Street: an extended home ; Napeansea road, Mumbai

Page 1


INTRODUCTION BaCKGROUND: Napean Sea Road, built as an extension during the early 19th century after the bunding of the breach between the Worli and Mahalaxmi islands, has been one of the earliest western arteries connecting the north of the city to the Malabar Hill area. Known for being one of the plushest parts of the city, it has historically been a neighbourhood for government officials, business merchants and other VIP’s. Largely residential in nature, the Napean sea road stretches from St. Stephen’s church to Chandralok shopping complex, with an urban form that comprises of a mixture of heritage buildings, modern apartment buildings, embassy offices, upcoming residential towers and slum pockets tucked in interstitial spaces. Within the D Ward, the Napean sea road spans across two electoral wards, namely Ward no. 213 and 214 with a population of 58,287 and 60,236, respectively, making it a total of around 1,18,523 inhabitants. Priyadarshani park stretching across an area of 65,000 sq.mts, came into existence as a recreational ground in 1980s and is managed by the Malabar Hill Citizens forum along with the MCGM. Being the most popular landmark, the park defines a crucial recreational space accessible to all its inhabitants.




Mixed Use Residential Insitutions MMRDA

Informal settlements



Key characteristics of users, Traffic, neighborhood and street : Being largely residential in nature, strewn with few institutional and commercial buildings, the street serves multiple competing as well as complementing needs. Following were some observations made by the team: • User groups in the neighbourhood consist of residents living in apartment buildings, bungalows, old residential colonies, slums, house help, private drivers, watchmen, taxi drivers, bus drivers, bus conductors, school children, shopkeepers, hawkers, employees of commercial/institutional organisations and people from neighbouring areas coming here to visit the church and shopping complexes. • There is high vehicular traffic from the south to north direction in the morning peak hours and north to south direction in the evening peak hours as shown in the graph, owing to the movement of residents moving to the north of the city and returning back from work using private transport and taxis. (Shown in graph) • Consequently, the pedestrian traffic is high from north to south in the morning peak hours and south to north in the evening peak hours, owing to the working population who travel to the area for work and travel back home in the north using public transport like buses heading northwards or to railway stations.. • During the rest of the hours the traffic, both pedestrian and vehicular movement is low to moderate. • There are several redeveloped projects on the stretch and hence there is potential to integrate new street edge conditions, parking and other infrastructure facilities. • Many of the residential buildings have retail shops on the street front. A number of vendors are scattered along the entire stretch, they include vegetables, fruits, flowers, cobblers, pan shops, tea stalls and a number of food stalls. These activities give rise to spill-outs and lively walkways. • The pavements are also used for various weekly or monthly events like farmers’ market, medical camp, religious pandals during weekends, which make it extremely vibrant spaces. • The neighbourhood has an active peoples’ forum to facilitate improvements within the area.

Data as recorded in front of Priyadarshini park gate



PEAK HOUR ANALYSIS GRAPH Current capacity of road for vehicles Chart Title PCU (hourly)



900 800 700 600


1 to 3

400 300 200

1 to 2

100 0







TIME (hrs)

Maximum PCU capacity for two-way road: 950 per hour (as per Indian Road Congress)

Current capacity of footpath for pedestrian No. of people (hourly)

TIME (hrs)

Maximum footpath capacity for current width: 800 people per hour (as per Indian Street standards)

VISION : The area being largely residential has various sub-precincts, with multiple experiences within recreational zone, shopping zone, institutional zone and for many work zone. These experiences bind the area into a common neighbourhood. There is a strong sense of belonging of the users to this place, along with the presence of organised community groups and hence offers an opportunity to experiment with a development model that is ‘Collaborative’ in nature. Being one of the signature roads in south Mumbai resided largely by the top officials and business persons, it has the potential and resources to follow ‘Global street design standards’ and become a pilot case to create an extremely safe, inclusive, sustainable and vibrant street space. Global streets of cities in the 21st century across the world, focus on high quality public realm by providing sustainable modes of transportation, increasing walkability, making streets cyclable and creating highly efficient transit modes. Napeansea road is a great test-bed to fulfill these new urban demands of the dwellers. If residents work collaboratively in the design process and are inclusive in their approach, the street will be an ‘Extension of their Homes’, human-centric and domestic in nature. This will also create a sense of ownership among the inhabitants towards its regular maintenance and improvement initiatives. Hence, the design challenge for this project is focused: • To have a collaborative design process • To follow global design standards • To create a sense of ownership for maintenance and increased street activity among the users

