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Columbus Museum for Industrial Innovation An Analysis

Iowa State University Arch 401 — SC Fall 2013


Preface

Conceptualizing conventional approach to museum design Renzo Piano famously averred that “they [museums] are kingdoms of darkness.” A sense revilement may be a probable strategy executed in darkness theory or perhaps, this generalization even suggests that museums are places to experience within without mundane distractions. Meaning attached to places for collections of historical and cultural value is often spiritual as well as intellectual. Thus, leisure and entertainment have been often considered byproduct or bonus of one’s experience, but not an integrated quality exclusive to the experience. Museums being places of controlled access, exclusive patronage of cultural elites also brings another element to this dichotomy of experience and access. Another notion that museums are for objects d’art frozen in time or depositories of last resort is not uncommon among experts and scholarly spheres. This furthers the presumption that they are places devoid of ingredients, catalyst to day-to-day operations and that they should continue the same way for ontological reasons. Such notions often mislead stake holders of museum projects to end up with pseudo monuments of quasi architecture. In hindsight, both in the past and the present, quite a number of prolific architects or in plain terms “star designers”, have not had a museum project to their name. Hence, it is fair for budding spatial practitioners to pose the question “what is one going to get out of such grand gestures of architecture.” The contemporary museum poses not only questions pertaining to their role of depicting lessons from the past, but also testifying very existence of the present as well as projecting challenges of the future. As museums are often categorized under essential capital burdens or “expensive buildings,” civic-sustainability may be the key to battle the popular claim that museums are mere monumentalization of a glorified past. For students of architecture, design interventions like museums pose the rudimentary question “can architecture offer anything for positive social change?” If museums are for objects, multiplication of objectiveness may not be the common-sense approach to its logical (architectural) form. Arguably, a scenario that looks beyond the inhabitants shelter (displays/objects within architecture/form) may strive to become the sole administrator of the knowledge. In this vein, one might find Columbus, IN a poor choice to challenge and change the face of museum as it already has its own issues with objects, but this analysis gradually develops the mindset that every innovation is a product of inescapable constrains. For example, Kimbell Art Museum employs an intelligent synthesis of inhabitants and shelter to nurture knowledge via experience or simply adapting “experience is knowledge.” Chamila Subasinghe Ph.D. RIBA


Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Introduction The collaborative efforts of the studio to create this resource to inform and aid design decisions throughout the semester. Through various macro and micro levels of analysis and research, the studio has created comprehensive outlines and proposals to aid in the concept formulation and design process of museums. Book One outlines precedent study of various topics: successful museum precedents, Columbus trends and forecasts, Columbus demographics, museum and city specific codes, and climatic analysis of Columbus. Each of these concludes with design recommendations for the existing conditions and constraints presented to the design of a museum. These sections provide a basis for resources needed in all stages of design and are the foundation for understanding how to approach designing in Columbus, Indiana. The second book outlines how each topic can specifically be used in a set of programming exercises that provide basic options for design and further dissection of the guidelines outlined in the previous chapters. These programming details are meant as resources for the studio to combine, manipulate, and re-arrange to fit conceptual and schematic needs of a specific design while still remaining informed by the analysis provided. This analysis of precedent and programming provides a comprehensive tool for understanding the project and its context. Each section provides a platform for informed design decisions as well as the opportunity to challenge the standards to create a better museum. Editors, Jessalyn Lafrenz + Alex Olevitch

Arch 401 - Fall 2013


Table of Contents List of Images

i

BOOK ONE: Precedents Precedents Demographic Analysis of Columbus Trends and Forecasts: URBAN PLANNING, LANDSCAPE, AND ARCHITECTURE Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums Climate

1 35 65 105

BOOK TWO: Programming Programming 169

Programming Through Education

181

Programming With Site Context

209

Programming With Code

221

Climatic Programming

247

145

Conclusion

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


List of Images BOOK ONE Precedents 1

Fig. 1.2.1, Renzo Piano Sketch Fig. 1.2.2, Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind Fig. 1.2.3, Holocaust Tower Fig. 1.2.4, Garden of Exile Fig. 1.2.5, Axis Diagram Fig. 1.2.6, Salvador Dali Museum St. Petersburg, Florida HOK Fig. 1.2.7, DNA shaped staircase Fig. 1.2.8, Salvador Dali Sketch Fig. 1.2.9, Typical Arabian Mushrabiya House Fig 1.2.10, institut de monde Paris, France Jean Nouvel Fig. 1.2.11, Mapping Diagram Fig. 1.2.12, MuSe Trento, Italy Renzo Piano Fig. 1.2.13, Renzo Piano Sketch Fig. 1.2.14, Reconnection of Town and Riverfront Fig. 1.3.1 Circulation Diagram - Jewish Museum Berlin Daniel Libeskind Fig 1.3.2 Ground Floor Plan- Art of Americas Wing Boston, MA 2010 Foster + Partners Fig. 1.3.3 First Floor Plan- Art of Americas Wing Boston, MA 2010 Foster + Partners Fig 1.3.4 Enfilade Based Circulation Fig. 1.3.5 Procession Based Circulation Fig. 1.3.6 Ground Floor Plan- Nelson Atkins Museum of Art Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects Fig 1.3.7 Basement Floor- Jewish Museum Berlin Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind Fig. 1.3.8 Longitudinal Secton- Jewish Museum Ber-

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

lin Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind Fig 1.3.9 Predetermined Circulation Fig. 1.3.10 Second Floor- MuSe Museum Trento, Italy Renzo Piano Fig. 1.3.11 Section Diagram for Tier Based Circulation Fig. 1.4.1 Wing of Americas Foster + Partnersd Fig 1.4.2 Turning Radius Clearance- Gradual Turn Fig. 1.4.3 Turning Radius Clearance Fig 1.4.4 Loading Dock Considerations Fig. 1.4.5 Ground Floor Plan- Nelson Atkins Museum of Art Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects Fig. 1.4.6 Procession Based Circulation Fig. 1.4.7 Longitudinal Section- Nelson-Atkins Museum Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects Fig. 1.4.8 Exhibit Proximity Diagram Fig. 1.5.1 Fig. 1.5.2, Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind Fig. 1.5.3 Fig. 1.5.4 Fig. 1.5.5 Fig. 1.5.6 Fig. 1.5.7, Day lighting Fig. 1.5.8, “Breathing T” Fig. 1.5.9, Nelsen-Atkinson Museum of Art Kansas City, Missouri Steven Holl Fig. 1.5.10, panel deatail Fig. 1.5.11, institut de monde Paris, France Jean Nouvel Fig. 1.6.1¬ Fig. 1.6.2 Daniel Libeskind; Jewish Museum Reinforced Concrete Interior Fig. 1.6.3 Daniel Libeskind; Jewish Museum Zinc

Façade Fig. 1.6.4 Stevel Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum “Glowing Lantern” - At night the building is lit from within, illuminating the sculpture garden. Fig. 1.6.5 Steven Holl; Art of the Americas Wing Interior Lighting Quality – Exhibit Fig. 1.6.6 Steven Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum Fig. 1.6.7 John Nouvel; Arab World Institute Solar Activated Southern Façade Fig. 1.6.8 John Nouvel; Arab World Institute White Concrete Fig. 1.6.9 HOK; Salvador Dali Museum Inside the Glass Enigma Fig. 1.6.10 HOK; Salvador Dali Museum Cast in Place Concrete Spiral Stair Fig. 1.7.1 Fig. 1.7.2 Renzo Piano; MuSE Sustainable Practices Fig. 1.7.3¬¬¬ Fig. 1.7.4 Steven Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum Addition “Breathing T’s” Fig. 1.7.5

Demographic Analysis of Columbus

35

Fig 2.1.1 - Shows total population trends and forcasts. Fig 2.1.2 - Shows the age and gender distribution profile. Fig 2.1.3 - Describes how all of the seperate aspects of the downtown are contributing factors to the cultural diversity issue downton. Fig 2.1.4 - Describes the different races and ethnicities found in Columbus. Fig 2.1.5 - Describes the different types of housing occupancies.

Fig 2.1.6 - Describes in more detail where the vacant housing occupancies are located. Fig 2.1.7 - Describes in more detail where the vacant housing occupancies are located. Fig 2.1.8 - Describes the different household and family types. Fig 2.1.9 - Describes the different types of maritial statuses. Fig 2.1.10 - Analyzes how focusing on the residents who are now married can help create a more dynamic and positive community Fig 2.1.11 - Analyzes the downtown in more depth, giving a better understanding of the framework of downtown Columbus. Fig 2.1.12 - Analyzes the relationship between the amount of residents in Columbus vs. Dowtown. It shows how the downtown is situated in between 3 major highways making visitors pass right through the area. Fig 2.1.13 - Analyzes contributing factors to the gentrification issue downtown focusing on undeveloped blocks. Fig 2.1.14 - Analyzes the gaps in the city. This helps with understanding how the gaps contribute to the gentrification issue downtown. Fig 2.1.15 - Analyzes contributing factors to the gentrification issue downtown focusing on a lack of after hours. Fig 2.1.16 - displays where the current points of interest and shopping areas are located. This helps give a more clear understanding where exactly improvements could be made. Fig 2.1.17- Analyzes contributing factors to the gen-


trification issue downtown focusing on one way streets. Fig 2.1.17 - Shows where one way streets are causing people to completely miss the downtown adding to the gentrification issue. Fig 2.2.1 - Describes the rates at which you can rent different apartment types at. Fig 2.2.2 - Describes household income and trends for the residents throughout a decade. Fig 2.2.3 - Describes the most common male jobs. Fig 2.2.4 - Describes the most common female jobs. Fig 2.2.5 - Describes the most common male Industries. Fig 2.2.6 - Describes the most common female industries. Fig. 2.3.1- Graph of relationships of city population within Bartholomew County Fig 2.3.2 - Shows the % of people that bike to work. The greatest density located in a central district (represented in yellow) has 7.1% residents reporting that they regularly bike to work. Fig 2.3.3 Transportation within the city is dominated by single drivers. Fig 2.3.5 - Bus routes within the city Fig 2.3.6 - Describes the employee rate in Columbus. Fig 2.3.7 - Describes the payroll rate in Columbus. Fig 2.3.8 - Describes the types and quantity of religious buildings their are in Columbus. Fig 2.3.9 - Describes the % likely for homosexual households Fig 2.3.10 - Analyzes the education in Columbus. Fig 2.6.10 - Analyzes where the educational facilities are located. Fig 2.3.11 - Types of establishments within Columbus Fig 2.3.12 - Attractions near site Fig 2.3.13 - Describes the Crime Rates in Columbus. Fig 2.5.1 - Analyzes the current condition of Columbus and how things effect each other.

Trends and Forecasts: URBAN PLANNING, LANDSCAPE, AND ARCHITECTURE 63 Fig. 1.1 - Land Use/District Map of Columbus in 1949 Fig. 1.2 - Currently adopted Land Use Plan. This map shows where Columbus is planning to change in terms of expansion of land use. Fig. 1.3 - Bicycle and Pedestrian Systems Plan Map

shows how all the trails will connect within the city and to their specific destinations. Fig. 1.4 - The Downtown Development Plan shows the strategy that the city planning department wants to implement and how the downtown districts will connect with one another. Fig. 1.5 - Map of Columbus neighborhoods. Fig. 1.6 - Map showing the Downtown Columbus neighborhood. Fig. 1.7 - Map showing the Columbus Central neighborhoods. Fig. 1.8 - Map showing the East Columbus neighborhood. Fig. 1.9 - Map showing the National Road Commercial Corridor neighborhood. Fig. 1.10 - Map showing the Western Rocky Ford neighborhoods. Fig. 1.11 - Map showing the East 25th Street neighborhoods. Fig. 1.12 - Map showing the Columbus Municpal Airport neighborhood. Fig. 1.13 - Map showing the U.S. 31 / Indianapolis Road Area neighborhood. Fig. 1.14 - Map showing the Western Gateway Area neighborhood. Fig. 1.15 - Map showing the Western Hills neighborhood. Fig. 1.16 - Map showing the Woodside / Walesboro neighborhood. Fig. 1.17 - Map showing the State Road 11 South neighborhood. Fig. 1.18- Map showing the Eastern Rural Area neighborhood. Fig. 1.19, 1.20 - The study area for the State Street Corridor Plan is highlighted on a map of Columbus; an example of an area along State Street showing the clear separation between the two sides of the street because of its large width. Fig. 1.21 - A plan for revitalizing the State Street Corridor in East Columbus. Fig. 2.1 - Courthouse landscaping. Fig. 2.2 - Historical Map Fig. - 2.3 Otter Creek Clubhouse Fig. 2.4 - 1910 Irwin Home Gardens by Henry Philips Fig. 2.5, 2.6. - Mill Race Park Fig. 2.7 - First Christian Church Landscape Fig. 2.8 - The New Commons Fig. 2.9, 2.10 - Cummins Corporate Office: Jack Curtis

Fig. 2.11 - Library Plaza- Henry Fig. 2.12 - Flood Guage Indicator in Downtown Columbus. Fig. 2.13- FEMA map showing flood plains in the Columbus area. Fig. 2.14 - Picture of Columbus during the Spring Flood of 2005. Fig. 2.15 - Picture of Mill Race Park’s Round Lake, which was designed to help alleviate flooding. Fig. 2.16 - Picture of the Red Bridge during flood conditions. Fig. 2.17 - Example of a formal landscape design. Fig. 2.18 - Example of a natural landscape design Fig. 2.19, 2.20 - Drawings of parking lots and buildings with landscape buffers. Fig. 2.21 - Miller House. Fig. 2.22 - Miller House’s preserved landscape. Fig. 2.23 - Map showing the Corridors of Columbus. Fig. 2.24 - The Downtown Corridors of Columbus. Fig. 3.1 - Map of Columbus notable architecture color-coded according to year of erection. Fig. 3.2 - Columbus Bartholomew County Courthouse- 1874 Fig. 3.3 - Columbus Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation- 1896 Fig. 3.4 - First Chriatian Church Exterior- 1942 Fig. 3.5 - First Chriatian Church Sanctuary- 1942 Fig. 3.6 - Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School- 1957 Fig. 3.7 - View of the Library Plaza- 1969 Fig. 3.8 - The Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School Addition- 1995 Fig. 3.9 - View of where the original school meets the new addition Fig. 3.10 - View of the Original Visitor’s Center looking towards the renovated side Fig. 3.11 - Window Renovation with featured Yellow Neon Chandelier Fig. 3.12 - Matrix showing the architectural movements through history. Fig. 3.13 - Energy Consumption Chart from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011 Fig. 3.14 - Cozy Home Performance, 2009 Fig. 3.15 -Cozy Home Performance, 2009 Fig.3.16 - U.S. Green Building Council and New Buildings Institute’s statistics show that most LEED certified buildings do not hold up to their predicted energy savings, BuildingGreen.com. Fig.3.17 - U.S. Green Building Council ‘s LEED certification point breakdown for housing.

Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums 103 Fig 4.1.1 Diagram of Zoning Relationships as it relates to the site Fig.4.1.2 Reference for landscaping requirements for a museum campus. Fig 4.1.3 Diagram of Designated Landscaping Areas as outlined in the text Fig 4.1.4 Max Site coverage and 10 foot setback illustration for site restrictions Fig 4.1.5 Table of Bicycle Rack Quantity Requirements-dependent upon the number of vehicle parking spaces Fig 4.16 Examples of allowed and disallowed bike racks, including the City of Columbus custom bike rack design Fig 4.1.7 Requirements for quantity of parking spaces Fig 4.1.8 Design dimensions and arrangement options for vehicle parking spaces Fig.4.2.1 - Track Lighting and Tungsten Halogen demonstration Fig. 4.2.2 - Standard lighting diagram for most galleries Fig. 4.3.1- An example of a painting exposed to high temperatures, resulting in cracking and deformation. Fig. 4.3.2 - This diagram shows various levels of heat in a gallery space. Red is higher where as blue is colder Fig. 4.3.3 - The three diagrams depict relative humidity levels in relation to surrounding temperature. As temperature rises the same amount of water vapor falls relative to the capacity of air. Fig. 4.3.4- The diagram above shows a wide range of viruses, bacteria, etc. that thrive at different percentages of humidity Fig. 4.4.1 Three parking lots serving a building with one accessible entrance. Fig.4.4.2 Minimum required number of accessible parking spaces Fig.4.4.3 Diagrammatic example of three parking lots serving a building with three accessible entrances Fig.4.4.4 Diagram of three parking lots (including a satellite lot) serving a building with two accessible entrances Fig.4.4.5 Minimum required dimensions for accessible parking spaces Fig.4.4.6 Standard accessible and van accessible parking spaces and access aisles

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Fig.4.4.7 Standard accessible an van accessible angle parking spaces and access aisles Fig.4.4.8 Diagramming of different ramp configurations Fig.4.4.9 A warning barrier used to alert people of limited headrooms Fig.4.4.10 Handrail with the required extension at the bottom of a stair flight Fig.4.4.11 Dimension of elevators Fig 4.4.12 Turning around and passing spaces Fig 4.4.13 T shapeed spaces Fig.4.4.14 spaces for wheelchair Fig.4.4.15 traveling space for wheelchair Fig.4.4.16 The requirements for wheelchair locations, as set by the Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Design for Facilities and Sites, are as follows: Fig.4.4.17 Accessible spaces adjacent to fixed seating allow a person in a wheelchair to sit with persons allow a person in a wheelchair to sit with persons with whom they may be traveling. Fig.4.4.18 Provide work stations with seating minimizes the differences between seated and standing visitors. Fig 4.4.19 number of accessible toilets Fig 4.4.20 display requirements for accessibility Fig.4.5.1 Minimum Corridor Width Fig.4.5.2 An example of a small exbihition space for egress travel. Fig.4.5.3 Dimension for windows Fig.4.5.6 Dimensions of loading truck Fig.4.5.7 This is the plan of the Denver Art Museum by Daniel Libeskind. We can see there is the long loading dock and doorway behind the museum, so it won’t interrupt the main function of museum in the front. Red circle shows the loading dock and blue line shows the circulation of loading system.

Climate 133 Figure 5.1.1 Daily High and Low Temperatures Figure 5.1.2 Fraction of Time Spend in Various Temperature Bands Figure 5.1.3 Wind Speed Figure 5.1.4 Fraction of Time Spent with Various Wind Directions Figure 5.1.5 Wind Directions Over the Entire Year Figure 5.1.6 Relative Humidity

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Figure 5.1.7 Dew Point Figure 5.2.1 Ground covers Figure 5.2.2 Wild Ginger Figure 5.2.3 Trees Figure 5.2.4 Maple Sugar Tree Figure 5.2.5 Grasses Figure 5.2.6 June Grass Figure 5.2.7 Ferns Figure 5.2.8 Cinnamon Fern Figure 5.2.9 Vines Figure 5.2.10 Crossvine Figure 5.2.11 Shrubs Figure 5.2.12 Serviceberry Figure 5.2.13 Flowering Perennials Figure 5.2.14 Royal Catchfly Figure 5.2.15 Soil Parent Materials Figure 5.2.16 Soil Wetness Characteristics Figure 5.2.17 Soil Erosion Potential Figure 5.2.18 Soil Explanation Figure 5.2.19 Munsell Soil Color Chart Figure 5.2.20 Soil Chart Figure 5.2.21 Deep Foundation through layer(s) of compressible soil Figure 5.2.22 Schematic of U.S. Airways terminal constructed on shallow foundations bearing on highly compressible soil layers Figure 5.3.1 Average monthly rainfall in Columbus, Indiana Figure 5.3.2 Daily probability of precipitation in Columbus, Indiana Figure 5.3.3 Cistern level and intake at 13,000 sf collector area Figure 5.3.4 Cistern level and intake at 14,000 sf collector area Figure 5.3.5 Cistern level and intake at 15,000 sf colector area Figure 5.3.6 Cistern level and intake at 16,000 sf collector area Figure 5.3.7 Probability of snow on a day in Colubus, Indiana Figure 5.3.8 Daily levels of the Morgan 4 water table Figure 5.3.9 Frost depth map Figure 5.3.10 Foundations without and with basement showing hydrostatic pressure with

basement Figure 5.4.1 40 Degrees Latitude Sun Path Diagram Figure 5.4.2 Daily Sunrise and Sunset Figure 5.4.3 December Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.4 September Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.5 June Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.6 March Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.7 Median Cloud Cover Figure 5.4.8 Cloud Cover Types Figure 5.4.9 December Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.10 September Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.11 June Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.12 March Solstice Time- Lapse Figure 5.4.13 Shading Device Options

BOOK TWO

Programming 157 Fig. 6.2.1 Fig. 6.2.2 Fig. 6.3.1 Fig. 6.3.2 Fig. 6.3.3 Fig. 6.3.4 Fig. 6.4.1 Fig. 6.4.2 Fig. 6.4.3 Fig. 6.4.4 Fig. 6.4.5 Fig. 6.5.1 Fig. 6.5.2 Fig. 6.5.3 Fig. 6.5.4 Fig. 6.5.5 Fig. 6.5.6 Fig. 6.5.7 Fig. 6.5.8 Fig. 6.5.9

Programming Through Education 177 Figure 7.1.1 shows a bar graph with the educational attainment in 2011 Figure 7.1.2 shows a map plotting the schools in Columbus

Figure 7.2.1: the proposed room test for cafe (including kitchen) and common open area Figure 7.2.2 : a proposed room test for the gift shop Figure 7.2.3 : a proposed room test for the entrance area Figure 7.2.4 : a proposed room test for the classroom Figure 7.2.5 : a proposed room test for the presentation area Figure 7.2.6 : a proposed room test for the administrative area Figure 7.2.7 : a proposed room test for the meeting room Figure 7.4.1 shows a flow chart with the spatial relationships within the museum Figure 7.4.2 shows a color coded map signifying different programs within the city Figure 7.4.3 examines the site north of the visitor’s center and shows a proposed layout of the museum’s programs Figure 7.4.4 examines the visitor’s center site and shows a proposed layout of the museum’s layout Figure 7.4.5 examines the post office site and shows a proposed layout of the museum’s programs Figure 7.5.1 : a map of the trends in the programs and the circulation Figure 7.5.2: a series of different paths taken by 4 different visitors Figure 7.6.1 shows a bubble diagram of the existing condition in Columbus and the factors influencing it

Programming With Site Context

197

Fig. 1.1 - The initial site options overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan. Fig. 1.2 - The second phase of selecting potential sites overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan. Fig. 1.3 - The final two sites overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan with a dashed box highlighting the area that the site model will show. Fig. 2.1 - Post Office site in its context. Fig. 2.2 - Visitor’s Center site in its context. Fig. 2.3 - Map showing analysis of the Post Office site and how its facades relate to its surrounding corridors. Fig. 2.4 - View From North West Fig. 2.5 - View From North East


Fig. 2.6 -View From South West Fig. 2.7 - View From South East Fig. 2.8 - Map showing analysis of the Visitor’s Center site and how its facades relate to its surrounding corridors. Fig. 2.9 View from center of site. Fig. 2.10 - View From North West. Fig. 2.11 - View From North East. Fig. 2.12 - View From South West. Fig. 2.13 - View From South East. Fig 3.1 - Parking Garage Adjacent to Post Office Site Fig 3.2 - Bubble diagram that shows the proximity of rooms based on programmatic needs. Fig 3.3 - Flow diagram showing the relationships between different department coordinators. Fig 3.4 - Movement abstraction representing departments as various shapes. The smaller shapes across the diagram show movement from the main office of the director. Fig. 3.5- Programming of room spaces- Option One. Fig. 3.6 – Programming of room spaces- Option Two. Fig. 3.7 – Programming of room spaces- Option Three.

Programming With Code

tions based on precedent and code analysis.

Climatic Programming 247 Figure 10.1.1 Landscape Scheme- Linear Figure 10.1.2 Landscape Scheme- Circular Figure 10.1.3 Landscape Scheme- Bubble Diagram Figure 10.1.4 Landscape Scheme- Plan Figure 10.2.1 Temperature Scheme- Linear Figure 10.2.2 Temperature Scheme- Circular Figure 10.2.3 Temperature Scheme- Bubble Diagram Figure 10.2.4 Temperature Scheme- Plan Figure 10.3.1 Water Scheme- Linear Figure 10.3.2 Water Scheme- Circular Figure 10.3.3 Water Scheme- Bubble Diagram Figure 10.3.4 Water Scheme- Plan Figure 10.4.1 Solar Lighting Scheme- Linear Figure 10.4.2 Solar Lighting Scheme- Circular Figure 10.4.3 Solar Lighting Scheme- Bubble Diagram Figure 10.4.4 Solar Lighting Scheme- Plan

217

Fig 9.1.1 Hidden Source Lighting Effect Fig 9.1.2 Artificial Lighting Effect Fig 9.1.3 Primarily Natural Lighting Effect Fig 9.1.3 Natural Lighting for User Experience Fig 9.2.1 Mixed gallery distribution. Red indicates passive heat sources and blue indicates controlled, Isolated environments Fig 9.2.2 Fully encased displays. Red indicates passive heat sources and blue indicates controlled, Isolated environments Fig 9.2.3 Exposed Systems. Red indicates trapped heat from usage and mechanic system output. Fig 9.3.1- Diagram of appropriate levels for optimal viewing by all users. Fig 9.3.2-Varied seating for handicap accessibility Fig 9.4.1 Hierarchy of use from the visitor perspective Fig 9.5.1 Procession of space Fig 9.6.1 Adjacency of program based on code efficiencies Fig 9.7.1 Approximate square footage recommenda-

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Arch 401 - Fall 2013


book 1

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedent

Arch 401 - Fall 2013


CHAPTER 1: Precedents Jeremy Ernst, Holly Pohlmeier, Kevin Stromert

1.0 Introduction 1.0.1 Matrix 1.1 Concept Development 1.1.1 Experiential 1.1.2 Image Developed 1.1.3 Contextual 1.1.4 Site Informed 1.2 Circulation 1.2.1 Enfilade Based 1.2.2 Procession Based 1.2.3 Predetermined 1.2.4 Tier Based 1.3 Curation + Safety 1.3.1 Loading/Unloading 1.3.2 Lighting 1.3.3 Security 1.3.4 Curator Proximity

2

1.4 Lighting 1.4.1 Direct Lighting 4 1.4.2 Soft Lighting 1.4.3 Adjustable Lighting

19

1.5 Materials 1.5.1 Historical References 1.5.2 Experientailly Driven 9 1.5.3 Cultural Influences 1.5.4 Climate Sensitive

23

1.6 Sustainability 1.6.1 LEED Certified 1.6.2 Green Space 14 1.6.3 Other Examples

28

1.7 Conclusion + Design Recommendation

33

1.8 References + Works Cited

34

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedents Arch 401 - Fall 2013

1.0 - Introduction A museum should target an audience and incorporate innovative ideas to promote education and reflection in order to motivate visitors to return. Limiting the breadth of the museum collection, or creating a focus, can prevent visitors from becoming overwhelmed. Additionally, engaging the audience in a story can help them make sense of the exhibits as a whole. This can be done through attention to circulation and object placement. Museums should attempt to spark curiosity and user interaction in order to inspire learning and provoke thought. Museums are not just for the visitors, many people work in these spaces on a daily basis. Visitors often only see a portion of the building, since other portions are dedicated primarily to storage and “back of house� activities. This includes things like employee restrooms and support spaces, mechanical rooms, staff offices, transportation of exhibit elements to and from storage, and storage spaces. The placement of these portions of the building can greatly affect the way the building is experienced. This analysis has selected six case studies to act as precedents -- all designed by starchitects. This allows us to understand the design intent holistically in terms of each architect’s style and attitude towards experiential architecture. The second criteria dictated that the chosen museums had been designed for a specific purpose, allowing for a more definitive concept and specificity towards design choices. In attempt to compare the case studies, we have defined six categories for evaluation: 1. Concept Development 2. Circulation 3. Curation & Safety 4. Lighting 5. Materials 6. Sustainability The following chapter highlights which museums were most successful at each category, and the approaches they took. Arch 401 - Fall 2013


Jewish Museum [Daniel Libeskind]

Salvador Dali Museum [HOK]

Experiential

Historical References

Climate Sensitive

Procession Based

MuSe [Renzo Piano]

Site Developed

Institut De Monde Arabe [Jean Nouvel]

Contextual

Thermal Mass

Crate Shipping

Enfilade Based

Nelson Atkins Museum [Steven Holl]

Sustainability

Materials

Lighting

Curation + Safety

Direct Lighting

Predetermined

Image Developed

Art of the Americas Wing [Foster + Partners]

3

Circulation

Concept Development

1.0.1 - Precedent Matrix

Security

Soft Lighting

Experientially Driven

Green Space

LEED Certified

Tier Based

Adjustable Lighting

Cultural Influences

Passive Cooling

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedents

1.1 - Concept Development Concepts are developed in the early stages of design and involve quick sketches and models. Each category can have hierarchy over the others depending on the importance of each in the specific design. The concept of your design is the big idea and can be the rationale for every decision you make for your design. The concept bonds context, program, and form into one unique being. Following are a few precedents that all had their own unique driving concept.

Driving Concepts Experiential Concept: A story can be developed in the circulation of the museum that can control the entire outcome of the museum. The experience the museum intends to create can impact the materials, form, context and the program of the museum. Image Developed Concept: Some architects need to create an image with the design of the museum to attract a broader audience into the space. Fig. 1.1.1, Renzo Piano Sketch of Muse

Contextual Concept: Understanding an importance in the context can help to drive the concept. It may be important to reflect contextual materials, height, or even forms. Site Developed Concept: The surrounding landscape can help to formulate the profile of the building. Understanding the site may help to line the museum up with certain landmarks or public spaces.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

4


1.1.1- Experiential Over 300, 000 people toured the Jewish museum in the first two years it was open with out any items on display. People toured the museum because the architecture alone embodied the story of Jewish past and future. Libeskind, the architect, choose to have the entrance in the existing building on site and have a path that takes you underground and into the new museum. The physical path resembles the historical path taken by Jewish people in Berlin. The use of architecture is as powerful, in the act of story telling, then the historic items that it archives. The axis of holocaust is a dead end that leads to an empty dark room with a stream of light coming in from a corner. The axis of exile leads to the garden of exile, another dead end, that Libeskind states “is to completely disorient the visitor. It represents a shipwreck in history.� When developing an experiential concept, Libeskind focused on circulation, light, material, and scale.

Fig. 1.1.5, Axis Diagram

Fig. 1.1.2, Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind

5

Fig. 1.1.3, Holocaust Tower

Fig. 1.1.4, Garden of Exile

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedents

“contrast between the rational world of the conscious and the more intuitive, surprising natural world” - Salvador Dali

1.1.2 - Image-Developed This piece of architecture acts more as an image to draw people in. Most readings on the museum speak towards the number of visitors of his work increasing in result of the museum’s image. The experience of the museum is not as widely discussed as the glass enigma or the spiral stairs being objects. HOK addressed the protection of the Dali collection while also expressing the beliefs and rituals of Salvador Dali through the architecture. An 18 inch thick concrete wall surrounds the work of Salvador Dali to protect it from a level five hurricane. The spiral staircase is used as a piece of architecture to represent Dali’s passion for DNA. The glass enigma When deriving a museum concept around a particular image, it is important that this image relates to the museums context. The image must also be memorable and have the ability to interact with visitors.

Fig. 1.1.6, Salvador Dali Museum St. Petersburg, Florida HOK

Fig. 1.1.7, DNA shaped staircase Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig. 1.1.8, Salvador Dali Sketch

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1.1.3 - Contextual The institut de monde reflects the existing contexts of it’s site including the geography and culture at hand. The river facade follows the curvature of the waterway and helps to reduce the hardness of a rectangular box, adapting itself to the view from the near by bridge. Understanding the culture Jean Nouvel used the transparency of the building to encourage the sense that the Arab World Institute is not a gateway but a scrim separating old and new. In recognition to the context, Nouvel lined the driveway, splitting the two parts of the building, with the existing towers of Notre Dame. At the base of the driveway is a fountain echoing the fountains of Arabian palaces 1,000 years ago. The panels on the south side of the institute resemble different forms used in typical Arabian Mushrabiya homes.

Fig. 1.1.9, Typical Arabian Mushrabiya House

Fig 1.1.10, institut de monde Paris, France Jean Nouvel

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Fig. 1.1.11, Mapping Diagram

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1.1.4 - Site-Developed Renzo Piano, the architect, understood the existing site in Trento, Italy to be large mountain peaks and wanted to relate this to the profile of the museum. The scale of the museum to the distant mountains can be seen in the photograph to the left. He also used locally sourced materials that were harvested near the site to realate the building to its landscape. The redevelopment of the site aimed to reconnect the town with the Adige River-front area that it had previously been cut off from. The site-developed connection of the town to the riverfront was important enough to generate a concept.

Fig. 1.1.12, MuSe Trento, Italy Renzo Piano

Fig. 1.1.13, Renzo Piano Sketch

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Fig. 1.1.14, Reconnection of Town and Riverfront

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1.2 - Circulation Human interaction within fine art museums, or any museum for that matter, is one of the principal design factors. The amount of interaction can be controlled by the circulation within the museum. There are many specific examples of types of circulation in all shapes and sizes. Listed within this chapter are four of the main types commonly seen in museums today. One should note that variations of these four are absolutely necessary to achieve individual success in projects. These example works for the projects listed, but may not necessarily work for the Columbus project. The four types of circulation described in the following chapter include enfilade based, procession based, predetermined, and Tier based circulation. The four projects selected for each style include Wing of Americas by Foster + Partners, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art by Steven Holl Architects, Jewish Museum Berlin by Daniel Libeskind and MuSe Museum by Renzo Piano. Each has main circulation routes diagramed along with smaller diagrams to understand each specific type of circulation.

Fig. 1.2.1 Circulation Diagram - Jewish Museum Berlin Daniel Libeskind

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1.2.1 - Enfilade Based Art of Americas Wing, Boston, MA. 2010. Foster + Partners Enfilade based circulation refers to the French term “Enfilade” which means “a suite of rooms with doorways in line with each other.” This is a classic style of museum layout, and is used in the existing Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

Fig 1.2.2 Ground Floor Plan- Art of Americas Wing Boston, MA 2010 Foster + Partners

Fig. 1.2.3 First Floor Plan- Art of Americas Wing Boston, MA 2010 Foster + Partners

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The Art of Americas Wing incorporates enfilade based circulation through the gallery spaces, no distinct precession is preferred within the spaces. The plan is compiled of a principal axis with two smaller wings. Feature stairs are also located in the main portion. Access stairs are located in each of the two wings. A minimum of two points of egress are available from each wing. The main elevator located in between each wing, close to main/feature stair. One of the most important factors to Foster was that the building connects to the existing museum of Fine Arts. The plan and circulation display this connection to the existing context of the Fine Arts Museum.

