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The Snow Lion’s Attributes An Introduction to the Essence of the Drikung Vajra Dances


The Snow Lion’s Attributes

An Introduction to the Essence of the Drikung Vajra Dances This English Text is an adaptation of a Tibetan original by His Holiness Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche. Based on ancient dance texts, it was prepared specially for the guests of the inauguration ceremonies of the Drikung Kagyu Institute, Jangchubling, November, 1992. This inaugural event re-created another from 1669, when the entire repertory of Drikung Vajra Dances was performed before the Dalai Lama.

This reprinted and revised edition was created with the permission of His Holiness, Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche, and was produced by Core of Culture, Chicago, USA, under the direction of Joseph Houseal.

Designed by Nicholas Alguire Copy Editor Roz King Printed by PrintArt, McKinney Texas Copyright 1992, 2016, Drikung Kagyu Institute, all rights reserved.


The Snow Lion’s Attributes

ISBN 978 - 1 - 5323 - 0022 - 6


Table of Contents 1. Notes on the Historical and Cultural Background of the Drikung Kagyu School

pg. 6

2. History of the Drikung Kagyu Dances

pg. 12

3. Purpose of the Dances

pg. 17

Snow Lion’s Attributes Original Tibetan Text

pg. 24

4. Preparation for the Dances

pg. 50

5. Course and Symbolism of the Dances

pg. 52

6.1 First Day, Old Tantric Dances

pg. 54

6.2 Second Day, New Tantric Dances

pg. 59


1. Notes on the Historical and Cultural Background of the Drikung Kagyu School Roughly two centuries after King Langdarma’s murder, the struggles between followers of the ancient shamanic religion of Tibet and those fighting for the reintroduction of Buddhism in Tibet had come to an end. Different scholars and tantric masters, brought into the country by different rulers, established different schools in the course of ensuing attempts to bring Buddhism back to the people of the Himalayan provinces so promisingly converted for the first time by King Songtsen Gompo (reigned 618-641) and his successors. The most important of these first Buddhist kings was Thritsong Detsen (reigned 756-797). He invited the Adamantine Master (Vajra Acharya, Dorje Lobpön) Padmasambhava, from Udiyana (Urgyaen, today in Afghanistan) on a mission to Tibet. He is also known as Pema Jungne, and very often referred to simply as Guru Rinpoche, Jewel-like Teacher. In spite of the fact that after he dissolved himself in light there was a violent anti-Buddhist reaction, the consequences of his work are enormous and long lasting. To him we owe the very fundamentals of what we somewhat improperly call Lamaism, i.e. the particular Tibetan form of Vajrayana Buddhism. To him we owe the erection of the first monastery in Tibet, Samye, and among many other things, the first performance of Cham, the famous sacred dances. Padmasambhava’s teachings, which survived the first stage of Buddhist influence in Tibet were later called the ‘Old Tantra’, to distinguish them from the teachings normally identified with the activity of the great translator Lotsawa Rinchen Zangpo (958-1051). These are referred to as ‘New Tantra’.

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Padmasambhava Refuge Tree, circa 1900. Tibet

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Jigten Sumgon, circa 1200, Tibet

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A particular aspect of Padmasambhava’s activity was that he, knowing that the times were not yet ripe for the ultimate victory of Buddhism in Tibet, and that a long period of heavy struggle would follow, concealed a number of his teachings with the intention that they be discovered much later, when the time was right for the disclosure of a particular teaching. Such hidden teachings are called Termas (treasures). Their discoverers, who either found physical pieces of writing or received yogic visions induced by Padamsambhava himself, are called Tertöns (treasure revealers). A number of the Drikung Vajra Dances go back to such teachings, as shall be seen later. Towards the middle of the twelfth century, at the end of the long struggle between supporters of the new faith and their opponents, different traditions, resulting from the lifelong quest of great saints, became increasingly known and crystallized into the ‘Eight Great Chariots of the Lineage of the Practice’. These eight independent schools are: the Nyingmapa (carrying the unbroken tradition of the primitive Tibetan monasticism installed by Padmasambhava); Kadampa; Sakyapa; Kagyupa; Shangpa; Jordruk; Nyendrup and Zhiched & Chö. Of these, four survive today as independent schools, Nyingmapa, Sakyapa, Kagyupa and Kadampa, though the last has been transmuted and absorbed into the Gelugpa school. Although these schools have very distinct characteristics and have remained faithful to the main aims of their founders, e.g. the Gelugpas to the monastic and communitarian tradition, sanctioned by Atisha for the Kadampa school founded by him, and later reformed by the founder of the Gelugpa school, Tsongkhapa; or the Kagyupa, to their tradition based very much on meditation practice. It would be erroneous to think of them, in spite of temporary rivalries, as strictly separated or contradictory factions. Masters of different schools continually inspired each other through the centuries. The history of the Kagyupa begins with the Bengali Brahmin Tilopa (988-1069), who, according to tradition, received his initiations directly from Vajradhara (Dorje Chang), the embodiment of the Dharmakaya Buddha in his tantric form. His foremost disciple was Naropa, a Bengali prince (1016-1100), whose Six Yogas were to become not only one of the 9