PROCESS : We believe that a collaborative process should be the heart of the design process and participation of all sections of users is necessary to truly make the street their own. Following is a process that we would like to propose for the same. STAGE 1: GROUPING STAKEHOLDERS Form three main groups: • Steering committee: (Maximum 10 members) Which will include concerned area corporators, MCGM Ward officers, Traffic department official, Fire official, Citizens’ group representative, PDP management team representative, NGOs focussed on safety and well-being. • Design team: (Maximum 7 members)Which will include selected consultants, urban designers, planners, architects, emergency experts, traffic engineers, developers and academic consultants. • Resource persons’ group: (Maximum 30 members) Which will represent the cross-section of the area including Secretaries of buildings, BEST staff member, Kali-Peeli taxi union representative, MCGM waste management department representative, Slum society representative, Senior Citizens’ group representative, Women’s welfare NGO, Children’s representative, etc as recommended by the consultants. STAGE 2: DETAILED STUDY • Consultants will conduct a detailed study to create broad framework of design guidelines, which will contain a series of scenarios - projecting a future of the neighbourhood in periodic time phases. This will also contain key projects that can be undertaken based on observed priorities of the neighbourhood. • A meeting will be conducted to identify key issues and priorities from resource persons’ group through the following thematic Focus group Discussions across a series of meetings: Parking, Cycling, Walking, Public Transport, Infrastructure and Amenities, Emergency response, Streetscape beautification, Block length, Preserving natural features like trees and slopes. STAGE 3: PREPARE DRAFT STREET DESIGN GUIDELINES • Consultants will incorporate the feedback from the resource group and steering committee into creation of draft street design guidelines, short projects and actionable proposals. • The draft will be reviewed after incorporation of comments and feedback for creating the final set of guidelines for the street design and decision over project proposals. STAGE 4: FINAL STREET DESIGN GUIDELINES Revise guidelines and project proposals will be exhibited at a common forum and disseminated through various media to local groups and public at large.

EXISTING SITUATION Issues based on site interviews with various stakeholders the preliminary study reveals the following issues in the neighbourhood: • People avoid walking on the pavement due to many obstructions, reduced space and bad condition. -resident • Insufficiency of street lights -resident • No continuous pedestrian stretch with many breaks and obstructions while walking -resident • Pavements are not disable friendly, many of the elderly people visiting the park have a problem -resident • Paver blocks pose many problems because of their tendency to dismantle and change shape at places. -resident and shop owners • Dog faeces on streets need a solution -the local newsletter editor • Parking on streets hinder movement, since the area has major parking issues -resident


• Bus drivers do not have proper facilities at the bus depot, also no more than four buses can stop at a time -bus depot authority • No seating and waiting space for commuters near the bus depot, they are forced to wait on the road -bus depot authority • Parking needs to be restricted and immediate beautifications required to encourage pedestrians to use streets -local corporator • Public toilets and amenities are less and need to be increased -local corporator • Traffic congestion throughout the day is not severe, but during peak hours the St.Stephen’s junction experiences some congestion. -traffic rider of the area

28 mt. road 25 mt. road 21 mt. road 17 mt. road 12 mt. road



broken pavements

crossings leading into obstructed medians

no ramps at pavement ends to make it disable friendly

No Pavement 0 - 1.4 mt. width 1.4 mt. - 4 width 4 mt. width


SUMMARY-ANALYSIS Even though the street has some pavements large enough for walking (above 1.4 m) there are various issues which discourage it. Varying pavement widths with no pavement in patches, creates a confused movement flow. The pavement is discontinuous with no smooth transitions at breaks. Due to the sloping topography of the street and broken pavements, wheelchair accessibility and safety is lacking. Material or paver blocks used do not last for long and they further add to the uneven pathways.There are few crossings with some of them hitting into walls or planters.


temporary structures obstructing pavement

curbing around trees obstructing pave ment

building extensions obstructing pavement

serv obs

vices like post boxes structing pavements



SUMMARY-ANALYSIS There are a few street lights, dustbins and benches but not enough according to usage. Moreover the pavements are crowded with a number of activities and services obstructing clear walking space. Services and amenity obstructions include; postboxes, unauthorized building extensions, tree curbings, temporary structures, light and traffic poles and collection dustbins. At several space, these obstructions force pedestrains to walk on the road.


