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PINK TOILET MANUAL

Uttarakhand, Falswadi


Compartment S4 is an architectural firm of eight graduates from CEPT university, initiated in May 2017. We intend to provide well-designed built environments to not just the urban fabric but also the much neglected rural communities. Hand-made is a workshop series under the architectural firm Compartment S4 focused on the grassroots level design involvements. Volunteer Team- Rupal Rathore, Vir Shah


content About Pink Toilet Context - The Village: Falswadi - Site Design Intervention - Plan and Sections - Features - Sequence - Drawings Execution - Material - Timeline End Note


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About Pink Toilet The Pink Toilet project is an undertaking to develop a prototype that pays special attention to women’s needs. Incorporating a vending machine for sanitary napkins, an incinerator and feeding room, it is a revolutionary step in the rural settings of India. The design intervention makes use of locally available materials and manual labour such that it is cost effective and encourages community efforts. The first realisation of Pink Toilet in the Falwadi village of Uttarakhand makes use of the rat trap bond technique in brick walls for thermal insulation. The structure sits on a plinth made in stone procured from a nearby site. A band of wooden louvers, resting on the walls, goes around on all sides to allow continuous ventilation. A light, tin hip roof is supported on steel columns since its profile offers more resistance to strong winds in the region. The use of mud plaster on the outer walls, an existing practice in the village, mixed with a certain percentage of cement, is done by the local women. The design also imitates some details seen in Falwadi, such as stone projections, niches and arched openings. Features of the Pink Toilet- Feeding room for women - Vending machine for sanitary napkins - Incinerator for disposal

About the Manual-

This manual is a compilation of the toilet executed at Falswadi, Kot Block, Pauri Garhwal. It includes all the technical drawings, sequence of construction and list of materials required to repeat this model elsewhere.

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CONTEXT

6


7


FALSWADI 8

the village The village of Falswadi is located in the Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand. Like many other rural settings in the region, this village is also under a situation of flux. The younger generation has moved to cities for job opportunities, thus abandoning farming practices. While many families own older stone houses in the uphills, others have built newer RCC ones. Some interesting elements like niches in walls, stone projections, arched openings and mud plastered surfaces are characteristic of this village.


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site The site at Falswadi, allocated by the government, is located in between two existing structures- anganwadi and panchayat ghar. The Pink Toilet is envisioned to be be used maximum during the annual gathering in November (the Sita Mata mela) as well as by wedding guests accommodated in the adjacent building. Furthermore, a vehicular road has been proposed to pass in front of this particular site. Since the site is not directly accessible by a motorable road, all building material is transported by human porters or donkeys. Erratic power supply and borrowing electricity from nearby houses further slowed down the fabrication works on site.

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11


DESIGN INTERVENTION

12


13


0

14

1’

2’

executed plan layout

C

B

A

3'-10"

7'-5"

3'-7"

INCINERATOR

1

3'x2'7.5"

3'x3'

PASSAGE 6'9"X4'

PASSAGE 7'5"X 3'3"

VENDING MACHINE

URINAL

GENTS TOILET

4'x3'

3'-2"

FEEDING ROOM

B

3'-4"

4

3'x3'

A

4'-4"

14'-6"

3

LADIES TOILET

3'-7"

2 5


1

2

3

4

5

14'-6" 3'-7"

3'-4"

4'-2"

3'-4"

A

B

A 3'-7"

B

7'-5"

3'-10"

C

1

4

3

2

5

14'-6" 3'-7"

4'-4" A

3'-4"

3'-2"

B

A 3'-7"

B

7'-5"

3'-10"

C

plan layout options 15


Ridge level

2'-5"

Window top level

1'-11" Lintel level

6"

12'-6"

6'-2"

Plinth level

1'-6" Ground level

A

section AA’ 16

B

C


Ridge level

2'-5"

Window top level

1'-11" Lintel level

6"

12'-6"

6'-2"

Plinth level

1'-6" Ground level

A

B

C

section BB’ 17


FEATURES

hip roof

louvers for ventilation

thermal insulation

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stone foundation


THERMAL INSULATION

VENTILATION

AVOIDING GABLE

HIP ROOF

The air gaps in rat trap brick bond add a layer of insulation, thus preventing the enclosed space from getting very cold or very hot