pillars of the Kagyupa schools, but of all New Tantric schools, i.e. all surviving schools with the exception of the Nyingmapa, known as the Old Tantric School. The first Tibetan of the Kagyu Lineage was Naropa’s pupil Marpa, his greatest disciple, and a seminal translator. Last of the four patriarchs of the Kagyu lineage is the great saint and poet Milarepa (1040-1123), whose Hundred Thousand Songs are universally admired for their spiritual content and poetic beauty, one of the great legacies of mankind. However, it is not until the second generation of pupils after Milarepa that the Kagyupa school began to take shape in its present day form. A key role in the process was destined for Phagmodrupa, a pupil of Milarepa’s pupil Gampopa, author of the fundamental treatise Jewel Ornament of Liberation. Eight of his pupils became heads of different Kagyupa lineages, aligning themselves to Phagmodrupa’s own school and those of three of his disciples, thus completing the number of the twelve Kagyupa lineages. Only four are still flourishing as independent lineages: Karmapa, Drugpa, Taglungpa and Drikungpa. The Drikungpa arise from Phagmodrupa’s foremost disciple, Kyobpa Jigten Sumgon, ‘Protector of the Three Worlds’, deemed to be an emanation of the Buddha of the Three Times and a reincarnation of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mahayana School. Jigten Sumgon not only gained the highest respect from other heads of Kagyupa lineages, but left a number of fundamental writings. The best known of these is the Gong Chig, compiled from his teachings by a pupil, producing its transmitted version. This text can be considered the first compendium of speculative Buddhist philosophy within the Tibetan tradition. The Drikung lineage took its name from the monastery of Drikung Thel, founded by Jigten Sumgon about 90 kilometers northeast of Lhasa. It spread quickly and did not fail to exert, during certain periods, a considerable political influence. The leadership of the lineage had been entrusted to one of Jigten’s disciples, and remained thereafter for a few centuries within the princely clan of Kyura, a prominent family from the Eastern province of Kham. The 10


last heads of the lineage to come from that family were three brothers who flourished during the first half of the 17th century. All were Gelongs and died issueless. (A fourth brother of this remarkable generation had been recognized as the 6th Shamar Rinpoche, the Tulku second in rank of the Karmapa lineage.) The leadership of the lineage has since been in the hands of their subsequent incarnations, who both assume the title of Drikung Kyabgon and the individual style of Chetsang, respectively, or Chungsang Rinpoche. The present Kyabgons are the 36th and 37th heads of the lineage, and the 7th incarnations of the last hereditary successors of Jigten Sumgon’s first successor. H.H. the 37th Drikung Kyabgon and 7th Chetsang Rinpoche, Konchog Tenzin Kunsang Thinley Lhundrup, resides in Dehra Dun, where he leads the main educational institution of the lineage which has been built thanks to his efforts. H.H. the 36th Drikung Kyabgon and 7th Chungsang Rinpoche, Tenzin Chokyi Nangwa resides in Lhasa, where he follows the patient work of reconstruction begun a few years ago in the recent climate of political uncertainty.

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2. History of the Drikung Vajra Dances The great Master from Udiyana, Padmasambhava, and the Abbot Shantarakshita, (Pema Jungne and Shiwatso, respectively), were invited by King Trisong Detsen to come from India to Tibet. The first monastery founded by them, Samye Migyur Tsug-lhakang, was the site of the first Vajra Dances, or, Cham. They were performed by Padmasambhava himself, in order to consecrate the occasion and also as a powerful means of subjugating the local spirits and purifying the whole land with blessings. The history of the specific Drikung Vajra Dances began during the reign of the 10th Drikung Kyabgon, Nyer-gyepa Dorje Gyalpo (1284-1350). On the occasion of the performance of a particular rite, Sostor Chenmo, at Tse-Ăź-khar Lhakang monastery, two dances, the Four-Armed Mahakala Dance and the Vajrakilaya (Dorje Phurba) Dance, were performed under the directorship of Vajra Acharya (Dorje LobpĂśn) Tsamchepa Dragpa Gyaltsen.

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Nyer-Gyep Dorje Gyalpo (1284-1350)


The sixteenth successor to the throne, Gyalwang Kunga Rinchen, (14751527), a reincarnation of Kyobpa Jigten Sumgon, established the Vajra Dance known as Nyang-lug Kagyed Desheg Dupa. This is the Ritual of the Eight Yidam Deities of the Mandala of the Nature of the Awakened Mind in its Wrathful Aspect. Vajra Acharya Jamyang Rinchen supervised the production of these dances at the main monastery of Drikung Thel, Jangchubling. The seventeenth head of the school, the great Tertön, Gyalwang Rinchen Phuntsog (1509-1557), further spread the use of the dances to the monasteries of the school, after having reviewed the Kagyed Dances in a yogic vision together with Padmasambhava in Zang-dog Pal-ri (the ‘Copper Coloured Mountains’ ), his heavenly abode. There Rinchen Phuntsog ascertained all the details of the dances. He initiated the Nyang-lug Deshig dance at Drikung Yangrigar Thubstan Deshi Rabgye Ling monastery, the main monastic college of the order, 25 kilometers from Drikung Thel. He also originated the dances of Mahakala Thrag thung Rol-wa and the Achi Ge-kar, among several others, at Drikung Thel.

Gyalwang Kunga Rinchen (1475- 1527) 13


Kunhkyen (‘Omniscient’) Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpa (1595-1659), the 24th Kyabgon, added three more dances, the Drum Dance, the Wrathful Masked Dance and the Black Hat Dance. These nearly completed the Kagyed dance series at the Drikung Yangrigar monastery. In the late fall of 1669, the entire repertory of the Vajra Dances was performed before the great 5th Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang. On a merely factual level this can be considered a part of the Dalai Lama’s ‘appeasement policy’ after the establishment of the Gelugpa school as the leading force in Tibet, and himself as the spiritual and temporal ruler of the country. However, it is beyond doubt that the performance impressed him deeply. He presented the players with rich robes, and inaugurated a revival of Cham practice. On the occasion of this historical performance, the then-reigning Kyabgon, Konchog Thinlay Zangpo, the 25th head of the school and second Chetsang Rinpoche, added one more dance according to the Drat-le Tön-Gyedma text, known as The Dance of Destruction of the Rudra, thus completing the cycle of Kagyed dances. The Rudra, or Linga, is an image representing Evil.