eating activities of drivers, househelp etc. taking over footpath

informal fruit and vegetable vendors obstructing footpath

temporary famers’ market set-up every sunday on footpath

Are sto

ey dairy and other general ores obstructing pavement

Shops Street Vendors


SUMMARY-ANALYSIS The neighbourhood has a number of commercial shops, informal shops as well as hawkers and vendors occupying the streets. Commercial shops include banks, showrooms and various commodity purchasing shops. Some of them have a building clearance, while others require an offset for activity spill-outs. Arey dairy products and general stores make up the informal shops, which obstruct pavement spaces. Many fruit and vegetable vendors, cobblers, barbers, flower vendors and also informal cooking and eating activities crowd walking space. A farmers market is set-up every sunday on the pavement. Though blocking pavement spaces, these activities encourage user engagement.



two-wheeler parking on footpaths

excessive car parking at the edges as a visual obstruction

pedestrian movement on road, as footpath hides behind cars

a la stre

arge number of taxis crowd eet edges

Taxi Parking Car Parking


SUMMARY-ANALYSIS Car parking is an identified issue in the neighbourhood, as most residents own one or more cars. Residents living in apartments mainly use private cars or taxis to commute and this has resulted into long stretches of pavement edges crowded with parking. One of the new residential building has incorporated public parking of upto 56 cars within its premise. Resulting into a reduction of parking on roads. Parking along and on pavement edges posses many issues to pedestrians. It cuts visual connection, obstructs movement and also hides footpaths behind forcing pedestrians to use the road.


sufficient shade over footpaths

sufficient shade over footpaths

Shaded Non-shaded


SUMMARY-ANALYSIS The entire stretch has several trees planted on both sides of the road. The relatively large foliage of trees ensures a shaded footpath along most of the street. Thus encouraging increased usage along the shade, further giving the possibility to add activities and pause spaces on the pedestrian path.


not enough seating space at identified bus stops

not enough seating space at identified bus stops

disorganized bus depot

bus rail

s stops blocked by front ling

Taxi Stands Bus Stops Stops with less sitting


SUMMARY-ANALYSIS A bus depot marks the end of the street, seeing a frequency of approximately 140 buses, daily. The depot has disorganized facilities, with parking capacity no more than 4-5 buses. Many vending spots and informal activities crowd this zone, being a major commercial area of the neighbourhood. A number of bus stops are dispersed along the stretch, identified stops (above) do not have enough seating and waiting space around them. Resulting into a crowding of commuters on footpaths and the road, making it extremely unsafe.

Identified issues and parameters to be addressed in the design Transit: • Disorganized bus depot • Overcrowding at identified bus stops • Issues with parking on road for private cars and taxis • Too many private cars, need to encourage other modes of transport Walkability: • Bad pavement conditions • No continuous pavement path available • Not disable friendly • Obstructions while walking • Non availability of enough crossings • Reducing crossing time • No traffic calming measures at public spots and traffic junctions • Not enough amenities like public toilets, dustbins and street furniture Activity and neighbourhood zones: • No community gathering spaces • No activities on pavements for pause • No provisions for people who come to work in the neighbourhood • Only one recreational space .i.e. park, on the entire stretch

PROPOSAL The neighbourhood requires individual strategies and solutions for issues related to transit, walkibility and activity zones. Hence, the proposal is based on preliminary research of the area and would recommend a detailed study in the first stage as mentioned in the ‘Process’ section of the report. The study will be based on the Field Walkability Methodology using ‘Global Walkability Index’ as identified by Holly Krambeck from World Bank (2006). Refer to Annexe for details Key characteristics of the proposal: Transit • A cycle track along the length of the street to eventually connect main bus stops, train and metro stations. Envisioned as an alternative mode of transport. • Redesigning bus stops for sufficient seating and safe usage • Organizing the movement and activities around the main bus stop • Reducing taxi stands, while alternatively relying on online app-based or phone call systems to order taxis • Prohibiting parking on streets, to propose alternative stack parking or mandatory parking in redeveloped buildings Walkability • Providing larger pedestrian paths and reduced road widths • Following global standards for road widths • Providing a continuous line of movement • Proposing additional facilities and activities, encouraging current street engagement with users and especially residents • Increasing safety measures for pedestrians Activity and neighbourhood zones: • Reorganising existing activity zones for increased usage and proposing new zones in identified spots • Providing spaces for pause and facilities for pedestrians • Providing space modules for vendor and commercial activities

PROPOSED CYCLE TRACK Transit: • Providing a bicycle track connecting to the train and metro station and through major bus stops. • The bicycle track passes through the park and other major recreation and public zones, ending at the bus depot. • A healthy lifestyle and alternative modes of transport are promoted not only within the neighborhood but also to the major transit connections like train and metro stations.