Fig 1.2.4 Enfilade Based Circulation

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1.2.2 - Procession Based Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO. Steven Holl Architects.

Fig. 1.2.5 Procession Based Circulation

The procession based circulation involves similar room to room movement like the Enfilade style but less choice is given to the user. A fairly common path from user to user is evident in these styles of circulation. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art utilizes procession based circulation, beginning within the older museum wing through lower level galleries of the new wing. Holl’s 5 distinct “Lenses” of light from upper levels align the general access of precession. The largest of the 5 “lenses” houses lobbies, cafe and a multipurpose room. Circulation then flows from lobbies into the gallery spaces along the 4 remaining lenses. Exits exist at either end of the chain of spaces, along with an additional exit to the sculpture garden. These exits meet the means of egress required by code.

Fig. 1..6 Ground Floor Plan- Nelson Atkins Museum of Art Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects

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1.2.3 - Predetermined Jewish Museum Berlin, Berlin, Germany. 1999. Daniel Libeskind. Circulation is a main priority within the Jewish Museum. It is pertinent to the experience that one takes the path intended. The Libeskind establishes a main axis of approach from the basement of the existing museum. The predetermined circulation guides the user to the highest level of the museum taking them through the dramatic lighting and scenes. The project is intended to remind and place the visitors in the dark and twisted history of the Jewish Holocaust. In a project that requires such experiential qualities one should control the movement of a user as such in the predetermined style of circulation. There are many different styles of predetermined paths that can be designed, the figures to the left diagram the approach used in the Jewish Museum by Libeskind.

Fig 1.2.7 Basement Floor- Jewish Museum Berlin Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind

Fig. 1.2.8 Longitudinal Secton- Jewish Museum Berlin Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind

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Fig 1.2.9 Predetermined Circulation

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1.2.4 - Tier Based MuSe Museum, Trento, Italy. 2013-In progress. Renzo PianoA hybrid between the enfilade circulation style and the pre-determined circulation, the museum patron is guided from the lower tiers up each level, but within each level exploration of the user’s choice is encouraged. This may be an applicable strategy for museums that want to encourage exploration with the exhibits themselves. Also introduces the grouping of exhibits for visitors. Each floor will contain certain types of exhibits, allowing more “pick and choose” for the guests. The tiers in the MuSe museum are based around an atrium to emphasize vertical movement guiding users up each tier. Standard egress is implemented into the plan to ensure proper safety of the museum guests.

Fig. 1.2.10 Second Floor- MuSe Museum Trento, Italy Renzo Piano

Fig. 1.2.11 Section Diagram for Tier Based Circulation

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1.3 - Curation/Safety

Fig. 1.3.1 Wing of Americas Foster + Partners

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The transportation of fine arts can be one of the most damaging situations for such pieces. Considerations for the shipment and vehicles used in the process are important to incorporate in the designs. Dimensions to the standard refrigerated shipping trailer are 53’ L x 13’6” H x 8’ 6” W and should be considered for loading dock dimensions. Also proper allocations for the approach of trucks of such size should be accommodated. The turning radius of long trailers is much wider than the average vehicle; two examples can be seen to the left. Temperature controllable areas for loading and unloading should be included. Even short term exposure to high humidity can damage works. The trailers used in transportation are temperature controlled environments between 65-75 degrees and 40-45% relative humidity. Loading dock areas should maintain within these parameters also. Generally fine art should be kept in environments between 65-75 degrees Fahrenheit and 40-45% relative humidity. The low humidity levels will prevent mold from growing on any of the pieces. When considering the lighting of museums there are numerous factors, one of those being the fatigue on fine art from the exposure of natural and artificial UV rays. Exposure to UV rays should be eliminated at all costs. Artificial lighting should be a minimum of 10 feet from any work. In addition to proper spacing the lighting should be recessed and or halogen. The best light for art work is diffused or filtered natural lighting. Even natural lighting should be diffused and filtered from direct contact with works exhibited in the museum. The curator may be the single most important person of the museum. The curator is in charge of the placement, care, security and logistics of the exhibits and fine art pieces within the museum. Placement of the central operations for the curator should be based off the proximity to the actual exhibits. This close proximity to exhibits will increase security and the well-being of the pieces. Curators can keep closer attention to high value work and monitor them in a more efficient manner. The proximity should then follow the hierarchy of higher value being closer and lower value may increase in distance.

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Curator Overwatch

1.3.1 - Loading/Unloading The transportation of fine arts can be one of the most damaging situations for such pieces. Considerations for the shipment and vehicles used in the process are important to incorporate in the designs. The curator will need to maintain overwatch during the entire handling process, so designs of these logistics should comply. Dimensions to the standard refrigerated shipping trailer are 53’ L x 13’6” H x 8’ 6” W and should be considered for loading dock dimensions. Also proper allocations for the approach of trucks of such size should be accommodated. The turning radius of long trailers is much wider than the average vehicle; two examples can be seen to the left. Temperature controllable areas for loading and unloading should be included. Even short term exposure to high humidity can damage works. The trailers used in transportation are temperature controlled environments between 65-75 degrees and 40-45% relative humidity. Loading dock areas should maintain within these parameters also.

Loading/ Unloading

Crate Handling

Exhibit Handling

Fig 1.3.2 Turning Radius Clearance- Gradual Turn

65-75 Degrees Fahrenheit 40-45% Relative Humidity

Extended Clearance

14’

Fig. 1.3.3 Turning Radius Clearance

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Fig 1.3.4 Loading Dock Considerations

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10’

Fig. 1.3.5 Ground Floor Plan- Nelson Atkins Museum of Art Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects

1.3.2 - Lighting When considering the lighting of museums there are numerous factors, one of those being the fatigue on fine art from the exposure of natural and artificial UV rays. Exposure to UV rays should be eliminated at all costs. Artificial lighting should be a minimum of 10 feet from any work. In addition to proper spacing the lighting should be recessed and or halogen. The best light for art work is diffused or filtered natural lighting. Even natural lighting should be diffused and filtered from direct contact with works exhibited in the museum.

Fig. 1.3.6 Procession Based Circulation

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1.3.3 - Security Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO. Steven Holl Architects. Access and curation of the exhibits was important in the design of this museum. In section it is seen that below the gallery level, there is an entire floor for exhibit/art service. It does not interrupt the finely detailed and experiential qualities of the upper levels, but adequate space has been provided. The security of having these storage two floors underground is also increased by its placement. The storage of exhibits and artwork in a museum should not attract attention to itself.

Fig. 1.3.7 Longitudinal Section- Nelson-Atkins Museum Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects

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Curator $$$

$$

1.3.4 - Curatior Proximity $

The curator may be the single most important person of the museum. The curator is in charge of the placement, care, security and logistics of the exhibits and fine art pieces within the museum. Placement of the central operations for the curator should be based off the proximity to the actual exhibits. This close proximity to exhibits will increase security and the well-being of the pieces. Curators can keep closer attention to high value work and monitor them in a more efficient manner. The proximity should then follow the hierarchy of higher value being closer and lower value may increase in distance.

Fig. 1.3.8 Exhibit Proximity Diagram

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1.4 - Lighting Lighting is an important and essential design element in a museum. The light has to be carefully studied for each object in the museum to maximize it’s performance. Without the correct amount and the right style of light the objects may read incorrectly. v Natural light can be used as long as direct light is not hitting objects that can be damaged from the harsh light. Different transparencies can be used to take advantage of a softer light, or deeper windows can be used to force the light to bounce off multiple surfaces before it can reach the objects. Artificial light must me used whether it is only at night or during the day as well. Certain galleries will allow the light sources to be closer to the objects while others will require the light sources to be further away and less powerful.

Fig. 1.4.1

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1.4.1- Direct Direct lighting in a museum can be fatal if not thought out completely. Mistakingly, Libeskind did not take into account the job of the curator when designing the lighting in the Jewish museum. He was too focused on experience of the architecture rather then the items it had to eventually house. After two years of being empty, artifacts were eventually put into the museum. Walls had to be put up blocking this harsh light from reaching the valuable and irreplaceable artifacts. Unless the artifacts are not prone to destruct when in direct light, or the direct light can’t reach the artifacts, it is not a common practice in the design of museums to use direct light. All museums need to eventually be artificially lit when the sun sets. The bottom right photo shows a room that is being lit by both natural and artificial light. It can be seen how Libeskind clearly thought out how artificial light would be able to match the rest of the lighting in the building by using the cuts.

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Fig. 1.4.3

Fig. 1.4.4

Fig. 1.4.5

Fig. 1.4.6

Fig. 1.4.2, Jewish Museum Berlin, Germany Daniel Libeskind

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1.4.2 - Soft An effective and common way to bring light into an exhibition space is to use indirect light. A majority of pieces housed in museum collection are not supposed to be exposed to direct light. If the items receive harsh light on a regular basis they can start to fade. The diagram shows how Steven Holl chooses to use “Breathing T’s” to carry the light down into the exhibition spaces. Several other Museum designs use this same technique to take advantage of the natural light while still being able to keep the artifacts safe.

Fig. 1.4.7, Day lighting

Fig. 1.4.9, Nelsen-Atkinson Museum of Art Kansas City, Missouri Steven Holl

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Fig. 1.4.8, “Breathing T”

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1.4.3 - Adjustable Museums can use an adjustable skin that controls the amount of light that enters the space. The panels shown on the institut de monde show how they can regulate the amount of light that enters the building. Understand that the direct harsh light can be destructive to the artifacts and has to be studied in depth to avoid damaging pieces. A good way to use an adjustable skin is to allow the light when it is indirect and to block the light when it is direct. If used correctly the skin can help with the efficiency of energy in the museum. The institut de monde used the adjustable panels to control the light in an efficient manner. The panels also have other cultural meanings in this specific case. The panels create an interesting texture of direct light on the surface of the room but would not be conducive for valuable artifacts.

Fig. 1.4.11, institut de monde Paris, France Jean Nouvel

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Fig. 1.4.10, panel deatail

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1.5 - Materials Material choices can affect experience of a building in a potentially more prominent way than other design choices. Materiality is noticed first, and plays a great role in defining the tone or mood of a space. There are many reasons that a designer chooses a material palette including site context, experience of the space, interactivity of the building, etc.

Things to Consider Symbolism: Some materials carry specific connotations within different cultures or regions. Climate: Materials can be affected differently in varying climate conditions, so one should consider energy costs (especially in terms of heating or cooling loads) when selecting a material. Many exterior building materials may weather, so they should either be treated agains this or accepted into the design. Context: some materials are also more compatible with or reminiscent of a certain place or period (i.e. adobe flat roof construction might not fit contextually in NYC, etc.) Scale: When choosing a material, it’s important to consider scale of the building. How much of the material is needed? Scale/quantity of materials can have a great impact on overall construction cost. Location: Where is the material manufactured? Does it need to be shipped to the site or is it a local material? Location of the material can affect both the cost and the environment. Choosing materials that are closer to the project location is often more sustainable. Many other potential questions can arise in terms of material strength, color, texture and pattern. Sometimes these qualities can vary within a single material, so obtaining large quanities of the same material may be tricky.

Fig. 1.5.1

The following case studies have incorporated materials that specifically relate to the building concept, and have done so rather successfully.

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1.5.1 - Historical References Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum resides in Berlin. It houses many exhibits related to JewishGerman history. This is a somber point of history for both Germany and those who practice the Jewish faith. Libeskind’s museum design allowed him to choose materials that would effectively communicate the tone of events that occurred during the Holocaust. Daniel Libeskind’s primary material choices were concrete and zinc. The building is composed of many sharp angles, and joints. Concrete is fluid when poured, so it’s able to take on the shape of any form – ideal for this project. The structure and foundation were made primarily of reinforced concrete. However, during construction, both pre-cast and cast in place techniques were used. Concrete weathers well, and can take on the characteristics of a cool, dark place – as utilized in the museum. The ability to cast the building also allowed for the windows and strips of lighting in the façade. The entire concrete building is clad with zinc panels. Zinc has a long history in German architecture; however, it was primarily used for roofs or decorative architecture elements. Zinc was a readily available material and relatively cheap. Libeskind notes that zinc, “offers a metaphor for the Jewish presence in Berlin”. He knew that the panels will oxidize over time and change color, allowing for the structure to fade into its surroundings, “much like the Jews are only one part of Berlin’s history”. Libeskind’s material choices helped the project come in 10% under budget. Fig. 1.5.2 Daniel Libeskind; Jewish Museum Reinforced Concrete Interior

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Fig. 1.5.3 Daniel Libeskind; Jewish Museum Zinc Facade

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1.5.2 - Experientially Driven Steven Holl has been known to experiment with materials in much of his work, and the Nelson Atkin’s Museum addition is no different. Holl’s Nelson Atkin’s Museum design played largely with the effects of space and light on experience. Holl chose physical materials that would emphasize his nonphysical ideas in a meaningful way. The interior of the museum addition is equipped with dark flooring and generally blank, bright, white walls. The interior spaces are very minimal in their decoration, but this puts greater emphasis on the work being exhibited. The neutral interior prevents people from being distracted, and also allows for the opportunity to house temporary exhibits.

Fig. 1.5.4 Stevel Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum “Glowing Lantern” - At night the building is lit from within, illuminating the sculpture garden.

Light is the largest factor in most Steven Holl projects. Holl uses light to delineate forms and give life to the interior spaces. In the Nelson Atkins addition, he also uses artificial light to light the entire building from within. In order for light to become the material that sets the tone of the space, Holl had to choose a material that would promote it. Holl chose an insulated glass material. The product, Okalux, is manufactured in Germany. It’s an insulated glass product that helps protect against heat and sound. The insulation is made of a “glass fiber tissue”, this helps to diffuse natural light into the space-and limits glare. The insulated glass is translucent, so does not permit views out, but the lighting quality is enhanced throughout the space. The translucent glass also gives the opportunity for the building to be lit from within, and becomes a light source for the Nelson Atkins sculpture garden at night.

Fig. 1.5.6 Steven Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum

Fig. 1.5.5 Steven Holl; Art of the Americas Wing Interior Lighting Quality - Exhibit

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1.5.3 - Cultural Influences The Institut de Monde Arabe (Arab World Institute) in Paris, France brought John Nouvel to fame. The institute is meant to promote research and knowledge about the Arab culture in France. In addition to a museum, the building also houses a restaurant, library, auditorium, and offices. The most notable features of this building have come with the materiality of the dynamic façade.

Fig. 1.5.7 John Nouvel; Arab World Institute Solar Activated Southern Facade

Nouvel took inspiration from Arabic architecture, specifically the mashrabiya. Mashrabiya is the Arabic term given to a “typee of projecting oriel window enclosed with carved wood latticework…located on the second story of a building or higher”. The mashrabiya has been used in traditional Arabic architecture for centuries. “It is most often used on the street side” but has also been utilized on the side of a courtyard. In Nouvel’s project, the mashrabiya is utilized on the south side—overlooking the courtyard. This provides privacy and shading to the interior, while still allowing views out. The south façade is large glass curtain wall, but on the interior sits a light sensitive screen that reacts to the sun. Primarily made of aluminum, the façade shines in the sunlight, bringing attention to its placement in the city. There are 240 apertures on the façade. The apertures open and close automatically and can help control the amount of heat and light entering the building. This allows for filtered light in the interior spaces, an “effect often used in Islamic architecture”. Nouvel also utilized white cement and marble throughout the project which offer reduced glare in a museum setting. Both materials have also been utilized in many other examples of Arabic architecture.

Fig. 1.5.8 John Nouvel; Arab World Institute White Concrete

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1.5.4 - Climate Sensitive

Fig. 1.5.9 HOK; Salvador Dali Museum Inside the Glass Enigma

HOKs Salvador Dali Museum was a revolutionary design for US architecture. It “houses the largest collection of Dali’s paintings outside of Spain”. The building resides in St. Petersburg, FL, an area that has potential for hurricanes. This selection of paintings is so valuable that the architect wanted to protect them against damage from building collapse, etc., due to hurricanes. Dali’s paintings consistently play “with differences between organic forms and the mathematics of nature.” The architect wanted to reflect this within the building. For this reason, he created the glass enigma, morphing out of a concrete box. Glass and Concrete are the primary materials in this design. The building was primarily concrete and cast in place. The exterior walls are 18” thick in order to combat wind loads from a category five hurricane. The storm surge is at a 28’, so all of the critical functions are placed above that height. The concrete box is meant to protect, and was left exposed and unfinished in order to reduce maintenance and contrast with the organic formed atrium. The atrium is also made to combat hurricane wind loads at a thickness of 1.5”. The geodesic geometry allows for different views to the outside in every direction. Each panel and connection is different, so it was fabricated and shipped to the site for assembling. The glass enigma is transparent, and permits views out and allows natural lighting to enter the space. This structure was the “first type of free-form geodesic geometry in the United States”.

Fig. 1.5.10 HOK; Salvador Dali Museum Cast in Place Concrete Spiral Stair

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1.6 - Sustainability Sustainability is a driving factor when designing the built environment. There are many definitions for sustainability but in the most general sense it’s the “capacity to endure”. This can be thought of in terms of human consumption, environmental conservation, etc. Sustainability seeks to “use resources in a way that makes it possible for future generations to enjoy the same resources”. In terms of building design and construction, here are a few general guidelines to follow. Use the Site Responsibly Incorporate the building into the site; develop from what is existing as earthwork can often be expensive. Notice the ratio of paved surfaces to greenery, some landscaping should remain. Incorporate gardening into the landscape, or plant native vegetation because it will take less water over its lifetime. Storm water infiltration and irrigation systems can help control water consumption. Cisterns can be helpful, depending on site location and amount of rainfall. Cisterns collect rainwater for reuse throughout the building including providing water for irrigation systems and toilets, etc. Utilize Passive Strategies Shading devices, building orientation, and natural ventilation are all examples of passive strategies. Building orientation and shading devices can both aid heating and cooling loads throughout the year. This can ultimately reduce cooling costs by limiting the use of AC, etc. Cross ventilation is a natural way to cool a space, and also helps improve air quality throughout the space. Incorporate Energy Efficient Building Strategies When possible, try to incorporate local materials. This can help to lower overall building and construction costs. It is also saves time and energy for shipping materials to the site. Choosing materials that are energy efficient materials is also very sustainable. In order to do so, one has to research climate data and choose materials that are able to stand up to the changing weather (materials with high R-Value for insulation or materials that protect against solar gain/loss, etc.). Lastly, try to incorporate non-toxic materials. Fig. 1.6.1

Sustainability practices also relate to construction of buildings. Man power and labor are resources, too. If items are shipped to the site in pieces and have to be assembled, it takes more time and energy than creating a “kit of parts”. The following case studies provide examples of successful strategies to reduce energy consumption and utilize sustainable practices.

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1.6.1 - LEED Certified Renzo Piano’s MUSE (MUseum delle ScienzE), opened in the summer of 2012 in Trentino, Italy. The museum is meant to be just one part of a larger cultural center that’s being formed to bring people back to an area of Trentino that had once been alienated. The building earned a LEED Gold standard for sustainability. Part of this is due to its proximity to bike trails, and limited parking (to promote carpooling and public transportation) The museum lies is a valley of the Dolomite Mountains (a part of the Alps), so it is often viewed from above. The roofline mimics the surrounding mountains, and makes use of the existing site in a variety of ways. There are solar panels on the roof to help contribute to the buildings energy needs. The building is also equipped with geothermal heating. Piano provided solutions for natural lighting and ventilation throughout the facility. This helped to greatly reduce energy consumption and increased thermal comfort in the interior spaces. Though much of the building’s exterior is glazing, the rest of the facade is white in color. This helps to reflect sunlight and lower building cooling loads throughout the hot months of the year. One portion of the museum is a greenhouse displaying non-native plants. Plants that aren’t native to a region often use more water, so a cistern has been incorporated on to the site. The cistern collects rainwater and reuses it for irrigation purposes. The cistern helped to reduce “overall use of hydro water by 50%”.

Fig. 1.6.2 Renzo Piano; MuSE Sustainable Practices

Fig. 1.6.3

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1.6.2 - Green Space Steven Holl’s Nelson Atkins Museum incorporates many sustainable features. The building is able to illuminate the outdoors because of its double skinned façade. This façade provides a high amount of insulation while still allowing a gracious amount of natural light throughout the day (cutting down on energy consumption). The cavities between the sheets of glass begin to act as a thermal mass, gathering heat in the winter or letting it out during the summer. Holl created a system of “Breathing T’s” to transmit light down through the galleries. Additionally, the T’s provide a location to hide HVAC ductwork. The combination of these two tasks make the building more energy efficient overall. The breathing Ts allow for natural light to enter and diffuse onto the surfaces of the white walls and then reflect into the galleries. The outdoor sculpture garden continues up and over the galleries creating green roofs to help “achieve high insulation and control storm water.” Green roofs are often used to reduce the amount of storm water runoff. The roof will store the water as it rains, and then eventually allow it to evaporate, reducing the overall flow of the rainstorm. The lifespan of a green roof is generally much longer than that of a conventional roofing system. Though there is often a higher initial cost for green roofing systems, the overall lifetime costs decrease due to reduced energy consumption. This integration of site and building connects the visitor to experience the building and landscape as one.

Fig. 1.6.4 Steven Holl; Nelson Atkins Museum Addition “Breathing T’s”

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1.6.3 - Other Examples HOK Salvador Dali Museum The Salvador Dali Museum in Petersburg, FL is sustainable in its rigidity. The building was made with 18” thick walls, a 12” thick roof, and a 1.5” thick glass enigma that had to be assembled on site. This doesn’t sound sustainable, however, if sustainability is the “capacity to endure” – this building can. The building is made to stand in up to 165 mph winds. This is meant to protect the valuable collections inside, and the building itself. Buildings that are built to last are sustainable. The thick concrete walls can also act as a thermal mass, and passively heat and cool the space throughout the day. The building is also equipped with highly efficient AC system equipped with a hot water dehumidification system, and the glass enigma allows for strategic daylighting to illuminate the interior spaces.

JEAN NOUVEL Institute de Monde Utilizing the sun for passive cooling and shading is one sustainable aspect of the Institut de Monde Arabe. The south façade on the Arab World Institute is solar responsive. From an environmental standpoint, the façade is able to control solar gain and cooling load by reducing the aperture size based on the time of day or angle of the sun. Each sensor on the façade is controlled by a “photovoltaic sensor which permits 10 to 30 percent daylight”, therefore keeping the temperature inside the building at a comfortable level.

FOSTER + PARTNERS The Art of the America’s Wing, Museum of Fine Arts The Art of the America’s Wing addition to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston was designed to be energy efficient. The large courtyard is boxed in to create a giant atrium, however, they atrium is naturally lit and allows for open views to the sky. Galleries in the building are climate controlled to keep the art protected. This also means that cost can be controlled through climate adjustments in individual galleries. Foster + Partners has also started looking at sustainable means of shipping. They’ve adopted building crate shipping. This means that they ship and receive many items of varied sizes at once in a single crate to reduce

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Fig. 1.6.5

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1.7 - Conclusion These are just a few of the many examples that can act as helpful precedents. We can conclude from our studies that each museum is vastly different, but there are patterns throughout much of museum design. Circulation is often most directly related to concept, curation, and safety. The type of circulation can often define how interactive the museum is, etc. Light is also largely affected by museum concept and form. However, materials and sustainability most often directly relate to context and cultural ideals. Many of the museums in this chapter have directly related building form and materiality to the concept or culture. This helps inform visitors about the museum before ever going in. However, this can cause building form to deviate from the surrounding context, so how does one design for this? Design Recommendations:

- Make a decision about Contextual Design Does the building need to stand out, or fit in? Should it express the collection on the outside? - Steven Holl, Nelson Atkins: “Think of Light as a Material� Natural Light vs. Artificial Lighting Decide of objects can be subject to sun, etc. - Neutral Spaces allow more potential for temporary exhibits. Think about scale. - Layer Information There should be a hierarchy to exhibit information. Attempt to tell a story, or put things in an order. - Choose to integrate sustainable materials and systems

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedents

1.8 - References + Works Cited Jewish Museum - Daniel Libeskind [ARTE] Architecture Collection - Episode 12: Daniel Libeskind - Jewish Museum Berlin - YouTube.” YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ThUWEhpNzo (accessed September 10, 2013). Kroll, Andrew. “AD Classics: Jewish Museum, Berlin / Daniel Libeskind” 25 Nov 2010.ArchDaily. Accessed 27 Sep 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/91273 (accessed September 10, 2013). “Jewish Museum Berlin | Studio Daniel Libeskind.” Studio Daniel Libeskind. http://daniel-libeskind. com/projects/jewish-museum-berlin (accessed September 10, 2013). “Jewish Museum, Berlin.” NCSU Weblog. kberry.wordpress.ncsu.edu/ (accessed September 10, 2013).

Salvador Dali Museum - HOK

Art of the Americas Wing - Foster + Partners “A wing in the making - Boston.com.” Boston.com - Boston, MA news, breaking news, sports, video. http://www.boston.com/ae/theater_arts/specials/mfa/gallery/wing_in_making/#/15 (accessed September 9, 2013). “Art of Americas Wing at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston / Foster + Partners | ArchDaily.” ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. http://www.archdaily.com/91885/art-of-americas-wing-at-themuseum-of-fine-arts-boston-foster-partners/ (accessed September 9, 2013). “Museum of Fine Arts | Projects | Foster + Partners.” Foster + Partners. http://www.fosterandpartners. com/projects/museum-of-fine-arts/ (accessed September 9, 2013).

Nelson Atkins Museum - Steven Holl

Cliento, Karen. “In Progress: Salvador Dalí Museum / HOK + Beck Group | ArchDaily.” ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. http://www.archdaily.com/71318/in-progress-salvador-dalimusuem-hok-beck-group/ (accessed September 9, 2013).

Fernandez Solla, Ignacio. “A Quest for thick glazed Facades.” Facades Confidential. facadesconfidential. blogspot.com/2012/05/quest-for-thick-glazed-facades.html (accessed September 9, 2013).

Hine, Hank. “Beauty by the Bay.” HOK. www.hok.com/design/type/civic-cultural/the-dali-museum/ (accessed September 9, 2013).

“The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art / Steven Holl Architects | ArchDaily.” ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. http://www.archdaily.com/4369/the-nelson-atkins-museum-of-art-steven-hollarchitects/ (accessed September 10, 2013).

Pham, Diane. “Interview: architect Yann Weymouth of HOK on new Dali Museum.” inhabitat: design will save the world . inhabitat.com/interview-hoks-yann-weymouth-discusses-designing-the-hurricaneresistant-salvador-dali-museum/ (accessed September 9, 2013).

“Nelson Atkins Museum of Art.” Steven Holl Architectus. http://www.stevenholl.com/project-detail. php?type=museums&id=19 (accessed September 10, 2013).

MuSe - Renzo Piano

Institute De Monde Arabe - Jean Nouvel

Loomans, Taz. “Renzo Piano’s MUSE Museum is a Sustainable Building that will Revitalize Trento’s Riverfront.” inhabitat: design will save the world . inhabitat.com/renzo-pianos-muse-museum-is-a-sustainable-building-that-will-help-revitalize-trentos-riverfront/ (accessed September 9, 2013).

“AD Classics: Institut du Monde Arabe / Jean Nouvel | ArchDaily.” ArchDaily | Broadcasting Architecture Worldwide. http://www.archdaily.com/162101/ad-classics-institut-du-monde-arabe-jean-nouvel/ (accessed September 13, 2013).

“MUSE – a Science Museum is the core of a regional development project in Italy - DETAIL-online. com.” DETAIL-online.com - The portal for architecture and construction. http://www.detail-online. com/architecture/news/muse-a-science-museum-is-the-core-of-a-regional-development-project-in-italy-021601.html (accessed September 9, 2013).

“Arab World Institute - WikiArquitectura - Buildings of the World.” WikiArquitectura - Buildings of the World. http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Arab_World_Institute (accessed September 9, 2013).

“Renzo Piano’s mountain-like MUSE opens in Trentino.” designboom magazine | your first source for architecture, design & art news. http://www.designboom.com/architecture/renzo-pianos-mountain-likemuse-opens-in-trentino/ (accessed September 14, 2013). “MuSe Museum by Renzo Piano Building Workshop.” Dezeen - architecture and design magazine. http:// www.dezeen.com/2013/08/28/muse-museum-by-renzo-piano-building-workshop/ (accessed September 10, 2013). Arch 401 - Fall 2013

“Ateliers Jean Nouvel-Inter-cultural Institut du Monde Arabe -Paris | mapolis | Architektur – das Onlinemagazin für Architektur.” mapolismagazin for architecture | mapolis | Architektur – das Onlinemagazin für Architektur. http://architecture.mapolismagazin.com/ateliers-jean-nouvel-inter-cultural-institut-du-monde-arabe-paris (accessed September 13, 2013).


Chapter 2 - Demographics Ahmed Al Monsouri, Alex Olevitch, Bec Ribeiro

1

2.0 Introduction

36

2.1 Population Diversity 2.2.1 Family Background 2.1.2 Gentrification

37

2.2 Economic Status

46

2.3 Cultural Profile of Columbus 2.3.1 Columbus Transportation 2.3.2 Employment of Columbus 2.3.3 Religion 2.3.4 Education 2.3.5 Existing Cultural Establishments 2.3.6 Crime

49

2.4 Client Profiles

60

2.5 The Columbus Condition

62

2.6 Conclusion

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

Introduction The city of Columbus has a very restrained demographic population. Looking at the research done in this chapter you will find that teh city lacks diversity in many different aspects including racial, religious, and education. The Lack of diversity in the city results in a chain reaction where everything affects everything else. For example there is lack of ethnic diversity because there are not any major businesses other than Cummins. If there were a wider variety of businesses in the city it might be more inviting for people from all over the world to come and work in. When people have lower incomes they are restricted to enrolling their children into public schools, which in return does not encourage and demand a more diverse educational system. Therefore most people tend to enroll their children in public or religious schools, as opposed to private schools. The studies and research in this chapter show the lack of interest in private schooling, and the abundance of religious institutions. This lack of educational diversity then affects the city’s growth, which in return affects the average income. This is an ongoing cycle of cause and effect that has long been established.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

2


2.1 POPULATION DIVERSITY Historically the residents if Columbus have been known for their community involvement. Like many districts it has been formed through the vigorous shifting of its physical environment. Retail and market forces are a major issue in Columbus. The downtown trade has declines and is in much need of improvement. Being able to energize the area is a driving influence on the success of attracting people downtown. Traffic both vehicular and pedestrian are another main component issue on the success of getting people into the downtown areas. As of recent studies, Columbus is seen as inconvenient to both residents and visitors. Because of the lack of public transportation it is important to establish a standard of circulation. This section refers to designing architecture/museum space that responds to the demographics and context of the site, which is vital to its success. Viewing this information will influence the design of a museum, which holds great potential of being a cultural mecca. Set in this chapter, are graphs that explain and analyze the general demographics of the city of Columbus. There are analytical breakdowns in response to the data we have collected that give suggestions for preferred design choices.

Fig 2.1.2 - Shows the age and gender distribution profile.

Age distribution is large factor attributing to the lack of a dynamic ambiance throughout Columbus. Creating a program that targets active elders and empty nester can help encourage this force. Another completely separate program should be created pursuing the younger urban professional market. This will help the general growth of the area while making it more cosmopolitan city. We suggest the addition of a live performing arts setting in addition to the exhibit space. Amenities such as cafes and restaurants would also help the development of both groups. Fig 2.1.1 - Shows total population trends and forecasts.

As evident in the total population chart, Columbus is a slowly but consistently growing city. It grows about 14% every 10 years. While Columbus as a whole is increasing in population the downtown has been decreasing. The success of the museum is dependent upon increasing activity downtown. The lack of motivation and purpose to come to the site is serious problem. As a whole having a city of 45,000 people is relatively small. We would suggest designing a building that is smaller in scale, yet may have the ability to adapt for the subtle growth that the city is undertaking.

37

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

After extensive research it is evident that education is the key to success in Columbus. Most of the residents in the area have only received a high school education and those that are elite educated were imported from somewhere else. All of the public schools are too compacted with kids while the private schools have next to no one in them. It is clear that the residents are not receiving the proper education to stimulate a nourishing diverse community. Having these opposing cultures and mixtures of people is important for the success of a society. It helps the ability to bring new people in and overall function properly. White residents overpower the city of Columbus. While it is important to please the majority, steps must be taken to promote a more positive dynamic. We aren’t proposing to change the city, just enrich/ broaden the existing culture. We advise designing a space that has the potential for a more heterogeneous exhibit. This would help to attract a vast variety of visors to the museum and even to the city itself.

Fig 2.1.3 - Describes how all of the separate aspects of the downtown are contributing factors to the cultural diversity issue downtown.

Fig 2.1.4 - Describes the different races and ethnicities found in Columbus.

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2.1.1 Family Background At first glance it may not seem like the amount of vacancies are an issue. Further findings and analysis concluded that this assumption was untrue. Blocks in the immediate downtown area reach up to 50% unoccupied homes. When comparing to thriving cities such as New York, which never surpass 7%, the problem becomes more discerned. While it is unrealistic to expect Columbus Indiana to be flourishing like New York, there is plenty of room for improvement. Compared to Columbus as a whole, the immediate downtown area is depicted for its higher vacancy rates and lower owner occupancy. Due to the increases in multi-family housing, the market has a minimal area for growth. Because of this the value of housing is Lower downtown and appreciating at a much slower rate then the rest of Columbus. Families move out of the downtown for a better opportunity and education for their families. Lowering the amount of vacancies will both increase the amount of residents in the city and the desire to be in the city. Having more people in the city also brings more diverse cultures with it. This in turn would positively help to educate the residents and prevent them from having such a narrow mind frame.

Fig 2.1.6 - Describes in more detail where the Vacant housing occupancies are located.

Fig 2.1.5 - Describes the different types of housing occupancies.

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

Most of the dwellings in Columbus consist of family occupancies. This includes marital or blood related occurrences. It is important to notice that in the downtown area more of the residents are without children. This reinforces the idea that attention should be focused on the younger adults age groups. It is important that this group of people feels connected with their community, in order for them to encourage the cities growth. However, creating a program that is geared towards family oriented activity could help promote a healthy growth of family life in the area. Making the museum family friendly can help better connect the residents of Columbus together. It could also help encourage a community that aims to informally educate the inhabitants.

Fig 2.1.7 - Describes in more detail where the vacant housing occupancies are located.

Fig 2.1.8 - Describes the different household and family types.