Tertön Gyalwang Rinchen Phuntsong (1509-1557) 14


Thondrup Chögyal (1704-1754)

The 26th Kyabgon and 2nd Chungsang, Thondrup Chögyal (1704-1754), made a complete and detailed instruction manual for the Kagyed Deshig Dupa Drubchen ritual, noting down all the intricate movements of these dances. He enriched the series of new tantric dances, all dedicated to Dharmapalas or protectors, by adding the Mahakala cham (Gonpo Päng), the Tsering Ched-nga, part of the Achi dance series, and the Nam-thö-se dances, in addition to others. He was, as were many heads of the school before and after him, an outstanding scholar and spiritual teacher. It was said, that he ‘made the doctrine shine like the sun’. Such was the connection of Cham and Buddhist scholarship. Until 1959, these dances were performed in a continuous tradition in the following larger Drikung monasteries in Central Tibet: Driking Thel (the main monastery of the order, ‘Jangchubling’); Yangrigar Deshi Rabgye Ling (the main monastic college of the Drikung lineage); Tsewa Satän; Chökhor Jampa Ling Drongngur Gon, and in what is known today as Ching Hai province, in the monasteries of Kham-Gyok Gon; 15


Drub Gyud Gon; Chödye Gon; Nyindzong Gon-chen; A-yang Gon; Lho Me-yel Gon; Gan Yangchen Jang-chub Choe ling; and in the province of Sichuan, Dän Lü-guil Gon; Lho Lung-kar Gon; Tse-le Gon; and finally, in the Yunnan province, at Dang Rabgye Gon. Happily, the tradition of dance performances has been carried on without interruption outside Tibet and today’s Chinese Republic, namely in the monasteries of Limi Watse Gon and Yang-Gon in Nepal; and Gon Tashi Chöyang (Phyang), Yungdrung Thara Ling (Lamayuru) and Shakhul Phuntsog Chafing (Shachukhul) in Ladakh. It was indeed an auspicious event in 1992, that on the occasion of the inauguration of the new Drikung Institute, named Jangchubling, after the old main monastery at Drikung Thel, the complete repertory of Drikung dances were again performed before the Dalai Lama, H.H.Tenzin Gyatso. May this initiate a long and happy era for all sentient beings.

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3. Purpose of the Vajra Dances The religious Vajra Dances differ from ordinary dance spectacles in that they are a very exceptional method of Vajrayana realization practice. In the compilation known as the Lama Gongdue (a collection of thoughts from different Lamas), we find the lines: “The play of meaningful musical dance leads to knowledge for various people who are introduced to the Mandala deities. For the beginners on the Path and for those excellent ones who have attained higher realization, it is the summit of exercising skill and ascension on the Path”. This type of ritual performance introduces people to the practice of the Yidam - literally ‘to hold the mind’ with the Guru (teacher) and the Khadoma or Dakini, a feminine inspiring divinity. The Yidam is one of the three roots of the Path, together with the Guru and the Khadoma. To imagine oneself as being with the empty ‘Rainbow Body’ of the Yidam, as a non-ultimate view technique to diminish one’s clinging to being ‘real’, is the source for attaining ordinary and extraordinary accomplishments. The ‘ordinary’ being in fact extraordinary powers, like flying or passing through walls, called ‘ordinary’ because linked to the world of phenomena and without intrinsic meaning. The ‘extraordinary’ is the realization of the ultimate Buddha-nature. For those who are already on this Path (Lam), the dances help in stabilizing the two stages of meditation practice: the visualization of the illusory appearance of the Yidam form, also called ‘development’ of the illusory image, (Khye-rim); and the subsequent dissolution of the created image, also called ‘completion’, because it penetrates through the preliminary stage to the ultimate essence, Void, (Dzog-rim). These two basic stages 17


Lokastotrapuja Heruka, 17th century, Tibet 18


are the deepest introduction to the actualization of the ‘Great Seal’ (Mahamudra, Chag-ya chenpo) of the New Tantra (Sarma gyud) as well as the ‘Great Perfection’ (Mahasandhi, Dzog-chen) of the Old Tantra (Nyingma gyud). For those who haven’t yet any knowledge of Vajrayana, (the essence of which consists in taking the ultimate result as the main path of realization, assuming from the beginning that one possesses a Buddha nature), the Yidam dances invoke the activity of spiritual beings (Pawo, Khadro, and Dakinis) and contribute to dispel the three kinds of obstacles encountered by the practitioners as well as the public. These are the ‘outer obstacles’, which are no other than all the distractions that keep us away from meditation. The ‘inner obstacles’, are the imbalance of the channels (tsa, nadi), wind energy (lung, prang) and essential drops (thig-le, bindu), which cause sickness and mental disturbance. The ‘secret obstacles’ are discursive thoughts that hinder oneself from recognizing non-conceptual wakefulness (nan par, mi-thog-pe yeshe) and apprehending its empty nature (sel-thong). The Yidam dances are also the opportunity to plant seeds for a good future Karma and are a cause of empowerment to experience the blessing of the ‘wisdom-mind essence’ (yeshe semngo) of the Yidam. Because of the karmic imprint by the dancing Yidam on the consciousness, one will receive a special benefit during the successive intermediate states after death, or Bardo (Antasira-bhava), particularly, at the end of the intermediate states of dying (Chikhai bardo), after the final three most subtle dissolutions of one’s mind, ego and ‘ground of phenomena’ (kun-zhi, alaya, the hypostatic perceptional faculty enabling one to grasp concrete and abstract phenomena). This imprint can be a cause of rebirth on a higher realm and high realization. The very core of the dances is to become a representation of the activity of the mind essence beyond conceptual thinking. Besides profiting unconsciously from the teachings implicit in the dances, the spectators share in the merits of the dancers, whose principal roles are normally played by Lamas who have attained a high degree of realization.