PROPOSED BUS STOPS Transit: • Open out the front of the bus stop to encourage usage of seats • Extra seating added at overcrowded bus stops • A bus route map added to the modular design • Two types of bus stop design - one for major stops and the other for intermediate stops with narrower street widths

Type 1: Main bus stops with seating

Type 2: Intermediate bus stops with narrow street widths


Walkability: • A continuous pedestrian path is designed through the entire stretch on one side of the street with a two-way bicycle path running alongside. • The other side of the street accommodates lush green pedestrian pathways, at stretches where the street width is between 24-27.5m, breaking at places where the street width gets narrower than 15m. However the break is connected to the opposite footpath through zebra crossings. • A minimum of 1.5m is maintained as clear width for walking and minimum 1.8m as clear width for twoway cycling. • Width of road for cars is kept 7-8m, optimum according to the car numbers and movement. • The dividers are a kept minimum of 0.5m, widening into a median at major traffic and crossing junctions. • The footpath is divided into bands - utility, building clearance, pedestrian, cycle track and then road. This is to ensure clear pathways for walking and cycling, while all amenities like street lights, postboxes, dustbins, street furniture and bus stops are accommodated in the utility bands. • The utility bands keep shifting depending on the kind of activity zone and amenity required for the node. • Footpaths are designed to be at +.12m level from the +0.0m level of the road.



Additional facilities while walking: • All drains will be running at the edge of the footpath. • Existing trees are maintained to ensure shaded pathways, while adding smaller shrubs and green-cover on the sides of the footpath. • Street lights are provided every 25-30m and dustbins every 50m to ensure hygiene and cleanliness. A major complaint of pet dogs defecating on footpaths, will be solved by adding dustbins regularly and surveillance. • 2 public toilets are added to the entire stretch. • Inbuilt street furniture and benches are added along the footpath as spaces to pause • Kiosk module designed to encourage people to pause and use streets • Modules for hawkers and vendors designed to give demarcated and time-bound spaces for vendors • Bus stops redesigned according to type of use



Existing width percentage: Pedestrian - 25.5% Car - 74.5% Proposed width percentage: Pedestrian - 47.5% Car - 52.5%

Existing width percentage: Pedestrian - 24% Car - 76% Proposed width percentage: Pedestrian - 47.5% Car - 52.5%

Existing width percentage: Pedestrian - 19% Car - 81% Proposed width percentage: Pedestrian - 21.5% Car - 78.5%

Existing width percentage: Pedestrian - 0% Car - 100% Proposed width percentage: Pedestrian - 35% Car - 65%

PROPOSED VENDING MODULES Informal hawking and general stores: • Two types of modules are introduced, type 1 for all-day general stores and type 2 for morning, afternoon and evening hawkers • Type 2 provides a dedicated space for vegetable, fruit, flower and other vendors avoiding them to crowd pedestrian spaces • The modules are kept flexible for different types of hawkers to set-up their individual spaces

Type 1: For all-day general stores

Type 2: For time-based hawkers

PROPOSED KIOSKS Social activators and pauses: • Two types of kiosks are introduced, type 1 for major zones and type 2 along the footpath • Type 2 kiosks are dispersed at regular intervals along the length of the footpath, encouraging people to pause and engage • They include newspaper and magazine racks, water cooler, charging station and seating around • They are designed to be shut off with rollers at night

Type 1: Kiosk module for major recreational zones

Type 2: Kiosk module integrated along the footpath

PROPOSED SAFETY MEASURES FOR PEDESTRIANS Walkability for improving footpath conditions and safety: • The continuity of the footpath is maintained even in front of building gates by continuing the paving material at the road level. • A ramp is provided wherever the footpath breaks for smooth and disable friendly movement. • Crossings are provided at a maximum distance of 150m, with raised crossings at major public spaces like parks, shopping and recreational zones. • Traffic islands earlier obstructed by planters are converted into waiting islands with street furniture Resolving movement and traffic: • Zebra crossings proposed according to crossing behavior observed at the junctions • Zebra crossing changed to start and end at footpaths • Medians introduced or made larger to allow waiting of more people at crossings • Taxi stand and parking organised at the junction • Pedestrian signals added to increase safety