A freestanding gable wall is more susceptible to cracks and damage in earthquake prone zones. A pitch roof is further prone to being blown away with strong winds

A band of wooden louvers, placed at 45 degree, above the lintel allow for continuous ventilation in the toilet as well as retain privacy

The hip rood profile is more compact and viable in a region under heavy wind pressure

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SEQUENCE OF CONSTRCUTION

tin sheet

roof assembly

louver windows

lintel stone arch

stone projection

twisted column

plinth

exploded view 20


1

2

3

4

5

6

stages 21


Ridge level

4'-4"

Lintel level 6"

12'-6"

6'-2"

Plinth level 1'-6" Ground level

1

2

3

4

5

front elevation

1

1

3 2

2 brick course 1

rat trap bond masonry 22

3

brick course 2 T junction 1 corner junction 2 end junction 3


1

2

3

5

4

14'-6" 3'-7" 1'-9"

2'-1"

4'-4" 1'-3"

3'-1"

3'-4" 1'-3"

2'-1"

3'-2" 1'-3"

1'-8"

1'-9"

1'-9"

A

3'-7" 2'-1"

B

7'-5"

1'-3"

3'-10" 2'-4"

C

1'-9"

4"

1'-2"

1'-6"

foundation 23


3.25" 1'-1"

1'-1"

plywood forma

1'-1" 16°

1'-1" plan

brick twisted column 24


1. making the 2 Ls for forma

3. arranging the 1st brick course with 8mm steel rod in centre

2. joining the 2 Ls at an angle with reference to a 1:1 scale print

5. arranging the 2nd course on 10 mm thick mortar layer, alternating the joints

5. shifitng the forma to complete the 2nd course and filling the middle gap with concrete mix

sequence 25


1

2

3

4

5

14'-6" 3'-7"

4'-4"

3'-4"

3'-2"

A

3'-7"

B

7'-5"

3'-10"

C

soil pipe supply pipe waste water pipe vent pipe

plumbing 26


4” RCC slab

4'

half brick thick wall 1’ thick stone wall

2'-6"

liquid waste solid waste

8' 6' eq

eq

1’ thick stone wall

half brick thick wall with perforations 4'

6'

liquid waste

solid waste

soak pit 27


1

2

4

3

5

14'-6" 3'-7"

3'-4"

4'-4"

3'-2"

9"

A

9"

3'-7"

2� thick coping

B

7'-5"

6� thick RCC beam

3'-10" 5" 5"

box section welded to reinforcement

C

lintel level plan

1

5 14'-6" 3'-3"

A

7'-5" 6'-8"

C

louver level plan 28

7'-1"

3'-3"


4" 1" 1"

louver plan

4" 1" 1"

1'-8"

2"

1'-8"

1"

3"

louver elevation

3" 1" 2"

1"

1'-11"

2"

1"

3"

frame section 3" 1" 2"

1"

frame plan

louver window detail 29


18'-1" 7'-1"

1'-6"

135°

135°

90°

90° 135°

11'-2"

135°

15'-3" 1'-6"

4'-1"

7'-2"

4'-1"

1'-6"

1'-6"

PIECE 2

8'-1"

PIECE 3

PIECE 2

1'-6"

hip roof plan 30

PIECE 1

PIECE 1

PIECE 1

PIECE 2

PIECE 3

PIECE 1

PIECE 2


2'-4"

1'-1"

1'

2" 3"

31° piece 1

metal junction with column

PIECE 1

triangle piece welded to plate

3'-1"

C

A

A

2"

B

1'-4"

B

5" 23° 1'-4" piece 2

metal junction of piece 3

1'-5"

1'-2"

PART A

23° 1'-4" 119° 1'

PART B

part A 1'-6"

45° 1'-5" 1'-5"

90°

part B

PART C

1'-2" 1'-2"

23°

45° PART B

1'

piece 3

23° 1'-4" 1'-4"