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The majority of residents in Columbus seem to be young adults who are married without kids. Because of the information gathered it could be assumed that a new generation of children would be born in the near future. It is important that when this happens the residents feel like they can raise their kids in the area. They need reasons to stay, including a sense of community that could be provided through the museum design. For most families their children’s education is most important. Hitting hard on improving the education throughout the downtown area would help give a reason for these families to stay. It would also promote new families to wanting to raise their kids in the area. This would increase the population encouraging a more positive atmosphere. By increasing this factor the community would receive more local support, which would create more development for the city. This would help to create more job opportunities, which would help the city, seem more attractive to outsiders and help it grow. It would then increase visitations and create an overall successful inhabitance.

Fig 2.1.10 - Analyzes how focusing on the residents who are now married can help create a more dynamic and positive community

Fig 2.1.9 - Describes the different types of martial statuses.

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


15,700 4,260

Traffic Count (2004) Traffic Count (1997)

2. Few fully developed streets in downtown. Many blocks in downtown that were once developed are now paved for parking. Undeveloped blocks create gaps or “missing teeth” in the downtown streetscape and its ability to remain pedestrian friendly. Empty blocks should be a priority for new investment and development.

7

Mixed-use buildings on Washington Street are beginning to offer residential above with office or retail space at street-level. Many communities throughout the United States are realizing the importance of housing to downtown’s success.

Study Area Boundaries Focus Area Boundaries Pedestrian Oriented Corridor

10

13 14 15 16

Legend Single-Family Residential Multi-Family Residential Commercial Services Commercial Goods Commercial Food & Entertainment Special Use - Not for profit Special Use - Education Special Use - Governmental Industrial Parking Lot Green Space - Park Available for Development

9

12

3. Surface parking separates residential neighborhoods and parks from downtown. Parking in downtown is important for Downtown Columbus' functionality. However, large surface parking lots that separate downtown from surrounding neighborhoods and amenities, make downtown less attractive to walk to from nearby areas.

Existing Land Use Framework

8

11

2.1.3 Gentrification

Taking Stock of the Community

Downtown Columbus | Strategic Planning Project

Public/Free Restricted 3 Hour Limit Public/Free Restricted <1 Hour Limit

that added a vibrancy and activity to downtown. Today, these storefronts are primarily occupied by legal and banking services that are important to downtown's functionality but have a limited ability to animate the street particularly after-hours. Much care should be given to locate businesses and shops that create activity and after-hour attractions at the streetlevel.

17

4. Fifth Street is a significant architectural tourism corridor. Fifth Street connects the community to Mill Race Park and the neighborhoods to the east and functions as a major community “front door” for tourists. 5. Second and Third Streets move traffic “past” downtown. The one-way streets, particularly Second and Third Streets, quickly and efficiently move traffic past Downtown Columbus. Travelers and visitors can easily miss downtown because it is not apparent, through signage and development cues, where downtown begins and ends. 6. Limited residential units within the downtown. Like many small communities in the Midwest, Downtown Columbus housing is limited. The Columbus housing market is strongest to the north, west, and east of Columbus. Downtown housing is important to create a strong and vibrant “24-hour” downtown. 7. Limited “after-hours” activity unless an event is programmed. Downtown Columbus is most active from 8 am - 5 pm. Most downtown stores and businesses close at or before 5 pm. Many of the activities and stores that remain open after 5 pm are located in the Commons Mall thus adding little animation and activity to the street. 8. Side streets have a “fragile” level of activity. Most activity in Downtown Columbus is located along Washington Street and downtown offers limited pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. As a result, side streets are often devoid of activity even during normal business hours.

18 19

Coriden Law Office on Washington Street (shown above) is one of many businesses that benefits from free on-street parking in Downtown Columbus. Free on-street parking provides easy access to downtown and its businesses, however patrons and employees do find parking in some locations to be difficult during peak hours.

20 21

S h

B-3 Central Business 240,000 sq. Ft. / 5.5 Acres B-3 Central Business 20,000 sq. Ft. / .5 Acres B-3 Central Business 25,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-3 Central Business 25,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres R-6 Residential 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres B-3 Central Business 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-3 Central Business 50,000 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres B-3 Central Business 43,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre B-3 Central Business 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-4 Highway Business 96,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres B-3 Central Business 76,000 sq. Ft. / 1.7 Acres B-3 Central Business 48,500 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres B-3 Central Business 52,000 sq. Ft. / 1.2 Acres B-3 Central Business 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres B-3 Central Business 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres B-3 Central Business

Demographics

Vacant Property 22 45,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre B-4 Highway Business 23 125,000 sq. Ft. / 2.8 Acres B-2 Community Business 24 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres B-4 Highway Business (west ½) B-3 Central Business (east 1/2) 25 25,000 sq. Ft. / .58 Acres B-3 Central Business 26 250,000 sq. Ft. / 5.7 Acres B-5 General Business Vacant Structure 27 28,000 sq. Ft. / .66 Acres B-4 Highway Business 28 127,000 sq. Ft. / 2.9 Acres B-3 Central Business 29 90,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres I-2 Medium Industrial

Fig 2.1.11 - Analyzes the downtown in more depth, giving a better understanding of the framework of downtown Columbus.

5

The current status of Columbus is comprised of residents who live on the outer edges of the city. The downtown area is dissipating in population. People who live in these areas claim to have no reason to go downtown. There is a strong market potential for downtown but several obstacles. The first major issue is that there are few amenities that would entice residents from entering. The downtown is situated in between 3 major highways. Because of this visitors just drive right through the area and miss the entire city. The goal is to create a program that brings people back downtown. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig 2.1.12 - Analyzes the relationship between the amount of residents in Columbus vs. Downtown. It shows how the downtown is situated in between 3 major highways making visitors pass right through the area.

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A 3 a a l b A s H


Development Opportunities

29

B-3 Central Business 90,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres I-2 Medium Industrial

PEARL STREET

LAFAYETTE STREET

STREET

Proposed Central Middle School

FIFTH STREET

CALIFORNIA STREET

CALIFORNIA STREET

Vacant Property 22 45,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre B-4 Highway Business 23 125,000 sq. Ft. / 2.8 Acres B-2 Community Business 24 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres B-4 Highway Business (west ½) B-3 Central Business (east 1/2) 25 25,000 sq. Ft. / .58 Acres B-3 Central Business 26 250,000 sq. Ft. / 5.7 Acres B-5 General Business Vacant Structure 27 28,000 sq. Ft. / .66 Acres B-4 Highway Business 28 127,000 sq. Ft. / 2.9 Acres B-3 Central Business 29 90,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres I-2 Medium Industrial

EET WASHINGTON STR

FRANKLIN

JACKSON STREET

BROWN STREET

SECOND STREET

SEVENTH STREET

CALIFORNIA STREET

PEARL STREET

EIGHTH STREET

EIGHTH STREET

8. Side streets have a “fragile” level of activity. Most activity in Downtown Columbus is located along Washington Street and downtown offers limited pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. THIR As aDresult, side STREET streets are often devoid of activity even during normal business hours.

town. Eliminating these gaps in the city and providing more amenities will help to motivate people to walk. Vacantengaged Structure in all of the activities instead of driving to their single destination This will force people to be more 27 28,000 sq. Ft. / .66 Acres landBusiness that encompass unused buildings should be immediately and leaving straight away. The 5.5 acresB-4ofHighway 28 127,000 sq. Ft. / 2.9 Acres filled with specific programs. This would be an economically convenient way to start activating the area.

NINTH STREET

CHESTNUT STREET

LAFAYETTE STREET

Mixed-use buildings on Washington Street are beginning to offer residential above with office or retail space at street-level. Many communities throughout the United States are realizing the T NINTH STREE importance of housing to downtown’s success. FRANKLIN STREET

4,260

Traffic Count (2004) Traffic Count (1997) BROWN STREET

LINDSAY STREET

EET

STR

SAY

LIND

Taking Stock of the Community

Downtown Columbus | Strategic Planning Project

T

E RE

TENTH STREET 15,700

Developme

Underused Property 1 330,000 sq. Ft. / 7.5 Acres SU-11 Special Use 2 33,500 sq. Ft. / .77 Acres B-4 Highway Business 3 63,000 sq. Ft. / 1.5 Acres B-2 Business 4 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-3 Central Business 5 138,000 sq. Ft. / 3 Acres B-2 Business 6 57,000 sq. Ft. / 1.3 Acres B-3 Central Business 7 240,000 sq. Ft. / 5.5 Acres B-3 Central Business 8 20,000 sq. Ft. / .5 Acres B-3 Central Business 9 25,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-3 Central Business 10 25,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres R-6 Residential 11 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres B-3 Central Business 12 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-3 Central Business 13 50,000 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres B-3 Central Business 14 43,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre B-3 Central Business 15 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres B-4 Highway Business 16 96,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres B-3 Central Business 17 76,000 sq. Ft. / 1.7 Acres B-3 Central Business 18 48,500 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres B-3 Central Business 19 52,000 sq. Ft. / 1.2 Acres B-3 Central Business 20 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres B-3 Central Business 21 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres B-3 Central Business

CHESTNUT STREET

ST

Unlimited Public/Free Restricted 3 Hour Limit Public/Free Restricted <1 Hour Limit

ELEVENTH STREET

All of the vacant structures reside in the B-3 Central Business 12 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres southwest corner of Downtown where Legend Existing LandB-3 Use Framework SEVENTH STREET Central Business Highway 46 East crosses the White River. Single-Family Residential 13 50,000 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres Multi-Family Residential Commercial Services 4. Fifth Street is a significant architectural tourism corridor. B-3 Central Business Commercial Goods Fifth Street connects the community to Mill Race Park and the neighborhoods to the east 14 43,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre Commercial Food & Entertainment and functions as a major community “front door” for tourists. B-3 Central Business Special Use - Not for profit SIXTH STREET Special Use - Education 15 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres 5. Second and Third Streets move traffic “past” downtown. Special Use - Governmental Coriden Law Office on Washington Street (shown above) is one of B-4 Highway Business The one-way streets, particularly Second and Third Streets, quickly and efficiently move Industrial many businesses that benefits from free on-street parking in traffic past Downtown Columbus. Travelers and visitors can easily miss downtown Parking Lot 16 96,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres Downtown Columbus. Free on-street parking provides easy access to Green Space - Park because it is not apparent, through signage and development cues, where downtown B-3 Central Business downtown and its businesses, however patrons and employees do find Available for Development begins and ends. parking in some locations to be difficult during peak hours. 76,000 sq.contributing Ft. / 1.7 Acres factors to the gentrification 2.1.13 - 17 Analyzes B-3 Central Business 6. Limited residential units within the downtown. Study Area Boundaries issue downtown focusing on undeveloped blocks. STREET FIFTH Like many small communities in the Midwest, Downtown Columbus housing is limited. The 18 48,500 sq. Ft. / 1.1 Acres Focus Area Boundaries Columbus housing market is strongest to the north, west, and east of Columbus. Pedestrian Oriented Corridor B-3 Central Business Downtown housing is important to create a strong and vibrant “24-hour” downtown. 19 52,000 sq. Ft. / 1.2 Acres B-3 Central Business 7. Limited “after-hours” activity unless an event is programmed. Downtown Columbus is most active from 8 am - 5 pm. Most downtown stores and 20 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres FOURTH STREET businesses close at or before 5 pm. Many of the activities and stores that remain open B-3 Central Business after 5 pm are located in the Commons Mall thus adding little animation and activity to the 21 12,000 sq. Ft. / .3 Acres street. B-3 Central Business

Vacant Property 22 45,000 sq. Ft. / 1 Acre B-4 Highway Business According to the diagram there is about acres land 23 34 125,000 sq. Ft.of / 2.8 Acres that are not being used. 12 of these acres consist Businesshave a structure that is being unused. All of these of vacant land that has no structure. 5.5 B-2 of Community these acres 24 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2.2 Acres vacancies create pockets in the city that disrupt circulation of the downtown. It is unnecessary to have B-4 Highwaythe Business (west ½) B-3 Central Business (east 1/2) multiple parking lots in the center of downtown. Residents have complained that parking is an issue down25 25,000 sq. Ft. /5 .58 Acres town. Through observation of the sites itB-3 isCentral clearBusiness that these parking lots are being used but are not beneficial 26 250,000 sq. Ft. / 5.7 Acres to proper functionality. It would be much more appropriate to have parking ramps on the edges of downB-5 General Business

43

On-Street Parking

T

TWELFTH STREE

SYCAMORE STREET

Off-Street Parking Reserved Customer Only Public/Free Restricted 3 Hour Limit

H

Fig

PEARL STREET

8T

eet (shown above) is one of free on-street parking in rking provides easy access to atrons and employees do find uring peak hours.

B-3 Central Business

acres 10 25,000 sq.separates Ft. / .6 Acres 3. Surface parking residential neighborhoods and parks fromcontain downtown. vacant structures. The larger underused Parking in downtown is important for Downtown Columbus' functionality. However, large parcels are located R-6 Residential surface parking lots that separate downtown from surrounding neighborhoods and between downtown and Mill Race Park. 11 95,000 sq. Ft. / 2 Acres amenities, make downtown less attractive to walk to from nearby areas.

Proposed Mill Race Center

TWELFTH STREET

WASHINGTON STREET

W

treet are beginning to offer space at street-level. Many States are realizing the ccess.

B-3developed Central Business 2. Few fully streets in downtown. Many blocks in downtown that were once developed are now paved for parking. 8 20,000 sq. Ft. / .5 Acres According to the diagram approximately Undeveloped blocks create gaps or “missing teeth” in the downtown streetscape and its B-3 Central Business 34 acres land are underused, 12 acres ability to remain pedestrian friendly. Empty blocks should be a priority for newof investment 9 25,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres and development. are vacant land with no structure and 5.5

Legend

JACKSON STREET

Legend

CHESTNUT STREET

D

R Transportation &diagram Parking Framework The Development Opportunities AN LM The site analysis key findings summarize the outcomes of thepresents Downtown Columbus’ L the property in Downtown Underused Property TE physical analysis. Downtown Columbus’ existing physical conditions is a significant factor Columbus determined to be underused or 1 future 330,000 sq. Ft. / Findings 7.5 Acresfrom this study indicate that influencing investment. the market potential in SU-11 Special Downtown Columbus is Use strong; however, physical conditions such asThis land includes use, vacant. vacant land and transportation, infrastructure character will factor into the downtown's ability and to attractsurface parking lots. 2 33,500 sq. Ft. / and .77 Acres buildings new development. The issues that most directly influence potential for redevelopment B-4 Highway Business that is labeled underused is activity in downtown are summarized below. Several issues stemProperty from lack of after-hours 3 63,000 sq. Ft. / 1.5 Acres activity and lack of fully developed blocks while others are relatedprincipally to the way downtown is comprised of surface parking Businessof surface parking lots. organized and B-2 the number but also includes structures that could 4 27,000 sq. Ft. / .6 Acres offer development potential for the uses 1. MostlyB-3 small businesses Central Businessand services at street-level in Downtown. The streets in Downtown Columbus were historically lined with animated shops in andthis stores proposed plan. Property is labeled 5 a 138,000 Ft.activity / 3 Acresto downtown. Today, these storefronts that added vibrancy sq. and vacantfunctionality ifare it primarily is not B-2 and Business occupied by legal banking services that are important to downtown's but a park and it has not received physical improvements. have a limited animate theAcres street particularly after-hours. Much care should be given 6 ability 57,000tosq. Ft. / 1.3 to locate businesses and Business shops that create activity and after-hourStructures attractions at the streetB-3 Central are considered vacant if they level. 7 240,000 sq. Ft. / 5.5 Acres have no use or occupants.

JACKSON STREET

Legend Site Analysis Key Findings

FIRST STREET

WATER

Source: 2005 City of Columbus Downtown DevelopmentFig Potential Inventory 2.1.14& -Property Analyzes the gaps in the city. This helps with understanding Columbus/Bartholomew Planning Department contribute to the gentrification issue downtown. Source: Development Concepts, Inc.

how the gaps

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects

6

The Deve presents Columbus vacant. T buildings Property principally but also offer deve proposed vacant if received Structures have no us

According 34 acres o are vacan acres co larger un between d All of the southwest Highway 4


Context Framework

Landm

Demographics Many residents admit that they do not come downtown for entertainment options. There is an overwhelming need for evening options and entertainment that includes performing arts. Festivals are held from time to time which generate a large community support. These seem to be the main focus for residents attending the area. Programming a space that could hold amenities like this more frequently could help repopulate the area. From analyzing what residents attend there is the greatest potential for success with bar or nightclubs and spaces that have live music performances. The Second Street suspension bridge (pictured above) and Bartholomew County Public Library (pictured below) are just two of 60 architecturally significant structures in Columbus. Of these 60 public and private buildings, 50 provide the most concentrated collection of contemporary architecture in the world. Columbus’ program advocating for modern architecture began in 1942 with a series of events that started when the First Christian Church dedicated its new building. Designed by Eliel Saarinen, the building heralded the beginning of modern architecture in Columbus. Since then, many award-winning architects have designed buildings in Columbus including Richard Meier, I. M. Pei, Kevin Roche, and Robert Venturi.

Dining is ranked as the highest necessity for the locals. They are looking for a variety of options in the median price range. A study was conducted for the market potential through the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Expenditure Interview Survey. Through researching residents within a 15-minute radius, conclusions were made that over 92.5 million dollars is spent annually at restaurants and bars. 16% of this is spent on alcoholic beverL ages. It is also concluded that if the right choices were given residents would spend over 98.6 millionworks, dollars. Amid the famous architectural the Columbus Bar at the intersection of Fourth and Jackson Streets offers local After analyzing this date through supply and demand and what the city could handle it is clear there is most residents and tourists with a place to gather. potential for full service restaurants. There is potential for 8 of these types of restaurants, which would generate over 7 million dollars!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Landmarks

Context Framework

Context Framework Legend

Golf Courses/Country Clubs Parks and Recreation connects Mill Race Park to residential and institutional Fig 2.1.15 - Analyzes contributing factorsFifth toStreet the gentrification to the hours. east and is linked by seven of Columbus’ significant of after issue downtown focusing on a lackuses

H

Columbus Regional Hospital

works of modern architecture.

Shopping A Clifty Crossing B Fair Oaks Mall(pictured above) and The Second Street suspension bridge C Library Northern Villagebelow) Center Bartholomew County Public (pictured are just two of D Eastbrook 60 architecturally significant structures inPlaza Columbus. Of these 60 E 25th Street Shopping public and private buildings, 50 provide the most Center concentrated F architecture West Hill Shopping CenterColumbus’ collection of contemporary in the world. G Holiday Center began in 1942 with a program advocating for modern architecture H Columbus series of events that started when the First Christian Church Center dedicated its new building.I Designed by Eliel Saarinen, the building Edinburgh Premium Outlets the beginning ofJ modern Cloverarchitecture Center in Columbus. Since The downtown area is known for being a 9-5 city, with most stores and amenities closing at this time.heralded This is Mill Race Park occupies 85 acres at the western edge then, of Downtown many award-winning designed buildings in K architects Columbushave Crossing a major problem with the gentrification issue. After surveying theColumbus. surrounding a consensus of the most It includesareas a 500-seat performance amphitheater Columbus including Richard I. M. Pei, Kevin Roche, and Robert L Meier, Commons Mall of accommodating a round lake; a boat house for convenient times to visit the city was conducted. Most agreed thatcapable it was after 5 and5,000; on the weekends, the Venturi. paddle boat rentals; three picnic shelters; a large playground; a exact opposite of what is actually happening.

basketball court; a fishing pier; a park overlook and park tower; horseshoe pits; restrooms; connection of the existing People Trail with athe one-half mile Riverpotential Walk; and a wetland interpretiverevearea. It is evident through research and survey that Washington Street has greatest generating

nue on shopping. Residents express the need for such attractions in motivating them to come downtown. It is suggested to include stores that would create a wide variety. Hobby stores would generate a great amount of success. It is determined that tourists spend about 21% of their spending on shopping. This is a huge amount of revenue that could be received while bringing in more people to other attractions.

Points of Interest Significant Architectural Points

L

Amid the famous arc the intersection of Fo residents and tourists

Target is one of many “big box” retail stores located on National Road (U.S. 31 Bypass) on the north side of Columbus that draws patrons from throughout Bartholomew and adjoining Counties.

Landmarks

Framework Legend Fig 2.1.16 - displays where Context the current points of interest and shopping areas are located. This helps Golf Courses/Country Clubsimprovements could be made. give a more clear understanding where exactly

Parks and Recreation

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fifth Street connects Mill Race Park to residential and institutional uses to the east and is linked by seven of Columbus’ significant works of modern architecture.

H

Columbus Regional Hospital Shopping

44


Fig 2.1.17- Analyzes contributing factors to the gentrification issue downtown focusing on one way streets.

The one-way streets have caused a major problem with how people interact with the downtown. While 2nd and 3rd street are very effective with getting people moving, it causes people to completely miss the downtown. There is not proper signage helping to indicate where the downtown is located. The big grayed area on the map indicates the proposed museum design space. It is centrally located within the downtown area. This could help to better circulate the city. Since there is poor circulation and parking having this centrally located building could help encourage people to walk from the outer areas where parking garages could be located. This would also help to generate population to other programs that could be produced near by. The smaller block is another proposed place that could help when programming about education. It is located next to an educa-

45

Fig 2.1.17 - Shows where one way streets are causing people to completely miss the downtown adding to the gentrification issue.

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.2 Economical Status Designing a museum that fits the city of Columbus’ master plan wouldn’t only be beneficial in creating a more cohesive addition to the city’s fabric, but also helps make the museum be more economical. Using the city’s existing buildings and connecting them to the programs at the museum will help with cost, as well as help encourage good circulation within the city. Our research shows a lack of education diversity in the city of Columbus. This is influenced by the minimal amount of private schools and low household incomes. A museum that bridges that disconnection of education is a good option because it would encourage people to come in as opposed to push them away for it’s foreign language in design.

Fig 2.2.1 - Describes the rates at which you can rent different apartment types at.

Fig 2.2.2 - Describes household income and trends for the residents throughout a decade.

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46


Fig 2.2.3 - Describes the most common male jobs.

Fig 2.2.4 - Describes the most common female jobs.

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This graph reinforces Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; pioneer role in the engineering and manufacturing industry amongst the total residents of Indiana. 10% of the entire male population of Columbus is involved in engineering. This is not surprising given the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s affiliation with manufacturing and industrial production.

In opposition to the male statistic, the most common female occupations are typically administrative, secretarial, and educational. Secretaries and support roles within administrations hold the greatest percent of female occupations at 7%. This statistic, in combination with the statistics for male occupation reveals an important trend within the city: culturally established gender roles are still professionally enforced. Their professional encouragement is likely a reflection of the overall culture within the city.

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

Fig 2.2.5 - Describes the most common male Industries.

Fig 2.2.6 - Describes the most common female industries.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

48


2.2 Cultural Profile of Columbus This section will more closely examine the cultural profile of the city of Columbus. The examination will include both residents and tourists and forces that exist within the cities infrastructure that helped to establish the predominant cultural trends within. Conversely, the existence of these institutions and infrastructures are a direct reflection of the values of the residents and employees. Transportation systems, employment rates and occupations, education, religion, crime, and existing cultural institutions all contribute to and reflect the cultural of Columbus. Of course, these factors do not independently influence the residents but they also work together, in either harmony or dissonance to perpetuate and strengthen the cities cultural virtues.

It is important to note that the city of Columbus is the only city within Bartholomew County with a sizable population. This has earned the city a â&#x20AC;&#x153;hubâ&#x20AC;? status for the county and it has become the cultural center for the surrounding area. Despite Indianapolisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; proximity, Columbus remains an important node in the Indiana landscape. Due to this condition, Columbus must serve the greater county and has been outfitted with an airport and other forms of public transit. Fig. 2.3.1- Graph of relationships of city population within Bartholomew County

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.2.1 Columbus Transportation The city of Columbus, like many urban hubs surrounded by rural landscape, relies heavily on private vehicular transportation. With such an environment as this, other forms of transportation such as walking or biking or train are less convenient if not less time effective. The city of Columbus does implement a bus “fixed-route” system consisting of four primary routes throughout the city. Fig. 2.3.4 shows a map of these routes.

Fig 2.3.3 Transportation within the city is dominated by single drivers.

This map reveals a key cultural fact about the city: there is little sustainable consciousness with regard to transportation. For the majority of the residents, the choice to drive alone to work is reinforced by the popularity of the decision. The small yellow district in the center of the city highlights the area of “most bike riders”. This number, 7.1%, is encouraging however when compared to the rest of the districts it appears to be an anomaly within the city. Fig 2.3.2 - Shows the % of people that bike to work. The greatest density located in a central district (represented in yellow) has 7.1% residents reporting that they regularly bike to work.

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Willow Glen Apts.

:49

Route 1

Route 3

Greenbe lt Golf Course

Boarding Point ............................ Time

Boarding Point ............................ Time

Leave Depot ................................................................ :05 11th & Franklin ........................................................... :08 22nd & Home (Donner Center) .................................... :12 27th & Home (North, Northside, St. B’s)....................... :13 Rockyford & Central (Willow Crossing) ........................ :17 Ivy Tech / IUPUC / Social Security / Airport .................. :19 Rockyford / Candlelight...................................................... :24 Leave Target Inbound .......................................................:35 Middle Road (NorthPark) ....................................................... :38 Central & National (Krogers) .............................................. :40 27th & Maple (Northside) .................................................:41 25th & Home (Subway, Taco Bell, North) ..................... :43 22nd & Chestnut ......................................................... :44 15th & Washington (Trustee) ....................................... :49 Depot at Mill Race Station ........................................... :55

Jefferso n Ed. Center

Leave Depot ................................................................. :05 8th & Central ................................................................ :10 Gladstone at Quail Run................................................. :11 17th & Gladstone (Hospital).......................................... :13 Beam & National (Captain D’s, Marsh) ......................... :17 Waycross (Villas, Fairington, Smith) .............................. :20 25th & Lockerbie (Lincoln VIllage) ................................ :21 25th Foxpointe ............................................................. :23 Williamsburg (Holiday Center) ...................................... :28 Leave Target Inbound ................................................... :35 Midway (CHR, Two-Worlds) .......................................... :37 17th & Gladstone (Hospital).......................................... :40 14th & Cottage (United Way) ........................................ :43 7th & Pearl (Central Middle) ......................................... :50 Depot at Mill Race Station ............................................ :55

UNITED WAY Flatr ock Park

I.U.P.U.C.

Social Secur ity Office

IUPUC Info-Tech Park Nor thbrook

Par k Forest Estates North

:19

Ivy Tech

Sims Homestead Addn.

Nor thbrook Park

Route 4

Route 2 Boarding Point ............................ Time

Breakaway Trails

Boarding Point ............................ Time

Homestead Mobile Home

Leave Depot .................................................................:05

Leave Depot ................................................................ :05

Tr ansit

5th & Chestnut ............................................................ :10

Westenedge Park

17th & Home (Party Mart) ........................................... :13

Par kside School

Par k Forest Estates

25th & Hawcreek (CSA, Lincoln Center)........................ :17 25th & Taylor ............................................................... :23

Wehmeier (East High School) .............................................. :15 Candlelight Village

McKinley & McClure (McDowell, Eastside) .......................... :17 10th & Creekview (Goodwill,Movies, Walmart) .................... :20

Canterbury Apar tments

Deerfield

Hobby Lobby ............................................................... :25

State Street (Health Dept, Love Chapel, Dorel) .................... :10 Peppertree Village

Par kside

The Woods

Leave Target Inbound .................................................. :35 ColumBus

9th St. Park

Statio n :05

Leave Target Inbound .......................................................... :35

Willowwood Apts.

For est Park Nor th

FairOaks (back entrance Kmart) .................................. :40

:17

22nd & Cottage (Big Cheese) ...................................... :42

:23

Heathfield

10th & McClure ................................................................... :39 Schnier (Mapleview,CIMA, BMV, Centerstone) ..................... :40

Windsor Place

Cedar Ridge

Broadmoor Nor th

Indiana & Marr (East High, Columbus Christian) .................. :42

5th & Pearl (Lincoln, Library, Visitors Center) ............... :49

McKinley & Hope (Five Points, FFY) ..................................... :47

Depot at Mill Race Station ........................................... :55

Broadmoor

Depot at Mill Race Station ................................................... :55

Mead Village For est Park West

:38

Sims

Mead Village Park

Cor nerstone's Nor thpark

Hillcrest

Jefferson Park

For est Park

Nor ther n Village Shopping Center

Tipton Park North Columbus Village Apts. Nor thside Middle

Ever road Park

:40

Ever r oad Park West

:41 School

Madison Park

Chapel Square

Grant Park

Car riage Estates

G B

Foxpointe Schmidt Tipton Park School

Central Middle School

Eastbrook Plaza

25th St. Shopping Center

Fairington Apts.

Briar wood Apts. Eastgate Smith School

:23

Edgewood

Sandy Hook

Quinco

Har tford Place

ColumBus

:13

City Cemetery

H

Hospital

McKinley Apts.

Washington Ct. Apts.

:25

Willow Glen Apts.

Clifty Crossing

Greenbelt Golf Course

UNITED WAY

Jefferson Ed. Center

County Gov. Bldg

ck

Riv

Columbus City Utilities

Tr ansit ColumBus

Station :05

Mill Race Park

Gar land Br ook

Central Middle School

Ar mory Apts. Library

:49

The Commons

Creekview

Centerstone

Creekview

McDowell

Prestwick Square

ColumBUS Transit

Court Syc amore Ser vices Place Apts. Center City Hall

M

Knollwood

Mor ningside Park

Foundation For Youth

County Gov. Bldg

Court House

The Ridge

Clifty School

Stonegate

Lincoln School

Cummins

Court Syc amore Ser vices Place Apts. Center

Foundati on For Youth

Heritage Wood Apar tments

9th St. Park

Cummins

tr o Fla

er

McCulloughs Run Park

k

Noblitt Park

Edgewood South Pic Way Plaza

ee

Donner Park

Quail Run

Cambr idge Square

Jail

Steinhurst Manor

Country Br ook

Hours of Operation: 6:00 am – 7:00 pm Monday through Saturday ColumBUS Transit has four fixed routes that leave the Mill Race Stations at Five (:05) after each hour.

Cr

ee

k

Clifty Park

Ha

w

County Highway Gar age

City Hall

Jail

Fixed route service is 25¢ per trip, payable upon boarding.

Fodrea

Pence St. Park

Transferring to another route will be an additional 25¢.

Columbus East High School

Pence Place Apts

Wehmeier Addition

Cosco

All vehicles are accessible. All fixed routes are equipped with bicycle racks.

South Mapleton Industr ial Park

Proposed Site

Recycling Center

Cr

ee

k

As seen in Fig. 2.3.4, the proposed site is situated in a crucial zone for public transportation. The primary transit station is 5 blocks away and the red line which services the central West-East axis of the city runs down the adjacent street, 5th. While elsewhere it has been made apparent that the primary form of transportation is personal vehicle, the infrastructure for promoting more sustainable travel exists and is concentrated nearest our initial site.

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Apts

Applegate

Tar get :35

Two Worlds

Noblitt Falls

Cummins

Court House

Lincoln Village Apts.

Char leston Square

Columbus Center Lincoln Park

:17 Donner Center Par ks & Rec

:49

The Commons

Sandy Hook Nor th

Hiker Trace Clover Center

Hamilton Center

Cr

:49

Holiday Center

ft y

Library

Crump Estates

:42

Lincoln School

Flintwood Foxpointe Apts.

Fair Oaks Mall

:12 :43

376-2506

Fairlawn

Cli

Ar mory Apts.

Cu mm ins

Mill Race Park

Columbus Nor th High School

Williamsburg Apar tments

Ever road Park

:40

Boarding Points – Route 1 Donner Center / North High School / St. Bartholomew

Schmitt Elementary / Ivy Tech / IUPUC / Learning Center Social Security / Candlelight / Target / Northpark Medical Sandcrest / Kroger / International School of Columbus Northside Middle School / Taco Bell / Volunteers in Medicine Moose

= Shelter (available in these areas) City Gar age

Boarding Points – Route 2 Chestnut / Party Mart / Family Video / CSA New Tech / Lincoln Park / Marsh / Holiday Center / Hobby Lobby / Aldi / Target Fair Oaks Mall / Big Cheese / California / St. Peters / CSA Lincoln Library / Visitors Center / Post Office

Bar tholomew

Boarding Points – Route 3 8th St. 1st Presbyterian / Quail Run / Hospice / Captain D’s Marsh / Holiday Center / Villas / Fairington / Smith Elementary Lincoln Village / Foxpointe Apts. / Flintwood / Richards Elementary Williamsburg / Holiday Center / Target / CHR / Two Worlds Hospital / United Way / COHA / Central Middle School Volunteers in Medicine

Boarding Points – Route 4 City Hall / Health Dept. / Dorel / Wehmeier / East High School McDowell / Eastside Comm. Center / DSI / Goodwill / AMC Movie Theater / Walmart / Cummins GOB / Target / Quail Run Mapleview / BMV / Centerstone / Columbus Christian / CSA Fodrea / FFY / Cummins Tech Center / Courthouse

Fig 2.3.5 - Bus routes within the city Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects

County

F


Demographics

2.2.2 The Employment of Columbus

Fig 2.3.7 - Describes the payroll rate in Columbus.

Columbus has within its borders the standard institutions found in nearly every city. These are establishments such as retail, entertainment, accommodation, education, and production/manufacturing. What sets Columbus apart is its thriving manufacturing industry, epitomized by the Cummins Industry headquarters. As indicated by the chart, the manufacturing industry brings in 56% of the total annual payroll for the city. This industry also employs the greatest number of people within the population of any existing industry. Fig 2.3.6 - Describes the employee rate in Columbus. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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2.2.4 Religion Statistically, 74% of the residents of Columbus identify with one Christian denomination or another. The remaining 26% can only be identified as â&#x20AC;&#x153;otherâ&#x20AC;? in the chart as they are dwarfed by the shear number of believers in Christianity. This has made a fairly strong impression in the Columbus city culture. Churches have historically been well funded and many of them were designed by some of the premier architects of their time. As a result, according to a strategic research plan for Downtown Columbus conducted by the Columbus Redevelopment Commission in 2005, the number one reason that residents come into the downtown area is for church. This is important information for the design of the Museum for Industrial Innovation as the proposed site is flanked by two of the most prominent churches in the city. Another interesting note which will later be discussed in greater detail is the presence of private religious educational institutions such as elementary schools and schools teaching at higher levels.

Fig 2.3.8 - Describes the types and quantity of religious buildings their are in Columbus.

