NATIO.NAL DARWIN COMMITTEE -
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E 1 E E [ r L
CON! CYT SANTIAGO CHILE la 17 ยบ
E NATIONAL DARWIN COMMITTEE EXECUTIVE SECRETARIA
« THE D;rIN P<O3LCT" 1'1OTIVS, SCOPES
(178 - 1986)
NATIONAL CO!*ISSION 'OR SCIENTI?'IC AND TECH4CLOGICAL RESEARCH, CONICYT
SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1978
D £ X
Preface Introduction 1.
A Journal Through Tire 1.
The ourrey uf the :.M.3. 11cag1i" (1831-1836) he Tpartur
The Ndtura1t on Board of the "cagie'
Historical rind centifi: :rnportance of the xped.tion "eag1e's
The Long Way Towards the Origin of Species (1837-1859) Darwin and £xposing the p roblem
The "rheory of Descendancy Nodified Through Variation and Natural Selection"
The Origin of Species ard its Impact in Science and Society
aps in Darwinian Theory Neo-Darwinism
The Story pos-The Orinin of Species (1859-1882)
II. "Operation Darwin" 1.
origin and Deve1onent of Darwin Project (DP)
rhe Darwin Project: 'tich is the Idea ?
Charactoristics of this Enterprise Sorne Proh1ers Involved In the DP
p ag e
3. A Synthesis of the ObjecUves and Purposes of the Darwin Project
a) The necessity of an International Homage to Darwin and his Work, on the lSOth Anniversary of trie Cruise of the H.M.S. "Beagle"
b) Ari Appeal to the International Scientific Comrnunity to Carry on a Task of Great Meariing
c) Support to Scientific Activities in Latiri America
d) Ef fective Contribution to the Pormulation to Ecodevelopment Policies
e) To Protect Native Flora an Fauna
f) Addition to the Formulatjon of an Ecological Conscience and Love of Nature in our Countries
4. How Will the Darwin Project be Implemented 7
1) Research Programs j i) Forntulation of p olicjes iii) Extension Actions
63 63 63
Financement of the DP
a) National stage
b) Regional Stage
Programming, Coordinating and Executing
Ths publication intends to make the Darwin Project known, iniciative which has been supported by two institutioris: the Institute of International Studies of the University of Chile, and the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research, CONICYT. The chief aim of the Darwin Project is to gather those who forrn part of the international scientific commrtunity ..especially those scientists beloqinq to the invitedparticipating countries- to the toil of commernoratinq Charles R. Darwin on the 1509 anniversary of H.M.S. '3etigle's" voyage around the world between the years 1831 and 1836. on june 2, 1978 the Chilean Covernment established the National Darwin Committee, whose achievement should be to carry out the Darwin Project. However, the aims and the tasks of this Committee wi].l be essentally academic and they wi].l be fremed iap into the greatest observance of freedom of speech as well as the most spontaneous iniciative of al .1 the institutions and individusis participating in this undertaking. We hope that the careful r.adinq of The Darwin Project will contribute to dissipate any doubt with regard to the aboy e mentioned stateents. The National Darwin Committee Executive Board thanks CQNICYT and the Institute of International Studies for the support already extended to its work. Without their generous help the accouplishment of the CoMmittee should have been hardly success ful.
AUGUSTO SALINAS ARAYA Executive Secretary Darwin National Committe
1 1 NTRODUCTIQN Intimesof crisis, sometimes man forgets his owrt circutostance for a moment and looks backwerd
time as if he may
find an answer to his pr.esent quest in the past. Thus, the anguiah of the present is a constant stimulus to write our history -perhaps with the tacit hope of finding a diffuse design of a curve which aliows us to interpret better our present, and enable us to make a valid forecast of the disquieting future. Today, we are at a particulary criticâ€˘l moment of our history; we have suddenly realized that we are temporary crew members of a space ship -Earth- whose dimensions and loading capacity are finite. But at the same time and here lies our anguish- we perceive that we
little of its care and maintenance. The
survival of our species depends froto this knowledge. Our attitude towards historic past Ls in a certain way conditioned by the sort of crisis we have had to endure. Romanticism is proper to generatioris turmoiled by existential and identify conflicts. Thus, historians tend to revive ideally a mythical past, a Golden Age. This cannot be our attitude because our crucial situation certainly demands to be met in a more dynaxnic and creative manner. Now, we have to rescue what we have lost -or what we are about to lose which is no other than the relationship man-nature, which is coherent with the possibility of having a future as a Humanity, as a biological species. In the forthcoming pages we shall try to explairi an encounter with the past, and particularly, with a great man, -Charles Darwin- with bis work, arid abo ye ah, with bis enormous capacity to admire and understand nature and life. Essentially, what we want is to board again an imaginary "Beagle" and try to recoristruct the scenery lived, observed and described by the great English naturaltst. Wc hope that the reading of what is so far the Darwin Pro5ect may be considered as a cordial invitation to join us iri a conmon enterprise which is a real challenge to overcome the crisis of the contemporary world.
E 1. 1.
A Journey Through Time 1. The journey of the H.M.S. t l Beagle hl (1831-1836) The Departure Qn the 27th day of Decembe:, a small brig of 242 Tons and ten cannons, under the command of Captain Robert FitZ Roy R.N., sailed from Devenport, a small port near Plymouth. Its mission was to continue the reconeissance and drawing-up of hydrographic charts nf the South American coasts, Flnd carry out longitude rneasurements in different places of the Southern Hemisphere. This was not the first "Beagle" was sea-bound carrying out time that the orclers of the British admiralty. 3etween 1826 and 1830 it had already carried out similar tasks. During its fir5t trip its sailors had discovered a charmel which they named Beagle, in the ship's honor, and captured -in repraiBal for certain thefts and other felonies- three natives of Tierra del Fuego. They were Fueguia Basket, Jemmy Button and York Minster, who were now returninq to their homes after a not too happy stay in Great Britin. Under the expert scrutiny of its captain, the ship had been submitted to changes artd repair works which would allow it to withstand the perils of navigation in the Southernmost seas. A third pole was added so as to improve its maneuvering capacity, and four of its cannorts were removed in order to increase its load. p art of this load, aside from food and medicines, was a great number of chronometers and preservatives for the specimens which would be collected during the long voyage. In spite of its youth, Captain Fitz Roy was already an experienced sailor, expert in hydrography, and
2. very forid of ah the arts and sciences of high navigation. Extremely rigid regarding bis religiois convictions and bis orofessional duties, the captain of the "Beagle" was certainly not a man easy to get aJ.onq with, as far as bis travelling companions were concerned. His aristocratic background however -beirtg the grandchild of a Duke and nephew of Lord CastJ.ereagh- mod',rated his irritable character and his tendency to become angry easily. Robert Fitz Roy was a pioneer of rnetereological studies, and later in his life, becarne chief of the first official Eritish service which gay e scientific weather predictions. After he was riarned Governor of New Zealand, his uripredictable character and tendency to consider a personal offense all opinions contrary to bis own, made him fail in this high appointment. His depressive personahity led him to commit suicide in 1865. Tje Naturahist on Board of the "Beagle" The expeditiort undertaken by the "Beagle" towards the ertd of 1831 was not essentiahly different from the ones which were carried out year after year by Her British Majesty in all seas. The only difference, however, was the presence of a young man aged twenty-three, amonq the seventy-four men who made up the ship's crew. Among the crew were the already rnentioned natives from Tierra del Fuego, a missionary, a man in charge of instrurnents, an artist (Conrad Martins, who left precise sketches of the visited regions, all of greatartjstjc value) arid the servants of Fitz Roy and Charles Robert Darwin. This yourig naturahjst embarked in the voyage spurred by Fitz Roy. He defined himself as "extremely fond of geolocy and in general, to all branches of Natural History". Charles Darwin had receritly finished studies at
3. Canbridge and, spurred by his father, had prepared to becoe a good rural parson for the rest of his life, after failing at Edinburgh's School of Medicine. Young Darwin showed to be more prone to horseback riding ami hunting than to bookreading; however, he was gifted with en extraordinery observation capacity, great patience artd a natural inclination for collecting specimens. Such endowments permitted him to become acquainted with John H. Henslow, professor of Botany at Cambridge, who recommended him to Fitz Roy aa naturaliet. Darwin had to overcome his father's opposition to such a "worthless adventure" and decided to bertef it from this opportunity to get acquainted with remote lands, and "collect, observe and inform on any thing of value for Natural History". Years later, whert referring to this voyage, Darwin had said, "the voyage of the "Beagle" has been L'j far the most 1portant event in my life and has determinad my whole carear". 11
Historical and Scientific Importance of the "Beagle's" Expedition
During the four years, nine months, and two days whieh lasted the voyage, Fitz Roy and his companions visitad the Canary Islands,Green Cape Archipelago. Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Perú, Galápagos Islands, Tahití, New Zealand, Australia, Coconut Islands, Mauritius Islands, Santa Llena and Ascensi6n of New Brazil, the Azores arid after having travelled
Nora Barlow, (ed) The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1009-1882 (New York, The Norton Library, 1969) p. 76
4. around the world arrived back to England on October 2, 1836. Froin the Adrniralty's point of view, the voyage was considered a complete success. The "Beagle" carried back to England no 1e95 than 82 views of different coast, 80 hydrographic charts and rnaps artd 40 mapa of the visited bayo and ports, in addition to the innumerable longitude measurements cerned out. Furthermore, between 1842 and 1846 Darwin, wrote three works ori the geological observationa during the tnip. The first one of these works (and the rnost famous) deals with the formatjon of coral reefs (The Structure and Distrjbutjon of Coral Reefa of 1842) in which he etates the hypothesis -which has been proven true- that such reefs and atolis had been formed on the fianks of volcarijc ยก*landa which were in the proceso of sinking. The second of his works dealt with the volcanjc islands (1844) and the third one on geology of South America (1846). Me.anwhile, sorne outstanding English naturalista begari to classify and describe the species sent by Darwin to England. The resu].ts of this work carried out by Sir Richard Owen, Gould and Jenyns arnong others,were published in five volumes (1840-1848) under the generic name of Zoology of the Beagle. fi his work Antarctic Flora (1845) J. D. Hooker catalogued sorne botanic species collected by Darwin. Darwin's own observatjons as well as the careful reading of Sir Charles Lyell's Principies of Geology (1830) began to weaken bis religious beliefs during
voyage, but he preferred to keep them silent in order to avoid conflicts between Fitz Roy and himself. No other book satisfjed Darwin as much as The Voyage of the "Beagle". The constant demand of this book for
E S. over a century confrms it. The Vovage of the "Beagle" has become a classic in the literature of adventure trips, both because of its stile and o reat didactjc value, since it Shows Lhe field work of a great nature1it. This work resumes the contonts of the diary Darwin kept aboard the hI Heagle t for almost five years, plus data, descriptions and ohser'iatjons written ยกrito eighteen notebooks. A first version was the third v c lurie of the work called Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of is Majesty's Ships "Adventure" and "Beagle" ... (1839) edited as the official report on the Scientific cruis undertaken by the "Beagle" and the "Adventure" betweeri 1826 and 1e36. The volumes written by Fitz Roy and the former captain of the "Adveriture", Philip Parker King, passed on inadvertedly by the public, but Journdi arid tndLks, the volume written by Darwin, became a book-store success. During 1H39 two more printirigs were put in 4 o circulation and the final version which was revised and completed by Darwin was published in 184 under the titie Journal of Researches Into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the H.M.S. "Beagle" Round the World tJnder the Command of Captain Fitz Ray R.N. Fortunately, the foliowin g editions clipped it into a more simple and significant titl: -he Voyage of the "Beagle" AH such results wou].d have beeri sufficjent enouqh to reward the great effort of the Adniiralty and tre "Beagle's" crew. Nevertheless, the evidence collected during the voyage and its use in the formulation of Darwiri's theory of the origins and evolution of species is what lave the second voe the historicl andintifj importanc ' nown to us todcfy. It
is the opinion of a known specialist that "it was the vast and changing panorama of life, both living end extinct, observed by Darwin during the "Beagle's" cruise that set him on the road to The origin of Species. 2/ By reading Lyell and ohserving the South American iandscape, the young naturalist convinced himself that the theory of the author of principies of Gcology was the correct one; he knew that the physical characteristics of the planet were the result of the action of geological forces acting throughout great periods of time -incomparably longer than the 4.004 years theologians assigned to Earth's history since its creation. Because of this conviction, and by having stated the right questions at the precise moment, Darwin was
abie to formulate his firet hypothesis on the existence of a stock common to all species. On September 15, 1835, the "Beagle" arrived at the GalapagOs islands -the Enchanted Islands of the Spanish Conquistadores located almost at the Equator une, approximately 600 Miles off coast. Based on the lecture of Lyell's work, Darwin was looking for continuity and similarities axnong living species as well as similarities between them and its predecessor. Just as Lyell had explained geological development through bis uniformist theory, in the sane way Darwin wanted to explain the "successions of orgartic types", both in space and time, by means of an equahly logical
hypothesis. During his stay in Patagonia he noticed that the extinct species had been replaced by closely-related species,
2/ Charles Darwin, The Voyage of the "Beagle". Leonard Engel (ed) (Garden City, New York, Anchor BoOks, Doubieday and coinpany Inc., 1962) Introduction: p. ix.
