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COAT ROOM

Fo r yo ur c on venience /• S 1

The Coat Room is conveniently located on the first floor and costs only $1 per item. Strollers are allowed throughout the museum but can also be stored.

FRANKLIN THEATER

f o rmally S te ar n s S cience Audito r i um/ • ALL AGES

Franklin Theater has cinema-style seating, a new surround sound system, acoustical treatment, and a state-of-the-art high definition digital 3D projection system. We present digital 3D films and live events with 3D content!

KIDS SCIENCE

I S LAND O F the E LE ME N TS / • AGES 5-8

Your mission is to save the planet in the name of science while having a great time. A permanent exhibit and a Franklin Institute original, Kids Science takes children through a fiction al story where they uncover the foundations of science pertaining to Light, Water, Earth, and Air.

LUNCHROOMS

R O O M A AND B / •

Lunch Room A and B are both located near the coat room on the first floor. Lunch Room A is typically reserved for students visiting Monday through Friday.

PLANETARIUM

view the star s / • all age s

The Planetarium, a historic cornerstone to The Franklin Institute, is the nation’s second oldest planetarium. This state-of-the-art planetarium offers cutting edge astronomical views and presentations.

RESTROOMS

M EN AND WO M EN/ •

There are handicap accessible bathrooms located on both ends of the first floor for men and women. The restrooms located near the Coat Room contain diaper changing tables.

SPACE COMMAND TH E U N I V E R S E /• AGES 6 - 9 Climb into this futuristic, low Earth-orbit research station and take an unforgettable journey of discovery. Our goal is to help you understand the purposeand appreciate the importance of space exploration

THE TRAIN STATION ALL AB O AR D/ • AGES 5 - 9

It’s your turn to be the engineer of a working 350-ton locomotive at our authentic train factory. This new, interactive exhibit will enlighten you to the science and technology behind trainsT. The Massive Baldwin 60000 Locomotive is Blowing Its Steam and is Ready to Rumble through Philadelphia Once Again.


ISL A ND OF TH E E LE ME NTS /• a g es 5 - 8 About the exhibit The Island of the Elements is a special experience at The Franklin Institute designed for children ages 5-8 (with their adult caregivers and families). It offers them a chance to explore the natural world through a unique environment created just for them. Here they can discover properties of the world around them by playing and experimenting in a storybook setting. As they explore the Ship, Cave, Lighthouse, and Pond on the Island, children will learn to observe and interact.

the National Science Education Standards Kids Science activities have been created to align with the National Science Education Standards. These science guidelines were developed by the National Research Council, and detail what is most important for children to learn about science. The standards urge educators to replace teaching methods that rely on memorization with stimulating experiences that mirror the excitement of the scientific process itself. Kid Science provides experiences that foster curiosity, experimentation, and investigation, while addressing standards that children ages 5-8 are developmentally ready to understand. The processes that scientists use to understand the world are the ones that children will experience in Kid Science. They include asking questions, predicting, making models, measuring, observing, and describing those observations. You can help by encouraging these actions in the exhibit—and every day, anywhere! Each of the stations in the exhibit has a panel explaining what to do there. Along with background information, you will find an example of how one National Science Education Standard applies to the activity. In fact, many Standards tie in to each activity.

About This Guide This Guide will help you and your children get the most out of your visit. The Guide includes: • Pre-visit suggestions for building interest and excitement about the upcoming trip • A map to familiarize yourself with the exhibit • Suggestions for specific ways to interact with children in the exhibit • Additional activities about Air, Earth , Light, and Water that you can do together before or after your visit • A list of further resources to seek out in the library or bookstore, and on the Web

The activities in Kid Science encourage children to ask answer questions like: • How can water make things move? • How can we describe solids? • How does light behave? • What creates sound?


aBOVE: Mother and Daughter aboard the S.S. Franklin

ids science

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We hope your visit will be fun and filled with valuable science experiences. Get ready for your trip to the Island of the Elements, and be prepared for an adventure of exploration!


P RE V I S I T A CTIVITY/ •

THINGS YOU MIGHT WANT TO KNOW Your children may enjoy their experience more if they are given a taste ahead of time of what they will see when they visit. They will be better equipped to participate if you have already explained the story, the four sections of the island, and the points they are trying to accumulate to earn the title of Power Keeper.

before your visit: Some questions you might want to ask to prepare them are: • How are Air, Earth, Light, and Water different from one another? • What are some objects found in the Air, in the Earth, and in the Water? • What do people do with Air, Water, and Earth? How do they use Light? • What have they themselves used Air, Earth, Light, and Water for?


Right: Shape Shifter mirrors found within the Kids Science exhibit.

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On your way to the Franklin Institute use the following suggestions to focus your children on the four areas they are going to be experimenting with: • Before leaving, have them look for mirrors on the car or bus they’ll be taking. How many can they find? What can they see when they look in those mirrors? What’s useful about them? • Ask them to find a part of the car/bus that contains Air. • If it’s a sunny day, have the children find a shadow. What does it look like? Can they make it bigger or smaller? Can they make it change shape? • You may travel over or along a river on your trip. Have the children describe what they see on the river. What other things are sometimes found on rivers? At the edge of rivers? Where does the river go? How are people using it? • Look for moving tree limbs or leaves blowing in the wind. Can the children tell you what is moving them? Encourage the children to look for other things in the air as you drive to the museum.

ids science

Left : Student viewing the wind demonstration held inside Kids Science.


SHADOW PUZZLE

In the Exhibit At all of the stations, encourage conversation. Ask your children to describe, explain, and predict.

AIR (

LENSES

HAND SHADOWS COLORED SHADOWS INTRO

LIGHT

STORY MAP

Fog Horns Sound the horns! Push air through pipes of different lengths and listen to the different fog horn sounds you make. Compare the pipes to hear which pipe lengths make certain sounds. Play a game with your children by naming as many musical instruments that you blow into as possible.

BUBBLE TUBES

FOGHORNS

AIR

Bubble Tubes You’ll be an expert bubble-blower after you have experienced the bubble tubes. Watch air rise through liquid and pop to the surface as you make large and small bubbles. With your children, look into the base of the pump and try to trace the path that the air takes to enter the tube. At the Tangled Tubes encourage them to guess where a ball will go before actually trying the device. • Does a ball always pop out the same place? • After they try several pathways, can they predict where the next ball will go? • Making predictions is an important part of science. Encourage children to explore ways to speed up or trap a ball.

Air Jack Make your friends fly, sort of, as you witness and measure the force of air pressure as you use air to lift a friend off the ground. The Air Jack can be tricky for smaller

SAILBOATS

AIR JACK

TANGLE TUBES

AIR STAMP STATION children. If they can’t pump hard enough to lift you, let them try to raise another child. Be sure the foot pedal is held down, or the air jack will deflate.

Tangled Tubes Uncover the mystery of air as it moves a foam ball through a tangle of clear plastic tubes. If you think you’re becoming an expert on air, predict where the ball will exit and try to catch it as it leaves the tube.

Sail Boats Learn to navigate the seas just like a sailor. Discover how the angle of a boat’s sail will catch the wind to move the sailboat in different directions. As the sailboat floats on the surface of a table and is

lifted by air jets, you can steer the boat by adjusting the sail. Explore how air can make a boat move. Challenge children to make the boat move sideways, away from the wind, and diagonally.

WATER Water Wheel Be a master of water as you use a sluice to direct the flow of water from a waterfall onto a waterwheel. As you control the passage of water, look at the murals on the walls that illustrate how water performs the work of a stone mill.

MA OWN


LASER MAZE

ONE WAY MIRROE

CORNER MIRROR

SHAPE SHIFTER

LIGHT STAMP STATION

WATER

MAGNET WALL

AKE YOUR N FOUNTAIN

CHANNELS

EARTH

CREATION STATION

WATER STAMP STATION FLOATERS AND SINKERS

FOUNTAIN

PATTERN PUZZLE

WATTER WHEEL

Make a Fountain Use PVC piping to design and create your own unique fountains, and you will even get to watch your own special fountain in action. • What is the highest fountain they can make? • How far can they make water travel? Can they make water go straight up? • Can they have water come out of more than one opening at the same time?

Channels and Dams You need to get your boat down the river. Create a channel of water that will help you

AGE RINGS

MECHANICS MAZE

FOSSIL RUBBINGS

EARTH STAMP STATION

get your boat downstream. Change the size and shape of your channels to increase the water flow and get your boat downstream as fast as you possibly can. There’s more to do at the Boat Channels than building dams with the rocks. Suggest to them that building a channel with the rocks can make boats travel faster. • Can they speed up the boats? Children should discover that water will flow faster where the channel is narrow. But watch out, if you build too narrow of a channel and the boat will get stuck

ids science

T

MIRROR MAZE

ARCHITECT AND APPRENTICE

Floaters and Sinkers

Do you think a feather floats or sinks? What about a rock? Experiment with objects and materials and discover which ones float and which ones sink. Figure how much weight our cargo boats can carry before they sink. Floating and Sinking Boats is a good activity to engage both younger children and older children at their own levels of understanding. Younger children can come to understand that weight makes a boat float lower and lower in the water, while older children may be interested in figuring out how the position


of the weights can tip a boat over if they are not careful. You might point out that an important part of loading an actual ship is making sure the cargo is balanced! Ask children to describe what happens as they play.

laser patterns bounce off the mirrored walls that surround you. You can point out that mirrors reflect light, and that light beams travel in straight lines. Remind children that they are trying to walk down the corridor without breaking the laser beams.