PA P

119° 119° 1'

1'-6" 1'-6"

part C

metal detail 31

P


EXECUTION

32


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MATERIALS

34


stone (foundation/plinth)

brick (structure)

metal (roof)

35


wood (windows/roof)

mud (plaster)

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LIST OF MATERIALS ITEM

QUANTITY

Stone

5 chatta

Flat stone Bricks

1.5 chatta 2700

Aggregate

1 truck

Sand

1 truck

Cement White Cement

30 bags 5 kg

8 mm steel reinforcement

150 R.ft.

6 mm steel reinforcement

150 R.ft.

Glass Bottles

500

Mud

As per Requirement

Cowdung

As per Requirement

Wall Tiles

80 sq ft

Floor Tiles

110 sq ft

2.5’ x 6’ metal doors

2

3’ * 6’2’’ wooden door

1

6 ft long, 3 ft wide curtain with rod

1

1’’ thick, 10’’ wide wooden planks, 10’ long

13

4’’ x 4’’ wooden section, 1ft long

20

3’’ x 3’’ MS box section, 2.5 ft long

4

2’’ x 3’’ MS box section, 2.5 ft long

4

1’’ x 1’’ MS box section 6 mm thick, 2’’ wide MS plate 6’ x 3.5 ‘ tin sheet Ridge Cap

180 Ft 45 Ft 12 50 Ft 37


ITEM (HARDWARE) Putty

As per Requirement

Paint for walls

As per Requirement

Black paint Gheru

250 ml 2 kg

Turpentine

7 litre

Wood Polish

2 litre

MS Holdfast

14

4’’ Nut bolt with washer

60

2” x 2” L plate

40

Self Tapping screw

150

2.5’’ long nails

5 kg

ITEM (SANITARYWARE)

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QUANTITY

QUANTITY

Indian WC

2

Washbasins

2

Urinal

1

Taps

5


ITEM (PLUMBING) 500 litre water tank

QUANTITY 1

1” water pipe

50 Ft

4” drainage pipe

16 Ft

2” drainage pipe

25 Ft

L junction for 2’’ pipe

3

T junction for 2’’ pipe

1

L junction for 4’’ pipe

2

T junction for 4’’ pipe

2

Gas Vent Cowl

1

ITEM OF WORK

COST (Rs.)

Labour Contract -Excavation -Stonework -Brickwork -RCC -Tiling

45,000

Fabrication and woodwork

12,000

Mud Plaster

1800

Paint

3000

Plumbing

3500

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TIME-LINE FOR CONSTRUCTION

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MAKING THE

PINK TOILET The construction of Pink Toilet used locally procured material (stone and mud from the village and other supplied from Pauri). It consisted of foundation, plinth, brick structure, RCC works, woodwork, fabrication and roof assembly. While the carpentry work and partfabrication took place at their respective workshops, all other work happened on site.

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foundation + plinth +plumbing excavation soak pit stone plinth and plumbing plinth beam -

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stage

1


excavation Manual excavation was carried out using tools like sabbal (iron crowbar), khunta (pickaxe) and fawda (shovel) by local village labourers. The 18� deep foundation is made in random rubble stone masonry, the material for which was sourced from the nearby region and bought to site on donkeybacks.

soak pit

The 4 feet deep soak pit or kharkuan is built to collect solid waste from the toilet. Its outer dimensions are 8 x 6 feet with a 1-1.5 feet thick stone wall on all four sides.

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stone plinth and plumbing The plinth, made in random rubble stone masonry, is raised 18� above the ground. The stone was cut and dressed on site using a hammer. A 4� thick RCC plinth beam was laid out using one layer of reinforcement.

plinth beam

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stage

2

structure - brickwork - rat trap bond - glass bottle masonry - details - twisted column - stone arch - lintel

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brickwork The walls are built using rat trap bond in brick masonry. The bricks are placed standing such that the air gaps formed in the middle help provide thermal insulation. Taking nuances from the village, stone projections and niches have been applied on the front mud plastered wall.

Glass bottle masonry was done in a combination with bricks to create a separation between the men and women areas of the toilet. Similanr sized bottles were collected from the village and recycled.