What little homosexual representation is present in Columbus has been pushed to the outskirts of the city. While there may also be other factors this could have something to do with the strong religious persuasion of the residents within the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s borders. Fig 2.3.9 - Describes the % likely for homosexual households

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.2.3 Education

As seen in this graph, Columbus has a lower percentage of residents that have graduated high school than the rest of the state. However, on the other hand they have a greater number of residents with at least a bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree and their percent of those with masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degrees is nearly double the Indiana average. This statistic speaks to the primary occupations and industries within the city. A large company like Cummins employs a great number of engineers, an occupation that requires at least a bachelors. It can be inferred that those greater numbers are employees of these larger companies and are probably not native to Columbus but rather were brought into this manufacturing hub, thus skewing the averages. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig 2.3.10 - Analyzes the educational attainment in Columbus.

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Elementary Schools: — PK-8 5 Christian Affiliated 10 No religious affiliation Middle Schools — 7-8 No religious affiliation High Schools — 9-12 No religious Affiliation Other: — PK - 12 All Christian

Clearly, the county does not lack formal education opportunities. While many of the elementary schools are strictly pre-K, they still contribute to the prototypical path of the American student. However, a well balanced education is two fold, consisting of both formal and informal education. So, despite the numerous opportunities presented , the city lacks an outlet for the students to continue to educate themselves in a more engaging and less formal environment. This type of structure can help establish negative connotations towards educational establishments which may explain why as many as 33% of the residents chose to not pursue higher education after high school. Fig 2.6.10 - Analyzes where the educational facilities are located.

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.2.5 Existing Cultural Establishments Columbus Top Tourist Attractions 1 - Miller House 2 - North Christian Church 3 - First Christian Church 4 - Mill Race Park 5 - Columbus Architecture Tours 6 - The Commons 7 - Kids Commons 8 - St. Peters Lutheran Church 9 - Zaharakoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ice Cream Parlour and Museum

Cultural Institution Religious Religious Park Cultural Entertainment Entertainment Religious Food

The trend within the tourist attractions is immediately evident- it leans towards cultural and architectural institutions and entertainment. As an architectural mecca of the Midwest, the city is often visited for just such reasons. The three churches on the list are religious establishments but rarely do tourists visit these for their own salvation, but rather to view the incredible design of these spaces. In this instance it could be said that they are cultural institutions as well considering the cultural and architectural value placed on them by the residents of the city and the greater community.

Columbus Top Resident Attractions 1 - Church 2 -Bank 3 - Post Office 4 - City Hall / Courthouse 5 - Parks 6 - Kids Commons 7 - Entertainment 8 - Library 9 -Shopping

Religious Official Government Government Recreation Entertainment Entertainment Entertainment/Education Entertainment

The trend for the residents is slightly different than that of tourists. The top reason for a resident to visit downtown is to attend church. This is probably augmented by the architectural prowess of these religious spaces but more likely due to the strong Christian culture of the city. The second, third, and fourth reasons for visiting downtown are necessities and present a bleak view of the culture of downtown: there are few compelling reasons to visit. The latter attractions are better indicators of a thriving urban area but the fact is they remain less frequented than official establishments.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig 2.3.11 - Types of establishments within Columbus

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Upon review of the most frequented destinations by tourists and residents, note that many opportunities for informal education do exist within the cities infrastructure. However, despite their presence, they remain primarily an attraction for tourists and disregarded by the residents, further contributing to the educational bipolarity of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture. This likely has to do with the fact that these institutions are capable of holding interest for perhaps one or two visits so the residents need not return (consequently contributing to gentrification mentioned earlier).

Fig 2.3.12 - Attractions near site

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.2.6 Crime Robberies and Assaults are extremely low when compared to the National average, often times 3 times lower rates by year. In contrast, theft is outrageously high in Columbus, often doubling national averages. In recent years, Columbus has seen a dramatic increase in auto-theft, while the national average has been on a steady decline. Crimes like arson, murder, and rape have seemingly no pattern or clear average. Overall, Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; national rating is near average however it is important to note these select crimes that are significantly more present.

Fig 2.3.13 - Describes the Crime Rates in Columbus.

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2.3 Client Profiles Visitors Profile: -Interest in architecture -Middle-aged men and women -Family oriented -Interest in street fairs and car shows -Interest in marathons -Typical American tourist

Funders profiles: -Cummins is the leading diesel engine company that has helped develop and shape the City of Columbus. They can be a possible funder for the project given that the museum is housing industrial innovative objects. -Visitor center in Columbus has a history of funding art and design initiatives within the city including hosting tours of the Miller House. It is reasonable to conclude that they too would have interest in the proposed museum, especially given its immediate adjacency.

Columbus is ranked 6th in the nation by the American Institute of Architects for its architectural masterpieces, making it a good destination for people with interest in architecture. The preceding research shows that the most likely visitors of Columbus are middle-aged or older families because of the activities associated with the city. There are not many businesses or programs designed to attract a younger demographic. There is however the car show and other street fair around the year that attracts families and car fanatics. There are also other activities including various biking and running marathons. The Cummins running marathon has become a big attraction in Columbus attracting more than 5,000 people every year.

Resident profiles: - Caucasian -Adults (over the age of 18) -Family oriented with children -Married -Lower middle class -Traditional -Christian -Republicans m, Looking at the demographics of Columbus, a recurring pattern for the type of resident therein is established. Most of the people that reside in the city are white adults over the age of 18. Lots of them are married with children, or live with their blood-related families. Looking at the abundance of religious educational institutes, and the great number of churches in Columbus, we concluded that the people are very traditional. This research also showed a percentage as low as 0.3% of self-proclaimed homosexuals in the city. Looking at that combined with the number of votes that went to republicans during the presidential elections shows that most people have conservative point of views. The household income was low relative to the price of real estate, which concludes that most of the residents are lower-middle class.

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Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

2.4 The Columbus Condition

There is a positive chain reaction that can follow an increase of income for the residents of Columbus. This reaction can affect the appeal to improve the education and diversity that the city lacks. Increasing education opportunities by proposing more prospects of classes, schools, and informal education will result in a more cultured and conscious people. Residents with higher education can trigger new job opportunities and can have a better chance of getting a good job at Cummins Company. This will undoubtedly result in an increased income. That income can affect the city in various ways including the improvement of their educational system. There is minimal enrollment of students at private schools and that can be caused by the low income. With greater income, parents will have the chance to enroll their students in better schools. Improving urban circulation is another aspect the city can benefit from. Instead of building new buildings, one can spread out and disperse the programs into existing buildings in the city to enliven underutilized pockets. Maximize the available programs rather than proposing entirely new ones. Making smart design choices and solutions can decrease the energy usage the building uses, as well as serve to be a form of informal education for residents and visitors.

Fig 2.5.1 - Analyzes the current condition of Columbus and how things effect each other.

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Conclusion To conclude, this investigation has uncovered many cultural and social imbalances that exist within the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structure. The residents are proud of their city, of that there is no doubt, and much of that pride stems from the architectural monuments erected within. However, as evidenced in the preceding pages, their culture is unstable and not sustainable. The continuing imbalance of education, catalyzed by the lack of informal educational institutions and infrastructure that promote a mixing of educational classes is not a sign of a culturally and economically thriving city. Many of these issues are inherently linked and through attempting to solve one, all the otherse will receive residual effect. In the case of museum design, an approach towards educational promotion seems to be the most logical path towards cultural stabilization.

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Demographics

CHAPTER 2 - Demographic Analysis of Columbus: WORKS CITED Ahmed Al Monsouri, Alex Olevitch, Bec Ribeiro

Development Concepts Inc. Downtown cColumbus Strategic Planning. Strategic Plan. Columbus: City of Columbus, 2005.

Welcome To Columbus Indiana. 1 1 2013. 20 9 2013 <http://www.localcensus.com/city/Columbus/Indiana>.

Bartholomew County, Indiana . 10 1 2012. 1 10 2013 <http://www.stats.indiana.edu/profiles/ profiles.asp?scope_choice=a&county_changer=18005&button1=Get+Profile&id=2&page_ path=Area+Profiles&pah_id=11&panel_number=1>

Columbus Indiana Population and Demographics Resources. 1 January 2013. 20 September 2013 http://columbusin.areaconnect.com/statistics.html>

Columbus, Indiana. 2012. 20 9 2013 <http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/indiana/columbus>. Population in Columubus. 2013 <http://www.americantowns.com/in/columbus/info/population>.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Columbus, Indiana. 10 1 2013. 1 10 2013 <http://www.city-data.com/city/Columbus-Indiana. html>


CHAPTER 3: Trends and Forecasts: Urban Design, Landscape, and Architecture David Greco, Jackie Katcher, and Sarah Ward

3.0 Introduction 3.1 Urban Planning 67 3.2.1 The City of Columbus Comprehensive Plan 3.2.2 The Neighborhoods of Columbus 3.2.3 Ongoing Projects 3.2 Landscape 87 3.2.1 Evolution of the Landscape 3.2.2 Flood Plains 3.2.3 Standards and Ordinances 3.2.4 Corridors of Columbus 3.3 Architecture 95

3.4.1. Modern Architecture as a Source of Civic Pride 3.4.2 Columbus Architecture in the 1800s 3.4.3 Modernism Comes to Columbus 3.4.4 Cummins Foundation Architecture Program Founded- 1957 3.4.5 I.M. Pei Builds Bartholomew County Public Library- 1969 3.4.6 The Era of Columbus Additions and Renovations 3.4.7 Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Petition for Green

3.4 Conclusion + Design Recommendations 103 3.5 References + Works Cited 104 Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Trends and Forecasts

Introduction This chapter is intended to present the trends and progress of Columbus as a whole. In order to compile the information read here, our team has researched three main subject areas: Urban Design, Landscape Design, and Architecture. The underlying premise of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attitude toward these subjects is sustainability. In order to allow the community to function as a whole, the private and public sectors work together to provide the residents with tools for success. A major factor in the forming of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure is the Cummins Corporation, a service engine and technology company headquartered in Columbus. This privately owned corporation has funded a large number of buildings in the city of Columbus. This has enabled architecture talents to build notable works of architecture there. Despite the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rank as the sixth most notable city for architecture in the United States, our database research, internet research, books, and a visit to the city itself, has lead us to come to a few opposing conclusions. One is that the city of Columbus lacks in public open space. Its downtown is filled with inefficient single-level parking lots and its outer limits are devoid of activity. Although the attempts to provide public space through Mill Race Park was successful in turning around its neighborhood, it was not able to connect the city as a whole. Another is that the city has not significantly contributed to its collection of buildings since its building boom of the late 60s through the early 80s. Overall, the city still has much to improve upon, but it has enormous potential due to its rich infrastructure. Arch 401 - Fall 2013


3.1 Urban Planning 3.2 Urban Planning

3.1.1 The City of Columbus Comprehensive Plan The city of Columbus has changed considerably throughout the years in order to meet the needs of the consistently growing population and the changing world around it. Because of these changes, Columbus has produced its own comprehensive plan which addresses multiple elements of the city planning. Each element of the plan goes into detail by highlighting the planning principles, the issues that need to be resolved, and proposing solutions for further development of the city. The current comprehensive plan contains six separate elements that were adopted over time starting with the Goals and Policies element in 1999. The six elements are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Goals and Policies Land Use Plan Thoroughfare Plan Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Downtown Plan Central Avenue Corridor Plan

By taking a look at the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comprehensive plan, both current and past, one can understand how the city has addressed the needs of the changing city and how these acts have begun to shape it into what we now see today. This section will further discuss some of these elements within the plan and how these past, current, and future plans affect what is being built today. To keep this section brief, only certain major elements of each plan that need to be addressed when understanding how the city planning department operates within Columbus will be discussed. This is vital in order to understand how planning has evolved within Columbus and how this has affected what has been built within the city.

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Fig. 1.1 - Land Use/District Map of Columbus in 1949.

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Trends and Forecasts

Goals and Policies The Goals and Policies element is divided into two sections: Part 1 is a statement of the community values and Part 2 is a detailing of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policies for further redevelopment. The communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values are listed in eight catergories: small-city atmosphere, farmland, open space, and recreation areas, environmental quality, community appearance, economic vitality and diversity, accessibility, streets and utilities, and intergovernmental cooperation. Understanding the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values and what their intent for planning within the city is critical for designing to meet the needs of the people of Columbus. Without this, the design lacks cohesiveness and connectivity within the greater scale of the city. The Goals and Policies themselves are also listed in ten catergories: development patterns, environment, parks and recreation, housing, commercial development, transportation and streets, drainage and stormwater, utilities, public facilities, and economic development. Each category lists specific goals and policies that corresponds with each topic. These are intended to help understand what the city is striving towards and how they want to go about redeveloping it.

Land Use Plan

Fig. 1.2 - Currently adopted Land Use Plan. This map shows where Columbus is planning to change in terms of expansion of land use.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

The Land Use Plan is the second element of the comprehensive plan and was adopted to promote the community values and further the goals and policies by establishing land use priniciples for Columbus. The current future land use map (see Fig. 2.1) is not meant to be a zoning map, but a map that is flexible and that can be used as a guideline. The catergories of future land use are as follows: agriculture, mixed use, residential, estate/cluster residential, industrial, commercial, floodway/sensitive area, and special use (airport). By creating these land use catergories, the city can understand how each area of Columbus is being utilized and what possible further redevelopment might need to take place in those areas.

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Thouroughfare Plan The Thouroughfare Plan element is used as a guide to understanding and anticipating the future transportation needs within the city and responds to those needs by identifying conceptual options for a well-coordinated, efficient, and effective street network. This element works in conjunction with the Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan and Land Use Plan to create an overall well-designed system of connections throughout the city. The plan is comprised of two components: the Thoroughfare Plan policies and the Thoroughfare Plan map. The policies are intended to describe the overall philosophy of the city of Columbus in regards to the transportation network within its jurisdiciton. The map is the application of those policies in a graphic representation format so as to understand the opportunities for future growth and development. Another important aspect to creating a well-designed transportation network is understanding the traffic patterns of Columbus and how those have changed over the years. The growing population and the expansion of the city land use has caused some streets to become overwhelmed with traffic. This means that the city needs to rethink the overall thoroughfare plan and how to create connections within the city that are safe for not only drivers, but bicyclists and pedestrians as well.

Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan A newer element to the comprehensive plan is the Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, which was first adopted in 2010. The city conducted a public survey in 2008 which gave them a look at the types of transportation people were primarily using and where most of them lived and worked. After conducting this survey, the city had a better understanding of the need to improve the systems for pedestrian and bicycle traffic to make them more enjoyable and safe to use, while at the same time, discouraging the reliance on vehicles for transportation. Also, because the obesity rate has been increasing in more recent years, this has caused an even greater concern for the city planning department to develop a better trail system for both pedestrians and bicyclists, which will encourage them to be healthier and more active.

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Fig. 1.3 - Bicycle and Pedestrian Systems Plan Map shows how all the trails will connect within the city and to their specific destinations.

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Trends and Forecasts

Downtown Plan The purpose of the Downtown Plan element is to establish a framework and direction to create an active and vibrant downtown that is able to support significant development investment and can improve economic vitality for the overall city. The five major focuses of this plan are to improve amateur sports and recreation, learning and culture, dining and entertainment, living, and shopping. In order to achieve these ideals, the plan involves conducting a market analysis which assesses the economic conditions of the area, establishing the framework for future growth and development plans, identifying potential redevelopment opportunities and projects to activate the downtown, and preparing a development strategy for downtown investment. Altogether, this gives the city a redevelopment strategy with economic, physical, and organizational development recommendations to further improve and activate the downtown area. At this point, it is difficult to know how effective this plan will be because it is still in its early stages of being implemented. However, the plan definitely has potential and the process that the city has gone through to develop this plan is logical and consistent with the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values for the area. It is also obvious that the city is well aware of the lack of connectivity of the overall city fabric and how crucial it is for the downtown area to bring everyone together.

Central Avenue Corridor Plan Central Avenue is a prominent transportation corridor featuring a mix of land uses that has developed and evolved over time. It is anchored by the Columbus Municipal Airport to the north and Cummins Plant 1 to the south and connects US 31/National Road to State Road 46. This connecting thoroughfare hosts a steady volume of vehicular traffic while accommodating single-family residential homes, national retailers, vacant and operational industries, and civic institutions, among other types of land uses. Central Avenueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role as a transportation thoroughfare, commercial corridor, and residential street has resulted in conflicting land uses, traffic inefficiencies, and unsafe and undesirable pedestrian environments.

Fig. 1.4 - The Downtown Development Plan shows the strategy that the city planning department wants to implement and how the downtown districts will connect with one another.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

The Central Avenue Corridor Plan is also a relatively new element to the comprehensive plan being that it was first adopted in 2010. This plan provides a vision and strategy for Central Avenue between Rocky Ford Road (northern boundary) and State Street (southern boundary) that is inclusive of the road itself, the uses and neighborhoods along and adjacent to the corridor, areas of influence, and intersecting streets. A corridor study was conducted in 2007 which involved collecting relevant data, identifying primary issues and concerns, and recommending strategies to improve the corridorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s traffic flow. This plan outlines a framework for future development, redevelopment, and public space improvement projects while exploring the recommendations established in the 2007 study.

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3.1.2 The Neighborhoods of Columbus The difficulty of understanding Columbus and its urban fabric is due to the lack of cohesiveness and connectivity within the city. As a result, there are segregated neighborhoods that can be classified for their special character and noteworthy features. This section will describe those neighborhoods in detail making them easier to identify and to understand the feel of each unique environment. From the Land Use Plan element of the City of Columbus Comprehensive Plan, the planning department has classified these parts of the city into 13 “character areas”: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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Downtown Columbus Columbus Central Neighborhoods East Columbus National Road Commercial Corridor Western Rocky Ford Neighborhoods East 25 Street Neighborhoods Columbus Municipal Airport U.S. 31 / Indianapolis Road Area Western Gateway Area Western Hills Woodside / Walesboro Area State Road 11 South Eastern Rural Area

Fig. 1.5 - Map of Columbus neighborhoods.

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Trends and Forecasts

Downtown Columbus This district of Columbus has always received special attention from the planning department and from businesses and institutions within Columbus because it is the heart of the city and requires constant improvement to make it a quality cultural center. As a result, it is an attractive downtown setting for Columbus with a variety of commercial, residential, institutional, and recreational uses. It is also the center of financial and governmental activity of the community. This area is one of the more sustainable areas of the entire city because of its mixed use approach and focus to create a walkable and livable community. The downtown district is also the home of many of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most architecturally significant buildings, as well as Mill Race Park, which is one of the best examples of urban planning, landscape design, and sustainability all coming together. The landscaping and lighting of the downtown area are generally attractive and suit the area well. One of the many projects to help enhance and beautify the downtown area was a streetscape project in the 1980s, which provided new sidewalks and trees, streetlights, and benches. As part of this project, the traffic pattern was also revised. This allowed the downtown traffic to flow more smoothly, slowly, and safely. Downtown Columbus is served by a system of alleys that provide secondary access and service areas. Three of the east-west alleys have been reconstructed to provide attractive pedestrian access to Washington Street.

Fig. 1.6 - Map showing the Downtown Columbus neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Of course, the downtown still has room for improvement. One of the major issues that Columbus has seen in recent years is the general population moving out of the downtown area and into the suburban-like neighborhoods to the north and east of Columbus. This has caused the city to rethink its overall downtown plan. It is important for the downtown to preserve the historical landmarks within the area while at the same time creating a better connectivity between each district and landmark.

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Columbus Central Neighborhoods The Columbus Central Neighborhoods district is adjacent to the Downtown district, surrounding it on the north and east sides. It is a mixed-use area, although residential development predominates. There are commercial, industrial, and recreational uses interwoven with the residential areas, as is typical of older neighborhoods. This type of setting offers convenient access to shopping and services. This area has many mature trees, and most properties are attractively landscaped. For the most part, the area is well maintained. This area contains the oldest residential neighborhoods of Columbus with a variety of housing prices and types. The development pattern is traditional with houses on small lots and small front yards that are set relatively close to the street and streets that are in a grid pattern. This area also has some great examples of adaptive reuse and infill development projects. The Columbus Central Neighborhoods area is also home to the Cummins Engine Company and Reeves Pulley which were born here. The industrial buildings were among the earliest structures built in this area. Cummins Engine Company maintains its main engine plant in this area of town as well as other companies, such as Arvin Industries, Reliance Electric, Golden Castings, and Ventra. As for institutional buildings within the area, the Cleo Rogers Library and the Columbus Visitors Center are two of the more important components of the 5th Street Corridor. There are also some very well-known churches to the area, such as St. Peterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, First Christian, First United Methodist, and First Presbyterian. The neighborhood is also home to several public schools, such as Central and Northside Middle Schools, North High School, and Lincoln and Schmitt Elementary Schools.

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Fig. 1.7 - Map showing the Columbus Central neighborhoods.

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Trends and Forecasts

East Columbus An unincorporated area until the late 1940s, East Columbus remains a relatively cohesive mixed use area. It contains residential neighborhoods, industrial areas, commercial development, parks, and institutional uses. East Columbus, perhaps more than any other area of Columbus, has a sociopolitical cohesiveness. Residents and businesses alike identify with the area and its image as a neighborhood of hardworking people with solid Midwestern values. During the 1970s, the City of Columbus made part of East Columbus a priority for neighborhood improvements by applying for and receiving federal Community Development Block Grant Funds for street and drainage improvements in the area south of State Street. While parts of East Columbus are old and in disrepair, the area also contains several of the city’s architecturally significant buildings, including East High School, Fodrea School, McDowell School, Fire Station 3, the Irwin Union Bank, and the Foundation for Youth. One of the biggest issues that East Columbus is facing right now is the traffic congestion and safety issues on State Street, which is East Columbus’ own “main street.” There is a strong need for revitalization within this area so that it is more pedestrian-friendly. There is also a lack of identity and connection between both sides of the street due to their repetitive scale, which makes this corridor less appealing to the public.

Fig. 1.8 - Map showing the East Columbus neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

There is also a lack of code enforcement causing unsafe buildings and junk cars to be more common within the district, in addition to inaccuarate flood hazard area maps which have caused areas to be destroyed. This area also contains slum and blight which reflects the economic status of some of the people who live in this neighborhood.

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National Road Commercial Corridor This area is the primary commercial corridor in Columbus. Commercial development in this corridor has expanded over the past four decades, and the changes in retail can be seen in the variety of types of centers that are located here. The area contains several strip malls, such as Columbus Center, Northern Village, Clifty Crossing and the 25th Street Shopping Center. Several of these strip malls contain big-box retail development, such as Wal-Mart, Office Max, and Target. Additional big-box development is planned for the property at 10th Street and National Road. Also in the area is the Fair Oaks Mall, an enclosed shopping center. A wide variety of goods and services are available in the National Road Commercial Corridor. The character of this area is typical of commercial corridors in many suburban communities. Because much of the commercial development in this area abuts residential neighborhoods, buffering has been an important land use issue. Strip malls typically are developed with buildings set far back from the street, with expansive parking areas in the front. One result of this type of layout is that the buildings back up and are relatively close to adjacent neighborhoods. Neighboring residents find themselves looking at loading docks, refuse bins, and HVAC equipment. In some of the older centers, such as the 25th Street Shopping Center, there is little or no screening. Planning process participants cited the Fair Oaks Mall as an example of a well-designed center. They noted the extensive landscaping and signs that are informative without being intrusive or excessive. Traffic congestion is also a problem with this area, especially during peak times. Pedestrian movement is another aspect that needs to be improved as well since the sidewalks are few and linkages are poor. This area in general lacks character because of the generic building designs of the big-box stores since they are owned by enterprises. This lack of uniqueness makes this area less memorable and less cohesive with the rest of Columbus.

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Fig. 1.9 - Map showing the National Road Commercial Corridor neighborhood.

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Trends and Forecasts

Western Rocky Ford Neighborhoods In this area, adjacent to the Columbus Municipal Airport, single-family residential development is the dominant land use. The area is suburban in character and is well maintained. The neighborhoods are of the typical subdivision design of the past three decades with wide, curvilinear streets, cul-de-sacs, and relatvely large front yards. Other neighborhoods have more of a traditional design with grid or modified grid street patterns. The area has a wider range of housing prices and types than found in most areas of Columbus with neighborhoods ranging from high-priced homes to mobile home parks. This shows the diversity of income of the people who live in this neighborhood.

Fig. 1.10 - Map showing the Western Rocky Ford neighborhoods.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Because this area is primarily residential, there are very few opportunities to be able to walk or bike to work which puts a strong reliance on cars as a transportation method. By expanding the city outwards into these suburb-like neighborhoods, the city becomes increasinly more spread out and less cohesive as a community.

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East 25th Street Neighborhoods This area is predominantly residential. There is commercial and office development, primarily along 25th Street. The land is relatively flat, making it attractive for economical building sites. There are soil types in the area that are subject to flooding or are unstable, presenting challenges for building construction. The area is suburban in character. Drainage concerns have limited some development in this area. A county regulated drain, Sloanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Branch, is the receiving stream for much of the runoff from development in this area. The County Drainage Board has received complaints that the stormwater discharged into this drain exceeds capacity during and after heavy rains. The residential neighborhoods consist mostly of single-family subdivisions with some apartment complexes for renting options. The neighborhoods within this area are stable and well-maintained unlike parts of the East Columbus neighborhood. Most of the commerical development is located along 25th Street which includes offices, retail, and services. There are also two elementary schools, Richards and Smith, and several churches within the area, such as the First Baptist Church. Fire Station 4 and Par 3 Clubhouse are amongst the more famous architecture of the area as well. This area continues to be active farming within this area due to proximity of this farmland to existing development and to city infrastructure and services.

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Fig. 1.11 - Map showing the East 25th Street neighborhoods.

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Trends and Forecasts

Columbus Municipal Airport

The Columbus Municipal Airport served as a military base during World War II. The U.S. government declared the property to be excess and deeded it to the City of Columbus Board of Aviation Commissioners, with the proviso that in the event of a national emergency, the federal government may reclaim the land. The city has long seen this property as an economic development opportunity, especially as the location for a high-tech industrial park. Property at the airport is available for lease, not purchase. The rent receipts have kept the airport self-supporting; local property taxes are not used to fund the operations there. This area contains the airport operations, including the terminal, tower, runways, and hangars. The property belonging to the Board of Aviation Commissioners encompasses an area much larger than needed for aviation use. Development on the airport property tends to be clustered according to the type of use: an educational complex, industrial development, recreational uses, health care uses, and some commercial development. This area is also home to the primary higher education complex in Columbus, the Indiana University-Purdue University at Columbus. The People Trail system serves this area, but other than that, there are no other pedestrian facilities.

Fig. 1.12 - Map showing the Columbus Municpal Airport neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

The airport has excellent access, via Central Avenue, Marr Road, River Road, and C.R. 500 N. Interior roads offer easy access to businesses and institutions. Once the location of dilapidated barracks, the aviation board and its staff worked diligently to improve the area during the 1990s. Old buildings have been removed, and new, attractive buildings have been constructed. Planning process participants found that there is room for improvement, and that some unattractive metal buildings remain. The group also found that the airport is lacking in landscaping.

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U.S. 31 / Indianapolis Road Area Much of this area consists of small-to-medium-sized farms, with scattered subdivisions. Along the highway corridors, there are denser subdivisions, manufactured home parks, commercial and industrial uses. The land is generally flat and is characterized by extensive flood plain areas. The area has excellent highway and rail access. There are several places along the highway where drivers have views of the river and flood plain areas. Development proposals in this area have resulted in conflicts regarding utility service. Water service to part of the area is available from Eastern Bartholomew Water Corporation, as is water from Columbus City Utilities. Sewer service is provided by Driftwood Utilities and by the City of Columbus. The portions of this area that are outside the city limits are in the path of city growth. The water supply system owned by Eastern Bartholomew does not meet the standards of the Columbus Fire Department for firefighting purposes. Driftwood Utilities now has an agreement with the City of Columbus for the treatment of sewage, but direct connections to the city system for properties outside is permitted only under limited conditions. The existence of two utilities in the area results in inefficiency, as developers are required to install dual water systems: one for the potable water supply and another for firefighting. The potential for this area to be an attractive entrance corridor has not yet been realized. With the use of better lighting, better landscaping, more effective signs, and more definition, this area could be more inviting than it currently is. Pedestrian access is limited with many areas lacking sidwalks, and traffic patterns are also increasing which gives rise to safety concerns and congestion. Some buildings in this area are poorly maintained and deteriorating.

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Fig. 1.13 - Map showing the U.S. 31 / Indianapolis Road Area neighborhood.

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Trends and Forecasts

Western Gateway Area This area is the primary entry corridor to Columbus and is predominantly commercial in character. The I65/SR 46 interchange was rebuilt in the 1990s, with a signature red arched bridge as the distinguishing feature. The city has invested considerable resources in making this corridor an inviting entrance to Columbus. Because this area is a highway interchange, the types of commerical businesses are typical to such a corridor, such as fast food restaurants, motels, and automobile service areas. Even though it is mostly a commercial area, there are some urban-density residential developments with condominiums, single-family homes, and apartments located here.Fire Station 5 is also located in this area and is the principal instituitonal use of the district.

Fig. 1.14 - Map showing the Western Gateway Area neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

A significant portion of this land is located in a designated floodway which means there is a great deal of open space. The lands subjected to flooding will continue to be used for agricultural purposes. Once the People Trail system within this area is complete, it will connect Tipton Lakes and the commerical corridor to Mill Race Park and Downtown Columbus.

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Western Hills Historically, the primary uses in this area have been agriculture, open space, and woodlands, but the area is now changing to rural residential and suburban. While much of the county is relatively flat, this area is characterized by rolling hills and woodlands. There are several highly desirable residential neighborhoods in this area. This area is convenient to shopping and services and provides a visual character not available in other parts of the county. The primary land use of this area is for residential development now and contains single-family homes with well-landscaped yards. The Tipton Lakes Development, begun in the 1970s, is the largest residential area in the Western Hills area. Containing more than 1,200 acres, it is a planned community containing a variety of housing types and prices and offering amenities, such as walking trails, lakes, and a marina. There is little commercial development and hardly any industrial development, but in the future, the city is planning on utilizing more of the area for these purposes in addition to expanding the residential neighborhoods. Farming does continue in this neighborhood, but because of its closer proximity to the downtown area, some of this land may eventually be converted to more residential and other uses. To improve further connectivity to the city since this neighborhood is more segregated, it will be important for the city to have this area be served by public transit more than it is currently.

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Fig. 1.15 - Map showing the Western Hills neighborhood.

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Trends and Forecasts

Woodside / Walesboro Area This area is an employment center for the Columbus community. The architectural quality of the area is high, particularly the industrial parks and the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fire station. The area has excellent highway access to I-65, S.R. 11, S.R. 31, and S.R. 58. A lot of the residential development of this area is to provide choices for the major employers so that there is a close proximity and ease of access to work for the employees. The commercial development within this area is to serve industrial parks and interstate traffic with gas stations, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants. Fire Station 6 and the countyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new sanitary landfill are also located in this area. The landfill is intended to serve the city and county for its solid waste disposal needs for the next 50 years. Outside of these areas, particularly to the south, the dominant land use is agriculture.

Fig. 1.16 - Map showing the Woodside / Walesboro neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

To improve this area, the corridors could be better landscaped, more could be done with the lighting of this area so that it is better indicated as an entrance, and a pedestrian system should be developed more in this district.

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State Road 11 South This area contains some residential development along with commercial and industrial development. The highway serves as a major southern entrance to Columbus. The East Fork of the White River forms the eastern boundary of this area, and several creeks also cross this area. As a result of these rivers and streams, much of the area is subject to flooding. There are areas of single-family homes and older mobile home parks built in this area, but housing in this area is generally not recommended due to flood hazards. A couple schools and several churches are also located in this area with few commercial and industrial development. Because the area is in the floodplains, there is a great amount of open space, which means agricultural use is also very prominent in this area and will likely continue to be the major use of this land. In general, this area is unattractive and economically depressed. Many of the buildings are poorly maintained and deteriorating, landscaping is sparse and poorly designed, and the signs and billboards are not attractive. There are also traffic safety problems in this area, including excessive numbers of driveways, poorly defined driveways, and inadequate sight distance for drivers entering the highway. The highway also is flooded and impassible when there are heavy rains. A pedestrian system is also non-existent in this area, and there is a lack of proper signage directing drivers toward attractions within the city.

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Fig. 1.17 - Map showing the State Road 11 South neighborhood.

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Trends and Forecasts

Eastern Rural Area This area is predominantly agricultural, with a few subdivisions, scattered rural housing and some businesses. Four state highways enter the area. Although the Town of Clifford is located within this area, it is incorporated and not covered by this plan. The area is generally flat. The area also contains parts of the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s river system, with Clifty Creek, the East Fork of the White River, Haw Creek and the Flat Rock River all partly located here. There are significant areas subject to flooding. Citizens working on the land use plan noted that there are many buildings in this area that are poorly maintained.

Fig. 1.18- Map showing the Eastern Rural Area neighborhood.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Most housing in this area is located on farms or scattered along county roads. There are also a number of houses within the Sand Creek township that are historically significant and will continue to exist in this area. The strip residential developments and scattered subdivisions are an undesirable land use pattern to the city because scattered housing is isolated from shopping and services and is expensive to provide with services and wastes land. There is limited commercial and industrial use in this area, but there is one school and several churches located here. Again, since this is a floodplain, there is lots of open space and predominant agricultural use that will likely continue for the next 20 years.

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3.1.3 Ongoing Projects Currently, the planning department of Columbus is undergoing a couple projects that are in various stages of completion. One of those projects is the State Street Corridor Plan which has been studied, researched, and the other is a Columbus housing study. This section will further discuss these two current projects and what their outcomes for the future might be.

State Street Corridor Plan Historically, State Street has been the â&#x20AC;&#x153;main streetâ&#x20AC;? of East Columbus, but in recent decades, it has declined in its appeal. This is largely due to the increase in population and the commercial development within the neighborhood, which has led the transportation corridor to be more heavily trafficked than it was originallly designed for. The planning department of Columbus is currently working on developing a complete land use and transportation plan for the State Street Corridor. The aim of the project is to identify community goals for the corridor and to improve the functionality, walkability, and economic vitality of the area. The city is also looking to enhance State Sreet as a gateway into Columbus so as to create an inviting entrance into the city. In order to do this, the planning department is working to formulate recommendations for street improvements that will create a pedestrian, bicyclist, and transit-friendly transportation corridor, develop long-term land use recommendations, identify redevelopment opportunities, and develop recommendations for streetscape and site design improvements. Once the project is completed, the intent is for these plans to be adopted as part of the City of Columbus Comprehensive Plan.

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Fig. 1.19, 1.20 - The study area for the State Street Corridor Plan is highlighted on a map of Columbus; an example of an area along State Street showing the clear separation between the two sides of the street because of its large width.