LIGHT

The laser turns off the instant anything enters the path of the beam, so there is no danger to anyone’s eyes.

Shape-Shifter Watch yourself change into all sorts of funny shapes and sizes as you manipulate a mirror’s curves and bend light rays. Ask them to describe how it changes their body shapes. Can they still identify parts of their bodies? Have them point to where their head, knees, and shoulders are in the mirror. Remember that they are looking from a different angle than you are, and may see things differently than you do! If possible, lift them up so they see what the mirror looks like from your height. Also have them watch the mirror from the side, so they can see what happens to the mirror that makes the reflection change.

Mirror Maze In a room, surrounded by mirrors, attempt to navigate your way through the maze and not be fooled by the endless images of yourself. When you reach the lighthouse, you will discover how to alter and bend light by experimenting with a corner mirror, a one-way mirror, and a Fresnel lens.

Laser Maze As you enter this laser filled tunnel, you will need to nimbly navigate your way through a maze of lasers. Be careful not to break any of the beams as the

Shadow Puzzle Arrange the pieces of the puzzle together until they become one picture. Slide images into grooves at increasing distances from a light source and watch their projection on a screen. You can change the size of the images by varying their position. Challenge children to make the Sun as big as possible, then as small as possible. You can make shadows bigger by bringing the slides nearer to the light. Try making some hand shadows on the wall—what different shadow shapes can your children make? Children will be fascinated by the Mirror Maze; be sure to let them go through it several times to orient themselves. Younger children especially may need time to get familiar with it before they are ready to focus on any concrete questions.

Colored Shadows Get your groove on because it’s time to dance, baby! Dance in front of colored lights and change the color of your shadow, all the while learning how shadows are created. Make sure your children notice the Colored Shadows they cast when near the inside wall of the lighthouse. Children may want to know why these shadows are different

colors. Have them look up and see what is special about the light. There are three light bulbs shining on them, red, blue, and green. In some places their bodies will only block out one or two of these bulbs, letting some colored light reach the wall. The only places where their shadows will be black are where no light from any bulb can reach the wall.

EARTH ( Pattern Game You know the image you want to create, but you have to figure out how to create it. Move blocks in a puzzle to create a pattern and discover how to manipulate the pieces of the puzzle to create the desired image. If the Pattern Puzzle proves too hard for younger children, challenge them to put a part of the puzzle together, just four pieces or so. Counting all of the Age Rings is tricky with the tree stump, because there are so many, spaced closely together. The rings on the turtle shell are easier to count once you know what to look for: the brown-and white circles on the shell are its rings. There are many sets of rings all over the shell, but each set has four rings. This means this shell is four years old.

Magnet Wall How do those magnets on your refrigerator stay put? Learn the properties of magnets and understand how they work by testing which objects stick to a magnet wall and which objects fall down. Only some of the objects at the Magnet Wall will actually stick to the wall. Those are the ones that have iron in them. Have children sort the objects into magnetic


and nonmagnetic piles. Ask them to use one of the magnetic objects to hold up something non-magnetic, like an exhibit map.

Age Rings Discover the age of living things by counting the number of their rings. Count tree rings and see how the lines tell the age and experience of living things.

Architect and Apprentice Get out your hardhats, it’s time to build. Use various materials to build structures, then describe them in detail so someone on the other side of the wall can build the same structure. One person arranges some of their blocks in any pattern he or she likes. Then by describing how the blocks are arranged, he or she tries to get the person on the other side to create exactly the same pattern. The second person cannot look at the first person’s blocks. This will give children practice with observing carefully, describing, listening, and following directions. Afterwards, switch roles. A variation to try after becoming expert at it: use only color words, not shape, size, or texture, to describe what you built.

Mechanics Maze You’ve got to keep on rolling. As balls roll through a complex obstacle course, use various tools to solve problems and keep the balls rolling along. In the middle of the cave brings together many tools for pulling, pushing, and moving objects. Help your children move the balls all the way through to the end. In the center of the maze is a chute that can direct the balls onward only if it’s turned to the correct position—ask your children to figure out which position it needs to be in. The muscle control needed to lift the magnetic elevator near the end may be more than small children are capable of; be ready to assist them if it’s necessary.

FOSSIL RUBBING Fossil rubbing gives kids a chance to experience something they might really discover in a cave. Ask if they can name something else that gets fossilized. Dinosaur bones are a likely answer, but leaves, eggs, and even footprints can leave remnants or impressions in rock.

ABOVE: The S.S. Franklin

docked in the Air section.


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • b ottl e bl ow ers Science Concepts

Procedure

Sound is made by moving air. A wind instrument can make lower or higher notes when you increase or decrease the amount of air in it.

• Make sure the bottle is well cleaned.

Skills Observing, Drawing conclusions

Suggested Time 10-15 minutes

MATERIALS A Narrow-mouthed plastic soda bottle and water.

• Fill it about halfway with water. Have your child blow horizontally over the top of the bottle, like they were blowing out a candle on the other side. Can they hear the bottle making a musical note? Blowing in a steady stream may take some practice, so be ready to help show them how. • Add more water to the bottle so it’s threequarters full, and have your child blow again. Ask them what is different about the note. (It will be higher in pitch.) • Can they predict what will happen if most of the water is poured out and they try blowing again? Test their prediction, and keep experimenting to see what else they can find out.

Students May Notice An empty bottle will make the lowest note, and the more water you add, the higher the note will become. A very full bottle may not make any note at all. It’s the air inside the bottle that makes the music. A tall column of air will make a lower note, and a shorter one will make a higher note. A full bottle doesn’t have any air inside, so no note is made at all!

Extension Get several bottles and try to put the right amounts of water in each to play a series of notes, a scale, or “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”

Connection to the KidS science Exhibit The Fog Horns make noise when you push air into them. The shortest one makes the highest-pitch note, and the tallest one makes the deepest note. If your child has already done this Bottle Blowers activity, ask if he or she can predict ahead of time which horn will make the highest note.


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • po u ri n g a ir Procedure

the National Science Education Standards Kid Science activities have been created to align with the National Science Education Standards. These science guidelines were developed by the National Research Council, and detail what is most important for children to learn about science.

Science Concepts Air is a substance. It can be moved, it takes up space, and water cannot enter a container unless the air leaves.

Skills Observing, Motor coordination, Predicting

• Hold up a cup and ask your child if there is anything inside it. • Turn the cup upside down and lower it into the water. Keep the cup underwater and slowly turn it right-side-up and see what comes out. • Do the same thing, but this time have the child try to catch the air. Have them lower a cup of their own into the water, right-side-up so it fills with water.Then have them turn it upside down, still filled with water. If they hold their cup over yours, you can “pour” the air from your cup into theirs. Play pouring it back and forth for a while.

Students May Notice Your child should notice that there is air in the upside-down cup. Air fills up part of the cup and keeps water from flowing into that part. Air keeps rising upwards in the water, so you can only “pour” air up, not down.

Suggested Time 15 to 30 minutes

MATERIALS Fish tank or dishpan filled with water, clear plastic cups, and a paper towel.

AIR WATER AIR

Extension Take a dry cup and crumple up a big piece of paper towel in the bottom. Wedge the paper towel in, so it stays there when you turn the cup upside down. Lower the upside-down cup into the water and ask whether the paper is getting wet. Lift the cup back out (keeping it upside down so the air does not leave it), and check the towel. It will still be dry, because the air stayed in the cup, so the water could not get in.

Connection to the KidS science Exhibit Make a connection with the tall Bubble Tubes near the entrance to Kid Science. Can they remember what was different about the speed of those bubbles? (They moved more slowly through the thicker liquid)


A t - Ho me EARTH A ct ivity /• pou r air Science Concepts

. Rocks vary by size, color, weight, texture, hardness, and other characteristics.

Skills Observing, Comparing, Sorting, and Describing

Suggested Time 30 minutes to 2 hours

MATERIALS Collecting box for storing rocks in (an empty egg carton works well), marker, magnifying glass (optional).

Procedure • Go on safari together around the block or in a park to look for different types of stones that your child thinks are “interesting”. They might look for different colors, unusual shapes, patterns in the rock, or other features. • After you and your child have assembled a collection of a dozen or more, work together to arrange them in some sort of order. What different ways could the stones be arranged? Are there two or more stones that seem to be the same kind of stone? Which are the most different? • Have your child write, either on the egg carton sections or on small slips of paper, the features that distinguish each stone. Use these as labels. • Can they predict what will happen if most of the water is poured out and they try blowing again? Test their prediction, and keep experimenting to see what else they can find out.

Students May Notice Your child may concentrate on one property of stones, such as color, in describing them. Help them to notice other features that differ from stone to stone.