7. as shown for exrnple, in the surprising similarity between the fossil of the gient "armadillo" found in the Pampa, and the actual armadillo which scarcely carne up to one-tenth of the corpulence of its predecesor. This made Darwin think that he was facing different varieties which had a common ancestor rather than different species. when thc "eagle's' crew dis&mbarked in the Galapagos Islarids, Darwin carne up to a more complex problem. Up until that moment, 3outh American fauna and flora had fitted within a frme which characterjstjc was a centinuity in the variatiori of organic forrns, coinciding with gradual changes of the envirorlinerit. However, the Galapagos Archipielayo was a radically different case; while the envronment was essentially the same in all the islands, each one had a djfferent -'ja and fduna. The dtffereL-tt zoological and botartical varieties of the Galapagos undoubtedly seemed to be related among them, and what was even more surprising, they all reminded similar South American species. They were the varieties whjch descended from a comnon stock. Thus, Darwin saw his problern clearly; if he wanted to prove his hypothesjs that the species existing today are the actual representatjves of a genealogical tree whose roots disappear in the darkness of time, then he would have to prove why species near in space and time could be so different and why other species so distant eographicahly and geologically could be so similar. "The voyage of the "Beagle" had turned a courteous and scinewhat indifferent youna man into an adult. This man, bestowed with great perception and originality, gained fron this adventure the oportunity of exercising h.ts talents in "armadillos" and glyptodonts, stones and rocks which feli over and over in the
currents of the Andes, turties and volcnos and birds' beaks. Back in England he would put all these pieces together in a new synthesis, and the world as a concept, would never be the aine again". All this had been possible because he had excavated and discovered the carcass of en edentate, had witnessed how the Andes pushed each other further up during an earthquake, and because he had read Lyehl and Humboldt. The fundaments of his ideas were so diverse as the pieces of the puzzle he hadset up. Indeed, it could not have beert otherwise". 3/
2. The Long way Towards the origin of Species (1837-1859) Darwin arid Exposing the Problem In his Autohiography Darwin wrote: "On March 7, 1837, 1 took lodgings in great Marlborough Street in London and remained there for nearly two years until 1 was married. During these two years 1 finished my Journal, read several papers befare the Geoloiรงal Society, began preparing the MS for my Geological Observations and arranged for the pubhication of the Zoology of the Voyage of the "Beagle". In July 1 opened my first note-book for facts in relation to โขthe Origin of Species, about which 1 had long reflected and never ceased working on for the next twenty years". 41
Loren Eiseley, Darwin's Century. (Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, Doubieday and Co. Inc., 1961) p. 174. For a historical viewpoint of Darwin's work, Cfr. Stephen Toulmin and June Godfield, The Discovery of Time (New York, Harper Torch Books, Harper and Row Pubhishers, 1966).
Darwin, Autobiography, op. cit. p. 63
Later, on rememhering that period of time when he returned to England, Darwin said that as he was preparing the Voyage of "Beagle" for publication he realized the enormous amourt of fact: which indicated a stock cornmon to species. In July 1837 1 Darwin hegan to work in his Origins of Species using true "Baconian principies" -that is, coilecting facts and more facts, hased on his ownexperience or readings, without forrnulatincj any hypothesis. Darwin knew perfectly that any theory on "transmutation of species" should rest- for the sake of pubiic acceptance- on a solid base of irrefutable evidence, partly due to the fact that previous evoiutionist theories were completely discredited (particularly the one proclaimed by Larnarck in his Zoological Phiiosophy, 1809), and also because the last work on the matter had been said by Cuvier through his catastrophist and anti-evolutionary doctrine, which due to the author's prestige had imposed itself in the intellectual and academic milieu of France and Europe. Just as important for Darwin was the conservative spirit which prevailed in England at that time, and the everlasting distrust of the more traditional sectors towards men of science whom they regarded responsible of paving the road to the French Revolution and its ravages, due to their lmpious ideas. Qn the other hand, when Darwin returned, England was living through the fear of strikes and popular uprisings in its social context; and, from an intellectual point of view, the rise of the so-called "Natural Theology", whose foliowers believed that the study of nature was the most adequate road to prove the goodrtess and existence of the Creator. Charles Darwin knew that bis ideas could erode
sensibly this doctrine, and would not preciseiy help to caim English conservatives. This preoccupied hirn about the resuits of his work. In Octol.er 1838, Darwin red and studied thoroughly the Essay on the principie of population written in 1795 by Robert Maithus. On that occasion he finaily found the hypotheses he needed so much. He was already familiar with the concept "struggle for survival" utilized previouiy by Lyell and others to explain the situation in the animal and veqetabie kingdoms. This process explained to Lyell the extintion of so many species. Darwin, however, applied this concept to the expianation of the appearance of new species. What he had to explain, in the first place, was how new varieties of plants and animais appeared, and in the second place, why sorne of these varieties could survive at the expense of its competitors. He then realized that given the existence of such varieties, the struggle for survival was won by the best fitted, through a process or mechanism which Darwin narned very properiy natural selection, distinquishing it from "artificial selection" practiced by breeders of dornestic anirnais. Ori the other hand, Darwin knew perfectly well the fact (already noted by Linneus) that in a determined population there exists a great amount of varieties; this is taken in advantage by the breeders so as to obtain through crossbreeding more adequate samples for human benef it. The "Theory of Descendancy Modified Through Variation and Natural Selection" The experience gained during the "Beagle's" voyage gay e Darwin the necessary evidence to prove his theory.
AccOrdiflg to it, there existed two factorS which acted constantly on a determifled species: the physical enviroflrnefl (climate, geornorphologi, soils, etc.) and the biological (food, predators and cornpetitors). Qn the other environrn hand, in the beginning of his origir of SpeciĂ‡!, Darwin points out the existerice of varieties within a species, which are subrnitted to the action of the mentioned enviroruiiefltS, and to the selective procesS originated by the struggle for survival. Any change taken place in the physical environmeflt causes qualitatiVe adaptation differerceS to appear arnong existing varieties; sorne of these varieties (the less adapted) will disappear, while others, better adapted to the new environrnent, will survive. In this sense, if these difierences in the adaptatiofl ability are determined genetically, gradual changes will be taken place t'oth in the genetic
this contitUtiOfl of the species as well as in its forms. For reason, C.H. WaddingtOfl defined this process which Darwin called "natural selectiOn" as an inevitable consequenCe of genetic aptitude variation. TherefOre, natural selection is not an agent in the transformation of species, but a process which arises naturally from a conditiofl pertair4flg to uve beings. TraflsfOrrfliSm caused by the natural selection proceSS is added by Darwin to his convictiOn (based on paleontologY) that there exists an evident progressiVefleSS in the successtve and gradual changeS of specieS. "ThiS preservatiOfl of favourable individual differenceS and variatioflS, and the destructiOn of those which are injurioUS, 1 have called Natural Selection, or the Survival of the FitteSt". 5/ Charles Darwin. The Origin of Species (New York, Mentor Book, The New English Library Lirnited, 1958) p. 88.
12. Transfoism and prog res g jveness are, then componert parts of what we know as the evolution of species. Progressists such as Herder and Cuvier were not tr ansformjsts. On the other hand, a defjnjte transformjst such as Lasnarck, did not value the evidences of organization progress in living beings. The Origin of Species and its Impact iri Science and Socletv The majority of the already exponed ideas -which constjtute the fundamental thought of D a rwinj sm... were written by Darwin in 1839. Haif-way through 1842, the English OUts tandirig naturaljst wrote a brief sunmary of bis theory which by 1844 had increased to 231 pages; however, the publication of the final work had to Walt fifteen more yers due to Darwjn's desjre to c4lect ti reatest amount of evjdence befare submitting bis manuscript to the printing office. What caused the pu blication of The Origin of Species was the letter writterz to Darwin by Alfredo Russe3. Wallace, an English botanjst, communicating him that he had formu].ated a theory Similar to bis own, working iTdependent1y, unknowing of.Darwjn's works. Thanks to the intercessjon of Lyell and Hooker, both agreed to read a work on the theory of natural selection before the Linneus Society, on July 1, 1858. In November 1959, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selectjon of the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life appeared on sale; the first edition of 1250 sarnples was immediately soid out. 'bis spurred the printing of six more editions until 1872. It has been said that, aside from the Sible, no other work has been so influeritjai -from whichever polnt of view- on contemporai
13. thought. Where lies the great irnportance attibuted to The Origin of Species? Undoubtediy, its contents did not flatter the nurnn race, arid it almost comlete1y deteriorated the belief in a Creator of a known order. Furthermore, Darwin's ideas attempted against the very fundaments of scierice which postulated for an intelligible and ordered universe. According to Darwin, the harmony of the living was not the wise work of a Divine Archttect, but the product of the action of natural forces. Darwin's universe is disarrayed, chaotic, because it is undergoing constant change. Neither has a purpose nor a final cause. The contribution of The Origin of Species in the achjevement of a valid expianation of the world of organized beings has become undoubtedly the mostuniversaily accepted principie in modern biology. In the first place, it showed that previous theories (inciuding the Biblical principie of creation) were in d efensible when faced with evidence of organic rnutation. In the second place, the existence of an evolutjve process was dernonstrated clearly and convincingly, through a great amount of evidence showing that existing organisms has not been created separate].y, and had evoived graduaj.iy from prirnitive organisms. And last, because it introduced the theory of natural selection, which ai].ows a natural mechanjsm through which a transformation of species can and must be produced. "Natural selectjon rendered evolution scientifically intelligib].e: it was this more than anything else which Convinced professional biologjsts like Sir Joseph Hooker, T.H. Huxley and Ernst
14. Haeckel". 6/ All in ah, what most impacted rehigious feehings arid Victorian morality of those times was mari's new place in nature. "Man could no longer be regarded as the Lord of Creation, a being apart fron the rest of natura. He was merely the representative of one ainong many Families of the order p rimates in the class Mammalia". 7/ This was oria of the most important causes of the irtdigriant reaction against Darwin frorn a great part of society and Suropean and American intellectuals. The president of the Liniversity of Columbia declared in 1873 that if Darwir's theory were true the existence of God would be impossible. If such was the product of modern science, "give me then, 1 pray, no more science. 1 wihl uve on in my simple ignorance, as my faters did before me". 81 p rotestants and Catholics alike criticized the materialism iniphicit i Origin. Indeed, Darwin never denied the existence of a Supreme Creator, but, as Lamarck, insisted that the appearance of life ir the p].anet Earth and its subsequent branching in divergent forms was the product of natural forces, which effect could be expressed in laws similar to the ones which regulated the order of stars and the movement of bodies. Already in 1842 he expressed his disbehief in the existence of "innumerable acts of creation"; on the other hand, he claimed that 6/
Sir Julian Huxley, in the Origin of Species, op. cit. Introduction, p. x. On the importance of The Origin of Species and in general ori Darwin and his work, Cfr. Sir Gavin de Beer, Charles Darwin a Scientific Biography. (Garden City, Doubieday Anchor Books, 1965). Huxley, op. cit. p. xv. Sideney Rather, "Evolution and the Rise of the Scientific Spirit in Americe". (Philosophy of Science, 1936, Vol. 3, p. 115) Quoted by Eiseley, op. cit. Pp. 194-195.
15. creatiort and extintion of species were "effects of secondary cause. The polernics between the representatives of the Anglican Church and Darwinism reached drarnatic highlights in the meeting organized by the British Association in Oxford in June 1860. Durng one of the sessions, 3ishop Samuel Wilberforce referred to Darwinian theory with little knowledge arid a great deal of sarcasrn and irony. When he finished his address he asked the lecturer who followed him "whether was it through his grandfather or grandmother that he claimed to descend frorn art ape". The lecturer who followed after Bishop Wilberforce was no other than Thomas H. Huxley, the most zealous and loyal defender of Darwin's thought. He stated that Darwin's explanation of the origin of species was excellent, artd proceeded to give the audierice a brief summary of The Origin of Species at the .end of lecture he said that he would not be ashamed at all in descending from en ape, "but rather, he would be ashamed to be related to a man (Wilberforce) who used his great quahities to obscure and ridiculize truth" 9/. This was the first great pubhic triumph of Darwinism. The Catholic Church was rnuch more flexible and tolerant whert faced with the onset of Evolutionjsm. Although the tacit condemnation of the transformist theory was implicit in the Syllabus pubhished in 1864 by Pope Pius IX to oppose "progress, liberalism, and modern civihization", 9/
W. Irvine Apes, Angeis and Victorians, Cleveland, Meridan 6th printing, 1968, pp. 3-7.
16. the Catholic intellectuals couid read, discuss and even defend freely the contents of The Origin of Species. The solution to all possible controversy betweeri Catholic and evoiutionists seems to he tr the ny' l e 1-ter 1'"an. Generis (1951) by Pope Pius XII. It stated that the thory of evolution shouid be examined and discussed by scientists and theoiogians as weli -. at leat in the part pertaining to the hurrian body, which according to this theory, would have evolved from pre-existent organic matter. Nevertheless, Cathoiic faith obliges all its behievers to believe and support that the soul of every man has heen created by God. It couid be asserted that rnorality, as well as poltical ideologies, come from sourcos other than science. HowĂŠver, the authority of scientific thought arid the force of its rationahity is so strong that any idea or rnovement of any class aspires to be "scientific" and obtain the approval of science. The greatness and extent of Darwinian conception of the living world made that critics and fohiowers see in the theory of The Origin of Species the source of all disgraces which flail the modern world, or, on the contrary, a doctrine which rnade coherent efforts to irnprove contemporary society. Herbert Spencer, the apostie of "social Darwinism", was among the ones who outstood for his appiication of Darwinian ideas to the construction of a modern concept in social science. In bis book Creatiori and Cvolution, he formulated the basic principies of an evolutionist ethics. According to these principies, a moral conduct was one which contributed to the best possihle adaptation of man to bis environment, thus assuring a progressive evolution of the human genere. Since happiness was also a result of satisfactory adaptaton,
17. morality and happiness were ynoriirnou; e sser.tially, they
were ono thing.