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Trends and Forecasts

Because this project is focused on creating a walkable and functional environment, it is obvious that Columbus is working towards a more sustainable future by focusing on improving transportation within the city and discouraging individual car use. Also, by creating a place where people can walk from store to store, creates a more social environment for the community and boosts the local economy. Just by improving the landscaping and the thouroughfare, the corridor will become much more pedestrianfriendly because it will be safer, more attractive, and more enjoyable for those walking from store to store. This will likely boost the development within the area as it becomes more desirable for everyone at stake.

Columbus Housing Study Due to the population ever increasing, the city of Columbus has initiated a study of the local housing market. The focus of the study is to compare the supply and demand for housing for the complete range of income groups and to identify a strategy to provide additional housing options for those in need. The housing study project is under the management of the Columbus Community Development Department, with the Planning Department facilitating the work of a market-rate housing sub-committee (other aspects of the project focus on affordable housing for low to moderate income groups). The City has hired Strategic Development Group (SDG), based in Bloomington, Indiana, as the consutlant for the project.

Fig. 1.21 - A plan for revitalizing the State Street Corridor in East Columbus.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

It is important for Columbus to conduct such a study in order to understand the critical needs of the public and to understand how creating more housing options for Columbus will affect the overall city fabric and the other elements of the comprehensive plan.

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3.3 Architecture

3.3.1 Modern Architecture As a Source of Civic Pride Columbus, Indianaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture has been active in fostering a sense of civic pride for at least 50 years. Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading employer, Cummins Engine has played a large role in providing and maintaining the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture. The company has brought in renowned architects and paid the design fees in order to make the city more attractive, and foster this sense of community pride. One of their objectives in being conscious of their buildings is to sustain the economic prosperity of the area businesses, and as a result, their work force. Since Eliel Saarinen designed the First Christian Church in 1942, the company has helped to fund over 50 buildings. Today the company has not been as involved in the acquisition of new architectural talent, but has instead focused on other green initiatives. The map on the right shows the evolution of Columbus architecture over time. There has been a decline in the number of notable buildings built in the last 15 years.

1800-1850 1851-1900 1901-1950 1951-1960 1961-1970 1971-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 2001-2013

Fig. 4.1 - Map of Columbus notable architecture color-coded according to year of erection.

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Trends and Forecasts

3.4.2 Columbus Architecture in the 1800s

In the 1800s, Columbus was just establishing itself as a city. The Bartholomew County Courthouse, built in 1874, marked one of the first civic buildings of Columbus. The courthouse is a Second-Empire style building, with its characteristic mansard roof, heavy cornice detailing, and grand entrance. The Columbus Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation building also relies heavily on its rectilinear plan and grand entrance with a tower. However, his is not a second empire building, but a mix of several different historical building types. This shows the reliance of the community on the past, while having difficulty creating a style of its own. Fig. 4.2 Columbus Bartholomew County Courthouse- 1874

Fig. 4.3 Columbus Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation1896

3.4.3 Modernism Comes to Columbus- 1940s

The year 1942 marks the ground-breaking of the first modern building in Columbus. The simple geometry and flat surfaces of the exterior attracted much attention in the small town. Eliel Saarinenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tall tower and interest in irregularity in nature also attracted attention across the country, causing people to rethink how churches were built. The building set the precedent for future modern buildings in Columbus. Although it was not known then, the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exposure to modernism would soon prove valuable to future buildings in Columbus. Fig. 4.4 First Chriatian Church Exterior- 1942 Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig. 4.5 First Chriatian Church Sanctuary- 1942

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3.3.4 Cummins Foundation Architecture Program Founded-1957 When the Baby Boom hit and the need for public schools in Columbus increased, a new school was proposed. The funding for the school was under discussion when the Cummins Foundation decided it was in their best interest to help make the school happen. Without schools, the parents of these kids would not want to live in Columbus. Therefore, it was to Cummin’s benefit to help make idea of the school a reality. The architect Harry Wesse was brought in from Chicago to design the building. It was important to Wesse to keep the building low to the ground in order to keep it from overwhelming the residential buildings in the area. The building therefore was made unique in its hexagonal central form, which became a multipurpose room. This idea of a non-rectilinear structure was excepted by the community because it still respected and sustained the city’s existing infrastructure. Due to Cummin’s selection as Weese as the architect, modern architecture started to be seen as a way for the community to strive.

Fig. 4.6 Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School- 1957

3.3.5 I. M. Pei Builds Bartholomew County Public Library-1969

In 1966, I.M. Pei was selected to design the Bartholomew County Public Library, a major community asset in Columbus. Even though the building was not part of the Cummin’s architecture program, it was partially funded by the Cummins Foundation, as well as by J. Irwin Miller. Miller wanted to make sure that the building corresponded to the neighboring Irwin House and First Christian Church which he also funded. With the building of the library, downtown Columbus was beginning to take shape as it is currently. Once the downtown gained these prominent structures, the infrastructure of the community was set. Fig. 4.7 View of the Library Plaza- 1969

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3.3.6 The Era of Columbus Additions and Renovations Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School Addition By the 1980s and 1990s, the period of major development in Columbus’s public buildings had already finished. The focus then shifted to improving the existing infrastructural elements. In the 1990s, the major renovation and addition phase of Columbus began. The first Cummin’s funded public building was also one of the first buildings to have an addition built. In 1991, Leers Weinzapfel Associates designed an addition for the Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School. The new addition was built with efficiency in mind. The classroom space was triped while only covering one-third of the site space that the original building occupies. The main challenge Columbus faces currently is how to adapt to a growing community needs without ruining the exisiting infrastructure. Fig. 4.8 The Lillian C. Schmitt Elementary School Addition- 1995

Fig. 4.8 View of where the original school meets the new addition

Columbus Area Visitor’s Center Renovation-1995 The Visitor’s Center building was built in 1864 as the home of John V. Storey. As the community began to grow and attract tourists, the need arose for a visitor’s center. In 1973, the city the building on as an adaptive use project. This worked well for a number of years, but in 1995, the Columbus Area Visitor’s Center was once again renovated. This was considered “an expansion,” creating more office space and more space for the visitor’s shop.

Fig. 4.9 View of the Original Visitor’s Center looking towards the renovated side Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Fig. 4.10 Window Renovation with featured Yellow Neon Chandelier

Columbus is currently still in the era of renovations. The city’s infrastructure has long since been established, so renovations and adaptive use is the most sustainable way to keep Columbus’s structures working for the community. The trend in architecture is to make as little impact on the environment as possible, and Columbus’s government has recently turned to green building certifications to rate their buildings.

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3.3.7 Columbus’s Petition for Green Our built environment has enormous energy demands. Columbus, Indiana’s Energy Matters Community Coalition focuses on reducing their environmental footprint. Their mission statement is to “reduce local contributions to global warming and to increase the health and prosperity of our communities through smart public and private energy choices (Energy Matters meeting, March 24, 2008).” In 2009, buildings accounted for 48 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. This was followed by transportation at 27 percent, and industry at 25 percent. When just looking at electricity consumption, buildings have play even more of a role. Building operations used 76 percent of the electricity in the United States in 2009. Industry followed with 23 percent, while transportation only used one percent of the total electricity consumption. When looking at data from 2011 by end-use sector, industrial leads in energy consumption. This means that the city of Columbus has the potential to use more energy than other cities its size, due to its high proportion of jobs due to industry. The typical commerical or institutional building uses up to 500 kWhe/m2/yr. New buildings in the United States use between 200 to 500 kWhe/m2/yr. However, new building codes for low-energy buildings have requirements to have amounts between 45 to 90 kWhe/m2. Fig. 4.5 - Energy Consumption Chart from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011

In order to make sure that all buildings in Columbus are as energy efficient as possible, the Energy Matters Community Coalition is asking building owners and architects to question their current methods of operation. They also ask companies who are planning on acquiring additonal buildings if the building is already sustainable. The EMCC asks the question, “Is the building among the most energy efficient in the country?” They have stringent guidelines for assessing building energy performance, that are based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program. This system rates a building’s energy performance from 1 to 100. A building that scores in the 75 to 100 range is considered among the top 25 percent of all buildings of the same type. If in that group, they can earn an Energy Star label. The program has a free online tracking tool that rates buildings. In 2006, over 27,000 buildings had already been assessed. Out of those, over 2,800 of them were awarded an Energy Star label. The EMCC asks all architects and engineers involved in new construction projects to set a goal for EPA energy performance. Fig. 4.6 - Cozy Home Performance, 2009

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Fig. 4.7 -Cozy Home Performance, 2009

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Trends and Forecasts Most green performance systems are too flexible and rate some buildings with poor energy performance as sustainable. The Energy Matters Community Coalition in Columbus is troubled by this and suggests that all buildings be reassessed for energy performance after they have been built and are actually operating. The EMCC is particularly interested in performance levels of the building envelope, mechanical systems, lighting, and controls systems. The reason buildings need to undergo energy performance assessing after they are built is that sometimes buildings are not built according to the proper specifications of the architect. Even if the proper materials and components are used, sometimes they are not installed correctly. The EMCC recommends that extra funding be allotted for commissioning during the project. If architects supervise construction sites of their buildings, they are more likely to be built efficiently and to the original specifications. To help with the energy efficiency planning process, the Environmental Protection Agency has a Target Finder tool. This is an easy way to estimate the Energy Star 1-100 rating for a specific design project. The EMCC also recommends that investors in a green certified building research the specific critera that the certification guarantees for energy efficiency.

Fig.4.4 - U.S. Green Building Council and New Buildings Institute’s statistics show that most LEED certified buildings do not hold up to their predicted energy savings, BuildingGreen.com.

In the United States, there are several different green building certification systems. Out of all of the programs, the most recognized system is the United States’ Green Building Council’s LEED certification. LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Two of the less recognized rating systems are Green Globes and the Federal Sustainable Buildings Principles. Green Globes is run by the Green Building Initiative. Most green building certifications rate on the same categories of sustainable or environmentally preferable construction, design, and building systems. The differences between the programs are how much weight they put on each category. In other words, more points in the system may be awarded for environmentally friendly construction methods, while other programs might rate more on the mechanical and electrical systems in the design. Most systems give specific certifications based on the final points awarded. LEED awards different levels: Certified (40-49 points), Silver (5059 points), Gold (60-79 points), and Platinum (80 points and above). Since Columbus is working towards more sustainable buildings, looking at LEED standards would be helpful when designing a museum. Fig.4.4 - U.S. Green Building Council ‘s LEED certification point breakdown for housing.

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3.4 Conclusion and Design Recommendation After investigating the trends in Urban Design, Landscape Design, and Architecture in Columbus, a conclusion has been reached that Columbus lacks open public space. The urban fabric is scattered and contributes to a lack of continuity throughout the city. If Columbus were to have better places to gather, the community would be given a better opportunity to flourish. We recommend that the parking systems be carefully considered in the treatment of the sites. There are many single-story parking lots in the city which could potentially serve as public plazas. In order to make these spaces accessible to pedestrians, while still allowing for adequate parking, garages could be built. The study recommends that the design pay close attention to the existing infrastructure of the city and respond accordingly. The rich history of Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighborhoods and their character should not only be preserved, but improved.

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CHAPTER 3: WORKS CITED David Greco, Jackie Katcher, and Sarah Ward

“AIA Committee On Design.” AIA Committee On Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. Berkey, Ricky. “52 Weeks of Columbus, Indiana.” 52 Weeks of Columbus Indiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013. “Central Avenue Corridor Plan.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., 31 Jul 2011. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http:// www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/35B9E47F-1231-3D16-E900EDF15A956628/ showMeta/0/>. “City of Columbus Indiana.” Flood Hazard Information-. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2013. “city of Columbus, Indiana Thoroughfare Plan.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., 10 Nov. 2010. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/696F6A08-1231-3D16E900A01C79E25C3F/showMeta/0.>.

“Historic Styles/ Second Empire 1855-1885.” Second Empire Architecture Facts and History. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013, “National Register of Historical Places- INDIANA (IN), Bartholomew County. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. Olsen, Scott. “Green building movement picking up steam in Indiana: more than 100 LEED projects i the pipeline statewide.” Indianapolis Business Journal 15 Sept. 2008: 22+. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. “Ongoing Projects.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/ planning/projects/>. “Redirect Notice.” Redirect Notice. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.

“City of Columbus Indiana.” Planning. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2013.

“Tclf.org Website Analysis.” Tclf.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.

“Columbus, Indiana Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., 12 May 2010. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.<http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/697D53A2-1231-3D16E9005479F4F977E6/showMeta/0/>.

“Who’s Coming, Going, and Moving Up.” Contract 29 Aug. 2008. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.

“Columbus, Indiana Comprehensive Plan: Land Use Plan Element.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., 5 Jun. 2002. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/69607323-12313D16-E90003E746293D7E/showMeta/0/>. “Columbus, Indiana State Street Cooridor Revitalization Plan.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/BDE7174E-BC30-5BDD7FF8AC6C35533CF5/showMeta/0/. “Community Branding Helps Columbus Attain Economic Development Superlative.” PRWeb Newswire. 14 July 2012. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 20 Aug. 2013. “Completed Studies.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/ planning/studies/>. “Downtown Columbus: Downtown Strategic Plan.” City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., August 2002. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/69837575-1231-3D16E90025823E320644/showMeta/0/>. Giovannini, Joseph. “Mill Race Park Structures, Columbus, Indiana.” Architecture Aug. 1995: 80+. Business Insights: Essentials. Web. 9 Sept. 2013,

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CHAPTER 4: Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums Yan Chen, Jessalyn Lafrenz, Deep Shrestha

4.1 Introduction 108 4.2 Columbus Codes 109 4.2.1 Zoning 4.2.2 Landscaping Requirements 4.2.3 Building Restrictions 4.2.4 Bicycle Parking Requirements 4.2.5 Vehicle Parking Requirements 4.3 Lighting Requirements 112 4.3.1 Three Categories of Lighting 4.3.2 Lighting Techniques 4.4 Temperature + Humidity Control 114 4.4.1 Effects on Artwork 4.4.2 Ideal Temperature Conditions 4.4.3 Relative Humidity of Interiors 4.4.4 Ideal Humidity 4.5 Egress 118 4.5.1 Accessible Parking Location 4.5.2 Amount of Accessible Parking 4.5.3 Multiple Parking Lots 4.5.4 Alternate Van Accessible Parking Space Design 4.5.5 Van Accessible Parking Space Design 4.5.6 Ramps 4.5.7 Egress 4.5.8 Egress Elevators 4.5.9 Route and Space Clearances 4.5.10 Bathroom Location and Design Requirements 4.5.11 Display Recommendations 4.6 Egress 130 4.6.1 Corridor 4.6.2 Egress Windows 4.6.3 Loading Dock 4.7 Design Recommendations + Conclusions 133 4.8 References + Works Cited 134

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Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums

Introduction In the interest of filtering information to the most necessary considerations for Museum design in Columbus, Indiana, this section discusses crucial code requirements and the implications they have on design. Though this is not an exhaustive list of every building code, it addresses key features necessary for creating a successful, functional design. The topics addressed include zoning and building laws as required by the city of Columbus, general building classification codes, and lighting, humidity and temperature control and accessibility as it relates specifically to museums. Through careful analysis, the codes presented are a synthesis of some of the most important regulations as it pertains to museums. In the exploration of Columbus city codes and International Building Codes, the information has been condensed and diagrammed to show how the code should be interpreted. This section should be used as a guideline to help inform design decisions that need to be rooted in legal compliance.

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4.2 Columbus Codes Residential Commercial Downtown

4.2.1 Zoning The main site is within one half-block of a residential neighborhood so special requirements are outlined that limit building heights and give other building restrictions to limit negative impact on the residents of the area. The site is deemed a Public/Semi-Public or Commercial Downtown space, which have varying requirements. This presents an opportunity to manipulate code to fit program depending on the distinction. It is suggested that the distinction chosen is the one that best fits the surrounding city fabric (as sites can vary throughout the city of Columbus). This classification determines required parking, overall setback rules, and overall site usage restrictions and guidelines.

Fig 4.2.1 Diagram of Zoning Relationships as it relates to the site

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4.2.2 Landscaping Requirements Landscaping requirements are met through a point system, each zoning designation must meet a minimum number of points to be compliant with the code according to the City of Columbus. There are 5 areas that must be landscaped within the lot. Area 1- Between the parking lot and the public street frontage. The required setback for parking areas shall be landscaped. See chart for planting guidelines. Area 2- Parking lot interior. Interior landscape areas must exist in parking lots of 25 or more spots. See chart for planting guidelines. Area 3- Front setback. See Landscaping Points Requirements Table. Must be landscaped based on linear footage of lot frontage on adjacent streets/roads.

Side Street

Fig.4.2.2 Reference for landscaping requirements for a museum campus.

2

1

Primary Structure

Area 4- Lot interior. Landscaping must achieve minimum number of points as required in the table. Calculation of needs is based on the linear footage of the building perimeter. Accessory buildings are excluded from this calculation. 25 % of the required Area 4 plantings must be within 15 feet of the primary structure. Area 5- Freestanding signs exceeding 6 feet. Must have landscaping in the area radiating 5 feet from the base of the sign at minimum. This will not count toward the total minimum landscaping points.

4

5

3 Frontage Street

Fig 4.2.3 Diagram of Designated Landscaping Areas as outlined in the text

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4.2.3 Building Restrictions Maximum Height (Commercial Downtown) is 125 feet for the primary structure, with exceptions. Any accessory structures have a limit of 35 feet in height. Exceptions to this restriction include a limit of 60 feet on the Washington Street Frontage for half a block as well as a 50 foot limit within one half block of any single family residential zoning district. There is no rear or side setback for this zone. The front setback has a 0 foot build-to designation According to the Public/Semi-Public Facilities there is a minimum lot width and frontage of 50 feet. The max lot coverage is 65%. The minimum side and rear setbacks are a minimum of 10 feet from the lot boundary for both primary and accessory structures. There is a limit of 1 primary structure per lot. The maximum height for the primary structure is 45 feet with any accessory structures limited to 25 feet. The front setback guidelines are designated by the road type at the front face of the lot. Minimum Front Setback • Arterial Road: 50 feet • Arterial Street: 10 feet • Collector Road: 35 feet • Collector Street: 10 feet • Local Road: 25 feet • Local Street: 10 feet General exceptions to height include steeples, bell towers, spires, belfries, cupolas and industrial related storage tanks, smokestacks, and mechanical equipment. These exceptions may only double the max height allowable. Necessary building equipment may only exceed height requirements by a maximum of 10 feet. These include but are not necessarily limited to: (9-2) • Utility stations and related facilities • Water tanks • Chimneys • Fire towers • Stair towers • Stage bulkheads • Elevator bulkheads

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Rear

65% Max Structure Coverage Side

Front

Fig 4.2.4 Max Site coverage and 10 foot setback illustration for site restrictions

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Fig 4.2.5 Table of Bicycle Rack Quantity Requirements-dependent upon the number of vehicle parking spaces

4.2.4 Bicycle Parking Requirements All facilities must have parking for bicycles. Bike spaces are to be provided based on the number of vehicle parking spaces. Bicycle racks must support the bike upright and must allow for the frame and at least one wheel to be locked. Refer to the graphic for examples of approved systems. The racks must be placed in a high visibility location. It must also provide safe and convenient access to the main entrance. In alignment with many other facilities throughout the city of Columbus, an acceptable solution to the bike rack would be to utilize the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Câ&#x20AC;? logo to denote a city attraction and has been used to promote connectivity between those attractions.

Fig 4.2.6 Examples of allowed and disallowed bike racks, including the City of Columbus custom bike rack design

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Fig 4.2.7 Requirements for quantity of parking spaces

4.2.5 Vehicle Parking Requirements

Off street parking must be provided and located on the same property as the structure for which they are used. All commercial and public/semi-public distinctions may count 20% of any public spaces within 300 feet of the property toward meeting the minimum number of required spaces. Refer to Fig no. 4.2.8 for general parking space . Barrier free handicap parking spaces must be marked and provided in all parking lots. In parking lots with 10 spaces or less, the required barrier free parking spaces are in addition to the minimum parking spaces required. For parking lots with more than 10 spaces, the required accessible parking spaces are considered toward meeting the minimum requirement.

Fig 4.2.8 Design dimensions and arrangement options for vehicle parking spaces

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4.3 Lighting Requirements 4.3.1 Three Categories of museum lighting Museum lighting design and exposure levels are to be based on conservation strategies. These strategies fall into any of three categories of lighting.

Highly susceptible to light damage Do not use natural lighting, use low watt fluorescent bulbs or LED alternatives.

Moderately susceptible to light damage Use a mix of natural light and manufactured light â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as long as lighting conditions can be completely controlled for visual and aesthetic comfort Only a narrow range of light level changes are acceptable â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an active lighting system override is required Not susceptible to light damage Use of natural daylight is allowed as it promotes true color rendering Comfort considerations triumph conservation Fig.4.3.1 - Track Lighing and Tungsten Halogen demonstration

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4.3.2 Lighting Techniques Lighting sources need to be closely considered in order to maintain visual clarity, comfort, and aesthetic organization. The proper light source determines accurate color rendering and appearance. Typical lighting for high color sources includes Tungsten Halogen. Light delivery is most ideal through the use of reflectors, lenses, or filters. Each of these devices can be utilized to limit the exposure of direct light onto Category A exhibitions while providing excellent visual access. Accurately optimizing the amount of day light allowed can control general comfort levels for users while creating a safe environment for curated objects. Reflectors can be implemented as well for use in Category B and C exhibitions, reflectors are an excellent solution to diffuse direct daylight. Exhibit spaces that allow daylight may be controlled with the use of reflectors as well.

Fig. 4.3.2 - Standard lighting diagram for most galleries

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4.4 Temperature and Humidity 4.4.1 Effects on Artwork Temperature affects museum collections in a variety of ways. At higher temperatures, chemical reactions increase. For example, high temperature leads to the increased deterioration of cellulose nitrate film. If this deterioration is not detected, it can lead to a fire. As a rule of thumb, most chemical reactions double in rate with each increase of 10째C (18째F). Biological activity also increases at warmer temperatures. Insects will eat more and breed faster, and mold will grow faster within certain temperature ranges At high temperatures materials can soften. Wax may sag or collect dust more easily on soft surfaces, adhesives can fail, lacquers and magnetic tape may become sticky

Fig. 4.4.1- An example of a painting exposed to high temperatures, resulting in cracking and deformation.

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4.4.2 Ideal Temperature Conditions In exhibit, storage and research spaces, where comfort of people is a factor, the recommended temperature level is 18-20° C (64-68° F). Temperature should not exceed 24° C (75° F). Try to keep temperatures as level as possible. In areas where comfort of people is not a concern, temperature can be kept at much lower levels—but above freezing. Avoid abrupt changes in temperature. It is often quick variations that cause more problems than the specific level. Fluctuating temperatures can cause materials to expand and contract rapidly, setting up destructive stresses in the object. If objects are stored outside, repeated freezing and thawing can cause damage. Temperature is also a primary factor in determining relative humidity levels. When temperature varies, RH will vary. This is discussed in more detail in the next section. Fig. 4.4.2 - This diagram shows various levels of heat in a gallery space. Red is higher where as blue is colder

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4.4.3 Relative Humidity of Interiors Relative humidity (RH) is a relationship between the volume of air and the amount of water vapor it holds at a given temperature. It is important because water plays a role in various chemical and physical forms of deterioration. There are many sources for excess water in a museum: exterior humidity levels, rain, nearby bodies of water, wet ground, broken gutters, leaking pipes, moisture in walls, human respiration and perspiration, wet mopping, flooding, and cycles of condensation and evaporation.

Fig. 4.4.3 - The three diagrams depict relative humidity levels in relation to surrounding temperature As temperature rises the same amount of water vapour falls realative to the capacity of air.

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Relative humidity is directly related to temperature. In a closed volume of air (such as an exhibit case) where the amount of moisture is constant, a rise in temperature results in a decrease in relative humidity and a drop in temperature results in an increase in relative humidity. For example, turning up the heat when you come into work in the morning will decrease the RH; turning it down at night will increase the RH.

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4.4.4 Ideal Humidity Deterioration can occur when RH is too high, variable, or too low. Too high: When relative humidity is high, chemical reactions may increase, just as when temperature is elevated. Many chemical reactions require water; if there is lots of it available, then chemical deterioration can proceed more quickly. Examples include metal corrosion or fading of dyes. High RH levels cause swelling and warping of wood and ivory. High RH can make adhesives or sizing softer or sticky. Paper may cockle, or buckle; stretched canvas paintings may become too slack. High humidity also supports biological activity. Mold growth is more likely as RH rises above 65%. Insect activity may increase. Too low: Very low RH levels cause shrinkage, warping, and cracking of wood and ivory; shrinkage, stiffening, cracking, and flaking of photographic emulsions and leather; desiccation of paper and adhesives; and dessication of basketry fibers. Fig. 4.4.4- The diagram above shows a wide range of viruses, bacteria, etc. that thrive at different percentages of humidity

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4.5 Accessibility 4.5.1Accessible Parking Location Each lot or structure on a site with multiple lots or structures should include accessible parking. Exceptions to this are sometimes allowed as explained below: Wherever parking serves a specific building, locate accessible spaces on the shortest accessible route of travel from parking to an accessible entrance. Wherever parking serves buildings that have multiple accessible enrtances, disperse accessible spaces among areas adjacent to each accessible entrance. Wherever Paring does not serve a specific building, locate accessible parking on the shortest accessible route to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking area. Wherever parking spaces are provided for specific purpose ( such as buses, delivery trucks, and official vehicles), the spaces are not required to be accessible if an accessible passenger loading zone is provided. Fig. 4.5.1 Three parking lots serving a building with one accessible entrance.

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All van accessible spaces may be grouped on one level of a parking structure.

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4.5.2 Amount of Accessible Parking Provide an adequate number of accessible parking spaces to accommodate the maximum number of people who might use the parking lot or structure at peak-use times. Calculate the number of required accessible parking spaces on a lot-by-lot or structure-by-structure basis for sites with multiple parking lots or structures. Provide at least the minimum number of accessible spaces required in each parking area. Ensure that 1 in every 6, but not less than one, accessible space is a van accessible parking space.

Fig.4.5.2 Minimum required number of accessible parking spaces

4.5.3 Multiple parking lots

VA=Van Accessible space A=Accessible space

Where multiple parking lots serve a building, the required number of standard accessible and van accessible parking spaces must be located as close as possible to the accessible entrances. Where multiple parking lots serve a building with only one accessible entrance, locate all accessible parking spaces in the parking lot that is closest to the accessible entrance. Where multiple parking lots serve a building with multiple accessible entrances, distribute accessible parking spaces close to each accessible entrance. Where multiple parking lots include a satellite lot that serves a building, locate all accessible parking spaces in the parking lots that are closest to the accessible entrances.

lotB, 27 spaces LotA, 27 spaces Fig.4.5.3 Diagrammatic example of three parking lots serving a building with three accessible entrances

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Lot C, 27 spaces

VA=Van Accessible space A=Accessible space

4.5.4 Alternate Van Accessible Parking Space Design Plan, design, and construct parking lots and structures with van accessible parking lots and structures with van accessible parking spaces (rather than alternate van accessible spaces that make it easy for unauthorized vehicles to park in access aisles). Ensure that alternate van accessible spaces meet all of the following minimum requirements: parking space width: 8 ft. access ailes width: 8 ft. vertical clearance: 8ft 2in.

lotB, 27 spaces

LotA, 27 spaces

Ensure that length of alternate van accessible parking is at least 19 ft.

Fig.4.5.4 Diagram of hree parking lots(including a satellite lot) serving a building with two accessible entrances

Accessible spaces Standard parking Van parking

Alternate Van parking

Loading zones

Space width

8 ft

11 ft

8 ft

8 ft

Access aisle width

5 ft

5 ft

8 ft

5 ft

Vertical clearance

6 ft. 8 in

8 ft. 2 in

9 ft. 6 in

Space length

19 ft

19 ft

20 ft

8 ft. 2 in 19 ft

Ensure that van accessible parking is as close as entrance, so they can easily get in to the building.

Fig.4.5.5 Minimum required dimensions for accessible parking spaces

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unpaved space between parking and routes prevents vehicles from obstructing accessible routes

4.5.5 Van Accessible Parking Space Design Van accessible parking spaces safely and comforbly accommodate vans and wheelchair lifts and other specialized equipment. Ensure that van accessible spaces meet all of the following minimum requirements: parking space width: 11 ft access aisle width: 5 ft vertical clearance: 8 ft. 2 in. Ensure that the length of van accessible parking spaces is at least 19 ft.

Fig.4.5.6 Standard accessible and van accessible parking spaces and access aisles unpaved space between parking and routes prevents vehicles from obstructing accessible routes

Provide access aisles on either side of van accessible spaces that are perdicular to the accessible routes. Provide access aisles on the passenger side of angled van accessible spaces, so they can easily go on to the ramp.

this space cannot be a van accessible space because the access aisle is not on the passenger side Fig.4.5.7 Standard accessible an van accessible angle parking spaces and access aisles

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Switchback Ramp Accommodates site conditions non-conducive to a standard “L” shaped ramp configuration.

Ramp with Extended Landing

4.5.6 Ramps

Provides access for buildings with multiple doorways.

Ramps or curb ramps are required wherever an accessible route contains a level change greater than 0.5 in. Wherever accessible routes cross curbs, curb ramps are required to make streets and sidewalks accessible for wheelchair users and others for whom curbs are obstacles. • Provide a minimum clear width of 36in along the full length of the ramp, not including flared sides.

“L” Shaped Ramp Accommodates site conditions non-conducive to a standard or switchback ramp configuration.

• Provide slope between 1: 14 (7.1%) and 1: 16 (6.3%) or less steep are preferred because many people have difficulty with slopes of 1:12 ( 8.3%). • Ensure that the maximum cross slope of a ramp or landing surface does not exceed 1: 48( approx. 2%).

Standard Ramp with Intermediate Landing Intermediate landings are required for all ramps with thresholds greater than 30”.

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Fig.4.5.8 Diagramming of different ramp configurations

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4.5.7 Egress Exit stairways are often used as part of a means of egress. To be considered a means of egress, a stairway must be enclosed. Ensure that interior and exterior stairs that are part of a means of egress meet all ADAAG requirements for stairs. Provide a minimum clear width between handrails of 48in. (1220mm) on stair flights that are part of an egress route.

Fig.4.5.9 A warning barrier used to alert people of limited headrooms

Stairways used as a means of egress must meet one of the following condition incorporate areas of refuge that meet accessibility guidelines, or be reachable directly from either an area of refuge or a horizontal exit.

Fig.4.5.10 Handrail with the required extension at the bottom of a stair flight

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Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums

4.5.8 Egress evelators Safe egress out of multi-story buildings is a serious concern for people with disabilities. In some multi-story buildings, accessible means of egress may include egress elevators that are specially designed and constructed for evacuation. These specially designed and equipped egress elevators include standby power and other safety features. • Whatever an accessible floor is four or more stories above or blew a level of exit discharge, provide an egress elevator as part of at least one of the required accessible. • Locate egress elevators so they can be reached from either a horizontal exit or an accessible area of refuge. • Work with the elevator manufacturer to choose and intall elevators that meet or exceed the standards in AMES A 17.1, Rule 211, including requirements for emergency operation mad signaling devices. • Where possible, install tactile signs at stairways and elevators that are not accessible to direct people to nearest accessible exits. • Ensure that each accessible sign meets the requirements for size, characters, finish and contrast, and mounting height.

Fig.4.5.11 Dimension of elevators

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4.5.9 Route and Space Clearances Route width for Passing and Turning Around:

Minimum required clear space for turning around and passing

Preferred clear space for turning around and passing

Fig 4.5.12 Turning around and passing spaces

People using wheelchairs need sufficient space to pass others and turn around. Ideally, in moderately traveled areas, routes should have a clear width of 60in. to accommodate passing and turning around. The minimum space required for a person in a wheelchair to make a 180 turn is 60in. by 60 in. Where two intersections meet to form an adequate sized T shaped space, people can also maneuver.

Provide routes that are at least 60in wide. When a route is 60in wide, you do not have to provide additional space in the route for passing and turning around spaces.

If the toute is less than 60in wide, provide turning spaces at reasonable intervals that meet one of the following conditions: Clear space of 60in minnmum in diameter. T-shaped spaces ( such as those created by the intersection of two routes) where each leg of the T is aminimum of 36 in wide for a minimum of 48 in.

Minimum required space at a T-shaped intersection for turning around

Ensure that 60in minimum clear width is provide between display cases where turning or maneuvering is required.

Minimum required space at a T-intersection for passing

Fig 4.5.13 T shapeed spaces

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Code Compliance and Guidelines for Museums

Route Width for Turns in Routes: To evaluate the accessibility of routes, measure the distance between turns and check the angle of turns in accessible routes. Examine routes to ensure that there is sufficient space for wheelchairs to turn around corners and obstructions. For turns in routes provide adequate width in all routes provide smooth, wide turning spaces along all routes; and eliminate obstructions in turning areas.

Fig.4.5.14 spaces for wheelchair Minimum space for maneuvering between display Minimum dimensions for a route with turns cases in an exhibite area around obstructions ( e.g. museum bookstor

When a route contains turns arounnd obstructions that are less than 48in wide, or where the route turns around obstruction that are less than 48 in wide, ensure taht route meets all of the following condition: a clear width of 42in minimum ar the turn; a clear width of 42in minimum in the routes approaching and leaving the turn; a clearance of 60in past any obstruction before narrowing a route to the minimum width for an unobstructed route.

Fig.4.5.15 traveling space for wheelchair Minimum and preferred dimensions for Minimum and preferred dimensions for man maneuvering around a display case that is euvering around a display case that is 48 less than 48 inches wide inches or more wide

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Seating space: • Provide seating areas that are accessible to people using wheelchairs.

Fig.4.5.16 The requirements for wheelchair locations, as set by the Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Design for Facilities and Sites, are as follows:

• Locate spaces for wheelchair users so that they adjoin, but do not block, an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in an emergency. • Disperse seating for wheelchair users throughout the space. People using wheelchairs do not always want to sit at the very back or the very front of a public programming space; it is uncomfortable, psychologically isolating, and, if in front, obstructive in that it blocks the view of others. Spaces for people using wheelchairs must be an integral part of the seating plan and must always be near fixed seating. • Seating must be provided in each exhibition. 50% of the seats must be accessible. Single-gallery exhibitions must have seating nearby, in a corridor or in an adjacent gallery space. • Seating spaces are important for accessibility. This allows all users to experience the space comfortably and as it is designed.

Fig.4.5.17 Accessible spaces adjacent to fixed seating allow a person in a wheelchair to sit with persons allow a person in a wheelchair to sit with persons with whom they may be traveling.

Fig.4.5.18 Provide work stations with seating minimizes the differences between seated and standing visitors.