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According to the tantric texts, the mudras, or movements of the hands assuming well-defined positions and gestures, express ‘the union of great bliss and emptiness’. This is a fundamental concept of Mahamudra practice - liberation by touch (sense of feeling). The movements of the feet symbolize the beating of the ‘drum of the three times’, past, present, future. Both acts function to complete the manifestation of the body of the Yidam. The recitation of mantras during the dance, besides being an introduction to ‘awakened speech’, generates a sound representing the very nature of the Yidam. The dancers keep themselves in a meditative state throughout the whole performance, so they can experience the mind of the Yidam, free from ignorance and discursive thinking. These three aspects of performance: gestures of hands and feet; uttering of mantras, and holding a meditative state, stand for the Three Pure Bodies (Ku-sum, Tri-kaya): absolute body (Choe-ku, Dharmakaya); perfect enjoyment body (Lung-ku, Samboghakaya) and emanation, or physical body (Tul-ku, Nirmanakaya). These are also identified with the triads: essence, nature and experience; or, on a higher level: non-thought, clarity and bliss. The dancers receive the necessary oral instructions and receive personal training aimed at enabling them to accede to the inner experience (nyam), both in the Kagyupa meditation techniques of the Six Yogas of Naropa, and the Nyingmapa secret techniques known as ‘direct crossing’ (Thögal). The Thö-gal puts its emphasis on the realization of the‘spontaneous presence’ (Lhun-drup) of the self-existing wakefulness (Rangjung yeshe), free from all concepts. They use these techniques to improve their realization of the view of ultimate truth. Among the most important effects of these practices are rendering the channels of energies (tsa) soft and flexible, purifying the karmic wind energies (lung, prana), and enlarging the rising manifestation of the wisdom mind within the essential drop (thig-le, bindu). These represent preliminaries to becoming enlightened within one single lifetime through skillful 20


diligent practice. The formal embodiment of a Yidam by each dancer forms the necessary condition by which they are enabled to invite into their midst the spiritual beings known as heroes (Pawo) and heroines (Khadro, Dakinis). These beings are in charge of generating the enlightened activity of an individual. They will manifest themselves internally to the dancer, but their effect will also be external, as they will, by their presence, bless the country. The protectors (Chö-kyong, Dharmapala) will recognize the spiritual essence of the Yidam as a master power, and will become willing to serve as obedient helpers to the ‘wealthy one’, the practitioner who succeeds in holding the Yidam. The embodiment of Yidams is also a means of subjugating local spirits in the earth and in the sky (Zhidag, Bhumipatti), who can be turned after their pacification into protectors of the place. The goodness and blessing induced by these powerful spiritual natures helps remove all negative influences of the karmic veil (Le-drib) from both dancers and spectators. The transformation of harmful obstructers (Lhadre, Bhuta) into beings of loving kindness goes hand in hand with the dispelling of dangers like war, floods, epidemics, and famine, and brings into the country the positive phenomena of good fortune, peace, happiness and harmony. Along with this, the Vajra dancer has the rare opportunity of accumulating both conceptual and non-conceptual merits by the special blessings of the Lamas of the lineage. These blessings accompany the practice of realizing Gyue-lue, the illusory body, speech and wisdom mind of the Yidam. For the duration of the dance ritual, some very special Mandalas (Kyil-khor), ‘places of enlightened beings’, are opened. This permits all invited Yidams, acting as personal deities or guides to enlightenment, to manifest and have the Dharampalas submit to their will in conformity with the teachings embodied by the dancers. The dances are, finally, an occasion 21


to gather merits by making the four types of offerings - outer, inner, secret and most secret - and dedicating them to the welfare of all sentient beings. For all these reasons, the Vajra Dances, far from being entertainment or merely symbolical representations, are in fact a very skillful method (thab, upaya) of the ‘secret’ (sang, guya) Vajrayana (Dorje Thegpa). The spectator, human or otherwise, who takes the opportunity and is able to realize the universe as a Mandala of the deities displaying their enlightened nature, can share in all the marvelous effects of the dances, while for the common man, they still represent the chance to obtain a particularly powerful blessing.

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34


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4. Preparation for the Dances In preparation for the Vajra dances, a sand mandala is made as part of the Yidam deity ritual. The mandala of the Kagyed Drubchen is known as the ‘Nine Sunrises Mandala’, signifying that there are a total of nine mandalas, one within the other. Exquisite artistry creates the ‘Pure Land’ through very skillful drawing. Delicate lines form highly detailed and intricate designs. Another part of the ritual preparation consists of making many different kinds of Tormas, offering cakes for religious rites. They are colorfully decorated with elaborate butter designs called Tse Tra placed on the top. There is a different Torma for each of the Yidam deities and Dharmapalas. For example, the Torma decoration for Achi, one of the many manifestations of Vajrayogini and the foremost protectress of the Drikung school, is called ‘Khang-zang’. Snow mountains form the background and in the foreground is the Drikung Tedrom Dragkar, representing the cave in which Guru Rinpoche meditated for seven years. In the center of this cave is Achi’s palace, called the ‘Sparkling Turquoise-Blue Sky’, adorned with a golden pagoda roof, its spires hung with little bells on the corners, and many other ornate details. Within the palace stands the peaceful Achi. Below all this, a grassy field and a lake with two white cranes, birds sacred to Achi. Similar Tormas are made for the other protectors. Before the dances actually begin, Kagyed meditation practice, ritual prayers and specific offerings must be performed for one week. Special attention is given to the Dharma protector, Four-Armed Mahakala. 50


The dancers practice for two days without costumes and masks, but dressed in their best robes, vests and boots. The day before the dance, the performers are given their masks, costumes and ritual instruments. It is their duty to make certain everything is in proper condition, as each dancer is responsible for his own set of costumes.