Ledders of capitaljsrn and M a nchesterjan liberaljsm also saw in The Origin of Species the intellectu support necessary for a lai3sezfajre and indjvidu1jst d octrine in the realrn of husiness. on the other hand, sorne of Spencer's discipies, such as the Nort hamerican,I.G. Surnrner, dec].ared thernselveg against all social laws in benefit of the poor, crippled and t less fitted" because the dictaton of such laws perrnitted the survjval of the less fitted and went against the vitality of rnodern civlizatjon. Corimunjsm and positivism, two powerful ideolorijes corlteTporary to The Origin of Species, saw in Darwinjan theory a serious drawback to its cause. As is krtown, posit j vjsm d j sdajned all efforts to co back to oriqins. Comte has fought against Lamarck for this reason, and Littr& was doing the same against Darwin in 1863 when he wrote that "we were not in the oriçjirL of things and nieither shahl we be in the end of things. Therefor p , we have no way of knowincj this oriqin and this end". 10/
ifl the years that followed the appearance of The Origmn of Species, sorne European rev olutionarjes behjeved to see the theoretjcal frame of thejr poljtical action in Darwin's work. The y were mostl y right because the English naturalist asserted that the world of hivo organisms constantly emerged from an evolutivo process and this evolution was done through purelv material means. Everi Karl 10/ Marcel Prenant, in Darwin y el Darwinjsno. (México, D.F. Editorial Grijalbo, S.A., 19 67)— P. 110.
Cnqlish transietiOn of Marx offered todedicate to Darwin the Das 1(apital. Qn the other hand, the Germen pathologist
Rudolph wirchow, founder of cellular pathology, rejected the theory of evolution beceuse he considered it "socia1iat' a*d the in 1877 attacked De.rwirl'S foliowers b1ning them for DaVWini5 revolution. To this, ernst Haecel answered t1at
together as water and fire". Irideed, and socialism "agreed it is rather r ltfficult to see in Darwin.'s theory a valuabie contributiort te the cause of Marx and his foliowers. They began to criticize the sources of Darwinian thought, criticizing particularlY, the Essay on populaUon by ptalthus, his theory on the divergence between demographic growth and the growth of resources. To Marxism, any moderri technology which permitted en overaiundanCe óf food and resources Maithus and his ecolyte$. discredited the somber forecasta of
possibly, the mejor theoretCal stumbling block between Darwinism and MarxiSrn could be the result froin comparing "evolutiofl" to "revolution" —there does not s to be a possible agreement betweefl the two. UvtdoubtedlY, both processeS act on the basis of struggle; for Darwin, the struggle is between two individualS of a same species competthe different social ing for survival; for Marx, it is axrtong classes. In this last one, solidarity prevails within each class; for Darwin, it is precisely there where the most furious struggle takes place. Finaily, Marxjst theology claims that class struggle becomes obsolete once the establishment of CommufliSm is set, while to the evolutionists, the struggle for survival is a permanent charecteriStic of living organisraS.
fl .9. Gaps in Darwinian. Theory. Neo-DarwLnisn It has been said that Dirwin had always ben an aiat p ur, a naturaljst who, with methods of thc eiqhtonth ceritury changed th concpt of sature h1d in t he rdieteenth century, Indeed, Charles Darwin iecked formal education in niost scientjfjc d1sciDljns, j o spite of that, his cenius was sufficinnt to ailow hin, t-o learo nd construct hypotheses all by himself. Even so, his own ignorance and the b ackwardness of biological sciences as compared to phvsics and rnathernatjcs were the majo reason, for the notable gap lo hs theory. The first ono is the incapacity of science at that tim e to explain the rxistence and origin of qertetic "ariatioris which qave w.iy tí) the diarerse varip ties wjthjr a species. The second gap was -in Darwinian theory- th lar Ir of a mechanjsn, which r xp1ained how the characteristcs of a successful variety ("fit") in the struqgle for existe-ce mn y beinhrtdysca-i.Bothfesmn were satisfactoriiy explained only jo this century, thanks tn meo as Mendel, Morcan, ad De Vries. The progress cf genetics, starti ng from the enuncjatjon of ijendel's law. iowed to understand t.he mechanjsn, which transnjttecj h oreditary qu1ties, reachinç this way a new expression of n atural se:Lecticn, which is efficient only when i acts on alterations of the froquenc, of determjned genes in each popuiation. This new enunciattor of natural selection ín terrns of the frquency of genes has heer, n&ec1 Neo-Darwj njsn,. 11/
qood introduction to th study of r vo1utio' rnay be foundjo thAs work of S.A. Barnett et. l., A Ceot.ur' of flartrftondcn, w Hejnemann Educatjonal Books, Ltd., 162).
The story post-The 0rgin of Species (1859-1882) The publica ,--ion of The 0rgin of ipecies changed
completeiy the viewpoint which, until 1859, nteilectuals and nen of science had giveri to bioiogic evolution. It was no longer a matter of discussing whether or not there existed an evolutive process valid for all organisrns, hut in what forru it was carried out. As it has been said repeatedly, after Darwin man occupied the place in nature it corresponded hi, and this new concept initiated a 5Lo.oq.cal revolution which every day acquires more vigor and transcendency. It would he asserted that theory of evolutlori, together with ceUular and genetics theory, rnake up the vertebral colurnn of modern b jo 1 og y. The work o: Charles Darwin etween 1837 and 1258 transformed the cruise of the , Beagle l, in the greatest ever scientific expedition. Indeed, the frontiers which have heer open.ed to hurnanity as a result of the evidence collected in this voyage, can be compared only to the discovery of Arerica, or to the first trip to the Moon in 1969. Darwin's achievement, alrnost 150 years ago, together with the sailors who went with him, continues being an example of discipline, nautical cnowiedge, and scientific rigour. Charles Darwin continued his fertile work for 23 more years after the publication of The Origin of Species. He died in his home at Down, near London, on April 19, 1882, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, togehter with Sir Isaac Newton. Te "eaqle', his oid adventure companion, continued sailing throughout the seas, carrying the Admiralty's flag until 1845, and was finaily discharged frorn its duties in 1870.
21. I I.
11 0peration Darwin" 1.
Origin and Development of Darwin Project (DP) Half-way through 1976, a group of professors of the Institute of International Studjes of the Universjtv of Chile began to investigate the topic "Darwin and Chile A Case Study of Interaction in Scientjfjc .Matters Between and Excellence Ceriter and a Periphecal Society". This project obtained maximum priority in the f inancement contest of research projects organjzed by our Universjty. It relied on two basic points: a) a study of historical and scientjfjc aspects of the visit o th "Beacle" to Chile (1834-I85) and b) the impact of Darwin's work in Chilean ideas and culture :uwards the end of the nineteenth Centry. This was not Ue first time we were concerned with Darwin az-id his theory, but now we had Lhe opportunity to Contribute in an original forrn to the knowledge of the great English Scholar and his influence in a non-European culture. A short time after we hegan, we realized the enorrnous impact of Darwnjan thought in historiography, education, P cl itics and social development of Chile between 1960 and 1914, to the point it was alriost lmpossible to understand our own cultural process without exa mining more deepiy the reasons Darwjn's supporters and opponents clajmed in Chile as weli as in the Oid World and North America. Furthermore, we realized that the elapsed time had not erased erLtirely the passions unleashed by the controversy on The Origin of Specis; mor e over, sor'e coriflictjv e poirits had only been revitalized, a c'uiring new forms and d imensjons. Therefore, if we wished that our coriclusjons should have sorne validity and b enefjts, all sorts of anal y sjs had to be restated from
22. our own historical perspective. !'.t the sarne time, by reading Tie Voyae of the "Beagle", we were enliqhtened for more than one reason; the precise description of Darwin showed us r sceriery so different from Cie at prrsnt, that sornetimes seemed to us that author was referring to a territory unrelated to our daily experience. Only when the presence of man was registered in a sporadic and superficial form, as in the case of our southern landscapes, did the Darwiniarl scenery emerge with all its pristine beauty, rnuch in the same way it had shown itself before the amazed eyes of the young naturahist of the "Beaรงle", aimost 150 years ago. p araleli to this purely academic activity, and in regard to our position in a research center whose main interest lies ir the study of international relations and its different actors, we were concerned with the tncreasing deterioration of our intellectual image abroad and the loss of prestige which, traditionally, our country has always enjoyed In the academic international milien. This is certainly not the appropiate place or accasion to analyze and discuss such facts. Nevertheless, we can assure that then, as well as now, we claimed the need to support and stimulate at any price basic scientific research, being this the only form of assuring the survival of values
and cultural and social institutions dear to our historical traditions which have been our pride since the beginnings of our nation. Furtherrnore, we deem indispensable the active presence of a clear and decided scientific opinion in our development as a modern nation imbued with the spiritual values of the Western World. The significant absence of the voice of the scientific community in circumstances and problems which demanded a logic rational opinion, clearly formulated
23. and backed by the prestige
of scierice, contrjbuted powerfu]. to convince us of this need. This reality, which in another place we have nan p "the s j lencn of sc ient j sts u , has manifieste(I itself particularly in prohlerns as for the riation as the lack of a defined policy on the maintenance of our environent and natural. r esources. Thus, it was apparert that the weight of the opiriion of our scientjsts had been lost in the traffjc of our recent history, -specifically, since 1970. Our aim, then, was to assure the presence cf our scientjfjc c ommunity in d ecis j o y s c Oncerning such issues as the adequate formulation of an economjc dev elopment policy where only the experjence anci capacity of men of science could permit the correct visu alization of such va riables as the correct m a nagement of e cosysteMs, or the complete appre c j at j on of our natural env ironrnent. In order for this to take Place -even Iri a ninj mum degree ... it would be necessary to inCentivate Scjentjfjc research in certajn areas ani d 1scip1nes, so as to create the ca pacity to evaluate and take advantage of our natural resources. In the second place, there also should b dsigned aPproprjcite channeis to trar.snjt 'he in forratjon and accumulated experjence to decision...rnakjnq leveis. The puttinq dction of such an init j ative implied a challenqe we were certajn it would he faced positively hy our scientjfjc comrnunjtv. Such challenge means to p a rticipate a ccording to our capacity in a world-level task in v olving scientjsts, educators, poljtjcjans and te chnicians, this task being objectjve and dĂsa Passionate analysis of our survival possihjlj ties, and the consequent proposition of criterja for an adequate So lution of thjs prohlem. The peranent study of The7oydge â€˘ jr the
24. and our constant preocupation for the survival of scientific research in Chile, have almost uncons:ioUSlY merged in one unique idea. Sorne fctors cornnon to roth frames of analysis contrihuted te this. To mention sorne: the preocupation of cer.ain acadenic sectors in regard to a lesser degree of develcpment in biology of population and organisrns as compared to the repid growth of molecular hiolojy. Another exarnple is the intninent need to cover ohvOus qa)S such as-the one showed by the disaster of the oil-tanker "Netula", in the Strait Magellan. Another f3ctor .i the asertce of acadernic particLpatiOn in projec 4 s such •s the "Chiloe splinters", which could becorne a tangible threat to the fragile ecologic equilibrium of irnportant zon-; Ln our territory 12/. The cceneries described and observed by Darwin have dernonstrated us en ideal anci rnuch-desired Chile, a prtmitive and uncontarninated territory te which we G hould strain to come 12/ In differerit ocassions, reference has been macle to the hackwardneSs of the ensemble of disciplines whieh made np forrüer natural history, respecting experimental biology. In a public forum organized by a weekly publication, Dr. Patricio Sánchez expressed "when one compares, for example, these two streams developed in Bioloqy, in Chile, it is very clear that at this moment the older of the two the one which commenced in the nineteenth Century and which refers te (the study of) Chilean realit", is extraordinarily under_develO2 ed". ("Futuro sin Sonrisas, "ercilla, N g 2083, 2-8 July, 1975, pp. 33-35). AlsO, in 1975, in the college of ScienceS of the University of Chile, serious attempts were made to impulse the growth of the biology of organisrnS. gegarring the project "Chiloe SplinterS", thts is a joint enterprise between the Chilean Deve1opneflt CorporatiOn (CORFO) and a Japanese multinational te exploit 125.000 acres of autochtOnOUS forests in the island of Chilo, whjch has stirred a nation-wide polernic betwee' development&liStS and conservatiOrliSts.