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Accessible wheel- Accessible WalkNumber of toilets in stalls (include Urinals) Accessible Urinals chair stalls

MEN

WOMEN

All public restrooms 6 or more

All public restrooms 6 or more

At Least 1

At Least 1

At Least 1

At least 1

4.5.10 Bathroom Location and Design Requirements At Least 1

At Least 1 A Least 1 Provide 1 for every 10 toilet stalls

At Least 1

All public toilet rooms and/or bathrooms should be accessible to allow for safe and convenient use by all people. Public toilet rooms and/or bathrooms are those that are provided for the public or that are located in common areas of buildings used by visitors and/or employees. Accessible toilet room and/or bathrooms must be located on accessible routes and should be cantrally located for convenient access. Museums are huge public spaces which require larger facilities to accomodate occupancy. This chart illustrates how many accessibility toilets we need of the total toilets in museum.

Fig 4.5.19 number of accessible toilets

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4.5.11 Display Recommendations Average viewing sightlings

Mount small items (to center line) at no higher than 1015 mm (40 in.) above the floor. A male adult who uses a wheelchair has an average eye level of between 1090 mm (43 in.) and 1295 mm (51 in.) above the finished floor. Objects placed above 1015 mm (40 in.) will be seen only from below by most seated and short viewers. Construct the top of a case at a maximum of 915 mm (36 in.) above the finished floor for items that are mounted flat on a pedestal or deck. For larger items, maintain the minimum case height possible. If the case floor is low but the glass is high, viewing the interior of a bowl or the overall design of a textile is blocked for both visitors with visual and mobility impairments. The standing visitor with low vision cannot get close enough to the object to see the details; the seated visitor cannot see the objectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top or interior at all. Shallow cases better serve both types of visitors.

Height of case table

Design vitrines and plexiglass barriers so they are easily detectable. Plexiglass and glass case tops or half-plexiglass walls in front of objects can go undetected by people with low vision. Edges and corners must be rounded. An edging of another material or even a tint at the seams and edges aids detection.

Case heights for accessible viewing

Fig 4.5.20 display requirements for accessibility

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4.6 Egress 4.6.1 Corridor The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed. Where more than one exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet in length. Corridors shall not serve as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts.

Fig.4.6.1 Minimum Corridor Width

Corridors not only could be the way to connect all the exibihitions places or galleries, but also could be a part of exibihition or gallery. So when we design a museum we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need to separate corridars and gallerys so clearly, they could be one thing. Having seating paces, drinking fountains and good lighting condition are all improtant to corridor design for a museum.

Fig.4.6.2 An example of a small exbihition space for egress travel.

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4.6.2 Egress Windows

Dimensions of windows and the height from the ground are very important to accessibility. Because light and view can have huge effect to visitors, so it is important to bring same light and view condition to accessible visitors, especially in museums. Different heights and size of window can create huge different lighting condition for interior and view difference for visitors. These two things also can effect visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mood, so we can use them to adjust or fit for emotional needs of people.

Fig.4.6.3 Dimension for windows

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4.6.3 Loading Dock The specifics of loading dock design criteria based upon practical experience should include: • Provide entrance and egress, as well as turning radius, for tractor-trailer units of 80+ feet in total length. • In an enclosed dock plan for 14 feet clear height for tractor-trailer units, plus two or more feet for over head lighting or ductwork. • Plan for tractor-trailer units of 102 inches in total width – 15-18 feet for proper maneuvering. • Trailer bottom clearance is 8 inches, ramps must be designed to avoid high-centering. • The dock must be level for the trailer at the stop point (52+ feet). Fig.4.6.6 Dimensions of loading truck

• The dock must be well lit • Provide for drainage.

Loading Dock

• Provide a hose bib connection at dock. • If the dock is completely enclosed, provide for adequate ventilation for diesel engines. • Provide striping on ramp for safe backing, and bumpers on the dock end for safe parking. • Provide a dock leveler of adequate dimensions and weight capacity. • Provide a dock plate for trailer to dock unload.

Fig.4.6.7 This is the plan of the Denver Art Museum by Daniel Libeskind. We can see there is the long loading dock and doorway behind the museum, so it won’t interrupt the main function of museum in the front. Red circle shows the loading dock and blue line shows the circulation of loading system.

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• Provide stairs from the ramp to dock height.

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Conclusion The codes presented are some of the most crucial for design, occupation, and use. However each is meant to be interpreted to fit the needs of individual program design. As the topics discuss requirement, there are interpretations and design suggestions for the given site scenarios. Each code given has an inherent feeling of finality but those presented have been interpreted to show the possibilities they present rather than purely restrictions. Design Recommendations: Use the code as a guideline rather than a concrete rule Where code can be improved, use that as a place to improve user experience rather than sticking to the minimum restrictions set forth

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Works Cited

“Accessible Exhibition Design.” Smithsonian Accessibility Program. N.p.,n.d. Web. Sept. 2013. <http:// accessible.si.edu/pdf/Smithsonian%20Guidelines%20for%20accessible%20design.pdf>. “Article 3 Zoning Districts.” Columbus.In.Gove. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus. in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. “Article 7 Parking and Regulation Standards.” Columbus.In.Gove. Bartholomew County, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. “Article 9 General Development Standards.” Columbus.In.Gove. Bartholomew County, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. Druzik, James. “Newsletter 19.1 Spring 2004.” The Getty Conservation Institute N.p., n.d. Web 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/19_1/news_in_cons1. html>. Druzik, James. “Guidelines for Selecting Solid AState Lighting for Museums.” Connecting to Collections. N.p., n.d. Web 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/ newsletters/19_1/news_in_cons1.html>. Miller, Naomi J. “Solid State Lighting for Museums.” The Getty Conservation Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conferences/2011/presentations/druzik-miller.pdf>.

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CHAPTER 5: Climate Meghan Bouska, Dane Buchholz, Heather Wailes

5.1 Weather 5.1.1 Temperature 5.1.2 Wind 5.1.3 Relative Humidity 5.2 Landscape 5.2.1 Plant Life 5.2.2 Soil Analysis 5.2.3 Settling 5.3 Precipitation 5.3.1 Rain 5.3.2 Water Collection 5.3.3 Snow 5.3.4 Water Table & Frost Line 5.4 Sun and Shading 5.4.1 Solar Analysis 5.4.2 Solar Analysis- Post Office Site 5.4.3 Cloud Cover Analysis 5.4.4 Shading Device Recommendations

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Introduction Climate is a very important factor when designing a building. This chapter will consist of a broad range of information beginning with temperature. Columbus, Indiana does not get as hot as one would think. The relative humidity is on average, in the 80% range. With temperatures and relative humidity levels being moderately low, designing is made easier. Because there is not such a range in temperature, choosing materials for a building to control heat gain and loss is not as much of an issue. Wind can be severe at times, coming from the south, but does not exceed 31 mph. Landscaping can contribute to the site for many reasons. Plants and other vegetation are usually visually appealing, but can also help the environment. When plants grow in their natural landscape, they are actually beneficial to that environment because those specific plants encourage animals and insects to remain in that area as well. Plants grow in certain locations because of the soil types there. They are native to that land and therefore grow abundantly. Soil is another great factor when considering building on a piece of land. Proper soil types are mandatory before building. When the soil is not properly prepared, and the foundation not built accordingly, the building can fail in the future. The water table is another aspect of the foundation that could cause failure. The water level is only about nine feet under the surface, so anything built below that will require hydrostatic considerations. Columbus gets a very steady amount of rainfall throughout the year, making it great for rain water collection and reuse. This chapter includes charts and calculations about the size of roof required. Since columbus is warmer, they do not get as much snow as the code requires a load capacity for, so any material that is built to code will be able to support the worst average snow load. Finally, this chapter addresses the effects of sun and shading on building design. Knowing that Columbus exists near 40ยบ N Latitude, the chapter includes specific information on solar angles, annual sunrise and sunset times, and average cloud cover data. Through synthesis of this data, the information provided will guide designers to select proper glazing placement and shading devices.

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Chapter 5: Climate 5.1 Weather

5.1.1 Temperature In Fig. no. 5.1.1, in the light red shaded column in the center, presents the warm season which lasts from May 21 to September 23 with an average daily high temperature above 75 degrees. The hottest day of the year is July 25 with the average high temperature being 85 degrees and the average low temperature being 67 degrees. The cold season occurs between November 29 and February 26 and is represented in light blue shaded columns on each side of the graph. The average high temperature is around 43 degrees or below. The coldest day of the year occurs January 21, the average high temperature being 33 degrees and the low being 21 degrees. This data helps with design strategy, knowing the temperatures and the possible heat gain and loss through the walls of the structure. Seeing that it does not get very hot or very cold, building materials do not need to be able to hold as much heat in the winter, and cool the building during the summer.

Fig.5.1.1 Daily High and Low Temperature

Fig. no. 5.1.2 represents the amount of time that is spend within each heat range throughout the day. As discussed above, the hottest part of the year runs from May 21 through September. This season is represented mainly with red (85- 100 degrees), orange (75- 85 degrees), and yellow (65- 75 degrees). Some days are colder and are represented in with light green (50- 65 degrees). Being the warmest part of the year, its is rare that there would be many days represented in light green. The cold season is represented in dark green (32- 50 degrees), blue (15- 32 degrees), and purple (below 15 degrees). It is rare to have days that are colder than 15 degrees, but occasionally there is a bad winter with cold winds which bring the temperature down quickly. This graph compliments Fig. no. 5.1.1 to explain more in depth the air temperatures throughout the year. Seeing that very few days are spent in the hottest and coldest zones, there is not as much need to design walls to hold heat or to design buildings with major cooling systems.

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Fig.5.1.2 Fraction of Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands

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Climate

5.1.2 Wind

Wind speeds can vary throughout the year from 0 mph to 18 mph and rarely exceeds 31 mph, which would be high winds. The highest average wind speed hits around 10 mph, which is a gentle breeze which cools the skin on a warm day. This breeze occurs around March 5. Around this same time, the average high wind speed is 17 mph. The lowest average speed is 4 mph, which is a light breeze, and accurs August 21. The averatge high wind speed around that same time is 17 mph. Every building should be constructed so that if it is exposed to any high winds, it does not experience any major issues with tilting, leaning, or moving in any way that would be distructive to the structure. Foundations need to be built far enough into the ground in order for the building to be able to withstand major wind forces. Fig. no. 5.1.5 explains which directions wind typically comes from. These are the sides of the buildings which need to be built properly to withstand wind force from that direction. The walls should be built thicker than the other walls in order to be able to stand up against the wind. Materials must be strong as well. An example of a strong building that would withstand harsh winds would be a concrete foundation with a concrete wall with decorative exterior materials such as brick. Admin

Rotating

Entry

Community

Art & Design

Innovative Entry

Admin

Back of House

Shop/Cafe

Fig.5.1.3 Wind Speed

Art & Design

Innovative

Archives

Fig. no. 10.1.4 & 10.2.4 From Chapter 10 Demonstrating proper wall thickness on the South wall of the building

Rotating

Archives

Shop/Cafe

Community

Back of House

Wind can be difficult to analyze at times because if there is no wind, the speed of wind is zero and therefore cannot be added into the total percentage when adding percentage of wind from each direction. Fig. no. 5.1.5 shows the percentage of time in which the wind is at a certain speed. With 16%, it is most common to have wind from the south. Wind comes from the south throughout there year with some change in direction around fall time. Wind is not dominately from any direction throughout the year. As Fig. no. 5.1.5 shows, wind comes least from the north east, east and south east. Most commonly, as Fig. no. 5.1.4 represents, wind commonly comes from the south, but much of the time, there is no wind and therefore it cannot be calculated into the total percentage. Fig.5.1.4 Fraction of Time Spent with Various Wind Directions

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Fig.5.1.5 Wind Directions Over the Entire Year

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5.1.3 Relative Humidity

A comfortable relative humidity for the average person is around 41%. Typical relative humidity levels in Columbus vary from 41% to 97%, which is very humid. The humidity level rarely drops below 25%, which would be very dry. Also, humidity levels rarely reach 100% which would be very humid. The driest times of the year occur around October 29 when the humidity drops below 48%, still remaining at a comfortable level. It is most humid around July 12 when humidity levels reach 96%.

Fig.5.1.6 Relative Humidity

Dew point is sometimes a more accurate way to measure how comfortable a person is during different types of weather, rather than measuring this by using relative humidity. This is because dew point is more directly related to how perspiration will evaporate from skin and other surfaces. Low dew points feel drier and high dew points feel more humid to the skin. Dew point varies from dry dew point being 16 degress to muggy dew point being 71 degrees throughout the year in Columbus. Dew point rarely sinks below 5 degrees or rises above 76 degrees. Between April 23 and June 9, and between August 13 and October 7 are the most comfortable times of the year.

Fig.5.1.7 Dew Point

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5.2 Landscape 5.2.1 Plant Life Fig.5.2.7 Ferns

Fig.5.2.1 Groundcovers

Fig.5.2.9 Vines

Fig.5.2.2 Wild Ginger

Fig.5.2.8 Cinnamon Fern

Fig.5.2.10 Crossvine

The images and lists to the left provide names of native plants to Columbus, Indiana. These plants are important to the area because they control the animals and insects in the area. “Indigenous plants are a significant part of a region’s geographic context. In fact, they help define it. They have proved themselves capable of surviving in a landscape for millennia. What better plants can there be, if not the natives, to confront the soil conditions, climate, pests, and diseases of the local areas?” -Michael A. Homoya Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Nature Preserves

Fig.5.2.3 Trees

Fig.5.2.4 Maple Sugar Tree

Fig.5.2.11 Shrubs

Fig.5.2.12 Serviceberry

Native plants are very important to the location they are native to. They can grow in their native locations because of the soil type in that location. Native plants do not spread to locations that they are not welcome in because they cannont grow in other locations and they are attacked by other plants and animals in other areas. Also, native plants grow in their respective locations because of the weather conditions. With the proper weather conditions, native plants can grow and require less fertilizer, pesticides and less water. Native plants are helpful to the environment by controling the spread of intrusive and unusual animals. As an example for how native plants help the environment, butterflies only lay eggs on specific plants. These plants also provide the proper food for caterpillars. In order to keep these species in the area, native plants are necessary.

Fig.5.2.5 Grasses

Fig.5.2.6 June Grass

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Fig.5.2.13 Flowering Perennials

Fig.5.2.14 Royal Catchfly

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5.2.2 Soil Analysis

Parent materials are the different soils in the ground in an area. Parent material, meaning the minerality and chemical composition of the soil, is very important to the area in which the soil is located. Northern Indiana has soil that consists of sand and gravel which is technically called glacial outwash. Other soil from the Wisconsin glacial is clay and silt, also known as glacial till. Loess (also known as silt) and pronounced â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;lussâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is very common in Indiana. It is found as deposits of silt deposited by the wind during and after glacial events. There are different terms which are used to explain the different types of silt. Eolian is thick loess and means that the soil was deposited by the wind. Allucial is soil that is deposited near rivers and other washout and means that is was deposited by water. Soils in Indiana tend to drain very slowly because of the high clay content. Because it is clay, the water is unable to drain through the particles and therefore causes many issues with flooding. Many homes have flooding in basements, yards and often have a difficult time growing many plants around their home. Although most of Indiana consists of clay soil, southern Indiana has a different consistency. The soil in southern Indiana is sedimentary bedrock and loess. This type of soil is much better for drainage because of the spaces between the bedrock that allows for water to seep through. Columbus, Indiana Bartholomew County

Fig.5.2.15 Soil Parent Materials

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How fast the soil can drain water is very important to know in order to properly build upon the land. In Indiana, most people know that the soil has poor drainage because of the high clay content within it. As Fig. no. 5.2.16 shows, the northern part of indiana has pour soil for draingage. Dark brown covered land represents soil that is mostly clay and does not drain well. Light brown locations drain moderately well, and white areas has decent drainage. The white areas have clay that consists of silt and sand, more so than the norther portions of the state which consists of more clay than silt and sand. These changes occured because gracial till tends to consist of high amounts of clay. The areas in the central parts of the state have higher amounts of glacial outwash and therefore drain moderately well.

Columbus, Indiana Bartholomew County

Fig.5.2.16 Soil Wetness Characteristics

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Topography has a huge influence on what types of soil are in each area. As topography changes over the years, so do the soil types because of erosion. A great change in topography, for example, a mountain, the soil types changes as well. The variation of soil types in a short distance are greater in southern Indiana than they are in northern indiana. Erosion plays a huge part in changing the soil types because as erosion occurs, the soil moves. The map to the right indicates which areas of Indiana have higher erosion than others.

Columbus, Indiana Bartholomew County

Fig.5.2.17 Soil Erosion Potential

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There are many different types of soil throughout Indiana. These types of soil are composed of different materials ranging from clay, to sand, to bedrock. There are different material compositions because of weathering throughout the years. The main type of soil is called Alfisols. This type of soil is located mainly under highly forested areas and is capable for growing plant life even throughout the most humid season. This type of soil is very important to Indiana because of its agricultural potential. Because it is so important, it is necessary to take care of the soil and conserve it when possible; erosion can quickly take it away. Fig.5.2.18 Soil Explanation

Fig.5.2.19 Munsell Soil Color Chart

In the northwest corner of the state, another type of soil is more common, it is called mollisols. This type of soil is located under gasslands and has a rich chemical makeup and is able to absorb water very well. Also in the northern part of Indiana, Histosols are common. This type of soil is commonly located around swams and marshes and consists of high amounts of carbon. Because of the high amounts of carbon, it makes it easy for plants to grow in these areas. In the opposite end of the state, in the souther part of Indiana, Inceptisols is more common. This type of soil is common in the southern part of the state because of the steep topography of the land. It is most commonly found on slopes, close to the surface. Although it is located close to the surface, it is a relatively young soil that has not shown much weathering yet. Entisols are also located in high elevated areas which also have high erosion. This type of soil is also used for agriculture.

Fig. no. 5.2.18 explains some colors of soil and what they makeup of the soil means. This image is pared with Fig. no. 5.2.19 which gives examples of soil color. This chart is used by Geotechnical engineers after boring soil to figure out the different types of soil before construction begins. Fig. no. 5.2.20 represents the different types of soil out there and how engineers classify the different soils they come across.

Fig.5.2.20 Soil Chart

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5.2.3 Settling

Soil types determine which type of foundation should be used for a building. For the site in Columbus, Indiana, the soil type has medium potential for erosion,it is moderatly moist, and may consist of Alluvial and outwash deposits, this loess over loamy glacial till, moderately thick loess over loamy glacial till or moderately thick loess over weathered glacial till (see fig. no. 5.2.15-5.2.17). Keeping this in mind, it is important for architects to know which type of foundation would be best. Fig. no. 5.2.21 is an image of a deep foundation. Deep foundations are necessary when building on soil such as clay or silt. Large piles must penetrate into the ground through the weak and compressible soil, down to bedrock to create a base for the building. When deep foundations are constructed, soil is filled in around the base of the building and that fill will keep going through settling. As it settles, it sometimes likes to pull the piles down with it and can cause the piles to break away from their caps (if caps are used) near the surface. Considerations need to be made to design the proper foundation for they type of soil.

Fig.5.2.21 Deep Foundations through layer(s) of compressible soil

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Shallow foundations can be used on fills over weak soil as well, but more problems may arise. Settling is very common after a building is constructed, therefore, in order to reduce the amount of settling that may occur after construction, an option is to preload the soil. This is done by adding loads of soil and rolling over the layers with a large roller machine to compact the soil. Engineers must be on site to watch over the compaction process and test the soil frequently to make sure it is compacting correctly.

Fig.5.2.22 Schematic of U.S. Airways terminal constructed on shallow foundations bearing on highly compressbile soil layers.

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5.3 Precipitation 5.3.1 Rain

The city of Columbus gets its water supply from an underground aquifer. When it rains however, only 8-16% of rainfall water is absorbed into the ground to resupply this source. Using a water collection system allows about 80-90% of rainfall to be directly collected from the site of the museum where it can be stored for use to lessen depletion of the aquifer. The climate of Columbus, Indiana is quite conducive to using a rainwater collection system to support the museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water usage needs. Even though there are drier seasons, it receives between 3 and 5 inches per month year round. Having this more steady, year-round rainfall average will allow the collection system to keep up with the regular monthly water usage of the museum. The following page shows charts of the water level in the cistern for the first three years of 5 different scenarios of collecting area size. In order to be 100% sustainable, the collecting area must be 16,000sf. At 15,000sf and below, the purple line shows how many gallons must be added to the system at certain times.

Fig.5.3.1 - Average monthly rainfall in Columbus, Indiana.

Water Usage: Columbus, IN population = 44,677 assuming 75% of population will visit once every 6 months =33,500 visitors every 6 months =186 visitors/day on average 5 gallons/visitor/day = 930 gpd 930gpd * 30 = 27,900 gallons/month 930 gpd * 365 = 339,450 gallons/year Cistern Sizing: 44.31â&#x20AC;? per year average rainfall 3.7â&#x20AC;? monthly average rainfall area(sf) * rainfall (in) * 0.623 = gallons collected

Fig.5.3.2 - Daily probability of precipitation in Columbus, Indiana.

*Charts on following page assume 80% of average rainfall to account for drought years.

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5.3.2 Water Collection

Fig.5.3.3- Cistern level and intake at 13,000 sf collector area.

Fig.5.3.5- Cistern level and intake at 15,000 sf collector area.

Fig.5.3.4- Cistern level and intake at 14,000 sf collector area.

Fig.5.3.6- Cistern level and intake at 16,000 sf collector area.

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(Copy) Fig.5.3.3- Cistern level and intake at 13,000 sf collector area.

(Copy) Fig.5.3.5- Cistern level and intake at 15,000 sf collector area.

(Copy) Fig.5.3.4- Cistern level and intake at 14,000 sf collector area.

(Copy) Fig.5.3.6- Cistern level and intake at 16,000 sf collector area.

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5.3.3 Snow

Precipitaion is most likely to occur around December 29; it occurs roughly 45% of days. It is least likey to occur around August 4 and only occurs 14% of the days.

Fig.5.3.7- Probability of snow on a day in Columbus, Indiana.

The most common forms of precipitation are light rain and snow. Light rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 64% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around April 17, when it is observed during 26% of all days. Light snow is the most severe precipitation observed during 17% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around December 29, when it is observed during 21% of all days. The cold season lasts from November 29 until February 26. Durring that time, there is a 38% average chance that precipitation will occur at some point. Precipitation at this time of the year is most likely in the form of light rain- 45%- then light snow- 41%- and lastly- 8%- being in the form of moderate rain.

According to “Heavy Snow Loads” by Curt A. Gooch of Cornell University, one cubic foot of heavy snow weighs approximately 21 pounds. The graphic to the right shows the total amount of accumulated snow load for each month based on adding the monthly averages. The snow load that the roof will require for each month is then calculated with the following formula: Snow Load psf = 21lbs / 12” * Inches of Snow In reality, some snow would likely melt each month as well as the new snow being added, so this graphic shows the worst case scenario of none of the snow melting throughout the winter. The code requirement is for a roof to have a live load capacity of 40 pounds per square foot. Since the most the snow load will reach is 25 pounds, the code will determine more strictly which roofing materials can be used.

14.7” = 25.73 lbs/sf 14.6” = 25.55 lbs/sf 12.6” = 22.05 lbs/sf 8.3” = 14.53 lbs/sf 3.8” = 6.65 lbs/sf 0.6” = 1.05 lbs/sf

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Climate

5.3.4 Water Table & Frost Line CLIMATIC DIVISION 5 MORGAN 4 -- DAILY MINIMUM VALUES Most Recent Reading -13.99 (9/2/2013)

The sand and gravel water table under our site is very close to the surface. This chart shows the record maximum and minimum levels as well as the daily readings for the last five and a half years.

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DEPTH TO WATER FEET BELOW LAND SURFACE

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The average maximum level that we should plan for is nine feet below the surface. This means that the building should most likely not have an underground portion deeper than nine feet.

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MONTHS Record High

Record Low

Daily Minimum

Fig.5.3.8 - Daily levels of the Morgan 4 water table. 9/3/2013

Fig.5.3.9 - Frost depth map.

Daily Mean (1984-2010)

Fig.5.3.10 - Foundations without and with basement showing hydrostatic pressure with basement.

The frost depth in Columbus, Indiana is between 1 meter (3.2â&#x20AC;&#x2122;) and 0.75 meters (2.5â&#x20AC;&#x2122;). Since this means that the foundation only needs to be a maximum of about three feet deep, a basement would not be necessary and would raise the cost without need.

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5.4 Sun and Shading 5.4.1 Solar Analysis

Columbus Indiana is located at 39.2140째 N Latitude, 85.9111째 W Longtude. The Fig. no. 5.4.1 shows the angle of the sun at this location for any given hour. This information is useful in helping to analyze the amount of sun falling on surfaces of the building. In addition, shadow conditions from surrounding buildings can be analyzed. Fig. 5.4.3 through 5.4.6 illustrate the lighting conditions of the visitor center site. The solar analysis of the post office site can be seen in Fig. 5.4.9 through 5.4.12.

Fig. 5.4.1 - 40째 N Latitude Sun Path Diagram

This Fig. no. 5.4.2 shows the time of each sunrise and sunset throughout the year. The following solar analysis was derived from this data, as well as sun path diagram. In the analysis, a sun and shadow time-lapse is presented for each of the four solstices. Each figure shows an image at 9:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 4:00 PM. Fig. 5.4.2 - Daily Sunrise and Sunset

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Climate

Fig. 5.4.3 - December Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.4 - September Solstice Time-lapse

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Fig. 5.4.5 - June Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.6 - March Solstice Time-lapse

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5.4.2 Solar Analysis - Post Office

Columbus, Indiana is located in the Eastern Daylight Time Zone. From this information, the time of day when sunlight hours are occuring can be concluded. Daylight Savings Time (DST) occurs between March 10th and November 3rd of this year.

Standard Time Zone:

UTC/GMT -5 Hours

Daylight Savings Time:

+1 Hour

Current Time Zone:

UTC/GMT -4 Hours

DST Start/End Dates:

Start: March 10, 2013 at 2:00 AM End: November 3, 2013 at 2:00 AM

Fig. 5.4.7 - Eastern Daylight Time

Fig. no. 5.4.8 shows the total hours of sunlight that occur on each day of the year. This has a great effect on the amount of sunlight that can be used for daylighting. The following solar analysis was derived from this data, as well as sun path diagram. In the analysis, a sun and shadow time-lapse is presented for each of the four solstices. Each figure shows an image at 9:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 4:00 PM.

Fig. 5.4.8 - Daily Sunrise and Sunset

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Fig. 5.4.9 - December Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.10- September Solstice Time-lapse

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Fig. 5.4.11 - June Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.12 - March Solstice Time-lapse

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5.4.3 Cloud Coverage Analysis

The amount of cloud cover in Columbus can vrange from 32% (mostly cloudy) to 74% (partly cloudy). As the chart shows, it is most cloudy around January 12 and clearest around October 13. March 13 is the start of the clearest part of the year, and November begins the cloudiest part of the year. October 13 is said to be the clearest day of the year; 43% of the time, it is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy. Fig. 5.4.13 - Median Cloud Cover

Fig. no. 5.4.14 shows the percentage of time that each date receives a particular amount of cloud cover. By factoring this cloud cover data into the solar analysis we can now see how the amount of light falling on the building and site is affected. In the analysis, a sun and shadow time-lapse is presented for each of the four solstices. Each figure shows an image at 9:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 4:00 PM. Fig. 5.4.14 - Cloud Cover Types

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Fig. 5.4.15 - December Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.16 - September Solstice Time-lapse

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Fig. 5.4.17 - June Solstice Time-lapse

Fig. 5.4.18- - March Solstice Time-lapse

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Climate

5.4.4 Shading Device Recommendations

3-D View

Section/Plan

Ideal orientation

View restriction

Horizontal single blade

Outrigger system

Horizontal multiple blade

Vertical fin

Fig. no. 5.4.19 shows examples of various shading devices that can enhance building design and efficiency. Each option provides a different level of shading depending on the orientation of the glazing. Another aspect to consider when selecting a solar shading device is view restriction. Through careful consideration this selection can lead to the success of a project. In the case of the Visitor Center site, it is likely that the building will need solar shading on the southern facade. Using the chart, it is possible to see multiple horizontal shading techniques. In addition, the western facade can best be shaded using vertical fins.

Slanted Vertical fin

Eggerate

Fig. 5.4.19 - Shading Device Options

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Conclusion Weather affects many things when designing a building; yearly average temperatures and humidity levels are very important to know about so that proper building materials can be chosen. We suggest that materials be chosen wisely based upon temperatures throughout the year; if the surrounding climate has a large range of temperatures the building materials must be able to withstand both extreme cold and warm temperatures. The materials should be able to help heat the building in the winter and cool the building in the summer. Wind also has an effect on the building materiality as well as the structural components of the building. If the surrounding climate has high winds in the spring and fall, the structure must be able to withstand those winds. Structural components within the building must not move too much to cause the building to collapse when the wind hits the building. The building must have a strong foundation for multiple reasons. The foundation is what holds the building down and what the entire building is attached to. A strong foundation gives the building a base to build upon and be able to withstand harsh weather conditions. We recommend testing the soil on the site before beginning to build. The soil must be the proper soil, or be prepared correctly before foundation construction begins. If the soil consists of clay- like soil, compaction is necessary as well as the addition of sand or gravel to properly prepare the site. Our design recommendations for water issues are to not build below six to nine feet underground. This avoids the water table causing problems with the structure. A water collection system of 16,000+ square feet should be simple to achieve with the required building footprint and will have a great impact. Finally, snow load isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t much of an issue to worry about, but the frost level is about three feet. This means footings or basements will have to be between three to nine feet and any roofing material that is to code can be used. From the information provided, it is recommended that the majority of glazing be oriented towards the South and West in order to capture optimized levels of natural daylight. Shading devices used with glazing on the southern facade should be horizontal in nature. On the western facade vertical shading devices are recommended.

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Climate

CHAPTER 5: WORKS CITED Meghan Bouska, Dane Buchholz, Heather Wailes

Figures 5.1.1-5.1.7, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.7 and Information http://weatherspark.com/averages/29709/3/Columbus-Indiana-United-States

Figures 5.3.3-5.3.6 Cistern level and collector size Created by Dane Buchholz

Figures 5.2.1, 5.2.3, 5.2.5, 5.2.7, 5.2.9, 5.2.11, 5.2.13 http://www.wfyi.org/NaturalHeritage/participate/INPAWS2.pdf

Figure 5.3.8 - Daily levels of the Morgan 4 water table http://www.in.gov/dnr/water/files/wa-mg-4.pdf

Figures 5.2.2 Wild Ginger http://www.eattheweeds.com/wild-ginger/

Figure 5.3.9 - Frost depth map http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/GeodeticBMs/

Figure 5.2.4 Maple Sugar Tree http://www.oplin.org/tree/fact%20pages/maple_sugar/tree.jpg

Figure 5.4.1 - 40º N Latitude Sun Path and Information Mechanical and electrical equipment for buildings Stein, Benjamin, John Reynolds, and William J. McGuinness. Mechanical and electrical equipment for buildings. 8th ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1992.

Figure 5.2.6 June Grass http://www.stonesiloprairie.com/catalog/i26.html Figure 5.2.8 Cinnamon Fern http://naturalgardening.blogspot.com/2011/04/spring-wildflowers.html Figure 5.2.10 Crossvine http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/59317/#b Figure 5.2.12 Serviceberry http://hoodriverswcd.org/projects/plants/ Figure 5.2.14 Royal Catchfly http://grownative.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/royalcatch_mat.jpg Figures 5.2.15- 5.2.20 and Information http://www.iupui.edu/~g135/g135/13_soils/explore05.html Figures 5.2.21-5.2.22 and Information “Foundations on Weak and/or Compressible Soils” Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Figure 5.4.1- 5.4.2, 5.4.7-5.4.8, 5.4.13-5.4.14 and Information http://weatherspark.com/averages/29709/3/Columbus-Indiana-United-States Figure 5.4.3 - 5.4.6 - Sun Analysis Diagrams- Parking Lot Site Created by Meghan Bouska Figure 5.4.9 - 5.4.12 - Sun Analysis Diagrams- Post Office Site Created by Meghan Bouska Figure 5.4.15- 5.4.18- Cloud Analysis Diagrams Created by Meghan Bouska Figure 5.4.13 - Shading Device Options http://www.bembook.ibpsa.us/index.php?title=Solar_Shading


book 2

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Programming

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CHAPTER 6: Programming Jeremy Ernst, Holly Pohlmeier, Kevin Stromert

6.0 Introduction 6.1 Tools for Architectural Programming 6.1.1 Definitions + Questions to Ask 6.1.2 Factors 6.1.3 Sample Back of House 6.2 Proximity Diagrams 6.2.1 Diagram 1 6.2.2 Diagram 2 6.2.3 Diagram 3 6.3 Precedent Program Analysis

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6.4 Columbus Based Programming 159 6.4.1 Sample Columbus Analysis 6.4.2 Profile 6.4.3 Contextual 6.4.4 Programmatic lighting 6.4.5 City Plan vs. Site Options 162 6.5 Columbus Project + Sq. Footages 6.6 Conclusion 166 6.7 Works Cited

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6.0 - Introduction The following chapter begins to look at programming for Columbus, taking direction from the precedent studies conducted in Chapter 1. Museums are often comprised of many components that the day to day user may never interact with. This includes spatial parameters like â&#x20AC;&#x153;back of house facilitiesâ&#x20AC;? and staff support spaces. Many of the precedent studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; programs offered a solution to a design problem. In order to define a program for Columbus, the building concept was investigated: Industrial Innovation. After understanding the museum concept, the building organiztion was thought about in terms of hierarchy, volume, and flow of spaces (as seen in the precedent studies). This chapter investigates one way to take on programming, by proposing a problem and presenting a solution.

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6.1.1 - Precedents: Programming for Columbus Define Industrial Innovation: INDUSTRIAL: of, relating to, or characterized by industry. INDUSTRY: hard work, economic activity concerned with processing of raw materials and the manufacture of goods in factories. INNOVATION: the action or process of innvoating; INNOVATE: to make changes in something established especially by introducing new mathods, ideas, or projects. Interestingly, there isn’t a definition for the term “Industrial Innvation”. It is implied.

Questions to Ask

6 Categories for Evaluation; Based on Precedent Research: Concept Development Concept is what helps define design choices throughout the entire building. - Concept: Industrial Innovation - How does concept inform the building’s form? Circulation - How much of the exhibit spaces are devoted to circulation? How much space is circulation alone? - What kind of circulation fits the concept? Should circulation be fixed to lead visitors on a certain path, or open? Safety + Curation - Where + how are items stored? - What kind of security is available to the museum? - How private is this process?

