aims to give significant details of the learning process, and distinguishes the following:


Licda. SILVIA SOWA  LEARNING is an active process: Learning is the acquisition and accurate representation of external knowledge.  INTERNAL CONDITIONS: The motivation, feedback and understanding, acquisition, retention.  EXTERNAL CONDITIONS: These are events that hold educational events.  CONSTRUCTIVISM: where the user is looking for their own feedback.  CONSIDERS THREE STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT UNIVERSAL: The activity is essential for the development of intelligence.  OWN CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGH INTERACTION: It depends on the cognitive ability of people.  RECONSTRUCTION OF SCHEMES OF STUDY: Development and Learning is sequence of equilibriumdisequilibrium-rebalancing.  Socio-Constructivism: The process of new personal knowledge from previous knowledge.  IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION: Learning is important for the social and verbal development.  Incidents in the area of proximal development: The interaction with experts and peers can provide scaffolding. OTHER CLASIFICATIONS: They can obtain through opinions as:               

According to the contents According to the recipients According to their databases According to media that integrates According to intelligence According to the educational objectives aimed at facilitating According to the cognitive activities Depending on the type of interaction According to its role in learning According to their behavior According to the error handling According to educational psychology bases According to its role in the teaching strategy By design Depending on the media




Provide information Entertain Instruct Motivate Assess Environments offer Facilitate communication Advertising, image sales, etc.

Providing information: They have content that provide structured information such as database, tutorials and simulations. Instructional and Trainer: The materials are guiding and regulating the learning such as tutorials. Motivator: It is motivating the interaction with the structure and conditions of the learning process. Evaluation: There must be a feedback of the previously understood to be evaluated. The assessment can be: Implicit (the student sees their mistakes, is evaluated from the responses that gives the computer) Explore and Experience: Users explore certain information in databases and simulators. Expressive and Communicative: Students have the opportunity to communicate and express themselves differently with others through builders, text and graphics editors, etc.. Metalinguistic: You learn correct language.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES You can include the following:  Provide information: Via CD-ROM or database.  Kindling interest: If students are motivated to learn more.  Maintain a continuing intellectual activity: It binds to the versatility and interactivity of computeruser.  Guiding learning: Encouraging students' understanding.  Promote learning from mistakes: It is important feedback on their concerns.  To facilitate the evaluation and control: Helps the teacher to let their students be more practical.  Allowing an individual and also in the group: It has to be condescending to students to pursue their own way of acquiring knowledge. MULTIMEDIA II


ADVANTAGES AND INCONVENIENTS INCONVENIENTS ADVANTAGES  ADDICTION: The constant  INTEREST AND MOTIVATION: Students must be motivated to learn.  INTERACTION: Students must be in constant interaction with computers.  DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE: Students make decisions consistent and innovative.

use of computers makes addicted students so teachers have to consider.

 DISTRACTION: Can be a very strong factor distractor.  LEARNING incomplete and superficial, can cause the data to be brief.  VERY HARD Dialogues: They tend to be open and rich.

 LEARNING FROM MISTAKES: From the feedback we learn.

 Disorientation INFORMATION: When they are difficult to obtain global views.

 Individualization: You have positive results for everyone to know your skill with the interaction between them.

 DEVELOPMENT OF MINIMUM EFFORT STRATEGIES: Students try to do as requested without looking further.

 COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES: Tends to be effective to bring them into discussion and clarification of its drawbacks.  CONTACT WITH NEW AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGIES AND LANGUAGE: Helps provide necessary computer literacy and audiovisual.  PROVIDING INFORMATION: It provides all kinds of information needed.  PROVIDE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: When the methods vary, it is easier assimilation of information.

 INSULATION: Individual work causes problems for sociability.  Dependence on others: The groups need not be numerous but flexible.  Eyestrain and other physical problems: lack of comfort causes pain.  PARTIAL VIEW OF REALITY: No show reality as it is.  LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGES: Not knowing the language, it is difficult to understand the information.  POOR QUALITY CONTROL: In some situations there is no acceptable quality control.  PROBLEMS WITH COMPUTERS: Students for their ignorance, do not disinfect their USB.



INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN INTERVENTION There is design No. 1 and No.2 design.  The design is UNSUPPORTED -1 MULTIMEDIA  Design-2 is with multimedia support  Aspects to consider include:  Scope of Intervention: Education can be formal and informal.  Students: Attitudes are essential.  Educational Context  Goals: Reaching the innovative learning profiles for their effective implementation.  Contents The activities and methodology: Activities and Methods: We describe the aspects to consider for a better development the same. Resources will be assigned identification cards / evaluation.  Evaluation: An evaluation of teaching strategies applied to the implementation of instruments.  Roles in the Media Support Activities include:  The Role of Program: Process and outcome errors from the use of data.  The Role of Students: The tasks, autonomy, interaction and learning techniques are used.  The Role of the Teacher: Use the information and teaching techniques used.

EDUCATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF MULTIMEDIA MATERIALS IN THE CLASSROOM COMPUTER These can be used in different ways as individual, group, during the show's master teacher, and so on., But are three times as:  Before logging  The development of the session in the computer room  Other possible activities to do after Before logging in: With the use of educational resources are at risk, so that issues such as Technical Aspects MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA The equipment must be constantly running without any problem, so you can use the Internet, with a fixed and reliable navigation. Didactic: Materials must be appropriate to the level being taught and provides access to all information that may be needed as thematic forums. Organizational Aspects: All students can use this technology no matter whether individually or in groups, because it can be mentioned that the special characteristics that students learn to take advantage of their knowledge. During the session in the Computer Room: Initial Activities: Students are expected to have their information before they reach the classroom and get to work, instead of waiting for instructions. Development Session: This means that two heads are better than one, so you can help cooperatively, and solve any problem that may be presented in a quick, efficient and above all feedback.





VISUAL SIGN POSTS The arrangement and presentation of text and images can aid or hinder effective communication.

 One key aspect of print design is providing visual signposts or visual cues that let readers know where they are and where they are going.

 Signposting breaks up text and images into readable, easy-to-follow blocks or panels of information.



o o o o

Artwork Photos and captions Clip art Charts and graphs Elaborate initial caps

TITLES o Nameplate / title page o Headlines o Secondary headings including kickers, decks, and subheads

Paragraph Emphasis and Organization Solid blocks of unbroken text are difficult to read. Text is made more readable by breaking up the text and using visual indicators to show where paragraphs start and end.

CHARACTER EMPHASIS Using bold or italics text is one common method of letting the readers know what information is especially important or noteworthy.



BUILD THE PAGE LAYOUT AROUND THE MAIN MESSAGE All elements of the page layout including images, fonts, and colors must be appropriate to the message, the piece is designed to convey.

CHOOSE A PAGE LAYOUT SIZE THAT FITS THE INTENDED OR EXPECTED USE Choose a standard tri-fold format for a brochure tabloid size for a newsletter, or an oversized postcard size for a direct mail piece only after considering the recipient, budget, need for portability or filing, and postal regulations.



PLAN A PAGE LAYOUT AROUND HOW A PIECE IS SEEN AND HANDLED Think about the visibility and use of a piece when arranging page elements Does the title, headline, label, or key visual need to be visible, readable, or recognizable from a distance, from a magazine rack, on a shelf, in a binder?


WHAT YOU NEED: o o o o o

Purpose and Main Message for the Page Layout Project Audience Characteristics and Intended Use of the Desktop Publishing Document Paper Sizes and Common Page Layout and Document Sizes Folding Requirements Postal Requirements


Licda. SILVIA SOWA Add Design Alignment Initial Caps Rule of Thirds Single Visual Size Margins Z Layout



Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students' intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans. * I make a point to talk with my students on a personal level and learn about their educational and career goals. * I seek out my students who seem to be having problems with the course or miss class frequently. * I advise my students about career opportunities in their major field. * I share my past experiences, attitudes, and values with students. * I know my students by name. * I make special efforts to be available to students of a culture or race different from my own. * I serve as a mentor and informal advisor to students.


Licda. SILVIA SOWA 2. GOOD PRACTICE ENCOURAGES COOPERATION AMONG STUDENTS Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one's own ideas and responding to others' reactions improves thinking and deepens understanding. * Beginning with the first class, I have students participate in activities that encourages them to get to know each other. * I use collaborative teaching and learning techniques. * I encourage students to participate in groups when preparing for exams and working on assignments. * I encourage students from different races and cultures to share their viewpoints on topics discussed in class. * I create "learning communities," study groups, and project teams within my courses. * I encourage students to join at least one organization on campus. * I distribute performance criteria to students so that each person's grade is independent of those achieved by others.

3. GOOD PRACTICE ENCOURAGES ACTIVE LEARNING Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves. * I ask students to present their work to the class. * I ask my students to relate outside events or activities to the subjects covered in my courses. * I encourage students to challenge my ideas, the ideas of other students, or those presented in readings or other course materials. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA * I give my students concrete, real-life situations to analyze. * I encourage students to suggest new readings, projects, or course activities. 4. GOOD PRACTICE GIVES PROMPT FEEDBACK Knowing what you know and don't know focuses learning. Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. In getting started, students need help in assessing existing knowledge and competence. In classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform and receive suggestions for improvement. At various points during college, and at the end, students need chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know, and how to assess themselves. * I give students immediate feedback on class activities. * I return exams and papers within one week. * I give students evaluations of their work throughout the semester. * I give my students written comments on their strengths and weaknesses on class assignments. * I discuss the results of class assignments and exams with students and the class.