25. neorer instead of partirtg away from it irreversably. The challe'-ce we wished to fornulate was takirig shape. To face it ade-uatel, we sriould have to bcard aran an imaginarv "Beaqie" ¿nd re-ericounter the Chile we hed alnot iOst. Qn Septemher 1, 1976 9 we sent a letter to the PrPsicent of the National Conmjssjon for .cientific and Techno1orjca1 Reserch (Co ! ::oyp) subriitting for his consideration a project which we hdd named "Darwin Operation". Its rrain objective was to pian in the best possible !lariner the cornrnemoration of the 150th anniversary of the visit of the H.r.:. "3eaqle" to our coasts, carrying he naturalist 7b.arles Darin. The President of CCICYT WdS told of the convenience and recessitv of
inviting wide sectors of our scier. t.fic
cornrnunity in a national-level task which would consist mainly in an homage tc the autor of The Crigin of Species and in an interdisciplinary investigation on the deterioration of the Chiledn scenery after a century and a haif Darwin described it so pr'?ciseiy. At the sane time, the Institute of :nternational Studies supported inStjtutjonalli this idea, which was consistent wtth the interest of this acadeic center to promote international discussjons about environmental problems and to contrihute tc the approachrnent of the ir.ternational scientific comrnunity, definitely a main actor of contemoorary world panorama 13/. 13/ rhis interest has been shown in nurnerous seminars and courses organized by the Institute of International Studíes, 'hich gaye originated publications of great importance and currenv for the formulation of adequate policies. Sorne of them are: Francisco Orrego (°d.) FrEservacin del edio Anhiente i arme (Santiago, Ed. Universic.a Técnica del Estado, 1761. Francisco O'rego (ed.) p olítica Oceánica (Santiago, :ditorial universitaria S.A., 1977). Francisco Crrero y Augusto Salinas (eds). El Desarrollo de la Antártica (Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 197).
26. Irdeec, all along we had foreseen the idea of transforrnincj the 'Darwin Operation" in a riultínatlonal scientific action, being this the Oniy way we could fUifjIl t'-1e obectives we had set. The answer of the orgariism ;overring the planification of Chilean scientific and technoloqical research was favorable. As a result, a cormittee was created to study the proposed projcct, elabor:te a prograr to place it in motion, and structure legahly an organisrn which would he adequate to fulfihi the rnutiple tasks surgested by the docurnent of the Instituta of Internation Studes. T'-jis cornnittee began to r'ieet iriformally ir October 1976. In the succeeding meetings, a definite action proect bagan to tke forrn, md was subitted for consideration and approval to various areas (academicians, tiniversity authorities, goverrirnont spokesmert and representativas of prtvate enterprise ar. business). La Semana Científica y Tecno1óica, a scientific publication editad by CCNICT, inforrned in its edition of December 1G, 1976 (Year y , NQs. 222-223) the official constitution of the planning comrnittee ocurred on December 2, and various agreernents. In adrlition to the objectives and purposes estabhished n the original project, the cornmlttee innovated in two significar.t aspects: a) given the case that Darwin had visited various South American countries other than Chile, and the fact that the voyage of the !.M.S. "Beagle" had extended through a circumnavigation of the globe, covering practicahly all the Southern Hernisphere and sorne European territories of the Atlantic, and given also the fact that the coriditions and environmental complexities of our country are
27. sirilar to the mentioned countries and territories, we decided to broaden -at leat theoreticallv.. the geographjc scenerv of our activities by inviting the nations "isiteu by him between 1932-1836 -inciuding, obviouly, nglrnd- to particjpt t our project; h) during the disc'ussion of the project, th idea of planning an int erdiscipljnary research une which would analyze the transformation of the landscape visited an descrjbed by Charles Darwin in the period between bis stay and 1980 was discussed. We thought this idea should he the nucleus of the research program, and it3 importarice would he in the posslbihity of constructing precisa indi r ators of envjroflmerta1 dete r j oration in vast terrltorjes. These indicators may be used in the elaborton of development and conservatjon poljcjes for renewable natural resources. Ouring the first months of 1971, the Darwin Project (DM was made knowri and discussed in different rnilieu, both in Chile and abroad. The enthusiasm awakened by this idea stimulated and perrnjtted us to continue onward receiving and introducjng irtto the original proect all the ideas and suggestjons whjch contrjbuted to make it better or expand its rdnge of actjon. It could he said that, in this period, the DP acTiired an internal dynamjsm and its own physionorny, which spurred us to communjcate our idea to orgariisms and personaljtjes abroad. The Executive Secretariat of the Comrnittee in charge of the Darwin Project (which c orresponded to the Institute of International Studies, originator of the project) informed this initiative to the state agencies of the Latiri American countries visited by Darwin. -ie received a positive answer from these agencies alrnost i mmediately, specially from CONACYT of Argentina,
23. CNP( of 3razil, •the ceneral Secretariat of Economic Planning of Ecuador, and from the National Research Council of Perú. In November 1977, the executive secretary of the commttte was invited by te Governrnents of Spain and Enq1and in order to estahlish direct contacts between Chile's Darwin Committ.ee and diverse institutons, authorities and scientists of these countries. During this auspicious tour the bases were set for mutual coóperation and support. In due time, they will originate scientific cooperation agreements in the areas and disciplines covered by the DP. The success achieved scinulated the executive secretariat and CONCYT to create a national-level organism whose institutional structure would ailow it to continué with the deterriined tasks anci carry out agreements and financing opetations, technical assistance and intellectual and scientific cooperation both in Chile and a'road. Towards the nd of 1977, • the charles Darwin National Committee was made known and made official through the Supreme Decree N O 540, of June 2, 1978. 14/ The Comité Nacional Darwin is presided by )r. Ricardo Krebs, a highly prestiged historian, former Dean of the College of HumanitieS of the Catholic University of Chile, and president of the same University in 1969. In this legal body different institutions arid national organisms are represented. They take part in the study of projects and in the process of planning and decisionn&ing through representativeS designated by them and who are 14/ La Semana Científica y Tecnol6cTiCa, 17 de Noviembre de 1977, Año VI, NQs. 266-267.
29. members of a Counctl presjded by Dr. 7ic , irdo Krebs, by the Vice-presjdent ( re presenting C0NI y T) and by the £xecutive S'cretary. Nationa]. Darwin Committee will init j ate its actjvjtjes officially on SeDtemher 14. of this year, and wili inrnediately begin to study the project wch will be submited and v,Í-1 plan the proqrar. of the cornmemorat ion of the lSOth Anniversarv of Oarwin's visit to South Anerica.
The Darwin Project: Wh ich is the Idea ? A New Cali for Scientfjc Internatjon' Cooperatjon The Darwin Project (DP) na .ntains fidelity to its original idea. It merely consjsts in rendering hornage to the rnerrory of one of the greatest scientjsts in :nistory ¿md his work, which even today, o ne-hundred ¿md fifty years since his death, is a constant source of inspiration ¿md an example for all men of s cience. This honage, however, airns to Outstand particlarly the historjcal importance of the "Bealge's" cruise whch started almost 150 years ago. (December 27, 1831 December 27, 1981). Surely, The Crigin of species was the rnajn reason behjnd the "Beaale's» in tegration to the history of nautical. ¿md scientjfjc accomplishrnpnts; no netheless, the oId brig of scarcely over 200 tons ¿md a valiant crew ahlowed Darwin to gather information which later enabled him to formulate the theory of evolutjon of species by natural selectjon. 'he character of Darwjnjan work ¿md the image of Charles Darwin derp and that this co nmemoration should have a connoted academjc spirit, because what we are conmernoratinq is the triumph of hunan capacity and scientific obiectjvjty regardir.q traditjonal knowledge and behiefs. Thjs was a victory whjch set forth the world we now uve in, with all its stinginess and grandeur. Therefore, we have decided to carry out thls homaqe hased on
30. two naln points: a) a historical-critical analysis of Darwinian work frorn the perspective of present experierice and knowledqe and, b) a rnultidisclplinary study of the regions, nations and territories visited by Charles Darwin between 1832 and 1836. To be sure, ours is an ambitious idea, both In the space and time we want to carry it out, because our study would cover prctical1y all of the Southern He-'uisphere, and it would be conducted during a time period lasttng approxintately seven years (1979-1986). For this reason, and as a way of assuring the success of this undert&dng, we are m&ing an appea'. to individuals and iristitutions who want to support our cultural cnterprise, so ie rnay jointly face in open cooperation an initiative which, due to its wide range of problems covered, must be achieved successfuhly. Characteristics of this Enterprise The Internatioial Geophysical Year (IGY) seems to be a relatively appropriate Model for the task we are about to undertake. It has been defined as "the most arnbitious and at the same time, the most successful cooperative enterprise ever undertaken.by man". 15/ in any case, IGY is the greatest, most cornplex and comprehensive scientificinitiative ever conceived, since there participated 67 natioris and around 33,000 mcrt of science who carried out research in sorne 8,000 stations distributed throughout the world from Pole to pole, totaihing a cost abo y e 2 hihlion dollars. Durino the 20 years 15/ Cfr. Committe Qn International Relations, Science 2 Technology, and American Diplonacy (Washington D.C., i-iouse of Representatives, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977). Vol. 1: Chapter 5, "The Pohitical Leqacy of the International Geophysical Year tt , pp. 297-360.
31. elapsed since IGY (1957-195e) sorne people have clairned that the International Geophysical Year was not really an international enterprise, ut rather a series of national level act j vjtjes Coorinatd internaUv. In turn, these nitiona1 activities, once approved and financed by their respective Governnents were almost exclusively under control and supervisjon of scientists, thus entirely apolitical. Accordin'-j to LLoyd J. !3erkner, '/ice- p resjdent of the IG y Comrnittee, ll all prograrns were carried out by SC ietistswjh thc approvai, cooperation and assistance of the different governments, hut not under their d irection". IGl The activities of :o y were highly individual and not govrrnmenta1, b'cause every scientist involved in the task carried out its research on a determjried problern according to his personal interest, shared by many other scientists. IGY was indeed an academic cooperatjve undertakirig with governmenta]. assistance. Cur project pretends to continue the path traced by :G y , although facing obvious and necessary space and conceptual limitations, notwithstarding the fact it shall be carried out during a considerahly longer period of time. In the first place, the DP will he carried out mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly in the territories visited, observed cfld described by Charles Darwin. On the other hand, the viewpoint appiied in the DP is radically different from the one apphied during IGY, hecause it gaye primdry importance to the study of physical and chemical phenomena affecting aur :lobe, covcriny a disciplinary spectrun which went from glaciology to the analysis of solar activity. :hereas the Dar'in Proect is ar initiative to 16/ Ibid. p. 331
32. know better our enviroriment, whether it he social, physical or 'oiological. The criterion hereby applied underlir.es the study of ecosystems through all those dispitnes and areas of knowledge which deal with the suhject rnatter. V/o are also interested in a heer knowledge of Darwin md his work from a contenporary perspectivo, through a nature and in-depth exan. Pinally, we emphasize the fact that our fundamental concern is historical, and therefore, deep].y human. Thus, our principal difference from IGY is conceptual and rot merely geographical, because our object of study is the relatton&'dp between man and his environnient during a 150 year period. There are yet other differences whĂch separate us from the proposed model, but they are more formal than indepth. It has been said that IGY consisted of the sum of individual and national efforts made possible thanks to international cooperation. However, the absence of the private sector is evident in the financerient as wehl as in the conduction and coordination of research projects -basicahly, the absence of private enterprise, universities, Scentific societies, etc. Ever since 1958 until present times, the panorama of international relations has changed substantially, envolving towards the assignment of roles of comparatively greater importance to non--traditional actors of this staqe. To mention sorne: the great multinational enterprise, the raw material carteis, certain guilci and cultural institutions of supra national rank, etc. Cur project, therefore asks for a support petition and an irivitation to privatf, non-state orgnisns and institutions to participate in it. The objective is to take
33. 8dvartaqe of this Juncture so as te elaborat p a budget a pproprjat p for cur a cticrn, but conparativ1y modest if Conpared te GY's. 'inall y , we shall ask fc'r support arid co llaboratjon from the internatjo1 scientjfjc comrnuriity, represented by v arious orgrnisms and societies of great prestige, thus ackriowlecing the tras cendental role of men of science in the world panorama. This v iewpoint will allow to exanino critically the POssibility of ccrryiricj out interdisc1 p 1jrry actions conducteci c ooperativel y by rtatonal agencies, international organjsms and P rí vate grouos whether they be finantial, guild and academjc. NOtw ithstandjng the fact that we rny contjnue to us o- tracijtona1 chanriels of financement 171 we believe that arnong our actions thre are sorne which allow for a direct financernent, in relation to their iritrinsjc corrimercjal value. Mostly, they deal with extensjon operations, such as the filrning of scientifjc d ocumentarjes, publication of textbooks, tourist promotjon, tc. We are conv j nced that in ths area part of our effort wili cause a great interest in the public and it riay generate sinjfjcant methodologjc1 chanqes in educatjon. Since thjs is a pro ect bern in an a cadernjc ceriter whjch studjes internatjonaj relations, the DP gives great importarice to the hetterrnent of the world situation; con s eque-tly, its primordial objectjve is te contribute su bstantiaily to the greatest possibie underst3ndjng and nearness of the nations invited to be ari active part of the 17/ we already have had a uspicious contacts with sane international agencies and orivate foundatjOn3 rejardjr- the financenent of soe of our research project. We also have in our favor the c ooperatjon and technical assistance promised by prestiged pubije and prívate organj sms from Europe and Latín Arnerica. The prívate sector's interest to cooperate with us in certan phases of the DP has been a great stimulus to our a ctivities. Tbis has been ma nifested through entrepreneurs, guiid repre sentatives, and spokes in of development corporatjons.