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Lighting - Natural vs. Artifical? - Is lighting diffused? Does it dpend on objects in the room? etc. Materials - Do materials play a role in the programming? - Materials can often mark transition between spaces, how? - Materials help dictate the mood of the space. Sustainability - Affected by each category. - Avoid waste - How can you incorporate passive or sustainable practices? Are there local materials that could be used?

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Precedents: Programming for Columbus

6.1.2 - Programming Factors: Spatial: Space Types + Square Footages + Quantities Example

48%

Public Collections Space

Emotional: Client + Message + Vision

10%

Non Public Non Collections Space

Specialist Perspective: Exhibits

16%

Research / Curational

Non Public Collections Space

26%

Audience Narrative

Public Non Collections Space

Functional: Relationships + Adjacencies + How Spaces Work

Tourist Perspective: Exhibits Research / Curational

Educational / Didactic

Design / Visual

Audience Narrative

Educational Didactic Design / Visual

Hierarchical: Place Characteristics + Order

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Arrows note tranportation of objects to display.

Loading Bay

Security

Shipping + Receiving

6.1.3 - Sample “Back of House” Facilities

Documentation Office

Crate Storage

It’s easy to forget about all of the things that happen behind the scenes in a museum.

Crating + Uncrating

In order to better understand different facilities necessary in a museum, pr ecedents were studied and analyzed. Museums require offices, storage spaces, large mechanical rooms, and security booths - to name a few. There are many different ways to oragnize these spaces.

Isolation

Photo Studio

The transition between public and private spaces (gallery and exhibit spaces to security and storage) is the most important thing to address. In this example, it seems that they are kept seperate. However, this is not the only way to approach the adjacency diagram. Curational Exam Rooms

Collection Storage

Conservation Lab

Permanent Collection Galleries

Tranist Storage

Exhibit Prep.

Exhibit Prep.

Clean Workshop

Dirty Workshop

Temporary Exhibition Galleries

Fig. 6.1.2

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6.2 - Proximity Diagrams One study done to develop programs is to look at the proximity of the different elements within the program. Proximity considers the adjacency of these elements and a general distance for each element. This may begin to bring forward patterns in circulation, but is mostly done as a strategy for the arrangement of such elements. The next three pages will go into three strategies depicted in diagrams. All three include the same elements for the program. These elements include lobby, ticketing, bathroom, coat check, meeting space/conference space, a cafĂŠ, and a gift shop. Other major elements include the exhibit spaces, offices and other back of the house support spaces.

Fig. 6.2.1

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Proximity Diagram #1

Lobby Bathrooms Ticketing

6.2.1 In this diagram, the program is split into three wings from the lobby space. One direction heads to the spaces that may be accessed by guests that do not necessarily need access to the galleries. This includes the café, gift shop, bathrooms, coat check, and meeting rooms. The second wing accesses the gallery spaces, but via the ticketing spaces. This allows security and control for the galleries. The third wing is to the “back-of-house” spaces, which can allow private access and security. These spaces include offices, loading and unloading spaces, storage and archive spaces.

Coat Check Curator Innovation

Archives

Support Spaces

Meeting Room/ Conference Space

Loading Cafe Storage

Columbus Art & Design

Gift Shop

Rotating Exhibits

Fig. 6.2.2

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Proximity Diagram #2

Archives

6.2.2 Lobby

Administrative Space

Loading

Storage

Cafe

Ticketing & Security

Gift Shop Meeting/ Conference Room

The second diagram also begins with the lobby and splits into three options from there. One option provides direct access to meeting rooms and the cafĂŠ. The other two options are access to the back of house and the ticketing/security space. From there the guests will take a precession based access to each of the galleries rather than a free plan between the exhibits. This path through the galleries terminates in the gift shop. From the lobby access to the back of house is provided. Similar to the last diagram but now direct access to the exhibits for the curator is included. This is a common program in museums today.

Innovation

Columbus Art & Design

Rotating Exhibit Space

Fig. 6.2.3

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Proximity Diagram #3 Archives Curator Visual Connection

Cafe

6.2.3 This third and final proximity diagram begins with the lobby and provides two options from entry. Again separate access to the meeting room, cafĂŠ, gift shop, and support spaces. The second option is access to the main galleries. Note the alternate entrance to the back of house spaces. The major difference for this program is the visual access to the back of house spaces and archives. This type of program could work well for specialty museums such as automobile or ancient artifacts. Visual access to such spaces that prepare these kinds of works provides an opportunity for education for the guests.

Storage & Documentation

Gift Shop

Galleries

Support Spaces

Meeting/ Conference Rooms

Loading Ticketing

Lobby

Coat Check

Fig. 6.2.4

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6.3 - Programming helps to address a problem... PROBLEM

Jewish Museum

To welcome the Jewish community back to Berlin after the effects of WWII.

SOLUTION The circulation works to tell the story of the Jewish community through experiental and formal qualities. Elements like the axis of continuity and the Holocause tower acknowledge the past, and become a kind of memorial.

MuSe

Nelson Atkins Museum

Salvador Dali Museum

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To encourage people to come back to a portion of the community that had been left behind through education of the science and biodiversity of the region.

Reviatlize an existing museum. Increase the square footage for museum space, and additional space for education.

Enhance the recognition of Dali’s work and protect “the largest collection of work outside of Spain”.

A master plan was generated for the area. The MuSe became only a portion of a large whole, in attempt to create an integrated cultural center. The MuSe was an innovative building to attract people to visit, as well as promote professional and cultural development. Square footage was increased by 70% through the Steven Holl addition. Holl’s image promoted revitalization, and building integration with the existing scultpure garden. The buildings educational portion of the building more than doubled.

The building represented Dali’s work in the arcitecture by creating an image to attract more visitors. Thick concrete construction was used to protect the work from hurricanes, etc.

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6.3.1 - Object to Volume Scale

24’

The height to object ratio can change in rotating exhibits making it difficult to find solvable height. Having varying exhibits with varying heights will allow you to place appropriate objects into appropriate volumes. The top image shows a very high object to height ratio. The space overwhelms the object and detracts attention from the image. The lower image shows a lower height to object ratio creating a more user friendly interaction. The image takes over a much larger surface area on the wall, drawing in attention.

1’ 5’ 8” Height to Object Ratio: 24’ / 1’ = 24 Fig. 6.3.1

12’

2.75’ 5’ 10”

Height to Object Ratio: 12’/ 2.75’ = 4.36 Fig. 6.3.2

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6.3.2 - Industrial Design Exhibits

Fig. 6.3.3

Fig. 6.3.4

Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago)

Cummins Corporate Museum (Columbus, IN)

This museum has incorparted a lot of theme based interactive displays. The museum staff is also readily available to answer questions or put on displays. The exhibits are interactive and offer learning. The buildingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; circulation is color coordinated and offers a sense of organization, because the visitors are able to orient themselves by color.

The cummins corporate headquarters offers a small museum in their lobby. The museum is successful because it targets a specific audience, and offers them an innovative way to look at items theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve seen many times before.

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Fig. 6.3.5

MuSe museum of science (Italy) This museum acts as an informative space for those in Trento to learn about the biodiversity of their area. The building offers many innvative exhibit proposals, and even uses the white facade of the building as a surface for presentations and learning. The museum has many interactive exhibits for children and even offers them facilities like a bubble room and a relaxation room for breaks during a day spent at the museum.

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6.4.1 - Columbus, Indiana Industrial Innovation Museum

Promote education by keeping it centralized in the museum. This keeps visitors actively engaged in the building exhibitions. All other components of the museum are able to promote learning through this connection.

Lobby

PROBLEM Consolidate the work from other Columbus museums into a single space, and reinterpret the works to generate a wider appeal.

Actively engage visitors by exploring the existing environment.

Archives

Education

Focus on innovative objects of design from both the regional and local areas.

Columbus Art & Culture

SOLUTION

The museum should be an innovative design that is reminiscent of the innovative objects within it. The circulation should promote an interatctive relationship with the visitors, and promote wayfinding.

Gift Shop/ Cafe

Innovative objects of Design

Suggest Curational content and a thematic focus.

Rotating Exhibits Fig. 6.4.1

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Rotating Exhibits Permanent Exhibits Innovative Objects of Design Education Archives Support Offices, Lobby, Cafe

6.4.2 - Profile The profile of the museum has an impact on both the surrounding contexts and the experience inside. This study shows how the room can be divided into different height categories determined by their program. There are many solutions for the profile of this museum. Fig. 6.4.2 - Profile Diagram

Some profiles can be driven by the surrounding site. A neighboring building may be short on one end of the site while there is a taller one at the other end. The cafe could be placed by the shorter building while the innovative objects could be placed by the taller building. The arrangement of the programs can be related to the maximization of daylighting. Placement of taller buildings further north then the shorter buildings could eliminate the possibility of southern light reaching the shorter rooms. Studying the arrangement of the programs in the third dimension helps to understand how your museum will relate to the context and how you can use natural lighting features.

Fig. 6.4.3- Profile Diagram

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6.4.3 - Contextual Design Themes “”The congregation was searching for an architect who could find the right expression for their desire to live a rich inner life and a simple outer life.” -Jay Erwin Miller

The quote is in regards to the first project Eliel Saarinen did for the city of Columbus, The First Christian Church, when Miller was trying to convince Saarinen to accept the project that he had originally declined. The statement is a spitting image of the architecture created in the heart of Columbus. The library, churches, and the schools designed by an architect on a list of firms assigned by Cumins Inc. changed the community of Columbus. Most of the great architecture in Columbus has a simplified exterior and creates an extraordinary rich experience on the interior. Only the churches try and symbolize anything from the exterior while the others stay quite. They all take advantage of lighting, material, and details in an innovative way.

Innovation

Lighting Material Detail

Fig. 6.4.4 - First Baptist Church, Columubus Indiana

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6.4.4 - Programatic Lighting Some of the innovative objects will be engines and large machinery that can be lit with direct lighting. This would be the only place in all of the exhibits that has this opportunity. Artificial lighting would also have to be used during the night.

Fig. 6.4.5 - Innovative Objects

Both the permanent and rotating exhibits will contain art that canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be exposed to direct lighting. Natural light can be used if the apertures are designed specifically to reflect the light into the space and keep it from damaging the objects on display.

Fig. 6.4.6 - Permanent and Rotating Exhibits

The archives hold objects that are not out for display. Any light that is applied to the archives should not be damaging to any objects that may go through the museum. All of the objects from all the exhibits can pass through the archive limitinvg its options for lighting conditions.

Fig. 6.4.7 - Archives

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6.4.5 - City Plan vs. Site Options The visitors center site is right in the heart of the cultural buildings while the post office site is sitting on the edge. The post office is in the government center while the visitors site is in the institutional area. This map will help guide in choosing a site that best fits the interests of the community. The museum belongs in the institutional area making it easy to choose the visitors center as a site for the new museum. An argument to be made is that the museum is for innovative objects and the Cuminâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Inc. is directly across from the post office. Parking in the Institutional area is already nearly impossible and the addition of a museum there would eliminate the existing parking while the post office has a parking ramp conveniently located across the street.

Fig. 6.4.8

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6.5 - Columbus Project: Sq. Footages The client had specified square footages for certain portions of the building, including gallery and archival spaces. The program dictated a limit of 40,000 sq. ft., and indicated a large interest in education facilities. Based on the previous studies, the following sqare footages are an estimates for the Columbus program.

Archives Curator Visual Connection

Cafe

Storage & Documentation

Gift Shop

Galleries

Education

Galleries: 11,000 sq. ft. + Innovative Objects: 8,000 sq. ft. + Other Exhibits: 1,500 sq. ft. + Rotating Exhibits: 1,500 sq. ft. Back of House: 10,000 sq. ft. + Loading + Storage + Documentation + Curator Space Education: 500 sq. ft.

Support Spaces

Meeting Room: 1,100 sq. ft. Gift Shop: 500 sq. ft. Support: 1,000 sq. ft.

Meeting/ Conference Rooms

Loading Ticketing

Lobby

Coat Check

Cafe/Kitchen: 2,500 sq. ft. Lobby + Entry Spaaces: 900 sq. ft. Circulation: 3,000 sq. ft. ______________________________________

Total: 35,000 sq. ft.

Fig. 6.4.9

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6.6 - Conclusion Programming can be completed in a variety of ways. Looking at precedents has proven helpful for generating proximity diagrams and thinking about circulation and flow between spaces. Precedents also offer ideas about space, square footages, and total volumes for the kinds of spaces needed in a museum. Programming seeks to solve a problem, or a design challenge by implementing a concept. The concept is what helps to define the criteria for the spaces and occupancies withing the building.

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Precedents

6.7 - Works Cited Subasinghe, Chamila. “Architectural Programming.” Lecture, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, September 30, 2013. Lord, Barry, and Gail Dexter Lord. Manual of Museum Planning: Sustainable Space, Facilities, and Operations. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2012. —. The Manual of Museum Exhibitions . Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2001.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013


Chapter 7 - Programming Through Education Ahmed Al Monsouri, Alex Olevitch, Bec Ribeiro

7.0 Introduction

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7.1 The Educational Crisis of Columbus Indiana

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7.2 Client Letter 7.2.1 Room Tests 7.2.2 Square Footages 7.2.3 Hourly Occupancy

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7.3 Programatic Flow Chart

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7.4 Site Analysis 7.4.1 Site 1 7.4.2 Site 2 7.4.3 Site 3

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7.5 Trends in the Programming 7.5.1 Circulation variations

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7.6 Final Bubble Diagram

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7.7 Conclusion

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chapter title

An Education in Programming After the research conducted on the demographic conditions of Columbus, we noticed that there are a large number of imbalances in the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s present system. The most prominent imbalance exists within the educational attainment of the residents. This imbalance is not for lack of formal educational institutions but rather a lack of informal opportunities. Informal opportunities provide an excellent outlet for those already receiving a formal education to expand their outlook beyond the classroom. Additionally, they create a culture of education within the city by mixing those with higher educational attainment with those without. The idea is not to raise all those without higher education to the level of those with, but rather to promote a culture of education weather or not it is pursued further. This chapter will examine the letter provided by the CCF and weather or not it can be adjusted to address the educational disparity of Columbus.

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7.1 The Educational Crisis of Columbus Indiana

The graph and chart show that there is not a lack for formal educational opportunity with in the city but that, despite this existing infrastructure Columbus suffers from educational polarity. It can safely be assumed that the majority of those who have only a high school degree or equivalant were raised in Columbus and remained there after high school. On the other hand, a further inference can be made that those with bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degrees or higher were not raised in Columbus and were brought in by the promise of Cummins Industry. It is the goal of this programatic study to figure out a way to mix these two residential groups and create a better culture of educational respect and interest within the city.

Figure 7.1.2 shows a map plotting the schools in Columbus

Figure 7.1.1 shows a bar graph with the educational attainment in 2011

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7.2 Client Letter

Spatial – (30,000-40,000)

Community room/meeting/education area

- Accommodates up to 150 people With our primary focus of the museum being on education, we found it necessary to alter the suggested number of people accommodating each space. Instead of the proposed 150 people per space, we increased it to accommodate 200 people. This will aid to increase all educational opportunities offered at the museum.

- Exhibit - Formal presentation - Research/reading - Hospitality (shop/café) - Community education - Back of house storage/operations (movement of the exhibits) - Preservation area - Administrative - Clear point of entry (security)

Likewise, the CCF left an open-ended suggestion of having spaces for education, so we decided to designate open classrooms with movable partitions for a more flexible environment. This ended up being a large part of our design, therefore strategically placed next to interactive and more versatile exhibits. Additionally we saw it fit to add a larger classroom capabvle of holding up to 80 people for smaller events and lectures. Museum shop/café

- Must include: - Bag/coat check area - Public restrooms - Janitorial services - MEP rooms (building code standards)

Administrative/support spaces:

Innovative Industrial objects (8000-10,000) - Columbus art and design (1,500-3000) - Housing work that’s donated by the president of Cummins - May have space for a center piece

- Flexible for museum direction, museum curator, archival librarian, education director, 6 docents and several teachers.

Functional - Back of house - Functional elevator (passenger/objects) - How does art correspond to other spaces - Accommodate a wide variety of exhibit sizes and types

Rotating exhibit design (1,500-2,500)

- Modest size relative to the rest of the building

- Spatial potential to house a variety of exhibit sizes/types

Architectural archives/exhibits (3,500-5,000)

Emotional

- Display space for models/drawings - Reading/research room that includes an architectural library, long-term storage space, and necessary administrative/conservation spaces

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- Architectural archives/exhibit - To enliven and reiterate and contextualize these exhibits.

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7.2.1 Room Tests

Community Gathering Space

We sized this space according to an event that requires seating for up to 200 people. While the CCF required up to 150, we chose to expand this in favor of an educational reception space. The kitchen is the shared between this space and the cafe, capable of servicing both, hence the division in the tables. This space can be flexible in its programming but square footages have been determined around the largest equipment requirements: tables and seats for all. 54 ft

30 ft

30 ft

54 ft

Kitchen seats 144 people 6150 sqft seats 192 people

84 ft

Figure 7.2.1: the proposed room test for cafe (including kitchen) and common open area

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Museum Shop

16 ft

Museum Entrance

31 ft Janitorial

Public Restrooms

Gift shop 496 sqft Figure 7.2.2 : a proposed room test for the gift shop

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Bag/Coat Check

Lobby

1610 sqft

The entrance lobby is a difficult area to do a room test for as it is so often subject to the desired emotion of the spactial sequence. The lobbies of many museums are often larger open spaces but per the requirements of a room test, we have found the minimum space to be roughly 300 gsf. We justify this extremely small footprint by saying that the gathering space tested on the page before could be the main loby circulation space, another scheme found in many contemporary museums

Figure 7.2.3 : a proposed room test for the entrance area

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Educational Outreach Spaces For this we used our initial gathering space as an indicator of “student body size”. Given that there are 200 possible seats we assume that this space will be filled in the event of an opening for student work within the Rotating Gallery. That being said, it is safe to assume that parties of 3 (one student and two parents) make up the audience. This leaves a total of 65 students.. Classroom sizes of 15 students, each with a desk of 2’ x 3’, open space for group activity, and personal storage results in the room seen below. There will be 5 of these rooms, enough for up to 65 students at a time. The presentation area can seat 80 and therefore could service both the students for any total group lecture or be used for a community gathering more intimate than the larger gathering space.

30 ft

29 ft

29 ft

24 ft

classroom 696 sqft

x 5 = 3,480 gsf Figure 7.2.4 : a proposed room test for the classroom

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Presentation Area 870 sqft Figure 7.2.5: a proposed room test for the presentation area Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Education Program

Administrative Facilities Four lead administrators: Museum Director Museum Curator Archival Librarian Education Director

15 ft

Each of these positions requires an individual office. A 15’ x 15’ space should suffice for the needs of each

15 ft

The museum docents do not need individual offices but rather individual storage space for their belongings while on the museum floor. We chose to include these “lockers” in the break room. Also in this room is a set of tables and a counter top for food prep. Finally, a meeting v

36 sqft

40 ft

480 sqft

13 ft

13 ft

Meeting room 520 sqft seats 18 people

Figure 7.2.6 : a proposed room test for the administrative area Arch 401 - Fall 2013

Figure 7.2.7 : a proposed room test for the meeting room

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7.2.2 Square Footages

Entrance

Lobby / Ticketing Bag / Coat Check Public Restrooms Janitorial Services

Exhibition Space

Innovative Industrial Objects Art and Design Collection Rotating Exhibit Architectural Archives Display Space A Reading/research library long term storage Administrative Spaces

Community Room

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Flexible Common Area Storage Space Museum Shop Museum Cafe (Kitchen)

1,610 gsf

300 gsf 300 gsf 460 gsf 350 gsf

15,000 gsf

9,000 gsf 1,500 gsf 2,500 gsf 4,000 gsf

Educational Outeach

4,350 gsf

Administrative Space

2,800 gsf

Classrooms Larger gathering space Offices Break Room / Docent Space Restrooms Conference Room Teachers office

Back of House 6,640 gsf

4,800 gsf 800 gsf ~ 500 gsf 540 gsf

Storage Loading Dock Service Elevator Security Booth Active Systems

Museum Total

3,480 gsf 870 gsf 900 gsf 480 gsf 290 gsf 520 gsf 500 gsf

5,000

35,400

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7.2.3 Building Hourly Occupancy

Occupants 12:00 AM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Museum Director 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Museum Curator 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Docents 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Teachers 6 7 8 8 7 6 Archival Librarian 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Education Director 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Janitorial Staff 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 Architectural Archive Staff 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Visitors 50 50 50 50 120 120 120 120 120 120 100 Students 65 65 65 65 65 65

This number is subject to change. Within the museums program, there is capacity enough for a maximum of 65 students at any given time. In the event of an educational class or camp offered to the youth of Columbus this number could flucuate greatly. For the purpose of this chart, the maximum was chosen to design for the “extremes”. The hours this is offered is directly related to the avaliability of the citie youth who typically attend school until 2-3pm each day. This portion is highlighted due to its uncertaintity. We’ve chosen to represent 120 guests at any given time in the afternoon, should an event be held in the museums commons this number could experience dramatic variation. The commons area is designed with a 200 person capacity in mind for a variety of events and receptions. However, because this is a very specific variable, we feel it is safe to assume an average and in this case not highlight the most extreme scenario due to its great uncertainty.

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7.4 Flow Chart

Administrative Offices Teacher Space

Community Space

Education

Entrance

Classrooms / Studios

Exhibits

Break Room / Docent Storage Restrooms

Admin.

B.O.H.

Museum Shop Museum Cafe Entrance

Restrooms

Education Lecture Hall

Innovative Objects

Loby/Ticket Bag / Coat Check

Rotating

Exhibit Entrance Art / Design

Community Space

Storage Janitorial

Storage

Architectural Archives

Back of House Storage Elevator Loading Dock Figure 7.4.1 shows a flow chart with the spatial relationships within the museum

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7.4 - Site Analysis 8th street

8th street

1 Franklin St.

7th street

7th street

Franklin St.

Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve chosen to examine this program in three very different contextual conditions. The first site lends itself well to an educational program as it is surrounded on 3 sides by residential infrastructure. Site Two has a combination of commercial and residential with good oportunity for the creation of public space within the surrounding parking lots. Site 3, the post office site, has little to no connection to the residential neighborhood and much greater connection to the business and commercial districts of downtown. However, it also has a considerable amount of open space near by that could be developed into public plazas.

2

Site

Residential Jackson St.

Attractions/businesses

5th street

5th street

Church

Parking lot

3

Open area/playground

Figure 7.4.2 shows a color coded map signifying different programs within the city Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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7.4.1 Site Analysis 1 For this site the layout of the programs based on site related information and how the ciruclation should respond. The entrance is located on the street with the most active traffic. It makes sense to immediately be able to access the café/shop or the exhibit spaces. Since the common area does not need to be consistently used and could be a part of the café, it is not necessary for it to be at the entrance. The exhibit space is located on the side of the street that could allow for natural light if that was desired. The back of house is located at the corner of the elementary school and housing neighborhood. It is not necessary for this area to have adequate natural light so this is an ideal location. The rotating exhibit and innovative industrial objects are on the second floor with the classroom because it is more beneficial for the students to be surrounded by this. The classrooms and administrative area are here because they do not need to be accessed by all visitors, so it would make more sense to have it out of the way of the museum guests.

8th street

8th street Playground/Plaza Area

Playground/Plaza Area

Franklin St.

Art & Entrance Design Archives

7th street

Archtitectural Archives

Cafe Shop

Back of House

7th street

Common Area

Second Floor

Administative Classrooms Gather Space

Rotating Exhibit

Innovative Industrial Objects

Storage

First Floor

Second Floor

Figure 7.4.3 examines the site north of the visitor’s center and shows a proposed layout of the museum’s programs

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7.4.2 Site Analysis 2

The entrance is located on the west side of the building, close to a parking lot and other public parking spaces for easy access. All the public amenities like the cafe and the museum shop are located on the west side of building by the street for easy accessibility. Having it with close proximity to the street can bring in people and workers to stop and maybe grab breakfast or come at their lunch breaks. Which in return brings more life to the museum. The rotating exhibit is also located by the street and next to the shop because it changes more frequently relative to the other exhibits. This keeps the museum front constantly changing and more relevant to bring people in. The common area faces an open parking lot located on the north side of the building. It has a private entrance that can be open for a variety of events, as well as a good view towards the church. The back of house and storage spaces is all located on the south side of the building to keep it accessible through the open area. Trucks can easily drive up to the back of house and drop off art pieces, which can easily be transferred to the first and the second floor through a large elevator. Close to the back of house elevator on the second floor is the innovative industrial objects. This exhibit takes the largest amount of space, and will have interactive objects that encourage informal education. The classrooms are located right next to the innovative industrial objects exhibit, for both areas have strong educational purposes. They also face the residential areas, promoting a more family oriented program.

Cafe shop

Rotating exhibit

art and design exhibit

Back of house

storage space

Back of house

administrive space

Architectural Archives

Innovative industrial objects

classrooms

Common area

Figure 7.4.4 examines the visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center site and shows a proposed layout of the museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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7.4.3 Site Analysis 3 Site 3, the post-office site, has dramatically different conditions than other two. This site has no immediate connection to any residential neighborhood and is surrounded by either business or parking with little exposure to the commercial establishments of downtown just a block south. That being the case, the location of the more public programs of the museum, such as the gathering space, the cafe, the shop, and the entrance, all address the north-south axis connecting the business and commercial zones of downtown columbus. The location of the entrance is a response to the open plaza of the bank, on the opposing corner. The remainder of the city block is currently dedicated to parking and thus would be an ideal private entrance for personel and loading/shipping.

Administrative Back of House

Group Classroom

Rotating

Community Gathering

Shop

Art and Design

Cafe

Industrial Objects

Architectural Archives

Storage

Studios

Figure 7.4.5 examines the post office site and shows a proposed layout of the museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s programs

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7.5 Trends in mapping Coat Check

Janitorial

Art + Design Exhibition

Shop

Cafe

Entrance

Lobby

Art and Design Collection is always nearest the entrance. Followed by the Architectural Archives.

Architectural Archives

The Classrooms are never directly accessed through the entrance but hold a central location with access to most of the rest of the program

Community Space Educational Gathering Space

The Cafe and Museum Shop are always side by side and on the exterior. Administrative path typically follows the inverse of the public path, working backwards through circulation

Storage Teachers Offices Rotation Exhibit

Educational Studios

Conference Room Docent Lounge

Open connection

Flexible barrier

Imdustrial Objects Exhibit

Admin. Offices

Back of House

Circualtion zone Figure 7.5.1 : a map of the trends in the programs and the circulation Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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7.5.1 Circulation Variations

Museum Guest

Event Atendee

Student

Teacher / Administrator

Figure 7.5.2: a series of different paths taken by 4 different visitors

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7.6 The Final Bubble Diagram - The Columbus Condition

Designing a museum that fits the city of Columbus’ master plan wouldn’t only be beneficial in creating a more cohesive addition to the city’s fabric, but also helps make the museum be more economical. Using the city’s existing buildings and connecting them to the programs at the museum will help with cost, as well as help encourage good circulation within the city. Our research shows a lack of education diversity in the city of Columbus. This is influenced by many factors including the lack of school diversity, the minimal amount of private schools, and low household incomes. A museum that bridges that disconnection of education is a good option because it would encourage people to come in as opposed to push them away for it’s foreign language in design. Therefore, our main focus was focusing the program of the museum on education people both formally and informally.

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Figure 7.6.1 shows a bubble diagram of the existing condition in Columbus and the factors influencing it

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Conclusion As evidenced by the final page of this chapter, education of a community is inherently linked to its prosperity. Given this actuality, the museum has the opportunity to directly affect this system, promoting education through informal opportunity and programming. In order to achieve the potential positive effects, certain programatic moves could be considered. The considerations are as follows: Enlargement of educational programs capable of supporting larger numbers of students and visitors.

Areas where students, educators, and the general public may interact and co-mingle.

Centralization of educational programs with the other programs acting as supports.

However, there are inherent dangers of promoting a strictly educational program. The program must be sensitive to those who do not wish education forced upon them but rather approachable by all, regardless of educational attainment. It should not promote exclusivity as higher education often does but rather welcome people, through its versitile progamatic offerings. Moves to avoid are as follows:

Avoid creating a â&#x20AC;&#x153;schoolâ&#x20AC;?.

Avoid excluding visitors from the other programs during educational sessions.

Avoid a division of educational classes among visitors.

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CHAPTER 7 - Programming Through Education: WORKS CITED Ahmed Al Monsouri, Alex Olevitch, Bec Ribeiro

Development Concepts Inc. Downtown Columbus Strategic Planning . Strategic Plan. Columbus : City of Columbus, 2005.

Welcome To Columbus Indiana. 1 1 2013. 20 9 2013 <http://www.localcensus.com/city/Columbus/Indiana>.

Bartholomew County, Indiana . 10 1 2012. 1 10 2013 <http://www.stats.indiana.edu/profiles/profiles. asp?scope_choice=a&county_changer=18005&button1=Get+Profile&id=2&page_path=Area+Profiles&path_ id=11&panel_number=1>.

Columbus Indiana Population and Demographics Resources . 1 January 2013. 10 September 2013 <http:// columbusin.areaconnect.com/statistics.htm>.

Columbus, Indiana. 2012. 20 9 2013 <http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/indiana/columbus>. Population in Columbus. 2013 <http://www.americantowns.com/in/columbus/info/population>.

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Columbus, Indiana. 10 1 2013. 1 10 2013 <http://www.city-data.com/city/Columbus-Indiana.html>.


CHAPTER 8: Contextual Programming David Greco, Jackie Katcher, and Sarah Ward

8.0 Introduction 8.1 Site Selection 213 8.1.1 Initial Site Options 8.1.2 Second Phase of Selection 8.1.3 FInal Site Selection 8.2 Site Analysis 216 8.2.1 Post Office Site 8.2.2 Visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Center Site 8.3 Programming 221 8.3.1 The Problem 8.3.2 Recommended Solutions 8.3.3 Parking Space Requirements 8.3.4 Needs Assessment 8.3.5 Museum Departments 8.3.6 Room Test Diagrams 8.4 Conclusion + Design Recommendation 227 8.5 References + Works Cited 228

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Trends and Forecasts

Introduction Our programming section uses the context around the two sites to determine specific design rules. Since the program relies heavily on the site, we went through a detailed process of assessing the possible sites in and around Columbusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s downtown. When picking sites, we looked at land use diagrams produced by the City of Columbus. In these documents, they analysized the levels of use according to several factors. The main determinate on which sites were recommended for development was the amount of square footage on the plots that were already developed and whether or not those sites were being used to their full potential. The city of Columbus sees the under-use issue as an economic as well as social issue. We add to this, by recognizing that these sites create a discontinuity in the city. After visiting Columbus, we ultimately narrowed down these underutilized sites down to two: the Visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Center Site, and the Post Office Site. We feel that by selecting either one of these sites, the community of Columbus will gain a better connection between its different neighborhoods, corridors, and people.

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8.1 Site Selection 8.1.1 Initial Site Options Because we saw importance in exploring different site options than the one that was originially proposed, we have gone through an analytic process of choosing the best potential sites for the museum project. We first began this process by closely examining the Downtown Strategic Planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s map for redevelopment opportunities and looked at each site carefully before making our initial choices. These nine sites are highlighted in Fig. 1.1 with the ninth site being one that we added to the potential sites due to our analysis of what we felt the city needed and what this site could potentially be. Based on our initial understanding of the sites, we created a list of pros and cons of each site so that when we visited Columbus, we could walk around and analyze the sites at a human scale and look at the context of each site in depth. The pros and cons of each site highlighted in Fig. 1.1 are as follows: Site # 1

Cons Close to outskirts of town; surrounded by residential neighborhoods; next to railroad 2 Open, green space; interesting view from inter- Far away from the entrance point to the city; secting streets next to railroad 3 Open parking lot space; opportunity to conWould have to provide alternate parking; nect with Cummins insignificant in terms of proximity to heart of downtown 4 Room for landscape development, good oppor- Uses Cumminsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; parking lot (but also gives tunity to make a connection between industry them the opportunity to use a parking garage and the natural environment instead of giant lot) 5 Underdeveloped part of Columbus; downtown Very small plot of land; would have to be leaves lots of room for growth more creative with interactive outdoor exhibits 6 Underused parking lot; close proximity to Located close to residential neighborhoods main downtown 7 Open parking lot space (across from original Smaller than original site proposal site proposal) 8 (Original Close proximity to historical landmarks and Doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily connect overall urban Site Proposal) the main downtown area; activates downtown fabric area more 9 Connection to Mill Race Park, walking trail, Situated on a floodplain; corridor into Coriver, and entry corridor lumbus; two railroad tracks run through the site

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Pros Open, green space; close to Noblitt Park

Fig. 1.1 - The initial site options overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan.

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Trends and chapter Forecasts title

8.1.2 Second Phase of Selection After visiting Columbus and further analysis of each site, we were able to eliminate four of the initial site options with the addition of one new site. The reasoning for eliminating site #1 and 9 was because these sites are on the floodplain, and since Columbus has had issues with flooding in the past, the city does not allow new buildings to be built on those areas. We also decided to eliminate site #2 because we felt that the context and the site were not engaging enough for the museum project. The issues of using site #4 were that since it is Cumminsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; parking lot and Cummins is a private company, the site could not be used for a public museum even though developing a parking garage on the site for them to use instead would have been a more efficient use of the space. The new site that was added to the site option list is the post office located across from Cummins Headquarters and the new parking garage in the downtown area. This site was added to the list because of its great potential to be able to reacitivate and expand the downtown ideals to other parts of the downtown that are lacking. It is important to be able to make this area of the downtown more engaging, especailly since this area is close to the main entry corridor and one of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greatest revitalization projects, Mill Race Park. This project also has a greater potential than the other sites do because there is opportunity for adaptive re-use instead of using up parking space that is vital to the downtown area right now. The post office is located right across from the new parking garage that was built recently so there is already opportunity for parking, but of course, additional parking will still be necessary.

Fig. 1.2 - The second phase of selecting potential sites overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan.

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The downside of using this site is the fact that the post office still uses the building so in order to build on this site, it will be necessary to find a new home for the post office so that it will have its own place. The building is not well suited for the post office anyway and acts mostly like an empty shell in which the post office just happens to be inhabiting. Another issue with the site is that the building hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been properly maintained in the past so this is leading to deterioration and general unattractiveness, giving the city reason to tear the building down. If one is to use this site, they can advocate that this building should stay because it was designed by a well-known architect, Kevin Roche, and later informed the design of the Cummin Headquarters, which was also designed by the same architect. The building will need some work in terms of maintenance, but overall, it will be a more rewarding opportunity for design because you will be able to save a building from being demolished and at the same time, help to reactivate the downtown district.