5. GOOD PRACTICE EMPHASIZES TIME ON TASK Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professional alike. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations for students, faculty and administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis for high performance for all. * I expect my students to complete their assignments promptly. * I clearly communicate to my students the minimum amount of time they should spend preparing for class and working on assignments. * I help students set challenging goals for their own learning. * I encourage students to prepare in advance for oral presentations. * I explain to my students the consequences of non-attendance. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA * I meet with students who fall behind to discuss their study habits, schedules, and other commitments. * If students miss my class, I require them to make up lost work. 6. GOOD PRACTICE COMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS Expect more and you will get it. High expectations are important for everyone-- for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations of themselves and make extra efforts. * I encourage students to excel at the work they do. * I give students positive reinforcement for doing exemplary work. * I encourage students to work hard in class. * I tell students that everyone works at different levels and they should strive to put forth their best effort, regardless of what level that is. * I help students set challenging goals for their own learning. * I publicly call attention to excellent performance by students. * I revise my courses to challenge students and encourage high performance. * I work individually with students who are poor performers to encourage higher levels of performance. * I encourage students not to focus on grades, but rather on putting for their best effort. 7. GOOD PRACTICE RESPECTS DIVERSE TALENTS AND WAYS OF LEARNING There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well in theory. Students need to opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learning in new ways that do not come so easily. * I encourage students to speak up when they do not understand. * I use diverse teaching activities and techniques to address a broad range of students. * I select readings and design activities related to the background of my students. * I provide extra material or activities for students who lack essential background knowledge or skills. * I integrate new knowledge about women, minorities, and other under-represented populations into my courses. * I have developed and use learning contracts and other activities to provide students with learning alternatives for my courses. MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA * I encourage students from different races and cultures to share their viewpoints on topics discussed in class. * I use collaborative teaching and learning techniques and pair students with lesser abilities with students with greater abilities.

What Is Multimedia Technology? Multimedia technology applies interactive computer elements, such as graphics, text, video, sound and animation, to deliver a message. If you have a knack for computer work and are interested in digital media, read on to discover career and education opportunities available in this growing specialty.

Multimedia Technology Defined: Multimedia technology refers to interactive, computer-based applications that allow people to communicate ideas and information with digital and print elements. Professionals in the field use computer software to develop and manage online graphics and content. The work that media technology specialists produce is used in various mediums, such as training programs, Web pages and news sites.

Career Opportunities: There are a many employment opportunities for multimedia technology professionals in a variety of industries. Anything that needs to be communicated to an audience can contain digital and print images, text or animation to attract attention and deliver the message. You might find a position in marketing or advertising. You may be employed in publishing and be responsible for managing, designing or producing multimedia content for websites, newspapers and magazines. Possible career choices include: * Web developer * Graphic artist * Digital photographer * Instructional designer * Production assistant MULTIMEDIA II

Licda. SILVIA SOWA * Desktop publisher

Education Options Many community colleges offer associates degrees in multimedia technology, providing introductory education in the field. These degree programs prepare you for entry-level employment in the field; however, employers tend to prefer applicants who hold bachelor's degrees, according to job listings for multimedia specialists on In multimedia degree programs, you can expect to learn how to use computer programs and create interactive presentations or materials. You may be trained to use website development software like Cascading Style Sheet or the Adobe suite, which includes Photoshop, Flash, Illustrator and Dreamweaver. You may also learn design techniques using multimedia technology and be encouraged to develop your own creative style and make personal works of digital art. Multimedia technology courses typically include:

* Interactive media * Website design fundamentals * Electronic imaging * Introductory photography * Animation * Multimedia programming * Graphic design * Digital editing



CONCLUSION Increasingly, learners, users, and teachers are relying on technology to handle many aspects of projects, and use of the Internet is a fast-growing areas. I will not matter that the specific technology in use today will be obsolete in a decade or in two or three years. Children acquire now and in the future new technologies, uses of multimedia and projects and will learn any kind of uses of processors and programs. All acceptable plans for creating Multimedia projects interacting with technology will make a meaningful and professional learning and will become easy and necessary.



E-GRAPHY USING MULTIMEDIA FOR EFFECTIVE EDUCATION (CHAPTER 1) CRITIC CIRCLE (CHAPTER 8) Nilo de la Parra Jara nt+techniques&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq= Marqués Graells, Pere (1995) Marqués Graells, Pere (2001) Marqués Graells, Pere (1999) Marqués Graells, Pere (2002) Medina, A. y Domínguez (1991), etc.



Content of the course