34. program, trustLng that this initiative will he followed by other regional qroups. Just as in the IGY, the Darwin Project will examine the role of science and technology in the solution of international proh1es through the joint work of scientists, government officials, and representtivPS of the prvate and acaemic sectors ir ar initiative totally unrelated to any are多 or topic poli.tically conflictivE'. By promnoting international qood-wll towards the soluion of interr.ational politic'l prohlems generated by the scientific comnnunity, IGY deserved tO be regarded as "humanity's most sigriificarit pacific enterprise since Renaissartce up until present days'. 18/ on a smaller scale, the DE' also wishes te generate an attitude of greater understnding and reciprocal respect amorig the participant countries. In surnnary, and with the already-mentioned limiting factors, the DE' aspires to continue IGY'S work by const1tutin a supranatonai scientific enterprise ' wbere men of science, entrepreneUrs with foresight, academician and public-officials unite in the task of generating a greater understandiria amortg participant nations and create the possibility to design ideal methods artd instruer.tS for the solution of regional problems. 18/ 5cience TechnolOgy, arid American Diplomacy, Vol. 1, C'napter 5, p. 348. The lessons left by IGY in matters of international scientific cooperation are well shown in the foliowing paragraph of the quoted book: "The spirit de corps engendered by IGY seems to have replaced man o s natural conservationism, and expressions of optimism floated freely imnrnediately after that spectacular scientific activity... It was observed, for example, that IGY united many men under the conditjons which favored appreciation and harnony among them and it demonstrated that meri of science could play a fructiferoUs role in international organizatiofls such as ICSU 多md its parent, UNESCO..." (ibid. 347).
35. In particular, thc
will be lLrrited to the study of
'Darwinian scerieries" which are preferently located -expting certain 5p.inish dnd Portuquese archiplagos- in the Southern Hernisphere. onceptuallv, the objetive is to examine the stae of the evolution tieory frorn the viewpoint of conterporary kr.owled9e and to pronote dn integral study of man's physical and biolotcl environment in the mentiond terrjtores. one
roh].ems Involve In the
We belteve our purpos shall be clearer if we examine -even thou;h briefly- the complexitles which the DP will face. In the first p2ace, it will he inevitah1'1 focused frorn an iterdisciplinary pespective, both hecause of the varieties of problerns we have defined, and because the interd
isciplinary method is much more efficacious and aliows a
dynamic study of the subjects to be dealt with. The figure and work of Charles Darwin occupy a promnent spce within this context. !ost prohabiy, the exitent bibliography or. the nglish savant and his theory on r&ettural 3election is very p.'ofuse and uninue in merit. Nevertheless, there exist sorne topics related to hoth suiject rnatters which deserve the inve s'igatorst interest. As an example, we refer to the study of the inpact of Darwinian theory in the culiure of peripheral countries, nainly, in S pan ish-Anerjcan nations. we hve seen sorne of this in Chile, '-'here Darwin's ideas provoked a controversy in t`-)e educational and Iolitical field, which turned out to be enormously beneficious for the intellectual and social development of the nation. Another topic of interest is the impulse which the 多uthor of -.he Crigin of Species ga e tc the lflstitutionalizatjon of science as a y
36. soci&tly aknowldged acivity, and to tlie professionalization of thn men of science. In this sens, - e belleve that Darwir1ism, by joininq a 3acoriian research nethodolory with the capacity to fDrnulate hypotheses of an elevated de'-ree of ahstraction, perriitted scierice of that time -and specially the life science- to surpass the liriits of a rigid positivisrn and break the traditoral harrier which lir'ited the area of a scieritist to what was licit for hirr and his professional act 4 vity. This poirit takes us directly to a problem area we belleve vital in our project. :ts obective is no other than to exarinc the development of scence an mainly, of disciplines which inteqrate derr, biolog y ever since Charles Darwin disembarked in E r q1and at the end of the voyage of the "eagle" until the preserit. In this frame of preponderantly historical analysis, we are coricerned hoth wlth the internal development of boloqy (primordially, the theory of evolution and genetics) as well as for the social frame within which science has been arting during this period, tbat is, tne development of relationship between science and society. Indeed, there exist many volumes dealing with the relationship between science and society; sorne of them examine the prcblern in certai'-i historicil periods and in deterninate societies. Others -may be thc majority- deal with the sociology of present-dav contenpordr' science. 19/ 19/ The foliowing rnay be r., uoted arnonj the first ones: La. 1:arsak (ed.) The Rise of Science in Relation to Society, (New York, Mc. Millan Co., 1964). 3rown Martin (ed.) -he Social Respor.sahility of tie Scientist, (New York, Free Press, 1971), and the classic by Robert K. rIerton, Science, Technoloqy arid Society in 17th Century England, (New York, Harper and Row Publishers, 1970). The current sociology of science has an extended hihlioqraphy; jUSt to mention two: W.0. Hangstrom, The Scientific Community, New York, flasic Books, (1965). Bernard Barber, Science and the Social Order, (New York, Free Press, 1952)
37. Nevertheless, there still exist notorious gaps in this field, bearing in mmd the enorinous change provoked by the appearance of the theory of natural selection arid its impact in the scientifjc, political, economĂc and social thought of the nineteerith century. Therefore, we believe indispensable te realize a serious historjc sudy of the behavior of scieritific comrnurtity and its interactjon with the social rni].ieu which made possible its past activities duririg the last 150 years. Ever sirice Charles Babbage wrote in 1830 The Decline of Science in England up untl today, the scientjfjc erw j rori,ent and the reasons which made scjence possihle have undergone a deep change. After the historc discujon betweeri Huxley arid i3ishop Wilberforce in June 1860, it seemed that there wou].d never exist linijtdtjorls te scientjfjc innovatjon. Today, the latest genetic experirnents cause social alarm, and voices are raised even in societies which value freedom of expression and thought abo y e all things â€”thus pretending to limit the freedon to choose research topics and methods, as has been so far 20/.
201 According to Thomas Huxley and many other British men of science, after the puhhicatjon of The Origin of Species, "Humanity could await with optimism not only the unhimited growth of scientific knowledge, but also could forasse ari unlimited bioloqical progressu. (Quoted by Wihlian, Irvine, in the book Apes, Angeis and Victorians (New York, rieridian Books, 6th Printing, 196) p. 136. Presently, the outstandjng results of g enetic investigation (just to name the field of biology) has caused worry in wide sectors of public opinion, both in the United States and in Europe. Cfr. from Harvey Wheeler, "La Cienca bajo la Ley" in Facetas, Vol. 4, NQ 1, 1971) and the recent number of Daedalus, entitied Limits of Scieritific I_n guiry (Vol. 107, N Q 2, Spring 1978).
38. In LatĂn Arnerica, historical accorplishments in scl.ence are a little known phenomena; yet, they deserve to he cortsidered. Aain, we believe that the influeriee of Darwin's work was basic in the birth of our scientiic spirit. T1ere fcre, we have included this topic in our proqram of investiga tions. T-c spectacular development of genetics, starting fror the work of pauling, Iatson, Crick, Koraria and Shapiro, among others, will undoubtedly perrnit original and productive viewpoints in the examination of modern evolution theory. In 1955, a group of erninent scientists were called by the American ssociation for the Advancerient of Science (AAAS) to meet in Atlanta, U.S.A., to study the prohlern of species. Are the results of that symposium still valid, from the viewpoint of actual scientific knowledqe? This is orie of the many questions we believe must be answered by the present generatlon of hiologists. Neanwhiie, it is even more beneficial to study the possibility of a synthesls, or at least to establist the most expedite channels of communtcatior between molecular hioloqy and environmental and population biology. An outstanding contemporary biologist has criticized the opinion of certain molecular biologistS who believe that uve orqanisms obey physical and chemical laws which qovern the universe and that the properties of such organisms are completely understandable in chemical terms. According to tnis bioloqist, even if the first premise is true, the second one is not. The cornprehensiOfl of ' uve organism requires the understanding of evolutive mechanisms which allow it to adapt to the everchanging environment it lives in. "It could be thought that this would allow biology to enter clefinitely in the frame
of naturalist world together with physical scie'ce. Almost all of the evolutive biologists arrived to that conclusion; nevertheless, it is quite odd and traqic that the incipient breach between those we now cali molecular hiologists and evolutive hiologists, tends to wtderi instead of closing. Evniutive hiology and blology of integral organisms requires an enlarceent of the phiiosophy of science, so s to.rtciude its special characters" 21/. The breach referred by Simpson keeps widenin, and this phenomenort seems to be rnuch more visible in the scientific miiieu of underdeveloped countries th-in in Pmertcan arid European centers of excellence, where the importance gven to ecoloqy has contrihuted to increase the value of the bioioqy of uve organisms. "Wheri young and hrilliant biologists taik about genetics genes, and wise, oid biologists taik about life without organisms, it it evident that something peculiar is going on in biology; peculiar enoucjh so that the word "crisis" is not too harsh". The very inclusion of this quote is enough to establish our belief in the opportunity for a serious dialogue in the matter. The voyage of the "Beagle" Ln the Southern Hemisphere sees the new south American republics and the vast territories of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa in a very particular moment of their history. It could be said that Darwin and his conpanions witnessed the
national consciousness in these regions, after nerely fifty years had elapsed since the declaration of Indeperidence of 211 Cfr. Gaylord Sinpson, La BiologĂa y el Hombre (Buenos A ires, Ed. Pleamar, 1974), Chapter II "Perspectivas y Limites de la BiologĂa".
40. the United States of America. As far as we know, no atternpt has ever been made for a coriparative history of riations located in the 3outhern Remisphere, which have bcome only an entity of relative politLcal force and lesser cohesion in the so-called "North-South dialogue". Phis riay be a good opportunity to face this task in such an interesting period as ín thc first haif of the nineteenth century. At least, The Voyage of the "Beagle" and its zealous observatiorts on certain aspects of South American socicties seems to be a good starting point. Finaily, and referring precisely to historical research, the DP shall have to deal prirnarily with those aspects related to navigation and scientific expeditions undertaken rnostly by the Spaniards, French and English in the South p acific Seas during the eighteenth and nineteenth century. There is little Spanish bibliography Qn the subect and the one that is available is outdated, excepting sorne volumes published by the Institute of Uispanic Culture and the work of the Chilean historian Sergio Villalobos titied La Aventura Chilena de Darwin (Santiago, Ed. Andrés Bello, 1974). The theme -so near to our hitory and so dear to our best navel traditions shall be the object of interdisciplinary research where specialists in naval historv and historians of science shall urtite to rescue nautical and scientifjc achievernents joined to such names as the very Robert Fitz Roy, La Perouse, Azara, Ulloa and Jorge Juan, Cook, La Condamine, Ruiz and Pavón, and so man » other. Today more than ever, the Pacific Ocean is a factor of mutual knowledge and unity aznong people of different cultures; to enter their history and reconstruct their past must be, undoubtedly, a task which will increase our ties with our neighbours near the sea.
41. We are conviced that t cultural heritage of a ntion does not end in its great arcitectural nonuments, nor its artistic, literary or scieitific contrihutions. The relationship structured throug'-i hi.3ory between man and his physical environnent is also part of a cultural property. Threfore, to help recr'nstruct the autoctonous landscape seen by panish discoverers, or to collaborte iri a11 initiatives which tertd to obstruct tie extinction of native flora and fauna, is a cultural task, because it contrihutes to the rescue of sonething whch is traditionally ours and which has helped to forge our idiosyncracy as a nation. The dr'.a of our tines is that there remains very little to admire, at least n what concerrts natural beauties. Por this reason, national parks (continental or marine) and natural history museums are considered keepers of the nost fraji.e and unstable part of cultural heritage. Thus, the DP will concern primarily in contributing to the creation and conservation of "natural sanctuaries", nuseums, specialized libraries and national parks -particularly in those places we have called "Darwinian sceneries". To achieve that, we shall proraote the dictation of speciai decrees and laws, and the start of a large international tecnical assistance opration. We shall also sponsor the orgartization of serninars and symposia on the suh1ec as a mearis of taking adv .antage of the experience acnieved on these suects in other latitudes. Our aim is to represent rnan's new approximation to nature through the niuseum and natlonal parks. The emphasis on our Yuests rtow shifts to a field which is more propicious for the naturalist than for the social scientist, eveo if we insist that the rnultidisciplinary
42. characteristic of the OP is constant throughout all or most of the state problems. 'le have expressed before that the nucleus of the DP -almost since its origin- has been the analysis of the deterioration of our landscape for the past 150 years. We wish to broaden the tern landscape so it may cover the vast Darwinian sceriery. Its objective is to verify all t}-te changes in the environment of many territories of the Southern Henisphere, starting from the careful study of the descriptions left by Darwin and other naturahists and compare them with the natural and human landscape of present times. As we know, Charles Darwin took good advanta9e of the French and Spanish scientific voyages of the eighteenth century, and in addition, became acuainted with the works of certain Spanish American naturahists. Names such as Azara and Juan Ignacio Molina are repeatedly iuoted in his textbooks and his hibrary t s catalog; the books of these and other authors appear careful1'written down and underhined by Darwin ho was a conscientious reader 22/. ioreover, the detaihed descriptions left by the English naturalist have agreater intrinsic value because he incorporated the testimony of many other travchlers and conosseurs of the little-explored and Memorial 22/ Cfr. iiistorco1 and Descriptive Catalogue of the at Down House, Down, (ent., and Handlist of Darwin Papers at the Uriiversity Library, Carnbrtdge (Canbridge, Carbridge University Press, 1960). 1 'nave been able to see personaily sone of the numerous volumes of the Spanish and LatĂn ttnerican authors in Cambridge University's Library, thanks to the kindness of ir. Peter J. Gautrey, Curator of the Manuscripts t)epartnent.