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5. Course and Symbolism of the Dances The dances last two days. The first day is filled with the performance of the Old Tantric dances. The series of New Tantric dances is presented on the second day. Old Tantric dances are the dances that are based on texts transmitted from the times of Padmasambhava or seen as yogic visionary Termas’ by Tertöns. The New Tantric dances, all dedicated to and representing the activity of Dharmapala protectors, have been composed by masters of the Drikung lineage for specific purposes. Common to both types are ancient texts with detailed instructions for postures, gestures and movements of hands, feet and the body. Some describe faithfully the actual movements like “Withdrawing the foot and stamping on the ground”; “Bending the upper part of the body backwards and kicking with one foot in the air”; “Lifting an ankle” etc. Others convey a general idea: “move like the flight of the Garuda” (a legendary primordial bird of pre-Buddhist origin), “act like a lion shaking a human victim”, “step like the graceful walking of an Indian tiger in the forest.” Common to both is the division of solo dances and general dances. The solo dances are normally performed by monks of a high level of awareness, chosen, as in the case of the Black Hat, Mahakala, Heruka and Drum dances, by the Kyabgon himself, as their performance is not merely a matter of artistic skills, but also has a profound spiritual effect. The performers of the general dances are normally left to the choice of the senior and junior dance master (champon). On the actual day of the dance, the dancers rise at 3 a.m. for a ritual blessing and empowering of the masks by the Kyabgon. The main purpose is to infuse the performer with the energy of the deity prior to the dance. 52


Heruka deity Cham mandala dance diagram

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6.1 First Day, Old Tantric Dances On the first day, the dances of the old tradition are performed in the following order: 1. Clown Dance; 2. Drum Dance; 3. Four Heads Dance; 4. Deer Dance; 5. Buffalo Dance; 6. Dzam; 7. Heruka; 8. Drubchen; 9. Zorcham; 10. The Old Man and the Old Woman; 11. Dral Cham; 12. Storm Dance or Black Wind Dance. 1. The Clown Dance: Two Clown dancers wearing blue chubas (Tibetan dresses) and maroon masks decorated with goat hair and cowrie earrings, first perform the dance of an ancient Indian pandita, Shri Ratnasara. In the right hand they hold a stick and in the left, a bag of tsampa (barley flour). When they dance they throw tsampa on their backs. As the music grows louder, they dance more wildly and clouds of tsampa fill the air. This signifies their wishes for good luck and auspiciousness. The audience watches this very closely, for great clouds of tsampa in the air mean bountiful rain and plentiful crops, an important sign to the villagers. The Clown dance has actual choreography but is largely improvisational and goes on continuously throughout the entire festival. Two more clowns join in, making four clowns now on the dance ground. Their function is to control the crowds, and entertain them by dancing, joking and playing. Their other duties include keeping spectators off the dance ground and assisting the masked dancers with costume adjustments during the performance.

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2. The Drum Dance: The Drum Dance is termed a ‘peaceful dance of the Kagyed deities’. The leader wears a round yellow hat with a flag, and at the back of his head, bone ornaments. Two small black dots decorate his cheeks and in his hands are small cymbals. The other dancers hold a golden drum in the left hand and a drumstick in the right. Their movements consist of twenty different dance steps. They are given here as an example of the description used in the original manuals: 1. Going through; 2. Hitting the Mirror Once; 3. Dutsi Menchu; 4. Lopön Pema Jugne; 5. Striking the Centre of the Palace Four Times; 6. Striking the Drum Four Times Turning Around; 7. Striking the Drum Five Times and Taking Five Paces; 8. Three Smooth Glides and Three Leaps; 9. Giant Iron Chain Walk; 10. Single Vajra Stride; 11. Heaping the Fire Stride; 12. Small Iron Chain Walk; 13. Multi-vajra Stride; 14. Dancing Like Ocean Waves; 15. Dancing Like a Torma; 16. Striking the Drum Three Times and Bringing to the Waist; 17. Two Times to the Waist; 18. Circling and Reversing; 19. One Drum Beat, then Damaru Play; 20. Combination of All Vajras. 3. Four Heads Dance: The four heads represent an owl, a tiger, a pig and a wolf. Each animal signifies an implement of virtue: The owl is the ‘hook of loving kindness’; the tiger is the ‘lasso of compassion’; the pig is the ‘iron chain of happiness’; and the wolf is the ‘bell of equanimity’. These four animals drive out the evil image, represented by a small effigy of Rudra on a wooden plank. First they must conquer the protectress of that image, and dispel it. The effigy is then removed from the dance ground. 4. 5. 6. Deer, Buffalo and Dzam Dances: The Four Heads Dance is followed by three dances: The Deer, Buffalo and Dzam dances. These are preludes to the culmination of the dances of the day. Their function is to drive out the evil spirits and negative forces gathered around the Rudra. The remarkable talents of individual dancers are on display during these performances, particularly with the deer and buffalo dances. These two dances are very demanding, requiring skill and stamina, and are a speciality of the younger performers. The Dzam Cham dancers execute measured and very disciplined movements with great 55