Extension Books and web sites can provide more information about common rocks and minerals that can help identify what you and your child have found.

Connection to the Kids Science Exhibit Inside the cave is the Architect and Apprentice Station, where being able to describe the features of different blocks is important. The skills your child practices in making observations of the stones will come in handy.


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • magne t pain tin g Science Concepts

Procedure

Magnets can attract pieces of iron or steel, even through other materials.

• Have your child tape the paper in the pan or box lid. Then put a few drops of paint on the paper. Put a few metal objects on the paper.

Skills

• Hold the pan or box lid by the ends, or support it between the backs of two chairs. Have your child hold a magnet under the pan or box lid and move the metal objects around through the paint to make a painting. If you haveseveral magnets of different strengths, have your child try each of them.

Using magnets, Creativity, Motor coordination

Suggested Time 15-30 minutes

MATERIALS One or more magnets (the stronger the better), aluminum pan or cardboard box lid, paper cut to fit exactly inside the pan or lid, tape, paint, small iron or steel objects such as paper clips, washers, etc.

SMALL STEEL OBJECTS PAINT MAGNET

• Discuss what is happening. Why do the objects move? Can your child move just one at a time, or do all theobjects move together?

Students May Notice A magnet will pull some types of metal toward it, even through the pan. Once several objects are brought together, the magnet will pull all of them around at once. it will be difficult to separate them using the magnet alone. Fingers will still work, of course!

Extension Challenge your child to control the magnet well enough to write his or her name on the paper. You can mix some nonmagnetic objects in with the iron/steel ones, and explore what the magnet will move, and what it won’t. Are there metals that a magnet won’t pull? (Yes, including every US coin.) Put another magnet in the pan, and see if it can be repelled by the magnet underneath.

Connection to the KidScience Exhibit Begin this activity by reminding your child about the wall in the cave where they could stick metal objects. Do they remember what held the objects there? What do they think was behind the wall?


A t - Ho me light A ct ivity /• refl ect io n maze Science Concepts

. Light travels in straight lines, light bounces off shiny surfaces, and a brief introduction to angles.

Skills Observing, Motor coordination

Suggested Time 15 to 30 minutes

MATERIALS Flashlight, shiny flat object (mirror, lid of a tin, or a similar flat, reflective surface.)

Procedure • Experiment together with how a shiny object can bounce the flashlight around. It may help to darken the room. • Hold the flashlight in one direction (or place it on a table so it will not move), and have your child use the shiny object to guide the light’s reflection along a “maze” on the wall. For example, your child could move the spot up one side of a door frame, across the top, and down the other side, or move it from a ceiling lamp to a smoke detector.

Students May Notice The light will move based on the direction the shiny object is held. Light bounces off its surface like a ball bouncing off a wall. The direction it bounces is different if it hits the reflective surface straight on or at an angle.

Extension Play a prediction game. Rest the flashlight on a table so it will not move. Then have your child hold the reflective surface in the beam. Switch the flashlight off, and have your child turn the surface to face in a slightly different direction. Ask them to predict where the flashlight’s reflection will shine when you switch the light back on. Then test that prediction (being careful not to move the flashlight while turning it on). Do this several times to see if your child can improve his or her predictions and knowledge of reflections.

Connection to the Kids Science Exhibit When you’re walking through the Mirror Maze, point out how light is reflecting off the shiny walls. Can your child trace how light from, for example, your shoes, bounces off walls before reaching their eyes?


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • make ra in bow s Science Concepts

Procedure

Sunlight contains a rainbow of colors mixed together. Those colors can be separated using water drops.

• Go outside to a place where the sun is shining. Have your child hold the spray bottle and stand facing his or her shadow.• Have your child spray the bottle into the air in front of and a little above him or her. Together, look into the spray and see if there are any colors in it. If sunlight is striking the water drops, they should create a rainbow, visible at least from where your child is standing.

Skills Observing, Describing, and Drawing

Suggested time 15 to 30 minutes

• Ask what colors they see in the mist. How long do they last? Can they be made brighter? Go back inside and ask your child to draw what he or she saw.

MATERIALS Warm sunny day, plant mister or spray bottle, paper and markers.

RAINBOW MIST SUN

Students May Notice The rainbow is created from sun lighting the tiny drops of water in the mist. Sunlight contains all the colors of the rainbow mixed together to make white light. The water drops can spread that light out into its separate colors. Once the mist stops, the rainbow disappears. A rainbow in the sky means there are water drops up in the air in that direction, bouncing sunlight around in the same way.

Extension Get some bubble solution and blow bubbles, again in direct sunlight. Ask if there are similar patterns of color in the bubble. Soap film also breaks sunlight up into a rainbow of colors.

Connection to the KidScience Exhibit The Lighthouse has three colored lights which together make white, the same way sunlight has a whole rainbow of colors.When you’re in the exhibit, point out how the three lights make white when they shine together. When you do this activity, refer back to that experience with the lights.


A t - Ho me wat er A ct ivity /• MILK CART ON BO A TS Science Concepts

Procedure

Flotation, Stability, and Wind power

• Lay the milk carton with the spout side facing up. Draw a line all the way around the carton, about two inches above the tabletop. Cut the carton in half along this line. The half without the spout will be the boat.

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Skills Construction and Following directions

• Make the ship’s sail by cutting a 6” square of construction paper, punching three holes in a line down the center, and weaving a pencil or straw in one hole and out the next, attaching the “sail” to the “mast”. Put some clay in the center and stick the mast into it.

Suggested Time 30 to 45 minutes

MATERIALS Empty half-gallon milk carton, marker, scissors, pencil or soda straw, construction paper, hole punch, clay or tape (the kind that stays sticky when wet), and a few coins.

paper sail clay milk carton CUT LINE

• Float the boat in a tub or basin. If it is unstable and keeps tipping over, experiment together to see how you can make the boat stay upright. Use your breath to blow the boat around. • Add coins or small rocks to the boat until it starts to sink.

Students May Notice A ‘tippy’ boat can be fixed by adding more weight—clay, coins, or rocks.The heavier the boat gets, the lower it sits in the water, the slower it moves, and the easier it is for water to get in. However, it will also be harder for a wave to flip over a heavy boat.

Extension Find books about different types of boats. Can your child modify your boat so it is more like a catamaran? A clipper ship? Some other type of boat?

Connection to the Kids Science Exhibit Bring this boat with you to The Franklin Institute and sail it in our pool. At the Floaters and Sinkers station your child can see how much weight different boats carry.


FU RTHE R RESOU RCES/ • RECOMMENDED BOOKS Boston Children’s Museum Activity Books By Bernie Zubrowski Morrow Junior Books

Mudpies to Magnets By Robert A. Williams Gryphon House

Science Is... Bubble Monster and Other Science Fun

By Susan V. Bosak A. Puppa

By John H. Falk Chicago Review Press

Scholastic Canada

An Early Start to Science By Roy Richards and Doug Kincaid Stanley Thornes

The Usborne Books of Science Activities series Usborne Publishing

Magazines and Periodicals: Science Weekly www.scienceweekly.com Published 16 times a year, this is designed for elementary classrooms

Scientific American Explorations www.explorations.org A magazine of family science activities and science museums BELOW: A view from the lighthouse.


t he universe / • a ge s 6 - 9 About The Exhibit The idea of visiting a space command center will add fun and excitement to your students’ tour of space concepts. The exhibit is divided into four sections and has more than thirty interactive stations. As students walk through the entry and orientation portal, they will pass through a scanner that will help them make the transition from Earth to space. The Main Promenade of the Space Command Visitor Center provides a chronology of milestones in space flight and offers a view of the galaxy, just outside the window and visitors can choose to travel deeper through a star-filled skylight. Students will then move into the Outer Space Outfitters area where they will learn about the planets in our solar system. The content emphasis is on what conditions are like on each planet—terrain, atmosphere, and gravitational pull. Travel posters and equipment advertisements as well as real artifacts from space travel are on display. Visitors can choose a planet to visit and find out what they would need in order to survive there. Students will see a shovel that the astronauts used during lunar training, a geology hammer they used to break off rock samples, and a penetrometer, a stick with lineson it for measuring the depth of the lunar soil. If you time your visit to Space Command just right, you might be able to enroll in Space Command Boot Camp. In this live program, our drill sergeant will teach recruits some of the basics of space travel.

GENERAL ORIENTATION When your students visit Space Command, they will imagine that they are tourists visiting a loworbiting space station where scientists carry out explorations of space. To help students get in the spirit of the visit, explain to them ahead of time the four areas they will see as described in the letter at the beginning of this guide: Main Promenade of the Space Command Visitor Center (the entrance), Outer Space Outfitters, Remote Command, and Space Academy. Younger children may understand and get more from some stations than others in the exhibit. For example, although the astronaut gloves at the Working in Space station may be too large for small hands to use, children will enjoy trying them on. The lunch box gravity experiments and the cooling suit will intrigue them. They will have fun designing their own planetary rover and seeing how well it works. The Remote Mission Control computer simulation may be too complex for younger students, but they will be able to use the pin box experiment to see that the more pins there are, the clearer their hand appears (the greater the number of pixels in a picture, the sharper the definition of the picture). In the Space Academy section, children will be able to follow the phases of the moon, detect constellations, laugh at their funny reflections in the parabolic mirror, and be fascinated by the moon rock.