urtcontarninated landscape of the Z oujnern Hemisphre. Tius, we want to take advataje of a historical docunr?nt of the greatest value in a riqorously sciertific study which will permit us to aniy7.e
多jeoiotical, clioatic, biological
and anthropologicai changes ocurred in
:ortveni(jnt period of
time. Undoubtedly, we shall range this expPriment cautiously and shall verlfy at every moment the validity of the historical sources in a research of this nuture. In order to do so -and followirj faithfully Darwiriian texts- we shall, in the first place, define what we have named "!)arwinian scenries"; they are thosc terrtories vsited by :irw1n a nd of which he left detailed descriptions.
ere, we shall face
geomorpo1ogic1 and linguistic prohlems of certairt importnce
because the toponyrny of these places has evolved according to its usage by different cultures. in any case, the correct use of hstorical documents in the evaluation of present landscapes will be quite ari intellectual adventure whose results will he used beneficiously in similar proects. Once the 'arwinian sceneries" shail he marked, different specialists wfll have te analyze the different changes, their cause and najnitude. There are roaons to believe that we shall find exponential curves in all those changes irnplyinq manis usage of his geoqranhical rnediurn. Furthermore, we can suppose that the inventory of currerit zoological and botanicl species wjhi vary considerably frorn the panorama of 1--ve organisrns described by Darwin: we also kriow that we shall necessariiy have to include the disappearance of ethnic groups known by the author of The Origin of Species. All in ah, it must he pointed out that aside from postulating the extinctiori of certain species -whose causes are not yet wellknown or
i4. studied- we know that since Darwin's visit until today, nurr.erous foretgn species have been integrated into the biological lanciscape of our countries, maz!ng alrnost unrecognizable the sceriery obsrved by this naturalist. For example, the present rural landscape of Chile is not auochthortous at all at least in the Central part of the country. Pines, whlows, poplars, fruit trees and interninahle bramble bush fences make up a biogeographical scenery absolutely unknown to Spanish conquerors, and partly unknown even in the first haif of the nineteenth certtury. 23/ On the other hand, we believe that we shall find decidedly positive changes -at least from the human point of viewwhich undoubtedly ahiows for a certain aznount of optimism regarding future perspectives arising from our project. Surely, it shall be mo3t interesting to compare for the first time the descriptiori of eiâ€˘ghteenth and nne teenth centurv textbooks with the results of scientific measurements carried out during the investigation. We are 23/ In the second haif of 1977 the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) filmed a documentary in Chile on the voyage of the "Beagle". One of the greatest difficulte during the filming was to find an inlet where the sailboat -which jad been speciaUy conditioned to
resemble the "Beagle"- could dock. In alI the appropriate doc1cing spots there were pines and eucalyptus trees which arrived to this country years after Charles arwn's visit. it is sensible to point out that regardirig the introduction of foreign species, the econonic criterion has outpowered scientific criterion. This fact has orovoked real ecological catastrophes which have caused the disappearance of many native species.
45. convinced that t-e techniues and nothod proper to history anU exp'rirnental ccie'-ice s hall be favored with this mutual exchange of data and compared observations. Ths is the only manner we can adequately certify tie validity of a hstortcal documeit as a faithful tetrnony of the past. During ti-te past years, studies or qret scientific vaiue have heen 1one in the geographlcdl area and space we are markinq for our tas. Indeed, reearch has heen carried out covering practicaUy all specters of envlronrnent nal'sis. Nevertheless, it must be ponted our that the immense majority of surh research has heen lirr.itd to the study of the prPse't lartdscape, that is, just a dot lo a change curve in time, which would evidntly linit the capacity to extrapolate the results
of investigations and eploy their, 1r iortç raocje forecasts. lo the first place, the DI) aspires to carry out a rnultidisciplinary historical stucly of chartge which would permit adequate conclusions for future formulations of nationallevel envronrnent pohicies. In the second place, ti-te DP will make good use of toe existent infornation and will offer to coorclinate and/or cooperate in those irwestigations which are being executed or will be carried out during our project's sven-year period. lo Chile, there have been oricdnal and interestin irvestii:atjons in areas where the DP also wishes to delve into: in 1977, a grant of the world 1.nild Life Fund permitted Chilean and ?Çortharnrican scientists to deterrninat the ecological irvtpact of exotic species jo native fauna. Qn the other hand, different academic centers jo the country have done a giant effort to krzow better our national resources. One of them is the Iristitute of Biology of the tiniversity of Concepción,
which has the country's most iriportant herbarium (about 50,000 sap1es) rnade up by species collected by different Chilean and foreign botanists, and fototypes acquired from tie Chicgo Natural Hisory Nuseurn. It is interestinci to underline the method used by this institute in the search of species. It is done according to the sane itinerary covcred by classic botanists who travelled throughout Chile during the last three centur. In this serise, the research is historical, since it relies on the very notebooks of naturalsts such as Ruiz and Pavón, J. D. ilooker, Rodulfo and Federico Philippi, etc. Recently, the initiative of a Jeographer, Dr. Victor3. uintanilla, has brought fort the publication of the Diccionario de biogeografía para
órica Latina (Bio-
eographic Dictionary for Latín Arner±ca) (Valparaíso, Ediciones Universitarias is the "(nost adequdte) tool to understand completely natural sciences and the auxiliaries to the bological sciences, especially to ap:reciate change -usually deterioratjon- of natural habitat" 24/. Thus, the DP, whose purpose is to conduct research cm the chanqe of natural habitat, congratulates of the existence of such studies 'hich certainly have also been carried oufi in. (,ther nations, ar.d which will be invited to take part in the project.
;ernust not forget that scientific knowledge is constructed by a perrnanent conjunction of individual and collective efforts,
24/ On the work of the Institute of Biology of the Universjty of Concepción, cfr. "Chile se llama CONC", in Ercilla rJO 21 7 4, Narch 30-April 5, 1977, pp. 61-63. The information on Diccionario de Biogeografia is in "Brújula para un Nuevo Idioma", Ercilla NQ 2244, August 2-6, 1978 1 p 57.
n 47. ¿md that each irvestiator adds orilv i quanta of knowledge to the constant fiow of science. As said beforo, those ir. ch8rge of the r)p 's good functloning wish to contribute end serve in the hest possible way to greater international understrnding. On the othcr hand, our project is decidedly conservtiorijst, in the sertse that the Darwin Natjonal Cor'ittee -or later the regional cornrnite- wifl do ¿di tiat is possible to promote the best use of our resources and the conservtjon of e nvironment. Foth purposes fit irito an ade'uate frarne in the proposition of criteria and priorities for the forn-ultion of n-iLionai and regional level policies destined to keep ecologi cal equilihriurn. It is hre prcisely, where t'-te Darwin Nationai C rxrnittee and any or q anisrn credtd by the Darwin Project, nust keep dt all costs its right to constructive criticisrn and exrress its ideas freely -an analiertable right which characterjzes ¿di acadernic activities. It is necessary to point out the struqgie fought at alI leveis to comhat cootarn j ndtjOn jo ¿di its forrns and to create a conscience of the cvidertt danger irnplied in the indiscriiinate and rneasureless use of the resources of the biosohere. This preocupdtion has beeri very weli sul)norted by the larqe and extended bihlio'jraphy published, ¿md the increasing interest of different puhlic and private organizations concerned with t:iis prohiern. However, in our cour.trie, the studies on r nvironrnent arILl natural resources' admiistration are receit, dnd public opinion tends to consier the increasing contarnination problems as sornething which concerns oniy highly industrialized countries. Rec'ently, sorne controversial topics and certain unfortunate happenings -such as th€ exploitation of autochthonous fcrests, and the hast oil tanker disasters- have started
some discussionon deveiopment arid conservation. Nevertheless, no 3cequate b111 or legislature ,ave resulted frcn those events. firmy believ3 that
academic cortr..:)ution to Lh(--
ciequate formulion of ar. environrnen l di jolicy mut t&:e into account two facts: a) the undeniab'e need of our countries to rrintain an eccnonlc jrcwth of certdin nagriitude; b) the irrefutable fact tha: actual tecnology, -nade j ossible hv n crroneous economic policy, is terminatiri'j our opttnns to survive as a species. Uridoubtedly, any proposition to detain the weak Latín, )nrican developrnent and arrlve t a "zero growth" rate (propord by sorne coriservationsts of developed countries) will he rejected unaninsiy by our natioris who are at the ' t qrow or die' stace. Cn the othr side, sone radici. conservationists havc' defended their honest ¿md deeply human position in such absolute ter-s, that if their ideas were te be carried out, it would signify a hibernization of the present situatioi. In ether words, nture's actual dynarnisrn manifested in thc cyciic appearonce ¿md disappearace of species ¿md in t li p Qnvironrnental CLarVJeS which make thls cycie possi'cie, would originte a static process which is completely ttura1 25/. ?h '- opposite viewpoir:, vhiCh s to take 25/ durinç the uas years there has been an insistence in detaining world econornic growth, ond leonr.q instead cf a "zero rowth" rate. In its F'all 1973 edition, Da?da1us compiled articles of outstand-ng specialists en these 7roblerns. (iuhlished as Vol. Q 102 9 2 4, Proceedings of the rnerican Academy of Arts and Science). Zugene rabinowitch, on the other hand,'ias critcized the insufficien tly rationel and passior'.ate arquments of sorne groups of conservationists; l it is a fact, that without any interference from man, the history of life on Earth includes the elimination of innumerable species which were unahie to adapt to changes, and were 'onservation, for replaced 5 Y more adaptable ones".
n "o hneft of nuturl resources without thinking about the future, is a cescapitalation process which wili end not only these rlches hut all our ilfe possihil1es; It Is much more irratona1, hut it is overwhelmng1y Imposing its critra. The eccncmy of alnost ¿di Latin AmerIcan countries has shifted fror, phase which was xclusively concentrted on exoorts of raw rater.iahs, to iinother w:erior phise hase in an indiscrimnat0 opCnri to forelcjn investnent -n the stjmulation of non-traditiona exports. 3oth fdtors have accelerated the destructiori of our environment, sirice the lac'z of p rotective legislature and th investors' desire to achieve quick return of their investmertt combine in ari exploitat.t.on of resources whlch leads to the contindtion of ¿dr and water, erosion, •rid t,-he extintion of our niltive flora and fauna. Analogicahly, the export of non-traditional products has 251 Cortservation's sake ?' 2he ul1tin of Atonin :cientists, vol.
MXV, Q 5, !ay 1969, p. 47. 'rhe extreme case of halting the constrution of a dam valued at USS 16.000.000 happened recently (in Tenneszee, U.S.A.) du to a u....;.. Surrie Court resolution favorinq srnall variety of perch called "snail darter", whos e hife was enda r.-jered because of the dan. The "snail darter" is ono of the rany soecies nrotocted by the Federal Act of Endangered Species of 1975. (Time. June 26, 19', P. 21). Je advocate for a middle 7otnt hetween hot positions. It is true that the scierttific arument for the "zero 'jrowth" cause is very stronç artd highly ratiorial. r3.. Vurray compares two types of growth: Boloqical and ecoriomical. he first nne is natural and according to natural laws since it rests on a permanent regime where organisms set thesolves at a level of eiuilibriuii. On the contrary, economic growth is an increasing one arid ends up by weakening the quality of life in te same way as cancerous cehis atternpt againtst the host orjanism. ("Lo q ue los :cóloq os pu-den ense.ar a los Economistas", in Facetas, Vol. 6, N 1 9 1973, p. 47).
the intse use of so-J I, the cuttin own of autochtortous forests, anc the extintior. (because of overexploitation) uf comerciaiiy high-vr1lued species. -,he fact that our corLinent see te h'i : j ü O d place for estbljsh q "pollution sanctuarjes". (;ones where highly contarinatng industries Cúrt operate freeiv without any r'strictons or legal control). lo Jarivary 1,975, tíne Department of :000erce of the Goverriment of th' lJr.ited Stotes expressed the conveniency o investing in certain 1,atín Anertcan countries because of the unexistence or iooperance of ntpol1utiort laws 261. lo art excellent article published in Portada, 19761 Cresct'nte Donoso has criti i?e'i this tenc1rcv in asserting tt "whiie sane countries sacrifjce nture for industrial develooment, others are riakinq a coneback to riature, the stiriulated
26/ Curry-Lindahl sys in his quoed book: 'Development, in its modero sense, does not ilways mean procress. Many developing countries do not have the capital nor the market means necessary to exploit its reserves. For the sar-e reason, developmertt in left lo the hands of foreign investors who are steered more by profit than by conservition principies. Unfortunately, this viewpoint oftert coincides with sort-term political view p oints held by qovernments". (Conservar para Sobrevivir, op. cit. p. 343). Unfortunately, the majority of the great r-ultintionals are iovestiog a qreat deal of money in estbiishing higUy pofluting industries in sorne countries
D.r this region because the poliution control laws lo developed countries cbstruct its expansior,. The "poilution sanctuar!es" have proliferated lately, and we may observe the phenomenon where many of our cities show poliution rates higher than the ones of Europe or orth rerica. Qn this topic, Cfr. J. Barnet and F. E. Miiller, Global each: Th Power o fYultinational Corporations. (New York, Sim on ndSchuter197,especiailyPart1, Ch. 12: "The Ecoiogy of Corporations and the cudiity of Growth").