agility and coordination of head, waist and feet. The Deer and Buffalo dances are not so highly restricted in movement, but instead show lightness of the body by leaping. In the Deer dance, for instance, the performers jump, twirl and stamp, turning and twisting their bodies. Only an extremely supple dancer is able to perform the difficult feat of touching the ground with his horns, while bending over backward. This, if performed successfully, is a very good sign. It is, however, rarely seen nowadays. 7. Heruka, Solo and General Dances: Heruka is the central deity of the mandala, and the Heruka Cham dance movements are measured and deliberate. The actual dance of conquering the Rudra begins at this point. Raising his arms upwards, Heruka draws in the air the eight auspicious Dharma Wheel signs. By moving his feet upon the earth, he traces the eight auspicious lotus signs. With this, the rest of the performers appear: a second Heruka; Jampal; Pema; Yangdag; Phurba Thinley; Mamo Bod-tang; Rigzin Lopon; Jigten Chödo; Modpa Tragnag; and so on, all in yab-yum, accompanied by their feminine counterparts. In describing these dances, the ancient texts state that they represent a special way of dancing: “When the dancers move, they shake their bodies like Garuda travelling in the sky, they toss their hair in the manner of a Snow Lion, their body moves as if there were no bones. The head and feet move unhindered, and when proceeding to the right, the gaze is directed to the left, and vice-versa; in forward movement, the gaze is straight ahead”. These movements are distinctive to tantric dancing. This unique form of religious dance knows 31 dance positions of legs and feet, and 15 of the head and arms, totaling 46 distinct movements. The movements of head and arms are: 1. Extending the Left Arm; 2. Extending Both Arms; 3. Brandishing the Phurba and Scarf with the Left Hand; 4. Wielding the Knife and Skullcup; 5. Cutting and Eating Movement; 6. Sun and Moon Action; 7. Displaying the Knife and Sword; 8. Keeping the Torma on the Chest; 9. Wielding the Knife and Scarf; 10. Moving the Shoulders; 11. Touching the Ground with the Scarf; 12. Clasping the Phurba to the Heart; 13. Brandishing the Axe; 14. Looking Outward; 15. Looking Outward and Rotating the Upper Half of the Body. 56


8. Heruka Drubcham: The dance of the Heruka Mandala deities is the main part of Rudraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s defeat. The objects to be dispelled are the five poisons afflicting the inhabitants of the six realms of Samsaric existence. They are naturally overcome by the Ten Activities of: 1. Enemies of the Dharma; 2. Those who harm sentient beings; 3. Adversaries of the Triple Gem; 4. Slanderers of the Dharma; 5. Dividers of the Sangha; 6. Destroyers of shrines; 7. Disbelievers in Karma; 8. Samaya breakers; 9. Those who abandon the Dharma; 10. Vow breakers. The manner in which the evil image is dispelled is through loving kindness and compassion, thus delivering all from the realms of hell. 9. Zorcham or Black Hat Dance: This dance refers to the famous compassionate murder of King Langdarma, in the darkest times of Buddhist history in Tibet. This was when the king attempted to destroy all Dharma activities in the country, which had disintegrated into several small kingdoms. At this time, a powerful monk by the name of Lhalung Pelkyi Dorje, appeared dancing in front of the Lhasa Jokang wearing a Black Hat Cham costume. Surprising the king who thought he was dancing, he shot the king, who was reading the Pillar Scripture, in the forehead with an arrow, and killed him. The Shanag (Black Hat Cham) is one of the most interesting and powerful dances, and is normally performed by the most skillful dancers. The main dancer performing the ritual sacrifice is usually a Lama with a high degree of realization. He cuts the negative image (Rudra, Linga) and reveals it as non-existent. This symbolizes the killing of the ego and aims to free the soul from illusion. Killer and victim merge into the ultimate reality, where distinctions are recognized as illusory. Other dancers appear as Yidams, each one holding different implements and having different attributes. Several secret mantras are spoken during the sacrifice by the dancers. The dance represents a powerful tantric technique to purify both dancers and spectators.

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10. The Old Man and the Old Woman: Dance of the Parents of the Rudra. 11. Dral Cham or Dance of Destruction of the Evil Image: The main event of the whole series of Old Tantric Dances is the dismemberment of the evil effigy (Linga, Rudra). The consciousness symbolically imprisoned in the effigy is freed by the pronunciation of the mantra ‘Phe’, a mantra that has the power to interrupt conceptual thinking, and transforms it into Buddhahood. What remains, the corpse, is cut, following an extremely complex ritual, in the course of which flesh, bones, blood and the ‘five aggregates’ (accidental qualities, namely: form; feeling; perception; matter and consciousness) are transmuted into nectar that is offered to the Yidams. A long poem explains in detail the symbolic act and the attitude of the killer, which is, of course neither wrath nor revenge, but compassion. This poem is recited during the dance. It culminates in the dedication of the ‘five aggregates’. Blessings received from Five Heavens of the Dhyanibuddhas, in return for the dedication, are described. Finally, the victim is made aware of its identity with the Five Goddesses. 12. Black Wind Dance: This last dance of the first day’s cycle has the character of well wishing and blessing. It is a dismissal rite. Auspicious signs are drawn on the ground and all the dancers gather, dancing according to these patterns.