About This Guide This Guide will help you and your children get the most out of your visit. The Guide includes: • A map to familiarize yourself with the exhibit • Pre-visit suggestions for building interest and excitement about the upcoming trip • Suggestions for specific ways to interact with children in the exhibit • Additional activities about Air, Earth , Light, and Water that you can do together before or after your visit • A list of further resources to seek out in the library or bookstore, and on the Web

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Welcome to Space Command! the station has opened a portion of its facility to the public to help visitorsunderstand the purpose, experience the excitement, and appreciate the importance of space exploration, Just come aboard. aBOVE: Large telescope found within the Space Command exhibit.


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Galact-o-scope mOON rock Parabolic Mirror Moon Phases The Sun’s path gravity well what do you see

8 Academy challenge 9 find your house 10 resolution 11 remote command 12 satellite tracking 13 Probe Rescue 14 build a rover

15 16 17 18 19

Space suits interplanetary travel cooling arm air pressure Working in space Space walk gloves astronaut Lunch boxes


P RE V I S I T e x plor ation /• before your visit: At the entrance to Space Command, your students will be asked to become tourists visiting Space Command. So they get the most out of the learning opportunities that the exhibit offers, consider doing some of the following activities beforehand: • Read aloud some of the grade-level appropriate books on the Further Resources list andmake as many as possible available to children for reading on their own in order to become familiar with astronomy and space. • Some of your students may already know something about space and the sun, moon, and stars from picture books they have at home. Invite them to bring in their books to share with the rest of the class. • To help build interest immediately before the visit, tell children stories of the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper from different cultures. Show a picture of the two constellations or draw them on the board. After you have finished the stories, draw a series of ten dots on the board and ask children what they think the dots represent. The dots should be placed randomly, but with enough definition so that children could discern several different objects, for example, a car, a wagon, a house, or even a flower. Students will work with this idea again at the Constellation Finder station in the exhibit. • On the bus, give each child two pieces of paper folded in half so that they have eight surfaces on which to draw. Children should already have a sharpened pencil in order to fill out their In-Exhibit Guides. Ask children to think of an object that could become the name of a constellation and then draw ten dots on a sheet of paper to represent it. Seatmates could exchange their sheets and try to figure out what the name is of each other’s new constellation. Continue until children’s interest flags.


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • magne t pain tin g Science Concepts

Procedure

• The planets have properties, locations, and movements that can be observed and recorded. • The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets, and numerous smaller objects. • The sun is the central and largest body in the solar system.

• Explain that the solar system has nine planets of which Earth is the third planet from the sun. All the planets are different and one of the most noticeable differences is their size. Use the fruit to explore the different sizes of the planets. The pieces of fruit represent the following planets: • grapefruit or small cantaloupe: Jupiter

Skills

• large orange, apple, or peach: Saturn

Observing, distinguishing differences, taking measurements, working cooperatively

• plums or apricots: Uranus and Neptune

Suggested Time

• peppercorns: Mars, Mercury, and Pluto

1 hour

MATERIALS • Copy of Solar System graphic on next page • 1 grapefruit or small cantaloupe • 1 large orange, apple, or peach • 2 plums or apricots

• 2 peas •3 peppercorns • 1 basketball • newsprint • markers or water based paints

Optional: substitute sports balls for the larger pieces offruit and use pebbles of two sizes instead of the peas and peppercorns; the sports balls must be in the same size ratio as the fruit listed above.

• peas: Venus and Earth

• Use a basketball to represent the sun. Then have children place the planets in their correct order from closest to the sun to farthest away: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. • Ask children to make comparisons such as how many times larger or smaller one planet is than another, how many Jupiters it would take to make the sun, and so on. The sun is actually a little more than 8 times the size of Jupiter, the largest planet. For example, if Jupiter (the grapefruit) is 6 inches in circumference, the sun would be 48 inches or 4 feet around. (Students should be able to compare relative sizes easily and to make accurate estimates about how many of one planet would be needed to make another.)

IN THE EXHIBIT In Outer Space Outfitters, students will be learning about the planets of the solar system and the conditions that exist on each planet.


1

2

3

4

1 2 3 4 5

5

pluto neptune unanus jupiter mars

6 7 8

9

6 sun 7 mercury 8 venus 9 earth 10 saturn

10


A t - Ho me Act ivity / • hot o r col d Science Concepts

Procedure

The sun provides the light and the heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the earth (and other planets in the solar system).

• Remind children that the sun is the center of our solar system. The sun provides the light and heat that warms Earth. It also provides light and heat to the other eight planets in the solar system. Ask children if they think that the other planets all have the same atmospheric temperature that Earth experiences. To answer this question, have them participate in the experiment.

Skills Observing, recording, recognizing cause and effect, drawing conclusions

Suggested Time 1 hour

MATERIALS • 1 desk lamp or goose neck lamp • 2 identical room thermometers

• timer • globe • flashlight

• Position the lamp on one side of a desk or table. It should be placed on the width of the table with the light bulb facing the length of the desk or table top. Place the two room ther mometers on the desk or table top so that one is 6 inches from the lamp and the other thermometer is 36 inches from the lamp. • Have two volunteers read aloud the temperatures on the thermometers. Have a recorder write the two temperatures on a chart on the board. • Turn the light on and set the timer for 5 minutes. When the timer rings, keep the light on and have the children cluster around the experiment. Have two volunteers read the two temperatures, while the recorder writes them on the chart. • To be sure, repeat the experiment. Ask students whether their original conclusion seems still be true. • Ask what this tells students about the atmospheric temperature on planets closer and farther from the sun.

Extension Explain that the sun does not heat Earth evenly. Use a globe and a flashlight to illustrate this. Hold the flashlight about 4 inches from the equator so that children can see how the light strikes the globe.


A t - Ho me Air Act ivit y / • me teo rit es Science Concepts

Procedure

The surface of the moon (and Earth) may change because of an outside body striking it.

• Fill the pan with the sand up to within 1/2 inch of the top edge and smooth it out. Remind children of the moon rock that they saw in the exhibit and the pictures of the moon throughout the exhibit. Did they notice the big depressions on the moon? These depressions are called craters and were caused by meteorites. These rocks that hit the surface of the moon are left over from the formation of planets at the beginning of the solar system.

Skills Observing, predicting, measuring, recording, recognizing cause and effect

Suggested Time 30 minutes

• Hold a marble 2 inches above the surface of the sand and then drop it into the pan. Have a volunteer carefully remove the marble and measure the depth and width of the depression it made. Have a student record the information on a chart on the board.

MATERIALS • enough sand, moistened, to fill a shallow baking pan up to within 1/2 inch of the edge

• 3 marbles • 3 golf balls

PAN SAND MARBLE

• Hold a marble 4 inches above the sand and drop it into the pan. Have the volunteer remove the marble and measure the depth and width of the depression. Ask the class to predictwhat happened to the size of the crater. • Repeat the activity but hold the marble 6 inches above the sand. • Try the experiment three times using the golf ball dropped from 2, 4, and 6 inches. • Have students summarize what this experiment has just shown.

Extension When the meteors hit the surface of the moon, they actually explode. Meteors also hit the Earth but very rarely. Whereas the moon has no atmosphere to shield it from meteorites, the Earth does. Most meteors burn up as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere, although some are large enough and travelling fast enough that they may survive


A t - Ho me Act ivity / • star light, star bright Science Concepts

MATERIALS

Stars are part of the solar system and have properties, location, and movement. The measure of a star’s brightness is its magnitude, which depends on size, distance from Earth, and temperature.

• 2 flashlights

• large glass jar

• a piece of foil large enough to wrap over the end of a flashlight

• 1 sheet of colors paper

Skills

• 2 sheets of white paper

Observing, recognizing cause and effect, drawing conclusions, constructing a scale, and measuring

Procedure

.

• paper punch • stick for stirring

• Make a dime-sized hole in the center of the piece of foil. Fold the foil over the face of one flashlight so that the hole is in the center of the flashlight. Place the two sheets of paper side by side on a table or desk.

Suggested Time 30 to 45 minutes

flashlight white paper

• Darken the room as much as possible. Have students stand around the desk or table to block out light as well. Have two volunteers shine the flashlights on the sheets of paper. They should hold the flashlights about 6 inches above the sheets of paper. Which flashlight makes the brighter light? • Ask how students think the distance from Earth might affect how stars appear to us. Would closer stars be brighter or dimmer? To test the class’s predictions, have the volunteer with the foil-covered flashlight, remove the foil. Have the two volunteers hold the flashlights as high above the desk or table as possible and slowly lower them, stopping about 4 inches from the desk or table top. Ask your child or students what they observed.

in the exhibit These activities extend what students learned about stars in You Are Here in Space Command, What Do You See?, and A Star Is Born.