51. difference beinq that they destroyed their, and nust uy a new one aioro the 000r" 27/. However, t'e ost co-ron criteriori is not precisely the proclaimed one. It could be sai . that the nost rjeneralized opinion -wiCh ir nany occasions is oxp:essed cortfusedly in sone yovernnent pol iesis a "blind jeneriticni hiief n supposed henefits of industrial dev c lopnont", 7/ abo y e all Hnot IN er consieration towards ecology. A critic of Jonoso's work thinks that his position is trie one of "a heggar suffering poverty sittiny on top of 'n.15 rncne'1 chest ... Rather "-han satisfying a bucolic desre that our descendants :nay stroll uncir shadowy trees to the musical sound cf %And, we must se that today's chiiclren may have the necessary food, shelter, education ¿md health, and that their parents nay ave an income compatible with human dijnity". Tbe same thought has beeri supported recently by ene of our rnost importartt cornmunicatons neda, when it stated in its editorial, "It is evident that thc fght gainst extreme poverty ¿md the effort to rercve certain zones or the country from underdeveiopment is more i'rportant than the conservat ion of certain natural specis, 'o natter how valuah1 p they are" 29/ iow can we arivc at a consensu 'ith suc li extreme ort-da, Q 50, april 27/ 11 31 los Dólares no Dnarar V'r elBosque". 1976, pp. 1i'-17. 23/ Ibid. ibid. p. 16. 29/ Letter to the Lirctor. portada, ¡; 31, ma ,, 1976. The uoted Editorial was nublished in Elercurio, June 13, 197, p. 3.
Indeed, tiis tasz has 5en set by rlurnerous
iflter-iatjonal orr!anjsyns anc dtvrse ¡rvate groups. ¡mong he frst-ne-itjonj here cxists the !i.iited ons Lrvironn1ent Prograue (Jr) which has heen I-ef ,- reci as te 'environnenta1 c o r sceflce of the Unjted Ntions systern i . This program's objectjve is to h e l p governments and other orgaisns assure that
taken fully i.nto
the developrnent process. In its nnu31 report for 1975, the EP regarcis obsolete the ?osition 'hich considers deve1opnent as "invitab1y destructíve for ervirornt" as well s the pozition whch suports the idea tt nv.ronrnent protection "ts often an obstacle to tYe econornic exI)anson
developed countrjes ad its deveioprnent process'. Cn t h e cortrar', the is bsed on the he1jcf that "env j ronrrtental corisjderatjors demand!ng a rational arder of Earth's reources are the best guararitee that deve1opnert can be carried through on a Supportable base" 30/. Developing countries .iizh te, resch' the degree of industrja.tzatjon nd ilfe standard of developed couri'rjes. Atua1 ly,we believe that we can reach euiity o fe level rnuch nort su p erior if we are able t.o for'u'ate aooicy of d ve1opnet (not cni y of jro't y ') which wo'1d
da:ge t . renwab
rta- rinq t jnv cos t proper . c-is of a eveiopme'-tL
quality of environnent as the process. Indeed, tt ic legitir'ate
to doubt econornjc indexes
as the GNP, becuse if it would cor-isider suh factors as
30/ Proira p d de 1s Naciones Unidas cara el rec2io A"hiente (?,%u'.), Annual RepOrt, 1,97r•
53. rviironmenta1 deterioration, Ujrowth ,ould practic1iy be zero. Lhe cost of 2nvronmCnta1 Th.ts would hdppen, for exapie, ?rotection be tranitbed zotally to the prices of consumer goods and cap , taT-. rerefore, we nust. 1-h 1,nk of a new concept f econoric rawth which exreses a hrnor.y hetween development and cor.serv&ion. ;.s affirmed bj ;eruld Cldein, "economic crvice, or growth neans reducinq scarc.tty of jOC(S an reducini the feat of fuure scrircity. The world's assets zhll be increased and so wjll human satisfictiori if the scircity of goods such as cure air, uncontaninated water, or the natural hecty of he r.u nvironrent wou be reced. implies contributinj to economlc irowtb in a reter sens茅h than the one of a mere expansion of coduct.on, wich in itself, is no else than a mans to increas p individual dnd conrnunitary satisfaction" 1/. On te other hand, it is not probable that production (in the traditional sense) should be underestirnated by the environment control measures, since a healthy policy of erwironmental regulation would be a stimulus for teChO1OJiCa1 research and for the fast developrnent of antipollutio ri industries without forqetting thc yreat multiplying factor of t".e high 莽overnmental inversion in this it em. -.he DP accepts the proposition of t'ichard L. Clinton in the sense of resurrecting the original meaning of the term "development" so as to give it an ernpirically determinable base 31/ "cesidad de Coopraci贸n y oordinaci6n interuherndrnentales en la poitica del Control del ',:ntorno", in Ecologia yContaminaci6n. Formas je Cooperaci贸n Internacional. (Buenos ires, Ed. Marymar, i.)71) pp. 211-218.
54. arid being ethically (or ideologically) neutral. This base would consist in a supportable relationship betwéen a populatjon and the ecosystem it forms part of". This type of development has been named after Maurice 5trong, ecodevelopment. The acceptance of an ecodevelopment policy implies, nevertheless, a careful study of the different ecosystems on which rest Latín American populations, and the rejection of the "demonstration cffect" of consumer patterns in in rlustrialjzed countries. According to Clinton, "since man in the rnost valuable resource, ecodevelcpment must contribute to his development" 32/ How can the DP contrjhute to the formulation of such poiicy Aboye ah, through the meritioned research tasks, which not only will contribute a profound knowledge of our environment, but will also have the supreme objective of forming a generation of vounc researchers, impregnated with new values. In this sense, we behieve that history will make a significant contribution to the better knowledge of the manenviconment relationship in Latín Anerica frorn a temporal perspective. Even though it is possible to accept that political history is still the backbone of historiographjcal structure, ie have always thought that irnportant suhjects of our past have rerriained in shadows. Ono such subject is the reconstruction of relationship between a dynamic population j/ "Hacia una Teoría del Ecodesarrohlo; Concepto Clave para Ubicar el Papel de las Políticas de la Población en el Proceso de Desarrollo", in Comercio xterior, Vol. 26, NQ 1, January 1976, pp. 64-71.
55. as in Latin America, and the continent's splendid geography. In this historic frame, research on land tenure, urban property, agrarian policy and the territory's colonization attrnpts will contrihute to clarify sorne questions which 60 far have not everi been stated. The formation of, a reg i onal conscience on the matter shall also be restatedfron the poirit of view of the DF. As expressed by the UNP research, 'the changes in the relat.onship between man and his physical environment depend greatly on the chanqes in the orqariization and ends of 5ociety .... (the) purpose (nf man) must be to construct a society iritrinsically compatible with its environment". CurryLindah1 underlines the tremendous importance of international cooperation in the re-education o ll our society by saying that ll all people must be educated so that they may understand why, in the long range, a strategy with ecological fundaments wihl restore our world's environrnent. Without education we cannot understand, or stimulate theunderstanding of the appropriate use of natural resources at a national or global scale 33/. The DP aspires â€˘to design pedagogical modeis which rnay he understood quickly and easily by the new qenerations. One of the rnost serious inconvenierices of current education on 33/ UNEP, Ibid. Curry-Landahl's footnote is in his quoted book, Conservar para Sobrevivir, op. cit. pp. 387-388. Nevertheless, it must be understood that eclucational process is slow and must compete disadvantageneously with the rt demostrat ion effect' of consumer societies and with pseudo - values incorporated by the economic policies followed by most of our countries. Recently, a high regional offlcer said that "in 1977 24 million abalous were extracted frorn the III Region which seems excessive (sic.). Nevertheless the produced incomed and the e!nployment resulting from it, make it a very irnportant resource for the Region" (La Tercera, July 11, 1978)
56. environznent is .tne pedagogic process iself: it is much siower than the destruction of ecosystems. Thc previously—exposed rmatters have increased our interest in contributing with the rcu1ts of our future research to the planning of a strategy leading to satisfactory regional and international ecoloj:Lcal action. We are convinced that our responsibility does not enc l in the mere contrihution to the advancement of the subject -atter, but we must also do everything possible so that the conclusions to which we arrive ay be well used at the level of government and international organisms. 3.
ASynthesis of the Objectives and Purposes of the Darwin Pro ject Havinq outlined briefly sorne of the most important problems and topics covered by the DP, it is necessary to stress the perrnanency of our initial purposes, which have been clearly exposed throughout the preceeding pages. We have defined them unequivocally and this constitutes an excellent opportunity to synthetize and punctuate what has been expressed previóusly. Thus, the main ohjective pursued by the DP, and which the Darwin Committee will try to rnaterilize, are the foliowing: a) The necessity of an international hornage to Darwin and his work, en the 150th anniversary of the cruise of the H.M.S. "Beagle". UndoubLedly, the voyage of the "Beagle" is the most far n ous and important scientific expeditiori in the historyof Humankind, and it constituted the basis of The Origin of Species. A century and a haif has elapsed since this great achievement; we oelieve it duly necessary to halt and analize the Darwinian work and
evzduate.its 'nitorical mpact. b) An appeal to the international scientific community to carry on a task of great rneanin. Just as it happened wth :Y in 195"- . 53
bnlieve this shall he a
good opportunity for men of science from different countries to contribute their experience arid knowledge ir ¿t
pacifiC and sirjni.icatve tak, vi liose extent towards
international understanding w11 he of great value. In partic'lar, we steer this invitation to collaborate with our project, towards mon of sc.ífmci, and towards whosoever believe in scence as an agent for unity, social prores, and human harmony. we also xtend this invitation to the "darwinian' countri.es of the Southern Herisphere, (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, ecuador, Perú and Uruguay in Latin America, in addition to Australia, New Zealand and South Africa) plus tbe scientists from those nations which, for one reason or another, cannot be left-out of the task we have undertaken. we are referring here to the scientific conmunities of England, 5pain, Portugal, France artd the United tates. Charles Darwin's country obviously must he present as well as the cerritories oF Spain, 'Trance ¿1nd rortuqal which were visited by the Encjlish naturalist, who tudied the books and work.3 of the naturalists of these countries. Finaily, the United States has acquired a first rate experience and "know how" in problerns such as environnental deterioration m2 tne fcri1tion cf equilibrated development polictes, thich also preoccupy our cornrnittee. Private enterprises and North American volunteers cooperate in these tasks, either by financing projecta or actively participating in their execution. Wc
58. ust follow ths 2xar'ie. c)
rt to Scientjfjc act j vj tj05 in Latjn Amer1lca The developrnent of scientjfjc thouqrt in our countries is plagued with Vicissitudes which sew to worsen as times rj o by. In the scarce opportunjtjes where sorne academjc excellence centers have heen formed, different ajents have consoired to make its task impossible. As a result, the so called "brain drin" has come about, which is no other thari the legitirnate desire cf the scientist to contrihute to the a dvancement of knowledge jo a more propiticus environment. Such is the characterjstjc of all meo of scierice. lo doubt the instjtutjonaljzatj.on of science is indispensable as nucleus of a ll noderrijzatjon processes, being this a historical task undertaken by ah our countries. For this reason, our primarÂť purpose has been one of creating stimulus and motivations to Latin America science. We believe the DF wihl be a good opportunity to help to achieve that goal. In the first place, the DP is an ori g inal and u nexperienced initiative which will undoubtedly impulse research jo such areas as the ones which formerly integrated Natural History, and which are not prioritary in our scientjfic developrnent. In the second place, our research projects are rnostly interdiscipljnary, which will contrihute powerfully to the better knowledge of different methodolojies and techniques, and to the fruitful and i000vating work in the frontiers of differeot areas and disciplines, lo the third place, the results of our task will be beneficial inasmuch they wjhl be used in the impiementatjon of national and regional developrnent plans. The DP is, in addition, a
projcct which will easily reach public opinon, serving in this way thr social legimitation of scientific activities. Fnai1y, we are aware that one of the gratest problems of regional scientific development has en a scarce and interrnittent financement. The Darwin Uaticnal Conittee and the rPgionai cor Twitt p eS to he formed iri the future wtll try by all means at its disposal to crete alternative channels of financement, utilizing non-traditional sources of research support. .:e are certain that at least our initlative wiU establish the hasis fcr a new dlalogue hetween acaderiicians, men of science, and spokesmen of the public and private sectors of not oniy the region, but also of many countries of the Southern Hemisphere. :n this manner, our desires to enhance cultural integration of our nattons will be fulfihled; undouhtedlv, it wihl increase mutual understand incj ancl respect amonq the involved countries. d) Effectjve contribution to the forrnulation to ecodevelopment policies. Perhaps, the greatest challenge for a modern scientist is to restore social trust in scierice, by contributinq to the progress of society. le know it is difficult -if not inoossihle- to make that the voice of the scientific community be heard aho ye other pressu.re qroups having greater social prestiqe, or with more means at their disposal. Nevertheless, our first task shall be the opening of expedite channeis of comrnunicaton between qovernment authorities and men of science. Only in this manner shall we achieve that our developmer.t pohicies proposals be histened. Furthermore, since we manage more variables for the formulation of these policies, we shall
60. deer whjch criterja are the most adecuate. Thus, it is prioritary to evaluate renewahle natural resources, know well their rejeneratjor speed an capacity, and in order te achieve this knowledqe, design criteria and priorities for the stable, con q ruous and pauseless econoic qrwth which will help us te achieve unsuspected goals of Uevelopment. .econdlv, it is essential te create a
regional Data Bank Qn the studies already done and the enes being conductod as for environment knowledge,
eva1uatn of rescurces n- contamjnatjon con'-rol are concerned. There exists an a-iazinc amount of inforratjon
whjch is sub-utilized or disperse, for which reason it will he necessr y to create reg.onal coordinaton mechanjss. e) To protect native flora an faura. This is the prioritary task of the DP, and it will surely attract easily external financement as well as the decided support of great sectors of puhlic opinion. Furthermore, throuoh this objective we shall rnanifest cur most cordial :ooperation with ah academic groups or the enes constituted by voluntary citizens which throuahout
e world are fighting for the cause of conservtion. Here, tne ob lâ€” ct is to know conprehertsjvelv eur zocloQical arid botanic-1 Species, examine its hahitt and hopefully, establish its decjree of stahilitv as a species. Not Ofliy must we protect -to the p oint it is rationally possible-. existing species, but also we must examine the possihle causes of the extinction of many species Darwin knew and classified. The protection of native flora and fauna requires to know the ecological irnpact of different foreign species introduced in the country during over 400 years. It is also necessary to
n 61. carry out stuciies cor.trollirvj the detrroration of the natural envror'ent. No doubt, this will be a bautiful effort, fu1 of surpriss, frustratons and re—erkcounters with th prodtqious nature of the Southern Hedsphere. f) Addition to the formulatien of an ec pp pica1 cpnscienr nd lov ' of ature in our countries. r,le have expresse our earnest destre to face the pedaqogical prohlerns iplied in the fornation o' a grater conscience (awareness) of the dar. jer represnted by the destruction of environment. :e nust face such problers through original techni-Tues and focii, which ltad to partial or radical modificetion of school curriculum, both in natural and social sciences. we point out sone ideas which undoubtedly point to this direction: First, the social arid historical cispects of the environment's deterioration; second, the promotiorL of museums, national parks and different extensiori activities. rhrough these iffitiative, we shall increase the possibility tomodify positively the relationship man—environment.34/. 34/
publication is a very good example of environmental education. It is called Expedición of Chile, and it is written by the Instituto cuan T'nacio ;.olina, and published by the Editorial 3abriela :istral. —he maority of the Latir. American countries have rnade a great effort towards creating national parks. As strident example of what we just mentioned are Galápagos Islands which actually are struggiinq desperately for surviving as ari unimitable lboratory of the life process. The establishment of the research statiori named Charles Darwin near Santa Cruz (1962) has helped powerfully the cause of the Islas r ncantadas (as named by the Spaniards). See Time, June 26, 1978, p. 50. A chilean
62. These are our principal aims. Uncoubted1y, as the proect is being carrieU on, we shall structure step by step a hierarchy of purpos e s and objectiv'-s different from the une we have pointed out. Nevertheless, we trust that we shall not leave hehind the aims with ';hich the DP hegan, nd whose attairirnent as benefice is a constant stimulus to our work. 4.