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details

47


twisted column The twisted column in brick is made using a plywood forma. The angle of twist after each course is calculated according to the height to be achieved. The gap in between the brick column is solid filled with concrete mix and two erect bars of steel.

48


stone arch The stone arch above the door opening is made using long, thin stones procured locally and dressed on site. They were supported and arranged on an arched wooden piece fixed to the door frame

lintel

A 6� thick RCC lintel band with two layers of reinforcement runs on the peripheral walls. The steel columns were welded to its reinforecement before the pouring of concrete mix.

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stage

3

woodwork - roof members - louver windows

50


roof members The roof members were cut, sanded and polished at the workshop, before being assembled on site.

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louver windows The louver windows were made using the local chir wood at a carpentry workshop in Garhkhet. The louvers, cut using a angled forma, were fixed in the frame at 45 degree angle. The windows were placed on site in between the steel columns on the RCC lintel.

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window options The wooden louver windows can be replaced by the following ventilation options

perforated sheet

mosquito net

metal louvers

brick jali

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stage

roof fabrication assembly -

54

4


fabrication The steel plates, sandwiched between wooden members to form the support system of the roof, were cut and welded at specified angles at the fabricator’s workshop.

55


assembly The hip roof has been assembled on site by bolting the wood and steel plates together, welding the pieces to the columns, fixing the steel pipe purlins and lastly, cutting and attaching of the tin sheet.

56


roof options The roof structure can be made entirely with metal sections and covered with tin sheet or stone slabs

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stage

finishing mud plaster cement plaster tiling indian patent stone paint -

58

5


mud plaster On the exterior, mud plaster was applied to identify with the village where this is a common practice. However, this was performed in three layers with the introduction of 25% cement in the first two. This technique will make it last longer without cracking. The surface is finished with the third layer consisting of a thin paste of fine mud.

cement plaster

Cement plaster was applied on all the interior walls of the toilet. The semi open verandah floor was layered with cement mix in preparation for IPS.

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tiling

indian patent stone A red IPS floor was applied in the semi open veranda by mixing geru and cement together in the ratio 1:2, while the interior of the toilet is tiled.

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paint The cement plaster walls were applied two layers of putty and paint (light grey) and the twisted column coated in geru. The plinth and lintel beams were painted in bands of light pink, and the doors blue, as they are seen in the village.

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62


63


64


65


66


67


front elevation

view from the back

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view from the village path

view from anganwadi’s terrace

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stone arch

twisted column

70


wooden louver window

glass bottle masonry

71


mosaic in the verandah

feeding room with curtain

72


light quality through louvers inside the toilet

red IPS threshold

73


corner junction

ridge junction

74


roof detail

wood and metal joint

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END NOTE 76

Compartment S4 as an architecture firm emphasizes on the ‘power of many’, with the strength of eight architects working under one head, to combine our individual ideas into a pool of valuable inputs. With intents and interests towards the rural communities, exploration of local materials and systemic architectural solutions to specific issues, we have extended our practice in Uttarakhand. Our time in the village of Falswadi reassured our observations on the visible shift in rural areas from local construction techniques to a blind acceptance of newer materials like concrete and steel. With changing times and rapidly developing techniques, the local ways of building lose their relevance in the eyes of its people. Hence, our approach here was largely aimed at restoring the identity of the village as well as using materials that are sustainable in the long run. We also seek to build a relationship with the state government so that our architectural ideology can be applied to public projects. Our back and forth process of researching, proposing, reflecting, building and then revisiting the place after use, is what we believe will condition us to arriving at relevant solutions. Moreover, this model of direct intervention with closer contact to locals will help seep-in understandings of appropriate building practices, relevant to their context and time. Contact Details Compartment S4 Ahmedabad, Gujarat 7506184837 9898724219


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Pink Toilet at Falswadi, Pauri, Uttrakhand April 2019

design@compartments4.com compartments4.com 78

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Pink Toilet - Falswadi, Uttarakhand  

Pink Toilet - Falswadi, Uttarakhand  

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