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6.2 Second Day, New Tantric Dances All new tantric dances represent the acts of Dharmapala protectors, except the dances of comic characters: 1. Monkey; 2. Mahakala (Gonpo); 3. Achi; 4. The Four Protectors; 5. Nam-thö-se; 6. Shin-kyong; 7. The King and the Ministers; 8. Joker; 9. First Sortie; 10. Second Sortie; 11. Third Sortie; 12. Tsiu-mar. 1. Monkey Dance: This dance uses the same movements as the Clown Dance of the previous day. The dancers wear monkey masks because the entourage of the protector Shin-kyong is made up of monkeys. They do not utter any intelligible sound, but just whistle. 2. Mahakala (Gonpo): Also called Dance of Drinking Blood, Mahakala is, in its essence, an emanation of Chakrasambhava (Khorlo Dhonpa). The dance depicts his deeds throughout the ages. A solo dance is followed by Mahakala’s entourage dancing in sequence, one-by-one. The texts announce the many deeds of this important protector, as the mandala of dancers is built up on the dance ground. At the time of the first Buddha (Dipankara, Marmedze), he converted the four sons and daughters of Evil, and they, after having taken Boddhisattva vows from the Buddha, became protectors. At the time of Buddha Khor-wa-jig, eight demons of the earth who had not been successfully taught by the Buddha, were enlightened by Mahakala. During the time of Buddha Serthup, all Nagas were enlightened by bringing Mahakala texts through Vajrapani. During the time of Buddha Kasyapa (Ö-sung), 59


Four-Armed Mahakala, Tibet, 14th century

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Mahakala, Tibet, circa 1400

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eight goddesses were disturbing types of practitioners called Sravakas and Pratekabuddhas . Vajrapani sent some attendants of Mahakala who enlightened the goddesses. During Buddha Shakyamuniâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time, when he, close to realization, was enlightening devils in Bodhgaya, used a Mahakala text brought again by Vajrapani. Since then, Mahakala has been considered â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Dharma-keeper of all Buddhasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. In Nalanda, near the Ganges, Nagarjuna once saw some black rock carvings of Mahakala self-arising. He brought them to Nalanda and declared Mahakala its protector. Finally, the texts depict the translation of the Mahakala text into Tibetan and the selection of Mahakala as the main protector of Tibet by scholars and yogis. Mahakala is venerated in the Phagmodrugpa and Drikungpa, and generally in all Kagyupa lineages, mainly in his four-armed form.

Mahakala Cham, Lamyuru Monastery, 2010 62


Achi Ger-Cham, Ladakh, 2008

3. Achi Ger-Cham: Achiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dance expresses a feeling of joy. According to a sutra, Achi is, in her essence, an emanation of Tara, and she is also deemed by some to be an emanation of the protector Re-ma-tsi, and also, Palden Lhamo. According to Jigten Sumgon, Achi is the protectress of the 1000 Buddhas. Achi is thought to have been the Kyobpaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Grandmother. After the solo dance, her inner entourage performs its dance. The inner circle consists of four groups of dakinis: of wisdom; of Samaya; of empowerment and of flesh-eating. 63


Achi Chokyi Drolma, Tibet, 14th century

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Achi Chokyi Drolma, Tibet, circa 1800 65


They are followed in turn by the performance of the outer entourage. These are the protectresses of Jetsun Milarepa, Tseringma and her four companions. This Achi dance follows quite a different mood from all others. It is peaceful and extremely varied in respect to the body postures assumed by the dancers. The Röl-mo (cymbals) are beaten in a slow rhythm during the whole dance. 4. Dance of the Four Protectors: After a reading at midnight before his consorts and main followers, Padmasambhava once hid a particular text connected with the four protectors. The text was the so-called Yang-zab, and it was hidden as a Terma in a cave in Drikung Zho-Tö Tido Daki Tsog-kang, with the intention that it be found later by King Lhasa Mutig Tsengpo. The four protectors kept this Terma protected from unworthy hands until it was discovered by one of the greatest Tertöns of all times, the 17th head of the Drikung lineage, Gyalwang Rinchen Phuntsog, himself a reincarnation of Lhasa Mutig Tsengpo. The four protectors are: 1) Ekazati, with only one eye and one tusk-like big tooth, an emanation of Samantabhadra, Kundu Zangmo; 2. Rahula (Chatrag Gotseg), an emanation of Heruka; 3. Damchan, an emanation of Vajrapani; 4) Hara, a product of the conjunction between a planet and Evil. Buddha Marmedze, Vajrapani and Padmasambhava declared Hara as one of the protectors. The four dancers dance with completely different movements at the same times, moving to the same rhythm of the cymbals. This style of complex, non-uniform dance is unique to the Drikungpa. 5. Nam-thö-se (Vaishramana): Nam-thö-se is a form of the Dhyanibuddha Amonghasiddhi (Dön-yö Dubpa), who came into this world as a protector.