flow wjli the Dar-,-in Project be impiernented ? To concrete the DP in ah its points and with ah its complexities and scopes, would seem an incommensurate drnhition, ciashin; opnlv with present-day Latin Ame ricen and world situatior-.. \Ievertheless, the fict that a creat arnount of research projects on similar topics and with similar view points to those of tha DF have been carried out, seems to deriy such position. The results of those investi rjations exist and may he used. '?he sane can be jaid about the current projects which are being carried out in Chile and in other countries of the region, sorne of which we have mentioned previouslv. Thus, the ohject is to use existing information or modify it according to our own view points and perspectives. In this enterprise we shahl not start from zero, hut shall base the greateat part of our actions ori a reat masa of data, results and existin0 material. There is one more convinc!no arqunent: even if it is true that our task is principally acadennic, and is theref贸re dir e cted to the advancement of knowledae, it is no iess true that it focusses Qn problems whose solution is urgent for the survival of our societv. In other words, such studies must he carried out, otherwise risking to atternpt in an irreversible form against aur owri options and the ones of future qenerations.
The DP is not only a -ornige, or another comrnemoration. Rather, it reiterates its c rctr as an enterprise of inter nationi cooperaticn, vital for the qreater understanding of our ountries, for th- increcsing of th
u'ty of lfe of its
populdtions. :owever, we rieed to clarify as well as possible the forrn in which the DP will he carric out. In order to do so, we shall Jifferentieto hetween reserc; activities, the foriiu1tion of pc. ltcies and extensior' •ctivities, tú refer then to the possihle financernenb of these actions. i) Reearch progrrns: It refers to the execution of ori'inal ¡):ojects, or he utli;'ction, r:iodificition, coordinatiori arid/or coliahcra'on with finied projects or at the stage of execution. j i) Forrulation of policiesl T t dos
the use of the
resuts achieved from sorne of thc proposed research topics. Such data will be used when compiling propos±tions for the forulation of policis (educattonl, environmental, develoomental, etc.) at a national and regional level. ThiS t ,- , pe of iction is of open cooperrition with the different regional nd international governrents and organisms. This will need t',-,e creation of expedit comnunications channeis.
iii) ExtenSio acttons: A jrea r)at of our effort will be to inform the cornrnunity and integrate the population into our tasks. That shall he posible in the extent that different extenson programs he irtplemented, such as the filrnirtg of docurnentaries, expositions, text publications, improvernent of rnuseurns arid natural parks, organized tourism, etc. Any educational co.lahoration wifl also fali within this frame: courses, prograrns, lecture cycles, curricula planification, etc.
64. rhese proarams will generate the foliowing actions: a. .esearch Pro;rarns - Collection of data arid elahoration of work hypothesis - Field work anc.sT1posia. (The work meetíngs would takP place in any country participtin in the DPp procuring that those rneetings be carried out in places visited by Darwin, As Lar as Chile is concerne, we ha y o obtained the logistic support from inportant national organisms to carry out all sorts of Sc j entjfjc reunjons). - Puhlications. The DP will procure as possible to publish e works arising from our investi;ation. :;evertheless, it is importnt to poirit out that all the participatiri: scientists wihl have rnaxirnum freedon to publish the results of their work. b.
formulation programs - C o llection of research results - 'ormatjcn of Jata Bank - Compilement of an Index of orivate and public organizations participating in counse].ing activities, or decision makina levels in dveloprnent pohicies. - CornpileTPert arid compared analvsis of the existing bihhiorraphy. - Semiriars on the formulatjon of environmeri tal and development pohicies which may ailow meetings of ah represeritatives from all areas. POlicy
c. ¿xt'nsion programs - Facilítate organized tourism so as to allow the best posible acquaintance of Darwinian sceneries. - This type of tourism loes not require costly investrnents
rior a solid and prrnanrnt infrastructure. The object is to oen
same trail which could he scouted
bv foot and
whtch would join rrwtnian p laces. In Chile, as well 3S
the r'st of the countris irvjtd to this troqrarn t-iere xist numerou r1i't1onl pars 3nd uncontaminated landscapes which coincide approxi rnitely with the Darwinian :ucjtiorial acttors istintted to create scneries. ccnsci'nce about the orohlrns thc DP .s conc'rned with. 'ilming of docuentaries, recording radio arid Televsion .
proqr&rns, P-tc. - puhlications. Financernerit of the DT' No doubt, the greatest difficulty in such 3ort of a project is its financernent. we ha yo potnted out that the DP is an
original initiative in the sense that it trascends the
Government aren and
searches for the contest
adhesion of different social groaps. 'e believe that this characteristic of
the rj p
j ,iaLI e positive hecause
of econornic re5ourcs will not -e oriented only towards the trditional sources of finart cerient but, on the contrary, we will crcate new options by
inter'st of groups
which, until now, have beert absnt from great cultural erterprises, and '.hich rtow may help
cooperate with us.
our pilot project for introducinq the
It is appropriate to ooirtt out that -arned at irnplemntinq
pacific Sairnon into the XI and XI: ReQiorts- has fourtd resources in art innumerable rturnher of non traditional instances, which certainly stimulates
recjardiny the project's
Ăinancing. Qn the other hand, sorne of the state agencies we have contacted, in Chile as well as in other LatĂn
66. countries, bave shown willingness to support this initiative inasmuch their lossibilities will allow. he actions of international cooperation and tecica1 assistance are ust as iiportL as direct finarcjng. We :ave been workinq in this sense during the last months, and we can assure that the DP will courit on an optinu!n support fror international org&nisns and scientific societies. Finaily, we are convinced that certain extens..on actioris couid autofinance thenselves, due to the increasing interest of p'blic opinion for the topics and problems we shell delve into. In the sar.e fashion, toe National Darwin Committee shall he that of the elaboation of a tentative proqrarn of actjvjtjes and events hetween 1.373 and 1986. Such proqrarn will watch for toe execution of different research projects and extnsjon activjtjes which will he carried out in Chilean ter-itory, in which there should work acadernicians, scientists, or organisrns of the same country. It must be understood that the Program _even at its national level- not only welcomes foreign individuals and entities, but the Comrnittee will also encourage specialists and institutions from other countries to particĂpate actively jo our projects. The temporary orjanhzation of the Program is made uo of three stages coriceptually well-deiineated: a) National Sta-l e: This stage will he jo charqe of the Darwin National Cornmittee which will counsel governnent authorities and cc::cy 'r on the different actions and measures thought to carry out the DE' in the Chilean territory. The Comrnittee pretends to create as soon as possihle a private non-profit corporation whose airrts will be to manaqe the Comrnittees funds and irnplement the initiatives undertaken by this
P legal organisr. rrt-ms cf ari ex'.)re3s resolution of the Suprrne becree .hich creited the omnittee, it has the power to
coiinun ^- c at-e with differertt public and :, vate organizattons, ir. ::le ase1l as broaci. une of the first initiatives udrtaken b" the Co-rittee will be to imu1se the cretion of a regiofl3l cu. ission o cjath(-r represer.tativs of the LJn Arr.ercari nations vísIted hj Darwin, and whic wjsh . :otwitstindini reqiorial or irterto take part in the niicnil ictivities proçramrne b y te future- orcisms ich çó'.id ¿ise fron a spirit of international cooperatiO the National Darrin Conr.ittee shfl. plan its activities fc a sven year penad, stari.ncj on September 19. Such activiti's will have the sane aims and obectives as we ",-,.ave iready nentioned in section 3.
It cejncde wth te 'aLienai s1.aqe as far as time is concerne, even thounh a little late in strtin. rhe progra;'rning of the reiioni activities wili he in carge of a su;rariatioril organism created by the unanirnous desire cf argentina, Brazil, Chíle, cuador, Perú and Uruguay to ta<e ari active part in the DP at a continental scale. Thus, erJior; :taje:
our first task -whtch we are already working at- shall be to conact authorities, orgariisms, and state agencies in chare of sci.entific and technological developrnerit, and uriiversities and men of science of those sister-nations so s to create a comnon enterprise: the Regional L)arwin Cornnittee. In tbis case, our role will be li.rnited te take thc initiative of this cali, and propose total or partial acceptance of those purposes, oejeCtives and activitieS already nentioned.
68. o) Internetior.. 1 Sge: Ths ste will ebodv nitional and regional activities. Te iridividuals arid institutions froni Australia, Spain, United States, Frmce, New ea1and, ortua1 an cutb fcica are cordially invited. e have pronissory antecedents which allow uS to expect an active participation fron non of science and frorn diverse private agencies and ontitios o: countries hese in our project. As in the eaioni..ta7e, we shall convocate an enlarged neetjn of these natioris in Cile (prohahly throucjh the Cultural r\t 4,ach3 of the ¿Las5 4 eS ',, ere) aiminy at settin the basis of a consultive, coorindtinq, an(I executive oryanisn whcre the participatincj countries will be represented tnrought heir d±ferent international organisrns, scientific associations, etc. Just as in the previous case, we shall propose our ideas and projecis to this or9anism, so they may he discussed at this level. Proyrarirning, Coorciinating cn
As far as the Nationa Staqe is concerned, the programming, coordination and execution of the 1W is under the direct res p onsjhj1jt: of the National Darwin Comrnittee and :cICYT. 'evertheless, we hope that in a short time a private corortjon will he created which will he in charqe of the total execution of the project at its naticna.. level, which will facilitate enormousiy the DE's management. The National Conmittee dcts through a Council where different groups, sectors and agercies of the countr» are represented. One of its first tas's will be to crate assesory organisms and suhcornmittees, whch will be in charge of the foliowing areas; History and Social Sciences, volutive Bioloo y and Genetics, Earth Sciences, :coiogy anc1 :onservaticn, Extension andjuh1ic Relations and
be able to create new -,he Darwin Comriittee advisory orgariiSms if the work should require it. On the vte differnt other hand, t-.his commi.ttee will name ri local persoralities to take part in our activitieS, this way fulfi1i1fl cur deslre to m&<e the DF a national enterpr.se. Ir,nediately arte.- te openinç cerertOny, the Executive Secretariat will initiate a. series of contdCtS with diverse university authoritieS, private enterpríse spokesrnerl, and hicjh 7u1ic oFicia1s, invtinq the:. to participate in our p'oect. rinnally, we want to repeat. once more that our
ssentiailY academic, welcoming any criticism character i or suggestior, and wi'ling to share the tasks we have set or which will he set for us in the future. Our arily desire is to serve; by that we mean serving mankind's comrnon cause, that is to say, peace and internatiOndi understanding and also to serve science n( 13 scientists. As ir any academic initiative, we pretend to pubiish the results of projects and seminars so that they may he accessible to everybod'J ir the lest arnount of time. :atural1y, we shall respect the scholar's absolute freedom to publish the results of his wor ir the form and by tre means which he wjll freely choose. Our innermost concern, as we face the currer.t crisis of scierce, will compel us to double our efforts to assure to the man of scierce bis maximum right: the rijht to express himself freely.
Published on Apr 16, 2013