FU RTHE R RESOU RCES/ • RECOMMENDED BOOKS space, stars, planets, and spacecraft By Sue Becklake DK Publishing

Find the constellations By Hans Augusto Rey Houghton Mifflin

Our solar system amazing pop-up space shuttle By David Hawcock DK Publishing

stars and planets By Dr. John O’Byrne National Geographic

By Seymour Simon William Morrrow & Company

Eyewitness: Astronomy By Kristen Lippincot DK Publishing

Magazines and Periodicals: astronomy Monthly star charts and tips for stargazing as well as information on the planets and galaxies.

sky and telescope Accessible discussion of astronomy, celestial events, and space science.

Sky watch Excellent source for those new to astronomy; highlights celestial and space events. BELOW: A visitor observing the Moon Stories panel.


a l l aboard / • a ge s 5 - 9 About The Exhibit The Massive Baldwin 60000 Locomotive is Blowing Its Steam and is Ready to Rumble through Philadelphia Once Again. We Want You at the Controls. We would like to officially welcome you to The Train Factory, the new home of the Baldwin 60000 locomotive. This totally immense family experience will transport you into an authentic, active, train factory. Feel the heat of the steam, hear the sounds of the machines, see what it takes to be an engineer, discover how to investigate the scene of an accident. Throughout the exhibit, you will experience the power of the locomotive, from the inside out. Discover how modern locomotives use diesel, electricity, and magnetic levitation to travel longer distances at greater speeds than ever before. The grand finale of The Train Factory is when you take the Baldwin 60000 and its new engine for its experimental test run. Can the boiler handle the pressure? Will the boiler blow? Will the pistons push? The fate of the Baldwin 60000 is in your hands as you help move the train along the tracks by adding coal to the fire, blow the whistle, and release the throttle. Last Call! All Aboard! In addition, your students will become sleuths when they visit the Accident Investigation station. They will have to determine why a fictional locomotive, the Meteor, crashed during a test run. This role-playing section involvesobservation, making and testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions—much as scientists do.

relevant science standards While they explore the Train Factory, your students will also be experiencing a number of concepts from the National Science Education Standards.

Kindergarten to Grade 4 • People have always had problems and invented tools and techniques to solve them • Magnets attract and repel each other and certain kinds of other materials • Students should develop abilities of technological problem solving

Grade 5 to 8 • The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed • Unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object’s motion • Technologies cost, carry risks, and provide benefits • Science and technology have contributed enormously to economic growth and productivity among societies and groups within societies


he rain factory

About This Guide

This Guide will help you and your children get the most out of your visit. The Guide includes: • Pre-visit suggestions for building interest and excitement about the upcoming trip • Suggestions and information for in-exhibit exploration

• Additional activities about Space that you can do together before or after your visit • A list of further resources to seek out in the library or bookstore, and on the Web

/•

It’s your turn to be the engineer of a working 350 ton locomotive at our authentic train factory. This exhibit will enlighten you to the science and technology behind trains. Clear away the steam and discover a little bit about The Train Factory. aBOVE: The Assembly Shop found within The Train Factory exhibit.


P RE V I S I T e x plor ation /• before your visit: When your pupils visit The Train Factory, they will be invited to think and act like a train mechanic and an engineer. So that they can make the most of the learning opportunities the exhibit offers, consider doing the following activities beforehand: • Read aloud some of the grade-level appropriate books on the Further Resources list and make as many as possible available to children for reading on their own in order to become familiar with the world of trains. • Some of your pupils may already know a great deal about trains from the picture books, videos, and toys they have at home. Invite these train “experts” to bring in their train books and to share what they know with the rest of the class. • The Train Factory has several devices that show how steam makes steam engines move. If your pupils are unfamiliar with steam, assign some homework: Ask pupils to watch (from a safe distance) while an adult boils water in a teakettle or a pan, so they can see how heated water becomes steam and how steam moves upward. • Most of us take for granted the automated machines we see and use everyday, so it can be helpful to awaken pupils to the basic fact that things don’t move on their own—some force has to cause that motion. Help pupils begin to get curious about what kind of force moves something as big as a train. Encourage pupils to begin generating questions about trains. • On the ride to The Train Factory, have them look at the various vehicles they pass along the way and think about what is making the vehicles move. Ask question such as: Do they see any trains or train tracks along the route? What do train tracks or roads do when a body of water, a hill, or another road crosses their path?

aBOVE: “The Rocket” was retired in 1879 and is on display inside of The Train Factory exhibit.


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in - e xhi bit e x plor ation / • G RADE 1 - 3 at the baldwin 60000

at the assembly shop(

• Steam engines have places to carry the water and the wood, coal, or oil used to heat the water. Large steam engines like the Baldwin 60000 use a tender, a separate car directly behind the engine, to hold the fuel and water.

• Water turns to steam as it boils. Steam expands as it is heated As more and more steam fills the area, the steam gains enough pressure to push the piston.

• The fireman tended the boiler, adding fuel into the firebox when needed. A fireman who knew a line well knew when a hill or a long flat stretch was coming and adjusted the fire accordingly. The engineer checked the gauges, watched the line ahead, blew the whistle to alert anyone near the tracks, and started and stopped the engine. The engineer didn’t need to steer the train, because the tracks controlled where the train went. • The connecting rod, the rod which attaches the large driving wheels to the steam-pushed pistons, makes the large wheels turn. The smaller wheels turn because the engine is moving. • They wanted to make safer, faster, more efficient engines, so they’d test things such as brakes, boiler components, and wheel size. This Baldwin 60000 was used for experiments with very high steam pressure. Designers wanted to figure out the best temperature for the steam, and the best way to get it that hot.

• The piston, which is being pushed by steam, moves the rods back and forth, which move the wheels round and round.

Only the driving wheels, the large ones in the middle of the locomotive, have these rods. The four smaller wheels in front and the two smaller wheels behind hold up those sections of the engine but don’t drive it. Be sure students have drawn the three sizes and two kinds of wheels.

• Steam just pushes. This is why cylinders have valves that control the flow of steam in front of and behind the piston, pushing it one way and then the other. Be sure students’ drawings are accurate. • If the fire gets too hot, the steam pressure can build so high that the boiler won’t be able to withstand the pressure and so will explode. That’s one of the reasons engineers and firemen use gauges in the cab that show them the level of pressure in the boiler.

At the Accident Investigation(

Cause of the accident: The Meteor had too much steam pressure in its boiler, but no one could tell because the pressure gauge did not work properly.


IN EXHI BI T E X PLO RATI ON / • G RADE 6 - 8

AT THE ASSEMBLY SHOP: Some questions you might want to ask to prepare them are: • Water turns to steam as it boils. As more and more steam fills the area, the steam gains enough pressure to push the piston. • The piston, which is being pushed by steam, moves the rods back and forth, which move the wheels round and round. Only the driving wheels, the large ones in the middle of the locomotive, have these rods. The four smaller wheels in front and the two smaller wheels behind hold up those sections of the engine but don’t drive it. • Steam just pushes. This is why cylinders have valves that control the flow of steam in front of and behind the piston, pushing it one way and then the other. • If the fire gets too hot, the steam pressure can build so high that the boiler won’t be able to withstand the pressure and so will explode. That’s one of the reasons engineers and firemen use gauges in the cab that show them the level of pressure in the boiler.


Right: Shape Shifter mirrors found within the Kids Science exhibit.

/•

AT THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

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Left : Student viewing the wind demonstration held inside Kids Science.

Cause of the accident: The Meteor had too much steam pressure in its boiler, but no one could tell because the pressure gauge did not work properly.

At the Baldwin 60000 Locomotive • Steam engines have places to carry the water and the wood, coal, or oil used to heat the water. Large steam engines like the Baldwin 60000 use a tender, a separate car directly behind the engine, to hold the fuel and water. • The fireman tended the boiler, adding fuel to the firebox when needed. A fireman who knew a line well knew when a hill or a long flat stretch was coming and adjusted the fire accordingly. The engineer checked the gauges, watched the line ahead, blew the whistle to alert anyone near the tracks, and started and stopped the engine. The engineer didn’t need to steer the train, because the tracks controlled where the train went.

• The connecting rod, the rod which attaches the large driving wheels to the steam-pushed pistons, makes the large wheels turn. The smaller wheels turn because the engine is moving. • The real 60000 is about 20 times larger than the model. One way students can find the approximate scale used is to measure a section of the 60000 and its model using their arms or legs and then approximating how many times bigger the larger measurement is.

• Railroad people wanted to make safer, faster, more efficient engines, so they’d test things such as brakes, boiler components, wheel size. This Baldwin 60000 was used for experiment with very high steam pressure. Designers wanted to figure out the best temperature for the steam, and the best way to get it that hot.


A t - Ho me Act ivity / • A RUBE GOLDBERG SKATEBOARDER Science Concepts

Procedure

• An object doesn’ t move unless it is pushed or pulled

• Have students discuss what they liked and learned at The Train Factory. Be sure mention is made of the inventiveness of the people who created the original train engines and of those who continue to research new ways to travel such as maglev trains. In some ways, the machines that move these huge trains at high speeds are remarkably simple.