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8.1.3 Final Site Selection Due to the constraints of building a 1/16â&#x20AC;? scale site model, boundaries for which sites could be used needed to be set, which further reduced the site option list. The boundary for the site model is highlighted in the dashed box in Fig. 1.3. The final two sites that were chosen are the parking lot next to the Visitor Center and the library and the post office site. Besides the constraints of the model, another reasoning for eliminating the other four sites were due to lot size and creating a better investment of land use. The original site proposal needed to be kept because of its rich cultural context with all of the great historical landmarks surrounding it and the opportunities to encourage more mixed use and walkability within the downtown. The cons of using this site still are the fact that this area wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily help to connect the overall urban fabric and that it is a parking lot which will use up space that is crucial for this downtown to thrive. By using up more of the downtownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s parking spacea and building a significant public museum project on the site, this will likely create more traffic congestion within the area, which could make the area less safe for both pedestrians and drivers. The post office site was also kept because it is the only site that is not a parking lot and is a more appropriate lot size for the type of project that will be developed here. This site has plenty of potential to be a great redevelopment site for Columbus as was mentioned before. Again, the cons of using this site are dealing with the lack of maintenance of the current building on the site and being able to relocate the post office onto a new site that will be better suited for them. Both sites will need a well-thought-out plan that will use outdoor public space to their advantage. This can best be done by integrating the landscape with the museum in a holistic manner so that it is cohesive with the rest of the downtown and overall city.

216 215

Fig. 1.3 - The final two sites overlaid on top of the redevelopment opportunities map from the Downtown Strategic Plan with a dashed box highlighting the area that the site model will show.

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Trends and Forecasts

8.2 Site Analysis

Fig. 2.1 - Post Office site in its context.

For each site chosen, we looked at the context of the street, the surrounding buildings, and how the entire site plays a role in public interactions. As part of programming, very street on the site should be treated as a singular component and should be developed with the intent to increase the connectivity of the city. By focusing on one side of the site at a time, we are able to make an educated assumption on how to integrate the museum into the site while maintaining the goals and values of the city. After evaluating each facade separately, the design can then focus on how two streets converge at each corner. Every street interlaces itself into the urban fabric which creates a hierarchy into how the corner should be addressed. The focal point of the corner is centered on pedestrian movement respecting the surrounding buildings and integrating with the landscape. We suggest addressing the sites based on which street will have a bigger impact and by addressing the needs of Columbus. The post office centers itself where the architecture, entertainment, and the art/education corridors meet. By developing this site, we will be able to reactivate the surrounding area while providing connectivity to the surrounding city blocks. The visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center site sits in-between historical architecture and the museum design should respect the existing architecture of the neighborhood while designing to the needs of the community.

Fig. 2.2 - Visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Center site in its context.

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8.2.1 Post Office Site

NORTHWEST: NEEDS: To unify the transition down Brown street. RECOMMENATIONS: Use landscaping to make the connection between the two blocks.

NORTH: Currently Cummins is right across the street. The North facade is mostly masonry and creates a large wall that blocks it from the entryway. NEEDS: To pull pedestrians to and from the entertainment corridor. RECOMMENDATIONS: Provide and outdoor space with a platform (a program or preformance to engage people), a bench (a place for people to sit, relax and enjoy), and a pathway (leads people through)

WEST: Current: Heading north on Brown St. from 4th St. towards Cummins Inc, there is a nice tree buffer that separates the company headquarters from the parking creating a tree canopy over the road. On Brown St., inbetween 4th and 5th Street, there is no landscaping. This can seem uninviting. NEEDS: A buffer zone between the museum building and the road to cancel out the noise. An entrance to the loading dock and parking for administration. RECOMMENDATIONS: Provide plantings or a wall for privacy and noise control from the road. This should be based on how you choose to use the open space behind the building. Have the entrance of parking and loading dock on Brown St. Make it closer to 5th street to accomodate the pedestrian area on the southern end of the site. SOUTHWEST: There are standards for preserving landscape design like the Miller House. NEEDS: To be pedestrian friendly and direct traffic towards the entertainment corridor. To tie into whatever accommodations you are making on Brown St. and 4th St. RECOMMENDATIONS: Keep the corner open. Create a diagonal path leading to building.

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NORTHEAST: NEEDS: To unify the connection between the public building and Cummins at the corner. Pull pedestriansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; eye to the Post Office entrance. To supply an alternative route to the entertainment corridor and architectural corridor. RECOMMENDATIONS: Give clues as to where the entrance is instead of hiding it.

EAST: There is currently a collonade site in front of the building. Cummins Inc. was built 13 years after the Post Office and continues the movement of collonades down the street. Unlike the lush green columns at Cummins that diffuse light, the Post Office is very dark and stays true to its masonry form. This seems very imposing and uninviting. NEEDS: A front entrance that is more inviting to pedestrians. RECOMMENDATIONS: Create a front entrance that is inviting and opens up to the streetscape instead of tucking itself into the shadows of the collonades. Try and get more movement to and from the corner of Jackson and 4th street.

SOUTH: Currently there is an enclosed parking lot on the south side of the building as you head twards the entertainment corridor. It is not very pedestrian friendly and lacks a lush landscape. NEEDS: Accomodate a higher amount of pedestrian traffic. RECOMMENDATIONS: Create a sidewalk that is larger than normal to help encourage pedestrian movement through the site.

SOUTHEAST: NEEDS: To pull pedestrians to and from the entertainment corridor. RECOMMENDATIONS: Provide and outdoor space with a platform (a program or preformance to engage people), a bench (a place for people to sit , relax and enjoy), and a pathway (to lead people through).

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Fig. 2.4 - View From North West

Fig. 2.5 - View From North East

Architecture Corridor

5th Street Jackson Street

Brown Street

Entertainment Corridor

4th Street

Fig. 2.6 -View From South West

Arts and Education Corridor

Fig. 2.7 - View From South East Fig. 2.3 - Map showing analysis of the Post Office site and how its facades relate to its surrounding corridors.

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8.2.2 Visitor’s Center Site NORTHWEST: NEEDS: Pedestrian movement. RECOMMENDATIONS: If continuing the grid system, create a buffer zone between you, the museum, and the parking lot to provide enough room for pedestrian movement. Design a place to gather or pass by to the distant terrace.

NORTH: CURRENT: The parking lot extends north and serves as parking for the First Presbyterian Church, the Bartholomew County Library, the First Christian Church, and the Visitors Center. The parking lot causes 6th street to break from Columbus’ grid system. NEEDS: Connect the northeast to Washington St. by making the area around the below-ground service ramp more pedestrian friendly. Connect Franklin and Lafayette ave by extending 6th street. RECOMMENDATIONS: Work on the relationship between the below-ground service ramp and Washington St. in order to make more foot traffic.

EAST: Current: Bartholomew County Library sits east of the site adjacent to its lower grade entrance and below grade service ramp. NEEDS: Must respect the existing historic building. Must be pedestrian friendly so people can continue to use the other half of the existing parking lot so they will still have access to the library and First Christian church. RECOMMENDATIONS: Design most of the façade to be brick and integrate a glass curtain wall on the front so light may enter into the library. It is recommended to design a building with minimal levels in order to avoid interfering with the library’s quality of light.

WEST: Current: The parking lot is adjacent to Franklin St. There is an entrance to the parking lot that passes through to 6th street. Go one block east on 6th Street you reach Washington. NEEDS: Create a landscape buffer while trying to build close to the street in order to foster continuity between the urban fabric. RECOMMENDATIONS: Propose a main entrance to the museum off of Franklin St.

SOUTHWEST: NEEDS: Respect the Visitors Center. RECOMMENDATIONS: Connect the museum to the Visitors Center or create an intimate plaza space in-between so people can gather or pass by to the patio/ pavilion behind.

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NORTHEAST: Connect the northeast to Washington St. by making the area around the below-ground service ramp more pedestrian friendly. NEEDS: Provide a pathway from parking to library entrance. RECOMMENDATIONS: Provide landscaping along the pathways to hide the enterence ramp to the library.

SOUTH: There is a little patio area behind the visitor center for people to sit in the shade of a gridded landscape which is raised above ground. NEEDS: Provide connectivity from the museum, Visitor Center and the library. RECOMMENDATIONS: Remove the gridded pattern of trees that are raise 2 ft off the ground in a planting bed. Provide landscape that interact with terrace as well as gathering space outside the library.

SOUTHEAST: NEEDS: To be pedestrian friendly. RECOMMENDATIONS: The spot has potential for congestion. Keep this open to pedestrian traffic flow from the parking lot and the Visitors Center. Provide an alternative entrance to the museum from this end.

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Franklin St

Washington St

Fig. 2.9 - View from center of site.

Fig. 2.11 - View From North East. Fig. 2.10 - View From South West corner of site. 6th st

5th st

4th st

Lafayette Ave

Fig. 2.12 - View From North West.

Fig. 2.8 - Map showing analysis of the Visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Center site and how its facades relate to its surrounding corridors.

Fig. 2.13 - View From South East. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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8.3 Programming

8.3.1 The Problem Columbus has scattered urban fabric. This means that the city has a problem with connectivity. The city also has a problem with the amount of open usuable public space compared to large single-story parking lots.

8.3.2 Recommended Solution We suggest incorporating plaza space by creating voids or set-backs on the chosen site. We also suggest trying to create efficient parking solutions in order to maximize usable public space.

8.3.3 Parking Space Requirements Museum Department Administrators: 5-10 spaces Museum Workers:10-25 spaces Visitors: 30-40 spaces The museum department administrators and workers would probably use parking spaces more often than the visitors. This is due to the number of people who would be arriving by school or charter buses. If choosing the Post Office site, there is a large possiblity that the out-of-town tourists would stay at the hotel in back of the site. This would mean that a large amount of people would walk or car-pool. Most visitors would not be traveling alone. Therefore, even if there are 200 visitors a day, there may only be 50 cars. This is also a very high estimated number of spaces needed because the visitors will not all be coming at the same time of day. This means that at any given time, cars would be coming and going, which keeps the amount of spaces needed at a minimum. This amount of parking would probably not warrant an entire public lot. There may need to be a small lot for workers though. This lot could easily be accomodated on either site. If parking is a significant problem already around the site, a parking ramp or garage should be proposed.

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Fig 3.1 Parking Garage Adjacent to Post Office Site

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8.3.4 Needs Assessment

Preservation/ Conservation

Loading

Administrators

A needs assessment was used to analyze the wants and needs of the client and formulate them into a set of standards that should be followed. The qualitative list expresses the main concerns dealing with the outside of the building and the level of human comfort and desires. The quantitative list deals with the pragmatic concerns that are vital to its function at the most basic level of needs, and ultimately, to the overall success of the building.

Electrical/ Mechanical Room Back Storage

Qualitative

Main Lobby

Rotating Exhibits

Cafe

Architetural Archives

Shop

Kids Area

Columbus Art and Design

Innovative Industrial Objects

Education Room

Fig 3.2 Bubble diagram that shows the proximity of rooms based on programmatic needs. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

• • • • •

proper indoor and outdoor public gathering space pedestrian movement along the outskirts of site proximity to transportation work with traffic patterns adequate parking

Quantitative • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

FRONT OF HOUSE- PUBLIC Lobby/ticketing /coats 1800 NSF 1000 NSF Gathering space Museum Shop 900 NSF Cafe 1800 NSF Meeting Room/Education 2700 NSF EXHIBIT SPACE Innovative Industrial Objects 8000-10000 GSF Columbus Art and Design 1500-3000 GSF Rotating Exhibit 1500-2500 GSF Architectureal Archives / Exhibit 3500-5000 GSF BACK OF HOUSE Administrative offices 1800 NSF Pres.conservation areas 900 NSF Storage 900 NSF Loading Dock 1800 NSF CIRCULATION/SERVICE vertical circulation 1000 NSF toilets 1000 NSF Mechanical/ Electric rooms 900 NSF circulation/gross up 5000 NSF TOTAL 36,000 GSF

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Museum Director

8.3.5 Museum Departments

Curators

Director of Finance Museums have many departments that must work together in order to accomplish their common goal of serving the community. The hierarchy between the directors of each department keeps the flow of communication moving. Due to this, the program should directly relate not only to how the visitors circulate, but how the departments are connected. There is also an important differentiation between the directors that can do most of their work in their offices, and the directors which spend most of their day moving around the museum. There should be a central place where the employees converge at least once a day. This will help communication function on both a formal and informal level.

Preservation Specialists Events Coordinator Museum Technicians Maintenance Staff

Education Coordinator

Security Personel

Cafe Workers

Shop Workers Ticket Booth Worker Cleaning Crew

Fig 3.3 - Flow diagram showing the relationships between different department coordinators.

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Museum Director

Director of Finance

Events Coordinator

Education Coordinator

The Movement of Positions and Office Proximities

Curators Preservation Specialists Security

The way that the different department directors and workers move should directly inform the adjacency diagrams in programming. The figure on the left shows that the Museum Director, the Director of Finance, the Events Coordinator, and the Education Coordinator should have offices that are similar to each other in terms of type and proximity. The three latter of the listed directors function underneath the Museum Director. Therefore, they should have smaller offices around his or her office. This will make it easy for them to communicate, and will create an opportunity for the more static offices to be located in a shared wing in the building. The office spaces for the more mobile directors and workers are dependent on where their particular program is located. In other words, the program locations must be determined prior to the office locations.

Museum Technician Cafe/Shop Manager

Fig 3.4 - Movement abstraction representing departments as various shapes. The smaller shapes across the diagram show movement from the main office of the director.

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8.3.6 Room Test Diagrams Post Office Site

Lobby/ Ticketing

1800 SF

Gathering 1000 SF Museum Shop 900 SF Cafe 1800 SF Meeting Room

2700 SF

Exhibit Space

8000 SF

Columbus Art and Design

1500 SF

Rotating Exhibit

1500 SF

Architectural Archives

3500 SF

Administrative Office

1800 SF

Preservation/ Conservation

Front of House

Exhibit

900 SF

Storage 900 SF Loading Dock

1800 SF

Vertical Circulation

1000 SF

Back of House

Toliets 1000 SF Fig 3.5 - Programming of room spaces- Option One.

Mechanical/Electrical 900 SF Circulation

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3600 SF

General

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Visitorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Center Site

Fig 3.6 - Programming of room spaces- Option Two.

Fig. 3.7 - Programming of room spaces- Option Three.

*Note: Both sites were space-tested for minimum vertical square footage. By creating more floors, the footprint of the building would be smaller, therefore allowing more open public space. As mentioned earlier, creating public space is crucial to the success of the downtown area.

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Conclusion The best way to create continuity between the different areas of Columbus is to tie them together with a cultural center. By selecting underutilized sites, we can reinvigorate neighborhoods, Downtown Columbus, and overall, the city. We recommend selecting either the Visitor Center site or the Post Office Site. After setting this framework, we suggest analyzing the surrounding corridors and determining how you want to address the site. In addition, we recommend treating the different cardinal directions of the site as separate entities. By using our programming grids which explain the current use of the site, the needs of the each direction, and the recommendations we have, teams will have the tools to improve the area. The most crucial aspect of new development on either one of the sites is landscape. Much of the downtown area is lacking pedestrian friendly landscape, proper parking areas, and public open space. By addressing these needs and creating open spaces, the city will improve in connectivity, and as a result, will improve their health, their social functioning, and general well-being.

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CHAPTER 8: WORKS CITED David Greco, Jackie Katcher, and Sarah Ward

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Downtown Columbus: Downtown Strategic Plan.â&#x20AC;? City of Columbus, Indiana. N.p., August 2002. Web. 9 September 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/cityofcolumbus/index.cfm/linkservid/69837575-1231-3D16-E90025823E320644/showMeta/0/>. Todd Williams Architects. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. <http://www.toddwilliamsarchitects. com/parking%20garage%20columbus%20indiana.JPG>.

*Note: All other images, diagrams, and content are original work by the authors. Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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CHAPTER 9: Programming with Code Yan Chen, Jessalyn Lafrenz, Deep Shrestha

9.1 Introduction 228 9.2 Museum Lighting Conditions 9.2.1 Hidden Source Lighting 9.2.2 Artificial Lighting 9.2.3 Primarily Natural Lighting 9.2.4 Natural Lighting for User Experience

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9.3 Museum Temperature and Humidity 9.3.1 Mixed Gallery 9.3.2 Fully Encased Displays 9.3.3 Exposed Systems

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9.4 Accessible Viewing 9.4.1 Displayed Objects 9.4.2 Seating Spaces

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9.5 Hierarchy

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9.6 Procession

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9.7 Adjacencies

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9.8 Programming Specifics

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9.9 Conclusion + Design Recommendation

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9.10 References + Works Cited

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Introduction This section breaks down three areas of code guidelines into design suggestion specific to museums: accessibility considerations, lighting considerations, and temperature and humidity considerations. Through analysis of existing spaces and application of the principles set forth by the code, design solutions are shown to give a basis for problem solving in the design process. Each part is broken down into components to address each design issue with specificity. These ideas are meant to be design recommendations and guidelines to clarify and put code into design practice. Programming in this section addresses spatial qualities as well as specific technical qualities of each sub program within the museum. These suggestions focus heavily on funcional practicalities of space to create efficiency in layout and form. Though code is a highly specific measure of spatial concerns and restrictions, this section focuses on interpretations of these codes to fit the needs of the client for the Columbus Museum of Industrial Innovation.

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9.2 Museum Lighting Conditions

9.2.1 Hidden Source Lighting Indirect or direct lighting can be hidden from the viewer by placing a drop down ceiling in between. This method can allow the art work to remain highlighted and draw attention to the piece.

Fig 9.2.1 Hidden Source Lighting Effect

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9.2.2 Artificial Lighting Pictured here is a similar setting, light travels from above and is carefully directed towards the western wall. Notice the painting on the northern wall is left untouched. This could allow for a different method of lighting to be implimented.

Fig 9.2.2 Artificial Lighting Effect

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9.2.3 Primarily Natural Lighting In this scenario, the lighting engulfs both the painting and the user, thus creating a space within a space. This method can be used in different ways to isolate the viewer and the object.

Fig 9.2.3 Primarily Natural Lighting Effect

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9.2.4 Natural Lighting for User Experience Lighting in this setting is used to highlight and illuminate a hallway and corridor, notice how the wall adjcent to the stairwell reflects the light cast from above.

Fig 9.2.4 Natural Lighting for User Experience

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9.3 Museum Temperature + Humidity 9.3.1 Mixed Gallery All objects involved need a moderate degree of temperature and humidity control to prevent deterioration and damage to the curated objects. Breakdown: Natural lighting must be diffused to help limit heat gain and cooling load for the space. For constant air flow and control, there are air intakes and returns regularly throughout the space and are located at different levels to prevent stagnation- this is key for human comfort as well as protection of all of the displays. There is a completely enclosed display case in the lower left of the image. This is necessary for high levels of contaminate, temperature, and exposure control. Depending on the subject matter in the space, it may be necessary to have this variety of display to keep the narrative cohesive throughout the museum as a whole.

Fig 9.3.1 Mixed gallery distribution. Red indicates passive heat sources and blue indicates controlled, isolated environments

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chapter title

9.3.2 Fully Encased Displays Total environmental control for user and work separately. This is ideal for highly sensitive and delicate works that are most susceptible to affects through changes in humidity and temperature levels. This however, requires more air handling systems as opposed to other systems that integrate human comfort and display requirements onto the load for one. This is a highly effective system but it must be noted that entire displays encased in glass can limit user interaction and viewing. Direct sunlight is a large factor in controlling temperatures within this spaces as it can increase the cooling loads for both active systems rather than just one, so heat gain possibilities should be considered very carefully.

Fig 9.3.2 Fully encased displays. Red indicates passive heat sources and blue indicates controlled, isolated environments Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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9.3.3 Exposed Systems This is a solution for a set of objects that do not have a need for highly controlled environments. The benefits to an exposed ceiling are easy maintenance of systems, heat collection (to prevent heat from settling to the level of use), and a certain aesthetic (depending on the display). Negatives to a fully exposed system include: noise pollution within a space, direct affect of systems onto displayed objects (in opposition to fully concealed systems), potential difficulty of full environmental control within a space. Temperature could become uneven, with pockets of hot and cold space that can detract from the viewing experience as well as the integrity of the works displayed.

Fig 9.3.3 Exposed systems. Red indicates trapped heat from usage and mechanical system output

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9.4 Accessible Viewing

9.4.1 Displayed Objects Spaces need to account for peoples emotional and physical needs. Everyone has right to see and learn things within the museum and those accommodations need to be made to allow all users to enjoy and experience the space and objects it displays. Wheelchair users have lower eye level, so the height of exibihition cases and paintings have to be lower but also at a comfortable height for people who will be standing to view the exhibits. This in turn allows the design to be universally used and understood.

Fig 9.4.1 Diagram of appropriate levels for optimal viewing by all users

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33x48in single wheelchair space

9.4.2 Seating Spaces People using wheelchairs do not always want to sit at the very back or the very front of a public programming space; it is uncomfortable, psychologically isolating, and, if in front, obstructive in that it blocks the view of others. Spaces for people using wheelchairs must be an integral part of the seating plan and must always be near fixed seating.

66x48in back or front row position for two wheelchairs

60x48in midpoint position for two wheelchairs

66x48In

Spaces for people using wheelchairs must be an integral part of seating plan and must be near fixed seating.

aisle width must allow passage of wheelchair uers; fire codes should be comsulted to determine required width

Fig 9.4.2 Varied seating for handicap accessibility

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Lobby/Entry Sequence

Gallery + Display Spaces

Support and Service Spaces

Industrial Innovation

Offices

Cafe

Rotating Displays

Classroom + Community

Gift Shop

Art + Design

Delivery + Workshop

Curated Archives

Janitorial + Mechanical

Ticket + Entry Station

Coat Room

Fig. 9.5.1 Heirarchy of space from the visitor’s perspective

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9.5 Hierarchy Program is partially defined by the need for space to be organized by heirarchical sequence. The entry sequence must be captivating to entice and encourage user interaction. Without a captivating and user friendly entry sequence, it could hinder business transactions and the success of the museum as a whole. The entrance must spark interest in the museum while still providing functional and transactional programmatic needs. The gallery spaces need to be organized in such a way that it promotes interaction through and between different exhibits. Breaks in display flow are not suggested, as it is ideal to have a cohesive cognitive experience. Wayfinding is crucial in exhibits and museums, so limited breaks in flow are important to a successful user interaction The spaces that are highlighted in red indicate restricted customer access and are considered “back of the house” functions as they are not often seen by the visitor. These spaces are for the museum staff as support spaces. The community room and class rooms are exceptions to this standard. Those must be rented and have approved use through the museum staff. However these are crucial to community involvement as well as a revenue generator for a museum. These are arranged in a heirarchy of access rather than procession, which will be discussed later in the chapter.

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Entry

9.6 Procession

Cafe

Coat Check

This is a very distilled version of how spaces could be linearly arranged to create flow through a museum scheme. Each component is broken down into how they would link together to create the most easily navigated plan. The red areas are again, restricted access but this shows how they should be directly related to each of the spaces, not necessarily separate. The tendency is to remove the back of hosue spaces and administratives from the flow of use completely, giving them their own separate wing when in fact, each of these components must be interrelated.

Lobby/Atrium

Gallery

Gift Shop

Gallery

Back of House Support Spaces

Admin/Support Spaces

Gallery

Gallery

Fig. 9.6.1 Procession of space

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Gallery

Atrium

Vertical Circulation

Second Floor

9.7 Adjacencies

Gallery

Classroom/ Community Space

The adjacency diagram to the right shows relationship of scale and proximity of space. These show the max amount galleries should be spread apart. This puts slightly more strain on HVAC systems but with stacked plans, the zones can still be limited. This allows for high clarity in wayfinding and maximum relationship between administrative spaces and their service areas. This is based off of the standard set forth in the Code Precedent chapter and the programming principles outlined throughout this section. This is a generic adjacency model to illustrate ideal relationships between spaces.

Gallery Security

Coat Room

Lobby/Atrium

Vertical Circulation

Ticket/ Welcome Center

Cafe

First Floor

Gift Shop

Gallery

Loading Dock/ Workshop

Fig. 9.7.1 Adjacency of program based on code efficiencies Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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9.8 Programming Specifics Based on client needs and code requirements of minimum allowable spaces, this is a proposed plan of Gross Square Footage breakdowns. The overall breakdown of studied museums averages a space allocation in four categories: 10% Circulation 30% Back of House Functions 30% Administrative and Community Support Spaces 30% Gallery and Display use These averages are based on a number of precedents and functional considerations (all breakdowns can vary but for the purposes of initial programming, this model works well). With this in mind, all spaces must be used to their maximum potential, and efficiency is encouraged to increase the amount of revenue generating space for the museum.

Room Requirements Ticket  Purchase  Desk/Area Bag  and  Coat  Check Restrooms Mechanical  Rooms Janitorial  Rooms   Loading  Dock Workshop Art  Storage Museum  Gift  Shop Museum  Café Administrative  Offices Curator  Offices Community  Room Security Rotating  Exhibit  Space Curated  Archives Columbus  Art  +  Design Innovative  Industrial  Objects

Requests by  Client Formal  and  Distinct Must  Have Must  Have Support  30,000-­‐40,000  gsf Support  30,000-­‐40,000  gsf Large  enough  for  truck  access *Added  program *Added  program Small,  not  focus Small,  not  focus Enough  for  20  staff Enough  for  2  staff 150  minimum  capacity *Added  program 1,500-­‐2,500  gsf 3,500-­‐5,000  gsf 1,500-­‐3,000  gsf 8,000-­‐10,000  gsf

Room Test 1,500  gsf 200  gsf

Criteria Lobby 60 lockers

12,000 gsf

30% total  gsf

2,000 gsf 500  gsf 2,000  gsf 500  gsf 1,000  gsf 1,050  gsf 200  gsf 2,500  gsf 5,000  gsf 3,000  gsf 10,000  gsf

% not  displayed  works small  retail Kitchen  +  Dining Flexible  Desks Plus  Workspace 7  sf/person back  of  house Max  Possible Max  Possible Max  Possible Max  Possible

Fig 9.8.1 Approximate square footage recommendations based on precedent and code analysis

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Conclusion Programming through code considerations is highly important in the way it affects a volume of space. The chapter is meant to reflect how spatial systems should inform planning and adjacencies in plan. Each section interprets code requirements in the most basic format to create a basis for efficient and functional museum design. Design Recommendations:

Maximize spatial efficiency through careful placement of necessary adjacent systems

Limit the need for sizeable back of house systems through careful planning and design of gallery spaces.

Account first and foremost for the needs of the displayed work to protect the collection. Stem all other needs for comfort and spatial requirements to enhance the display spaces.

Remember the need to create a space to conduct successful business.

Make the experience one a customer would want to repeat.

Columbus Museum of Industrial Objects


Works Cited

“Accessible Exhibition Design.” Smithsonian Accessibility Program. N.p.,n.d. Web. Sept. 2013. <http:// accessible.si.edu/pdf/Smithsonian%20Guidelines%20for%20accessible%20design.pdf>. “Article 3 Zoning Districts.” Columbus.In.Gove. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus. in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. “Article 7 Parking and Regulation Standards.” Columbus.In.Gove. Bartholomew County, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. “Article 9 General Development Standards.” Columbus.In.Gove. Bartholomew County, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013. <http://www.columbus.in.gov/linkservid/showMeta/>. Druzik, James. “Newsletter 19.1 Spring 2004.” The Getty Conservation Institute N.p., n.d. Web 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/19_1/news_in_cons1. html>. Druzik, James. “Guidelines for Selecting Solid AState Lighting for Museums.” Connecting to Collections. N.p., n.d. Web 11 Sept. 2013. <http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/ newsletters/19_1/news_in_cons1.html>. Miller, Naomi J. “Solid State Lighting for Museums.” The Getty Conservation Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conferences/2011/presentations/druzik-miller.pdf>.

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CHAPTER 10: Climatactic Programming Meghan Bouska, Dane Buchholz, Heather Wailes

10.1 Landscape Scheme 10.2 Temperature Scheme 10.3 Water Scheme 10.4 Solar Lighting Scheme 10.5 Conclusion

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Introduction Thinking about programming through a climactic perspective led us to developing 4 unique, individual schemes. Each scheme focuses on a specific aspect of the climate in Columbus, Indiana: landscape, temperature, water, and solar. We developed different layouts, room connection diagrams, and sample floor plans for each scheme.

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Chaper 10: Climatic Programming 10.1 Landscape Scheme

Community Administration

Entry

Back of House Shop/Cafe A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating

This diagram shows the connections between rooms for a linear layout of the landscaping scheme.

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Fig.10.1.1 Landscape Scheme- Linear

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Climatic Programming

Community Administration Back of House Shop/Cafe

Entry A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating Fig.10.1.2 Landscape Scheme- Circular

This diagram shows the connections between rooms for a more circular layout of the landscaping scheme.

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Landscape Community

Entry

Innovative

Art & Design

Shop/Cafe

Admin

Archives

Rotating

Back of House

Fig.10.1.3 Landscape Scheme- Bubble Diagram

This diagram is a spatially proportioned bubble diagram of our recommended landscaping scheme. (The green lines represent outdoor circulation options.)

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Climatic Programming

Entry

Community

Innovative

Art & Design Admin

Shop/Cafe

Archives

Rotating

Back of House

Landscape program idea consists of an outter shell design with an inner shell. This idea encourages the separation of spaces with an outside space in between. This gives the guests an oportunity to be inside or outside. The indoor and outdoor spaces also encourages guests to enjoy what the landscape has to offer. Plants that are native to the area would be used in this area for guests to enjoy and learn about the importance of these plants in their environment. This programed spaces would allow each room to have acess to both interior and exterior spaces.

Fig.10.1.4 Landscape Scheme- Plan

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10.2 Temperature Scheme

Community Administration

Entry

Back of House Shop/Cafe A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating Fig.10.2.1 Temperature Scheme- Linear

This diagram shows the room connections for a linear layout of the temperature scheme.

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Community Shop/Cafe

Entry

Administration A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating

This diagram shows the room connections for a more circular layout of the temperature scheme.

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Fig.10.2.2 Temperature Scheme- Circular

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Rotating

Temperature

Entry

Art & Design

Innovative

Admin

Archives

Shop/Cafe

Community

Fig.10.2.3 Temperature Scheme- Bubble Diagram

This diagram is a proportioned and organized bubble diagram focusing on thermal issues.

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Climatic Programming

Admin

Rotating

Art & Design

Entry

Innovative Back of House

Archives

Shop/Cafe

Community

The larger gallery spaces are centrally located in this prgramming diagram. This is because they are the largest rooms within the building and require more heating and cooling. With the rooms centrally located, it is easier to heat and cool the rooms because the outer rooms keep the heat in the center space. The administration portion of the building along with the rotating exhibit are on the north end of the building to protect from too much sun lighting during the day. The community space is located on the southern end of the building to incorporate more sun lighting throughout the day.

Fig.10.2.4 Temperature Scheme- Plan

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10.3 Water Scheme

Community

Entry

Administration Back of House Shop/Cafe A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating Fig.10.3.1 Water Scheme- Linear

This diagram shows the room connections for a linear layout of the water scheme.

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Climatic Programming

Entry

Community Shop/Cafe

Innovation A&D Arch Archive Rotating Back of House Administration Fig.10.3.2 Water Scheme- Circular

This diagram shows the room connections for a more circular layout of the water scheme.

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Water Collection

Community Innovative Entry

Art & Design

Archives

Shop/Cafe

Rotating

Back of House

Admin

Fig.10.3.3 Water Scheme- Bubble Diagram

This diagram shows the proportions and sectional layout of the water collection based scheme.

255

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Climatic Programming

Community

2nd Floor

Entry

Shop/Cafe Innovative Art & Design Archives Rotating Back of House

1st Floor

Admin

The water program for the building would entail a large, enlongated building with a sloped roof from one end to the other. The idea behind this is to encorporate the collection of rain water to help with sustainability aspects within the building

Fig.10.3.4 Water Scheme- Plan

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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10.4 Solar Lighting Scheme

Community Administration

Entry

Back of House Shop/Cafe A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating Fig.10.4.1 Solar Lighting Scheme- Linear

This diagram shows the connections between rooms for a linear layout emphasizing solar lighting.

257

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Climatic Programming

Community Administration Back of House Shop/Cafe

Entry A&D Innovation Arch Archive Rotating Fig.10.4.2 Solar Lighting Scheme- Circular

This diagram shows the connections between rooms for a circular layout of the solar lighting scheme.

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

258


Solar Innovative

Archives

Back of House Art & Design

Rotating

Entry

Admin

Shop/Cafe

Community

Fig.10.4.3 Solar Lighting Scheme- Bubble Diagram

This diagram is a spatially organized bubble diagram of our recommended solar lighting scheme.

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Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Climatic Programming

Innovative

Archives

2nd Floor

Entry

Art & Design

Shop/Cafe

Rotating

Community

Back of House

Admin

The Solar Lighting Program would involve two floors to accommodate for each gallery space. Innovative arts and Architectural Archives would be located on the second floor so that they can absorb natural sunlight hitting the building throughout the entire day. The A & D gallery along with the Rotating exhibit would be located below. This is because there may be large sculptures and other art work that do not require as much sunlight; or there may be work that could be easily damaged if exposed to natural lighting. The community space would be located on the southern end of the building to absorb as much daylighting as possible.

1st Floor Fig.10.4.4 Solar Lighting Scheme- Linear

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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10.5 Client Square Footage Requirements

30,000 - 40,000 Square Feet Total ____________________________ 9,000 2,000 2,000 4,000

| | | |

Invention Through Design Art & Design Rotating Exhibit Architectural Archives

1,000 - 2,500 | Community Room (A3 occupancy = 7sf * 150 people without tables or 15sf * 150 people with tables) 2,500 | Museum Shop 1,000 | Cafe 2,000 | Administration

20,000 +/- Square Feet

15,500 +/- Square Feet

10,000 | Back of House/Storage

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Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Climatic Programming

Arch 401 - Fall 2013

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Conclusion Overall, we feel that the landscape scheme we presented is the most effective. It not only incorporates landscape around the building, but also within the building. The room layout resembles both the solar scheme and the temperature schemes with the galleries being the interior portions. Water collection could still be easily applied to this scheme as well. The layout also links and separates spaces for good circulation and security. -incorporate landscape within the building -plan layout for solar scheme (daylit spaces on outside) -incorporate a water collection area of 16,000+ sf -link spaces with good circulation and security in mind

Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


Climatic Programming

Arch 401 - Fall 2013


Colombus Museum of Industrial Objects


THANK YOU

Arch 401 - Fall 2013


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