Existing movement

Proposed movement

Material continuity for smooth movement

Ramps at breaks to ensure smooth movement for pavements





Refuge islands for crossing


Existing movement

Proposed movement



Transit: The future of the neighbourhood, is envisioned to see a major reduction in the use of cars as people resort to other modes of transport. The design proposes prohibition of parking private cars on streets, alternative solutions to parking can be provided: • Making it mandatory for every new construction tower in the neighbourhood to plan for additional basement public parking. • Stack parking facilities on publicly owned land



Stack parking proposal on public owned plot

stack parking for a limited number of cars can be erected on the land space as indicated in the map above




Existing Bus depot and commercial zone of the area transformed for systematic use with additional functions

Existing staircase and disused open space proposed as a park and green zone

Vending Zones




Existing informal shop and space occupied by homeless proposed as a green and cultural zone for festivals and other functions

Existing unused space below bridge proposed as health zone with cafes and cycle track, taken partly from the park

I. SHOPPING, RECREATIONAL AND TRANSIT ZONE Current Status: Unorganized bus depot and shopping area for household goods Proposal: Organized zone for bus depot, taxi and cycle stands. Transforming the space into a kind of shopping area and market for the neighbourhood with sufficient spaces to gather and pause. New features introduced: • Type 1 bus stop and sufficient seating space for commuters • Type 1 and Type 2 vending modules organized towards one edge of the road • Public toilet • Type 1 kiosk • Crossing is made safer with waiting islands • Waiting island park designed with a kiosk, inbuilt street furniture, public toilet and cycle stands





PROPOSED VIEW E refer to sheet 2

PROPOSED VIEW D refer to sheet 2

B. RECREATIONAL AND HEALTH ZONE Current Status: Staircase used to walk to the bus stop and disused open space owned by a residential building Proposal: Redesign the staircase as a green space to encourage walking and jogging. Transform the open space into a park for children and elderly people. New features proposed: • Type 1 Vegetable and fruit juice vendor modules • Type 2 kiosk with seating • Raised crossing in front of the staircase to connect to the bus stop and cycle track • Skateboarding ramp inside the park for children • Other play equipments for children




PROPOSED VIEW A refer to sheet 2

PROPOSED VIEW B refer to sheet 2

C. RECREATIONAL AND CELEBRATION ZONE Current Status: One part of the pavement is used for festival celebrations by setting-up a temporary shed. The other part has a police station and encroachments by vegetable vendors and homeless people. Many taxi drivers and employees gather here for meals, with a make-shift kitchen serving them Proposal: Transform the space into a green zone with a designated plinth open to public ownership during festivals. While the remaining is converted into a recreational and hawking zone, also holding one of the main bus stops. New features proposed: • Type 1 Kiosk • A stepped plinth • Inbuilt furniture arounnd trees • Type 1 and type 2 Vending modules • Type 1 Bus stop




PROPOSED VIEW F refer to sheet 2

D. RECREATIONAL AND HEALTH ZONE Current Status: Hostile pedestrian space over the bridge with no shade, discouraging pedestrian movement. Farmer’s Sunday market set-up in front of the park gate. Empty disused space below the bridge opening into the park below. Proposal: Allowing the pedestrian and cycle track to go through the park below dense tree cover, to encourage walkability. Use space below the bridge for health conscious food sale and eateries, cycle stands and Nepeansea road forum gatherings. New features proposed: • Type 2 Kiosk • Public toilet • Cafe’s, shops and other healthy food eateries • Cycle stands • Neighbourhood owned hall Shops related to health/sports and healthy foods

Space for Street art Seating spaces

Pavement/ walkway

Existing bridge

Open cafeteria selling juices and healthy food

Cycling track

Space for informal hawkers/vendors

Nepean-sea road forum meeting space

Existing Priyadarshini park

Compound wall

PROPOSED VIEW C refer to sheet 2



ANNEXE According to Walkibility standards report: Through Field Walkability Methodology of involving stakeholders in the process a thorough survey will be conducted in Stage 2 based on: 1.Walking Path Modal Conflict 2. Availability of Walking Path (according to cleanliness and maintenance) 3.Availibility of Crossings 4. Grade crossing Safety 5. Motorist Behaviour 6. Amenities 7.Disability Infrastructure 8.Obstructions 9.Security from Crime

OTHER REFERENCES Walkibility and street standard: 1. 2. 3. 4. Car parking standards: 1. Vendors study: 1. 2. Mumbai.pdf 3. 4.

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