.

• Magnets have repelling and attracting forces • Simple parts act together to make something complex • Creativity has allowed people throughout history and across the globe to solve problems and improve technology

Skills Working cooperatively, planning and conducting simple investigations, thinking critically, recognizing cause and effect, designing and testing

Suggested Time 30 to 45 minutes

MATERIALS At least two bar magnets per group and, if possible, various other magnets of different shapes and sizes; assorted materials for causing movement such as dominoes, wind-up toys, rubber bands, cardboard sheets and tubes, marbles, plastic cups, balloons, straws, paper clips, strong tape; some kind of skateboard rider, such as a plastic toy or stuffed animal; skateboard for each group

• Remind students of the Previsit Activity challenge to move a skateboard 10 feet without using their own muscle power. They are now going to use their inventiveness to build a Rube Goldberg™ machine that will move a skateboard (or a substitute) at least 10 feet using at least 3 steps. Explain that Rube Goldberg designed inventions to complete simple tasks using a number of unusual steps to overcomplicate the process. For example, the string of a flying kite raised the door on a moth cage, so the escaped moths could eat a shirt, which when it weighed less tipped a balance that made a shoe hit a switch that turned on an iron whose smoke eventually led to a woodpecker sharpening a pencil. • Give each group a skateboard (or substitute), a toy rider, and time to discuss and experiment with the materials. Encourage students to remember what they saw cause movement at The Train Factory and to think about how the materials provided can cause movement

in the exhibit The exhibit intro duces students to steam, diesel, electric, and maglev trains and shows how each is powered.


A t - Ho me Act ivity / • get movin g Science Concepts

Procedure

• Objects don’t move unless they are pushed or pulled (by some force). • More force is needed to move heavier objects.

• Lay an index card flat over the mouth of a plastic cup and place a penny in the center of the card. Ask students to predict what the penny will do if someone flicks the card quickly.

Skills

• Give each small group of students a cup, card, and penny so they can test their predictions.

Predicting, recognizing cause & effect, and asking questions

Suggested Time 15 minutes

MATERIALS Plastic cups, index cards, pennies Optional: paperback book; quarters, checkers, or poker chips; ruler, butter knife, or spatula

paper penny cup

• Point out that this is similar to the popular “trick” of pulling out a tablecloth from a table set with dishes, glasses, and silver ware without knocking anything over. It’s not a trick really, but an example of a scientific principle: Objects at rest tend to stay at rest until something pushes or pulls them. Because the card was pushed but not the penny, the card moves forward and the penny does not (it had too much inertia to move forward and when it lost its support, it fell). • Ask students to think of examples of having to exert a force to start or stop something, for example, starting and stopping a bike, throwing and catching a ball. Ask what do you think gets a train to start moving, keep moving, and stop moving? Does it matter how long the train is?

IN THE EXHIBIT Something needs to push or pull a train to start it moving. Engines, powered by steam, diesel fuel, electricity, or magnetic force, push or pull trains. The heavier the load, the more force is needed to start and stop the train. Students will investigate the crash of the Meteor, a fictional locomotive that was unable to stop quickly enough.


A t - Ho me Act ivity / • b oardom Science Concepts

Procedure

• Objects don’t move unless they are pushed or pulled (by some force).

• Put a skateboard in front of the class and challenge them by saying something such as: Someone’s going to have to prove to me that skateboarding is fun. Look, the skateboard just sits there. How boring. After students bring out the point that the skateboard has to be moved in order to have fun, have them briefly explain different ways a person can make it move.

• More force is needed to move heavier objects.

Skills Working cooperatively, describing, comparing

Suggested Time 20 to 30 minutes

MATERIALS One skateboard per group (ask volunteers to bring theirs in). If having skateboards in school or home is a problem, provide students with materials to make mini skateboards, such as sets of toy wheels, small pieces of wood, and rubber bands. Toy cars, trucks, motorcycles, and train engines will also work.

• Remind students they will be going to The Train Factory and ask them to list all the ways a skateboard is like a train. In the discussion, note that one of the major similarities is that both will only move if they have been pulled or pushed by some force. Point out the major difference: The force that moves a person on a skateboard is usually that person’s muscle power, whereas the train is moved by some outside force. • Give each group a skateboard (or substitute) and challenge them to find a way to move the skateboard 10 feet without using their own muscle power. Have them note materials they wish they had available in the classroom and try to improvise with the materials that are in the classroom. Have groups share their efforts. • Ask groups to discuss what they know about how trains are powered. Tell students that for many years, people were able only to go as fast on land as they could propel themselves by their own or an animal’s muscle power. About 200 years ago, people figured out how to make steam, rather than a horse, move a wagon on rails and the train was invented. Ever since trains have been improved upon. When the class goes to The Train Factory, they will see how trains are powered, and when they return, they’ll use what they learned to try to move their skateboards in new ways.


RECOMMENDED BOOKS

he rain factory

FU RTHE R RESOU RCES/ • bear on the train

The little engine that could

By Julie Lawson Kids Can Press

By Watty Piper Platt & Monk Publishers Co.

Choo choo: the story of a little engine who ran away

The Polar express

By Virginia Lee Burton Houghton Mifflin

freight train By Donald Crews Scholastic

By Chris VanAllsburg William Morrrow & Company

the railway children By E. Nesbit Dover

Magazines and Periodicals: science weekly Published 16 times a year, this is designed for elementary classrooms.

scientific american explorations A magazine of family science activities that can be adapted for classroom use. BELOW: The inner–workings of the Baldwin 60000.


COAT ROOM

Fo r yo ur c on venience /• S 1

The Coat Room is conveniently located on the first floor and costs only $1 per item. Strollers are allowed throughout the museum but can also be stored.

FRANKLIN THEATER

f o rmally S te ar n s S cience Audito r i um/ • ALL AGES

Franklin Theater has cinema-style seating, a new surround sound system, acoustical treatment, and a state-of-the-art high definition digital 3D projection system. We present digital 3D films and live events with 3D content!

KIDS SCIENCE

I S LAND O F the E LE ME N TS / • AGES 5-8

Your mission is to save the planet in the name of science while having a great time. A permanent exhibit and a Franklin Institute original, Kids Science takes children through a fiction al story where they uncover the foundations of science pertaining to Light, Water, Earth, and Air.

LUNCHROOMS

R O O M A AND B / •

Lunch Room A and B are both located near the coat room on the first floor. Lunch Room A is typically reserved for students visiting Monday through Friday.

PLANETARIUM

view the star s / • all age s

The Planetarium, a historic cornerstone to The Franklin Institute, is the nation’s second oldest planetarium. This state-of-the-art planetarium offers cutting edge astronomical views and presentations.

RESTROOMS

M EN AND WO M EN/ •

There are handicap accessible bathrooms located on both ends of the first floor for men and women. The restrooms located near the Coat Room contain diaper changing tables.

SPACE COMMAND TH E U N I V E R S E /• AGES 6 - 9 Climb into this futuristic, low Earth-orbit research station and take an unforgettable journey of discovery. Our goal is to help you understand the purposeand appreciate the importance of space exploration

THE TRAIN STATION ALL AB O AR D/ • AGES 5 - 9

It’s your turn to be the engineer of a working 350-ton locomotive at our authentic train factory. This new, interactive exhibit will enlighten you to the science and technology behind trainsT. The Massive Baldwin 60000 Locomotive is Blowing Its Steam and is Ready to Rumble through Philadelphia Once Again.


T H E AR T O F TH E MAC HI NE/• a g es 5 - 1 5 About the exhibit Amazing Machine invites students to explore the science and art of machines. The classroom activities presented here in this guide could be used in preparation for a visit to the exhibit or as extension activities after returning to school. Either way, students will be able to connect the activities with their experience in the exhibit. The activities in this guide as well as the content of the exhibit are presented in context with the National Science Education Standards, the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, and the National Social Studies Education Standards. In many ways, a visit to “Amazing Machine” provides an opportunity to engage students with standardsbased content.

what to expect The exhibit is organized in three thematic areas representing concepts behind how machines work: universal components (focusing on gears, springs, cams, pulleys, linkages, and screws), control (focusing on rate, on/off, and sequence), and power (focusing on chemical, electrical, and fluid energy). Within each thematic area, you’ll find a mix of interactive devices and real machines. Each area is separate but within an open floor plan, allowing you to move among the concepts and see that they are inter-related.

while you and your students visit the exhibit you will see: • “Skinned” and “exploded” machines which have had their outer casing removed so that you can see what happens inside • Three amazing mechanical sculptures which reveal the awesome beauty of machines • Significant historical artifacts from The Franklin Institute’s collection of mechanical devices including the Patent Models, Automaton, and clock mechanisms

when you and your student leave the exhibit you will understand how: • Machines are made up of systems of components • Machines have many or all of the universal components working together • Each component has its own qualities, yet together they create something more than a mere sum of the parts


aBOVE: Mother and Daughter aboard the S.S. Franklin

MAZING MACHINE

/•

Everyday machines are displayed in exploded views. Their parts, separated and visible, allow a bird’s eye view of the interior of such workhorses as the household vacuum cleanert. Interactivity is a central element of Amazing Machine!


e x hibit ar eas/ •

universal components

Machines are made up of groupings of components. As you turn the corner and enter the main area of the exhibit, you’ll be in the thematic area related to universal components: linkages, cams, gear, springs, pulleys, and screws. Within this area, you’ll encounter devices related to each component.