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One attendant of Buddha Nyime Nying-po is Rinchenma, the ‘Boddhisattva of the Eight Bhumis’. Rinchenma renounced entering Paranirvana in order to help all beings suffering from poverty in this world, as this blight had moved her to particular compassion. She choose therefore, to be incarnated as the son of Nam-thö, the god of wealth, and has been called therefore Nam-thö-se. He presented the Buddha Shakyamuni, when he became a monk, with a bowl of stone. At this occasion, he promised the Buddha to protect all monks. Nam-thö-se had three sons : Phag-key-po; Chen-mi-sang, (said to have seen ‘The Land of the Buddhas’ paradise); and Yul-khor-sung, ‘protector of the country’, i.e. protector of the six realms of gods. Vajrapani (Chagna Dorje) installed Nam-thö-se and his sons as the four Lokapalas, the protectors of the four directions. Their images can still be seen at the entry of every Tibetan temple. All schools of Buddhism recognize the four Lokapalas as protectors. Because Kyobpa Jigten Sumgon built the Tashi Gomang in Drikung Densa Thil shaped as a mandala of five stories on four pillars containing 2550 gods, and was sponsored in this effort by Nam-thö-se, the Drikungpa have a particular veneration for him and acclaim him as a Dharmapala. Nam-thö-se has a darkish yellow color and holds as attributes the Gyaltsen, the typical round banner symbolizing the triumph of Buddhism, and a mongoose spitting jewels (Nyu-le). In his entourage, we find the four Genyen (Upasaka, or practitioners): Par-lha-lha, white in color, holding a bamboo stick; Sog Ratsan, red in color, wrathful, holding Phurbu and Shagpa (daggar and lasso); Chuphenlu, light blue, with the head of a snake, holding a banner; and Didoma, a wisdom spirit assuming different kinds of bodies. These dances are again danced simultaneously, but with different individual choreography. 6. Shin-kyong Dance: The son of Mara (Dü, the Evil) and the demon Yaksha Shin-kyong even67


tually became protectors, especially of the 24 sacred places. In the first place, Tsa-ri and at Mount Kailash, he is represented holding a trident and the heart of an enemy. Like Mahakala’s, his essence consists in an emanation of Chakrasambhava. Among many others, he revealed himself to Nagarjuna, Jigten Sumgon, the second Karma Pakshi, and placed himself as a protector over all Kagyu lineages in general. 7. Dance of the King and the Minister (Gyalpo and Lhonpo Dance): Gyalpo Pehar, the king, was initially a demon and a figure of the Böncult. After his conversion, at the time of Padmasambhava, he was chosen by the Master from Udyana as the protector of Samye monastery, which he founded. Within the Drikung Lineage, Kyabgon and Tertön Gyalwang Rinchen Phuntsog, mentioned above, had a vision of him, in which he promised to watch over the Drikungpas. He is since considered one of the protectors of the order. In his essence he is identical to Ne-chung Chö-kyong, the protector of the government of Tibet. 8. Dance of the Joker: Light intermezzo 9. First Sortie: General dances 10. Second Sortie: General dances 11. Third Sortie: General dances 12. Tsiu-mar: Tsiu-mar is, in his essence, identical with Tham-drin. In this world he was incarnated as the son of Migyur Sangwa and Ugyaen. As a consequence of bad deeds, he was born again as a Tsan, a type of protector inhabiting mountains, often an oracle deity. From his body sprang the Tsan-gö Rol-wa Kya-dun (the Seven Appearing Tsan protectors): from his head, Dütsan (evil); from his bones, Lha-tsan (a god); from the heat of his body, Thag-tsan (a rock); from his blood, Thib-tsan (defilement, impurity); from his pus, Lu-zen (a serpent); and from his flesh, Gang-zen (a god). 68


Tsiu-mar was converted into a protector by these seven, who had taken his heart. He offered himself as a protector to Padmasambhava, and promised to watch his Termas. Appearing to leading monks of the Drikung lineage, he made a solemn vow to protect the Dharma. Many legends are transmitted in connection with the activities of Tsiu-mar.

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Acknowledgements Thanks to H.H. Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche, Acharya Kinley Gyaltsen, Hun Lye, Rubin Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Beata and Michael McCormick, Navin Kumar, PrintArt. Special thanks to David P. Jackson

Image Credits Pg 7 Padmasambhava Refuge Tree; 19 th or early 2oth century, Central Tibet or Ladakh. Courtesy Rubin Museum of Art. Pg 8 Jigten Sumgon with Lineage, Disciples and Deities; 1200-1230, Tibet. Collection of Navin Kumar, New York. Pg 12, 13,14,15 Nyer-Gyep Dorje Gyalpo; Gyalwang Kunga Rinchen; Tertรถn Gyalwang Rinchen Phuntsong; Thondrup Chรถgyal; 21 st century, Drigung Til Monastery, Tibet, painted by Penpa Tsering. Courtesy Hun Lye. Pg 18 Lokastotrapuja (Jigten Chรถtรถ, 7 th of the 8 Pronouncements), Circa 17 th century. Courtesy Rubin Museum of Art Pg 36-37, Annual Cham Festival, Driging-Til, 4 th Lunar Month, 2014. Courtesy Hun Lye Pg 53 Heruka deity Cham mandala dance diagram, 2001, Ladakh, Courtesy Core of Culture Pg 60 Four-Armed Mahakala Tibet, 14th century, distemper on cotton, courtesy of Beata and Michael McCormick. Pg 61 Mahakala, Densathil Monastery, central Tibet. Circa 1400, Gilt copper alloy with inlays of semiprecious stones and pigment. Courtesy of The Rubin Museum. Pg 62. Mahakala Cham, Lamayuru Monastery, 2001. Courtesy Core of Culture Pg 63 Achi ger-Cham, Ladakh, 2008. Courtesy Core of Culture Pg 64 Achi Chokyi Drolma and Five Sisters of Long Life Tibet; 14th century, mineral pigment on cloth. Private collection, Switzerland, used by permission. Pg 65 Achi Chokyi Drolma: Tibet, circa 1800, gilt bronze with pigments. Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum

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Profile for Nick Alguire

The Snow Lion's Attributes: An Introduction to the Essence of the Drikung Vajra Dances  

This English Text is an adaptation of a Tibetan original by His Holiness Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche. Based on ancient dance texts, it...

The Snow Lion's Attributes: An Introduction to the Essence of the Drikung Vajra Dances  

This English Text is an adaptation of a Tibetan original by His Holiness Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang Rinpoche. Based on ancient dance texts, it...

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