Linkages are the joints in a machine that transfer, amplify, or change motion. Wave the flag Turn a crank in a full circle that, through the linkage, waves a flag. The linkage converts circular motion to reciprocating motion. SwinG the hammer Move a handle with a limited range of motion. Through a set of linkages, the motion is amplified and a hammer at the opposite end swings in a large arc. RING THE BELL Push up and down on a handle and, through linkages, ring a bell at the opposite end.


Left : Black and Decker Tellurian from 1912

Cams are rotating disks, shaped to convert circular into linear motion. TIMING IS EVERYTHING Rotating cams will open and close gates along a ramp. Watch carefully and then release the ball to roll down the ramp without being stopped by any of the gates. CAMS MAKE MUSIC Position the two cams correctly and you’ll hear the familiar “Happy Birthday” melody. If the cams are out of synch, the melody won’t make sense.

A gear is a toothed mechanical part that engages with similar toothed parts to transmit motion from one rotating body to another. GEAR SPEED Measure the speed of each gear by turning one master crank. Notice the relationship between gear size and gear speed. CAN CRUSHER Join the can crusher club! Throughout the course of a week, many visitors will turn the crank and activate a gear train that slowly crushes a metal trash can. Once the can is fully compacted, a new can is put in its place.

MAZING MACHINE

Right: A toaster from an unknown maker and from an unknown date.


e x hibit ar eas/ • Control

power

Different methods of controlling machines are needed to operate machines effectively.

Machines convert energy into mechanical motion.

The second thematic area is control. The content in this area suggests that the principles of control are necessary to operate machines effectively and control the outcome. Solving the control challenges was the most important step in the process of industrialization. Without control, we would have little use for machines, no matter how beautiful and powerful they might be.

Stamp in Time

Synchronize the motion of the conveyor belt and the stamping bar. When this control challenge was mastered, mass production via conveyor belts changed American industry.

Sequence for Control Coordinate the movement of the parts of the mechanical arm and move the blocks from place to place. You’ll recognize this device as a giant crane, the origin of which made skyscrapers and other manufactured landscapes possible.

On/Off Controls Switch the power flow to control the tilt of a disc and move the ball through the maze. Beware! This challenge is very difficult, but once you get the hang of the switching you’ll have reached the target and mastered an industrial processing technique —one that is essential in the field of robotics today.

The third thematic area is power. When machines operate properly, energy transformation results, empowering our lives. Different kinds of energy can react to spark the mechanical motion that produces power. The devices in this area explore those different possibilities.

Make a Motor Magnetic energy and copper meet to create a rapidly spinning coil.

Rocket Launcher Air pressure can be controlled to power a “rocket” along a guide wire. Too much pressure and the rocket overshoots its target; too little and it falls flat.

Chemical Launcher Chemical energy propels a projectile through a tube. Fill the tube with Hydrogen and then ignite it to release its chemical energy. The controlled explosion lifts the ball through the tube.

Wind Wall Wind energy is plentiful and powerful. Plug in the four devices (anemometer, horizontal windmill, squirrel cage blower, and pneumatic tool) and see how wind energy powers their motion.

Maillardet’s Automaton Water Wheel Nestled in a glass case within the wall between the universal components and control areas is an amazing example of the elegance of machines. In 1928, The Franklin Institute accepted the donation of a damaged but interesting mechanical device about which no one knew much. The Institute’s curators and technicians set about restoring the device in an attempt to see what they had. Once the gears were cleaned and primed, the Automaton came to life and told its secret! It lowered its head, positioned its pen, and began to produce elaborate sketches. Four drawings and three poems later, in the border surrounding the final poem, the Automaton clearly wrote, “Ecrit par L’Automate de Maillardet.” This translates to “Written by the Automaton of Maillardet.” Tthe first clue of the true history and identity of the machine had come from its own mechanical memory! Henri Maillardet was a Swiss mechanician of the 18th century who worked in London producing clocks and other mechanisms. It is believed that Maillardet built this Automaton around 1800. He made only one other Automaton that could write; it wrote in Chinese and was made for the Emperor of China as a gift from King


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George III of England. The Franklin Institute’s Automaton has the largest “memory” of any such machine ever constructed—four drawings and three poems (two in French and one in English). Maillardet achieved this by placing the driving machinery in a large chest that forms the base of the machine, rather than in the Automaton’s body. The memory is contained in the cams (brass disks). As the cams are turned by the clockwork motor, three steel fingers

follow their irregular edges. The fingers translate the movements of the cams into side to side, front and back, and up and down movements of the doll’s writing hand through a complex system of levers and rods that produce the markings on paper.

the patent models The nineteenth century was a time of amazing growth in America. Within a relatively

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short span of time, the country was transformed from a rural society to an industrial giant. Patriotism, ambition, and optimism ran through the land like currents ofelectricity. The number of patents issued during this time was incredible, and the search for self-sufficiency and greater comfort made inventing a sort of national pastime. On July 4, 1836, President Andrew Jackson signed a bill into law that established a new and improved patent system in the United States. All applicants needed to present three items prior to review for a patent: a written description, a schematic drawing, and a model of the invention.

When the 1836 bill was passed, Congress had more in mind for models than being just part of the requirement for a patent application. Models were also a way to educate the public, stimulate creativity and enterprise, and inspire a sense of America’s destiny. The placement of Patent Models in “AmazingMachine” is true to the spirit of this original intention.


By the late 1860s, the number of patent models was growing at the rate of more than 13,000 annually. Since the bill never specified what patent models should look like or include, the Patent Office had amassed quite a diverse collection. Some models were classics of the modelmaker’s craft; some were simple and unsophisticated. Some models were abstract; others were perfect miniatures. In 1908, Congress sought to dispose of the more than 150,000 models that still existed. Many had been on display in the Patent Office Museum, but fire and space issues caused the majority to be hidden away in storage. The Smithsonian selected 1,061 associated with famous inventors, and an effort to auction off the remaining models resulted in the transfer of only 3,000 others.

which position the mechanical device in the natural world. The third is easy to miss, unless you remember to look overhead and see the horizontal display which forms the ceiling of the space. Ben Trautman is the mechanical artist responsible for these three pieces. Based in San Francisco, Trautman is a sculptor, an oldfashioned tinkerer, and a man deeply fascinated with the mechanics of how things work. His kinetic sculptures invite you to share his fascination and to see the elegance of mechanical motion.

The rest, packed in oak crates, went back to storage until 1925, when Congress devised a plan to give those historically important models to the Smithsonian or other institutions, and dispose of all others by any means possible. The Patent Models on display in “Amazing Machine” came to The Franklin Institute as part of this final effort to clear the Patent Office of its collections.

kinetic sculptures Within “Amazing Machine,” you’ll find three kinetic sculptures which truly reveal the awesome beauty and elegance of mechanical motion. The first and most prominent is located at the entrance to the exhibit. The second is in the far corner, surrounded by glass windows

ABOVE: Oscillating Electric Fan found within the Amazing Machine exhibit.


A t -Ho me A ctivit y / • the s crew Science Concepts

Procedure

A screw is simply a kind of inclines plane

• Cut a right triangle from the paper. The dimensions should be about 5 inches, by 9 inches, by 10.3 inches.

Skills Observing, drawing conclusions

Suggested Time 10-15 minutes

MATERIALS A pencil, scissors, paper, and a felt tip marker

• Use the felt tip marker to color the longest edge (10.3 inches) of the triangle. • Position the shortest side (5 inches) of the triangle along the side of the pencil and then evenly wrap the paper around the pencil by rolling the pencil.

Students May Notice The colored edge of the inclined plane (triangle) forms the curve that causes the circular motion which moves the cylinder (pencil) forward in a linear motion.


A t -Home Air Act ivit y / • the pu l l ey Science Concepts

Procedure

Children will understand the tranfer of energy and how simple pulleys and send energy from one end to the other.

• Thread the sewing needle with regular sewing thread.

Skills

• Hold the buttons with their smooth sides together, sew them together and knot the thread.

Observing, coordination, and drawing conclusions

• Cut a piece of heavy cotton thread about 10-12 inches long.

Suggested Time

• Wind the heavy cotton thread between the connected buttons two or three times and tie a knot.

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MATERIALS You’ll need two identical buttons, a sewing needle with thread, and a spool of heavy cotton thread.

buttons needle string

• Pull the cotton thread tight and wind it all around the center of the buttons. • Tie a finger sized loop in the end of the thread. • Place your finger in the loop and flick your new button yo-yo up and down!

Students May Notice A yo-yo is a simple pulley system that transfers the energy from your arm to the buttons and back again.


FU RTHE R RESOU RCES/ • RECOMMENDED BOOKS Boston Children’s Museum Activity Books By Bernie Zubrowski Morrow Junior Books

Mudpies to Magnets By Robert A. Williams Gryphon House

Science Is... Bubble Monster and Other Science Fun

By Susan V. Bosak A. Puppa

By John H. Falk Chicago Review Press

Scholastic Canada

An Early Start to Science By Roy Richards and Doug Kincaid Stanley Thornes

The Usborne Books of Science Activities series Usborne Publishing

Magazines and Periodicals: Science Weekly www.scienceweekly.com Published 16 times a year, this is designed for elementary classrooms

Scientific American Explorations www.explorations.org A magazine of family science activities and science museums BELOW: A view from the lighthouse.


c leared f or tak e o ff/• a g es 5 - 1 5 About the exhibit Amazing Machine invites students to explore the science and art of machines. The classroom activities presented here in this guide could be used in preparation for a visit to the exhibit or as extension activities after returning to school. Either way, students will be able to connect the activities with their experience in the exhibit. The activities in this guide as well as the content of the exhibit are presented in context with the National Science Education Standards, the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, and the National Social Studies Education Standards. In many ways, a visit to “Amazing Machine” provides an opportunity to engage students with standardsbased content.

what to expect The exhibit is organized in three thematic areas representing concepts behind how machines work: universal components (focusing on gears, springs, cams, pulleys, linkages, and screws), control (focusing on rate, on/off, and sequence), and power (focusing on chemical, electrical, and fluid energy). Within each thematic area, you’ll find a mix of interactive devices and real machines. Each area is separate but within an open floor plan, allowing you to move among the concepts and see that they are inter-related.

while you and your students visit the exhibit you will see: • “Skinned” and “exploded” machines which have had their outer casing removed so that you can see what happens inside • Three amazing mechanical sculptures which reveal the awesome beauty of machines • Significant historical artifacts from The Franklin Institute’s collection of mechanical devices including the Patent Models, Automaton, and clock mechanisms

when you and your student leave the exhibit you will understand how: • Machines are made up of systems of components • Machines have many or all of the universal components working together • Each component has its own qualities, yet together they create something more than a mere sum of the parts


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Everyday machines are displayed in exploded views. Their parts, separated and visible, allow a bird’s eye view of the interior of such workhorses as the household vacuum cleanert. Interactivity is a central element of Amazing Machine! aBOVE: Mother and Daughter aboard the S.S. Franklin


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Machines are made up of groupings of components. As you turn the corner and enter the main area of the exhibit, you’ll be in the thematic area related to universal components: linkages, cams, gear, springs, pulleys, and screws. Within this area, you’ll encounter devices related to each component.

Linkages are the joints in a machine that transfer, amplify, or change motion. Wave the flag Turn a crank in a full circle that, through the linkage, waves a flag. The linkage converts circular motion to reciprocating motion. SwinG the hammer Move a handle with a limited range of motion. Through a set of linkages, the motion is amplified and a hammer at the opposite end swings in a large arc. RING THE BELL Push up and down on a handle and, through linkages, ring a bell at the opposite end.


Left : Black and Decker Tellurian from 1912

Cams are rotating disks, shaped to convert circular into linear motion.

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Right: A toaster from an unknown maker and from an unknown date.

TIMING IS EVERYTHING Rotating cams will open and close gates along a ramp. Watch carefully and then release the ball to roll down the ramp without being stopped by any of the gates. CAMS MAKE MUSIC Position the two cams correctly and you’ll hear the familiar “Happy Birthday” melody. If the cams are out of synch, the melody won’t make sense.

A gear is a toothed mechanical part that engages with similar toothed parts to transmit motion from one rotating body to another. GEAR SPEED Measure the speed of each gear by turning one master crank. Notice the relationship between gear size and gear speed.

CAN CRUSHER Join the can crusher club! Throughout the course of a week, many visitors will turn the crank and activate a gear train that slowly crushes a metal trash can. Once the can is fully compacted, a new can is put in its place.


T H E MI DWAY/ • TO PILOT TRAINING

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Raise The Ball

Balloon RacE

Drag Race

Students learn about the Bernoulli principle as they adjust air pressure to raise and lower a ball through a tube. As their ball is raised, they go from a trainee to a captain!

In true “midway” fashion, students learn how air takes up space as they compete against each other to be the first to fill a balloon with air.

Students learn about the principle of drag as they race two cars: one in a tube with room air and one in a tube with no air.

d Bernoulli Bottle Students are challenged to keep a plastic bottle afloat in an air stream blowing sideways. Daniel Bernoulli would be proud!

e Shimmer Wall: Students stand in front of a wall that is covered in hundreds of light metallic disks, and direct airflow to move the disks.


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pil ot tr ainin g/• the hangar Airplane Launcher

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Control Surfaces Students move the rudder, elevator and ailerons of a large model plane.

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Students design and mak paper airplanes.

Feel the Drag

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Students learn which shapes are more aerodynamic than others.

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Airflow over an Airfoil Students learn which shapes are more aerodynamic than others.

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Students watch the effect of air moving across an airfoil.

Raise the Ball

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Students lift a ball in a tube by changing the speed of a flowing air stream.

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Students watch a wing rise as wind blows into a wind tunnel.

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Simulator

Cockpit Controls

Wearable Wings

Students step inside and take control of a stateofthe-art, full motion flight simulator.

Using a joystick and rudder pedals, students get the feeling of what it’s like to control a plane! They experience the plane’s pitch, yaw and roll by simulating the main cockpit controls.

Students attach wings to their arms, stand in front of a wind tunnel and get “lifted” like an airplane! air.

Note: This interactive takes five minutes per every two children and is an additional fee.


T H E HANGAR/ • Blower with Whirligigs

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Students create whirligigs and send them spinning into the air!

Design a Plane Computer

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Students use a state-of the- art computer to designone of four planes

test a propeller

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Students test two different propellers to see which one generates the most thrust.

fly a wright kite

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Students gain insight into the Wright brothers’ advanced scientific processes’.

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By adjusting the speed and angle of a wing, visitors cause a wing to soar in the air!

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A t -Ho me A ctivit y / • de s i gn a p ro pe l l er Science Concepts

Procedure

Students will understand how to design and test a model propeller

• Give pairs of students one set of the following materials: one new unsharpened pencil, two 8” x 1.5” strips of mat board, scissors, white glue, ruler and a pushpin.

Skills Unifying concepts and processes, building models and explanation

Suggested Time 10-15 minutes

MATERIALS An unsharpened pencil, pushpin, white glue or super glue, and a mat board

• Have the groups find the exact center of their strip of mat board and mark it. Make a half-inch cut in the mat board on both sides, one inch away from the center.

• Push the pin through the center of the mat board, and bend the mat board down at the site of each cut. Be careful not to further tear the mat board.

• Put a dot of white glue or super glue on the eraser of the pencil. • Push the pin first through the center of the board and then into the center of the eraser.

• Make sure the glue is completely dry before testing; 24 hours is best. • Have students test the propeller by putting it between their flat hands and moving one hand quickly past the other. The propeller should take off into the air. • Have each student group demonstrate and explain the thrust of their propeller.

extension

Have students twist their propeller in both directions and note the change in movement. Then have them try to thrust their propeller while it’s upside down. What happens?


A t -Home Air Act ivit y / • ai r pressu re Science Concepts

Procedure

Students will observe and explain the impact of air pressure

• Fill a glass three-quarters full of water. Place a playing card on the top of the glass, and ask students to predict what will happen if you turn the glass over and remove your hand from the card. Have them justify their predictions.

Skills Understanding evidence, models, and the changes of properties in matter

• Conduct the demonstration described above, and have students describe their observations. Students should observe that the water stays inside the glass.

Suggested Time 30 minutes

• Have students conduct the demonstration themselves. Is the result the same?

MATERIALS Water, plastic cups, and playing cards that are larger than the top of the cups.

cup water card

• Have students use scientific principles to explain their observations. They should note that the water stays inside the cup because the air below the card is pushing up, trying to get inside of the cup. This pressure prevents the water from running out. • Have students make a pressure arrow diagram of the water, cup, air and the card that explains their observations. A sample diagram is included here.

extension Try the experiment with soda. The air bubbles should create too much pressure inside the glass for the experiment to work.


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FU RTHE R RESOU RCES/ • RECOMMENDED websites: http://www.paperplane.org/

Site of Ken Blackburn, the world record holder for paper airplane flight duration. Explores the science behind paper airplanes and includes many sample planes for kids to build.

http://www.workmanweb.com/fliersclub/simulator2.html

Students to simulate the actual flight of a paper airplane by first selecting its angle, thrust, and elevator.

http://www.josephpalmer.com/planes/Airplane.shtml Paper airplane site with advanced designs.

how stuff works:

thorough, accurate, easy-to-read sites designed to explain “how stuff works.”

HOW AN AIRPLANE WORKS http://travel.howstuffworks.com/airplane.htm

HOW A HELICOPTER WORKS http://www.howstuffworks.com/helicopter.htm BELOW: An Aircraft engine on display at the Franklin Instute.


Week 2 Senior Project